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Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

Authors: Hanauer, Merlin M.1 hanauer@sonoma.edu Reid, John2

Source: Journal of Environmental Management. Aug2017 Part 2, Vol. 198, p50-65. 16p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*URBANIZATION
*OPEN spaces
*TRAVEL costs
*MEASUREMENT errors
*INVESTMENTS

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Access value
Bias
Econometrics
Google maps
Survey
Taylor mountain

NAICS/Industry Codes:

523999 Miscellaneous Financial Investment Activities


523930 Investment Advice

Abstract:

Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to
the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to
preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this
study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods
can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times,
and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre
space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (170,000 population) in Sonoma County and
lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also
demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-
relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement
error. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Author Affiliations:
1
Department of Economics and Research Associate, Center for Regional Economic Analysis, Sonoma State University, 1801 East
Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA, 94928, USA
2
Conservation Strategy Fund, 1636 R St. NW, Suite 3, Washington, DC, 20009, USA

ISSN: 0301-4797

DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.05.005

Accession Number: 123269193


Evaluating the Evacuation and Rescue Capabilities of Urban Open Space from a Land Use Perspective: A Case Study in Wuhan,
China.

Authors:

Jie Gong1,2,3 gjie832@163.com


Yaolin Liu1,2,3 yaolin610@163.com
Yanfang Liu1,2,3 yfliu610@163.com
Pujiang Huang4 geohuangpj@163.com
Jiwei Li1,2,3 lijiwei19850620@126.com

Source: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. Jul2017, Vol. 6 Issue 7, p1-20. 20p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*OPEN spaces
*PUBLIC spaces

Author-Supplied Keywords:

China
dual-traffic scenario
evacuation
gravity model
open space
rescue
supply-demand index

Abstract:

This study proposes an innovative integrated method for evaluating the evacuation and rescue capabilities of open spaces through a
case study in Wuhan, China. A dual-scenario network analysis model was set up to calculate travel time among communities, open
spaces, and rescue facilities during peak and non-peak hours. The distribution of traffic flow was derived on the basis of a gravity
model and used to construct supply-demand indexes (SDIs). SDIs such as evacuation (ESDI), rescue (RSDI), and comprehensive SDIs
(CSDI) were used to evaluate the suitability of open space locations. This study drew five major findings as follows: (1) ESDI, RSDI,
and CSDI can effectively evaluate the spatial suitability of open spaces when these SDIs are integrated with the gravity model; (2) The
quadrant distribution analysis of ESDI can be an effective method for determining the reasons for the change in values in the two
traffic scenarios and for helping planners in adjusting their policies to enhance the capability of an area; (3) The impact of the different
values on SDIs can show positive, negative, and inconspicuous correlations with large, moderate, and minimal variations,
respectively; (4) The analysis of the supply-demand relationship of open spaces in Wuhan indicates a spatial mismatch in
comprehensive evacuation and rescue capacities; (5) Traffic congestion can be a significant impact factor on evacuation and rescue
capabilities but not on comprehensive capability. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the
copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations:
1
School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Key Laboratory of Geographic Information System, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079,
China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Information Technology, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
4
Shanghai Urban Planning and Design Research Institute, 331 Tongren Road, Shanghai 200010, China

ISSN: 2220-9964

DOI: 10.3390/ijgi6070227

Accession Number: 124343982


Effect of sound-related activities on human behaviours and acoustic comfort in urban open spaces.

Authors:

Meng, Qi1
Kang, Jian1,2 j.kang@hit.edu.cn

Source: Science of the Total Environment. Dec2016, Vol. 573, p481-493. 13p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*OPEN spaces
*LANDSCAPE design
*URBAN planning
*ACOUSTIC emission
*PHYSICAL acoustics
CHINA

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Acoustic comfort
Pedestrian behaviour
Sound environment
Sound-related activities
Urban open space

Abstract:

Human activities are important to landscape design and urban planning; however, the effect of sound-related activities on human
behaviours and acoustic comfort has not been considered. The objective of this study is to explore how human behaviours and
acoustic comfort in urban open spaces can be changed by sound-related activities. On-site measurements were performed at a case
study site in Harbin, China, and an acoustic comfort survey was simultaneously conducted. In terms of effect of sound activities on
human behaviours, music-related activities caused 5.121.5% of persons who pass by the area to stand and watch the activity, while
there was a little effect on the number of persons who performed excises during the activity. Human activities generally have little
effect on the behaviour of pedestrians when only 1 to 3 persons are involved in the activities, while a deep effect on the behaviour of
pedestrians is noted when > 6 persons are involved in the activities. In terms of effect of activities on acoustic comfort, music-related
activities can increase the sound level from 10.8 to 16.4 dBA, while human activities such RS and PC can increase the sound level
from 9.6 to 12.8 dBA; however, they lead to very different acoustic comfort. The acoustic comfort of persons can differ with
activities, for example the acoustic comfort of persons who stand watch can increase by music-related activities, while the acoustic
comfort of persons who sit and watch can decrease by human sound-related activities. Some sound-related activities can show
opposite trend of acoustic comfort between visitors and citizens. Persons with higher income prefer music sound-related activities,
while those with lower income prefer human sound-related activities. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download,
or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should
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Author Affiliations:
1
School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
Heilongjiang Cold Region Architectural Science Key Laboratory, School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin,
150001, China

ISSN: 0048-9697

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.130

Accession Number: 119812176


The connectivity of Haifa urban open space network.

Authors:

Toger, Marina1 marinat@technion.ac.il


Malkinson, Dan2
Benenson, Itzhak3
Czamanski, Daniel1

Source: Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design. Sep2016, Vol. 43 Issue 5, p848-870. 23p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*METROPOLITAN areas
*OPEN spaces
*MORPHOLOGY
*DYNAMICS
*ECOSYSTEM services

Author-Supplied Keywords:

connectivity
dynamics
morphology
network
open space
Urban

Abstract:

Urban open spaces are considered as spatial residuals of the expansion of built areas. The environmental impact of the resulting land-
cover pattern and associated ecosystem services are frequently evaluated at a crude spatial resolution only. However, wild animals use
remaining interconnected fine-grain open spaces as an infrastructure for movement.In this paper, we traced the evolution of an open-
space system in Haifa, Israel, and examined the impact of urban morphology on size and distribution of open spaces at different
spatial resolutions.At a 30m resolution, our analysis indicated fragmentation and increasing partial elimination of open spaces. Over
time the connectivity declined at a diminishing rate, yet the network did not disintegrate into separate components. The evolution
analysis implied that in crude resolution, the open space network is threatened.At a 5m resolution, our analysis showed that Haifa
remains porous to animal movement. Using combined multiple least-cost paths through the urban landscape of heterogeneous
permeability, we illustrated extensive connectivity among open spaces. Backyards and other urban in-between spaces complemented
the seminatural open-space network connectivity, enabling wildlife movement between habitat patches and thus survival in an
urbanized environment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy.
Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations:
1
Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, Israel
2
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, and The Golan Research Institute, University of Haifa, Israel
3
Department of Geography, Faculty of Humanities, Tel Aviv University, Israel

Full Text Word Count: 8487

ISSN: 0265-8135

DOI: 10.1177/0265813515598991

Accession Number: 117501780


The Continuity of Sacred Urban Open Space: Facilitating the Indian Conversion to Catholicism in Mesoamerica.

Authors: Wagner, E. Logan1

Source: Religion & the Arts. 2014, Vol. 18 Issue 1/2, p61-86. 26p. 8 Color Photographs, 5 Black and White Photographs, 2
Illustrations, 1 Map.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*CONVERSION to Christianity
*SACRED space
*PUBLIC spaces
*INDIGENOUS peoples of the Americas -- Religion
*CHRISTIANITY & indigenous peoples
CATHOLIC Church -- Latin America

Geographic Terms: MESOAMERICAN region

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Catholic conversion
Mesoamerica
New Spain
Renaissance urban design
sacred open space
sixteenth-century urban design

People: GANTE, Pedro de, 1486-1572

Abstract:

During the sixteenth century, the Spanish crown sent Mendicant friars of the Franciscan, Dominican, and Augustinian monastic orders
to evangelize and convert the indigenous people of America. With huge populations to convert, spread over an extremely vast
territory, a limited number of friars had to find expedient ways to facilitate the conversion effort. Among the many conversion
strategies used by the Mendicant friars under the early guidance of Fray Pedro de Gante were: to locate places of Christian worship
over or near native ceremonial centers and continue the use of ceremonial open urban space; the incorporation of native religious
rituals deemed compatible with Catholic liturgy such as processions, music, art, and dance; the creation of new architectural forms and
open urban spaces to provide a setting for these rituals; and the substitution of native rituals for Catholic ceremonies including
adjusting native and Catholic ritual calendric dates. Based on recent architectural field surveys and ethnographic documentation, this
research focuses on the architectural and urban space adaptations that the missionary friars undertook to facilitate conversion efforts.
[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to
the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations: 1Alarife Architects, Austin, Texas

ISSN: 1079-9265

DOI: 10.1163/15685292-01801005

Accession Number: 94939034


Kentsel ak mekan dzenlemelerinde bitki tr seim kriterleri: stanbul rnei.

Alternate Title: Principles of plant species selection in urban open space design: Case of Istanbul.

Language: Turkish

Authors:

Baer, Bahar1 baserba@itu.edu.tr


Yildizci, Ahmet Cengiz1

Source: ITU Journal Series A: Architecture, Planning, Design. sep2011, Vol. 10 Issue 2, p156-166. 11p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*OPEN spaces
*PUBLIC spaces
*PLANT species
*LANDSCAPES
*PLANTATIONS
*BIODIVERSITY

Geographic Terms:

ISTANBUL (Turkey)
TURKEY

Author-Supplied Keywords:

plant species selection


sustainable design
urban ecology
urban landscape
Urban plant cover
bitki tr seimi
kent ekolojisi
Kentsel bitki rts
kentsel peyzaj
srdrlebilir tasarm
Language of Keywords: English; Turkish

Abstract (English):

In our age which is called as urban century, with the transformation of landscapes, the definition of the term landscape has refreshed
its meaning. In this sense, we should refine our traditional knowledges and knowhows in the context of our expertise vocabulary.
During the history, cities and their components have been always seen as threats to the natural environment, also identified as the main
sources of the problems on decreasing the biological diversity. On the other hand, the vegetation layer of the cityscape is the most
violent tool in order to connect urban and human to the nature. In Turkey, the existing plant cover of urban open spaces shows an
inconsistent structure in terms of both, the relations among the plant species and compatibility with the ecological charactersitics.
Generally, the plantation works in Turkey's cities has been managed by the municipalities and local authorities, according to the
technical factors such us nursery avaliability, easement of plantation, maintaining requirements and budget. On the other hand,
planting actions has been implemented considering to the provisional requirements of the cities instead of developing a green planning
approach taking into consideration green structure of the city as a whole. The most significant reason of this process depends on the
gap between landscape ecological approach and practical approach. Because importance and content of the landscape ecological
studies has not been comprehended in the institutional arena, any scientific approach, which might be used for plant species selection
in designing the urban open spaces, could have not been developed in our country. The relation with the plants and urban environment
is actually multidimensional and highly variable across time and space. Moreover urban environments have limited and restricted
conditions for plants such us poor air and soil quality, human disturbance, limited spaces for roots or crown growth. Consequently,
right choice of the plant species at the beggining of the plantation process, could provide a selfsustain urban vegetation cover and
urban green space system. The aims of this study are to eliminate the deficiency in the field of urban horticulture, and to provide a
guidance for designers, practitioners, plant productors and local authorities. In the context of the research model, all national or
general knowledge and datas about the urban plantation will being synthesized and systematized around sustainable urban vegetation
planning issue. In this study, we aim to bring a scientific approach to the plant species selection issue which is mostly proposed for the
designers and decision makers whose working field is especially public spaces of the cities where the urban image display itself. Our
study area, Istanbul is the greatest metropolis of Turkey. At the same time, Istanbul is the main economic capital, also the core of
industrial and financial development center of the whole country. Due to its location being on the transition point of different climatic
regimes between Middle Europe and Mediterrannean regions, the city has high potentials in terms of biological diversity and native
habitats. As a result of the rapid urbanization process, especially after the 1970s the city has lost its huge amount of natural forests and
native vegetation land cover. At the beginning of the 1990s urban landscape has been planted with the thousands of nonnative and
exotic species by unplanned but well-intentioned efforts of the municipality. On the other hand, although there are many scientific
inventory studies about Istanbul's flora and vegetation, this dataset has not been organized for decision makers, designers or plant
producers. This study seeks to find main principles around the plant selection issue through organizing existing floral data of Istanbul's
cityscape and overlapping the different dimensions of the complex metapolis, such us historical and social dimensions as well as
ecologic, functional, aesthetic and horticultural requirements affecting the plant species selection in the urban environment.
[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Author Affiliations: 1T Fen Bilimleri Enstits, Peyzaj Mimarl Program, 34469, Ayazaa, stanbul

ISSN: 1303-7005

Accession Number: 75323982

Factors influencing the sound preference in urban open spaces

Authors:

Yu, Lei1
Kang, Jian j.kang@sheffield.ac.uk

Source: Applied Acoustics. Jul2010, Vol. 71 Issue 7, p622-633. 12p.

Document Type: Article

Subject Terms:

*SOUND
*OPEN spaces
*CITIES & towns
*HOUSEHOLD sounds
*SOCIAL factors
CASE studies

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Sound
Sound preference
Urban open space

Abstract:

Abstract: In this paper, based on a large scale survey in Europe and China as well as corresponding laboratory studies, the influencing
factors on the sound preference evaluation, considering social, demographical, physical, behavioural and psychological facets, have
been systematically examined based on statistical analyses for each of the 19 case study sites. Various sound types have been
considered, including natural, human, mechanical and instrumental sounds. In terms of social/demographical factors, the results
suggest that age and education level are two factors which universally influence the sound preference significantly, although the
influence may vary with different types of urban open spaces and sounds. With increasing age or education level, people tend to prefer
natural sounds and are more annoyed by mechanical sounds in general. It has also been found that gender, occupation and residence
status generally would not influence the sound preference evaluation significantly, although gender has a rather strong influence for
certain sound types such as bird sounds, especially at certain case study sites. In terms of physical factors (season, time of day),
behavioural factors (frequency of coming to the site, reason for coming to the site), and psychological factors (site preference),
generally speaking, their influence on the sound preference evaluation is insignificant, except for limited case study sites and certain
sound types. The influence of home sound environment, in terms of sounds heard at home, on the sound preference has been found to
be generally insignificant, except for certain sounds. It is noted that there are some correlations between social/demographical factors
and the studied physical/behavioural/psychological factors, which should be taken into account when considering the influence of
individual factors on sound preference. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]

Copyright of Applied Acoustics is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted
to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original
published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations: 1School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK

ISSN: 0003-682X

DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2010.02.005

Accession Number: 49822743

The value of urban open space: Meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results

Authors:

Brander, Luke M.1 lukebrander@gmail.com


Koetse, Mark J.2

Source:

Journal of Environmental Management. Oct2011, Vol. 92 Issue 10, p2763-2773. 11p.

Document Type:

Article

Subject Terms:

*ENVIRONMENTAL management
*CORRELATION (Statistics)
*POPULATION density
*OPEN spaces
*META-analysis
*CONTINGENT valuation
*PRICES
*MATHEMATICAL models

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Contingent valuation
Hedonic pricing
Meta-analysis
Urban open space

Abstract:

Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic
enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent
valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine
the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year
in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a
multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between
the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open
space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space
(forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values
from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the
potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]

Copyright of Journal of Environmental Management is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or
emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy.
Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations:
1
Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands
2
Department of Spatial Economics, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

ISSN:

0301-4797

DOI:

10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.019

Accession Number:

63555140

A spherical metric for the field-oriented analysis of complex urban open spaces.

Authors:

Teller, Jacques

Source:

Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design. May2003, Vol. 30 Issue 3, p339. 18p. 5 Diagrams, 2 Charts, 2 Maps.

Document Type:

Article

Subject Terms:

*OPEN spaces
*URBAN planning

NAICS/Industry Codes:

237210 Land Subdivision


925120 Administration of Urban Planning and Community and Rural Development

Abstract:

The author deals with the analysis of urban open spaces, once conceived as part and parcel of our urban heritage. He introduces a
mathematical modelling technique that is capable of mapping the variation of the sky visible from points distributed throughout space.
The resulting maps overcome the limits of orthographic (plan, section, and elevation) and perspective methods of analysis by
considering the dynamic qualities of the Gibsonian 'visual world' that takes account not only of bifocal vision but also of the relatively
free movement of the head and shoulders, that is, vision as part of the human ecology. The maps show how a person might experience
those volumes of a void that define a space, not from a fixed point but from moving about inside the entire urban open space.
[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy.
Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

ISSN:

0265-8135

Accession Number:

10074478

Neighbourhood - Open Space Relationships in Metropolitan Planning: a look across four scales of concern.

Authors:

Gobster, Paul H.

Source:

Local Environment. May2001, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p199-212. 14p.

Document Type:

Article

Subject Terms:

*OPEN spaces
*NEIGHBORHOODS
*METROPOLITAN areas
*URBAN planning

Geographic Terms:

ILLINOIS
CHICAGO (Ill.)
UNITED States

NAICS/Industry Codes:

237210 Land Subdivision


925120 Administration of Urban Planning and Community and Rural Development

Abstract:

New Urbanism and other metropolitan planning strategies may discount the importance of neighbourhood - open space relationships
when dealing with some types of open spaces, particularly in city centre and urban fringe areas. In this paper I review a series of
studies I have carried out over the past decade looking at people's perceptions and uses of urban open space. This research examined
neighbourhood - open space relationships in the metropolitan area of Chicago, Illinois, USA at four scales of concern: quasi-public
space within an immediate neighbourhood; a public park that spans different neighbourhoods; regional greenways; and a metropolitan
bioreserve. In all of this work, my findings show how adjacent neighbourhoods are critical to the success of these open spaces,
regardless of their scale. Lessons are drawn from each scale for how neighbourhood - open space relationships might be improved.
[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original
published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

ISSN:
1354-9839

DOI:

10.1080/13549830120052827

Accession Number:

4499444

Publisher Logo:

Kentsel Yeil Alann Nelii zerine: Ankarada Yeil Alann Temsil Meknlar Olarak (Yeniden) retilme Duraklar.

Alternate Title:

On the Definition of Urban Green Areas: (Re)Production Modes of Urban Green in Ankara as Representational Spaces.

Language:

Turkish

Authors:

lkay, Yasemin1 yasemin.ilkay@gmail.com

Source:

Idealkent: Journal of Urban Studies. 2017, Issue 21, p181-199. 19p.

Document Type:

Article

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Public space
Representational space
Urban green policy
Urban green space
Ankara
Kamusal mekn
Temsil mekn
Yeil alan siyasas
Language of Keywords: English; Turkish

Abstract (English):

Urban green areas, such as parks, gardens, recreation spots, urban forests and groves, penetrate urban pattern limiting the built
environment and supporting the delicate balance among occupied and void spaces. Urban greenery is on one the hand natural, on the
other hand urban open space. As cities evolved, the public space dimension has been added to being natural and open; urban
green turned out to be meeting spaces where people come together and socialize while contacting with both the nature and the other
citizens; gaining new social and symbolic content. As public spaces, urban green areas have a two-folded appropriation: they are open
to anyone (perception and experience) as public property; besides, they are regulated by state institutions. On the basis of this conflict,
urban green areas are (re)produced and can be analysed as perceived, conceived and lived spaces. This article problematizes the
technical and political motives shaping the reproduction of urban greenery in Ankara, focusing on the concept of conceived space;
and discusses how urban green has turned out to be representational spaces. The main question of the study is: within reproduction
process how far urban greenery has transformed from its natural origins and what urban green has recently been in Ankara in relation
with the city and what it represents so far. Determined three representational modes demonstrated the shift in definition of urban green
from a natural to a political entity: (1) a policy instrument; (2) a context of policy; and (3) a site of policy. [ABSTRACT FROM
AUTHOR]

Copyright of Idealkent: Journal of Urban Studies is the property of Idealkent and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple
sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email
articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to
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Author Affiliations:
1
Yznc Yl niversitesi.

ISSN:

1307-9905

Accession Number:

124163147

Simulating the sheltering effects of windbreaks in urban outdoor open space

Authors:

Li, Wei1 lwei@aero.gla.ac.uk


Wang, Fan1
Bell, Simon2

Source:

Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics. Jul2007, Vol. 95 Issue 7, p533-549. 17p.

Document Type:

Article

Subject Terms:

*LAND use
*ENVIRONMENTAL protection
*URBAN planning
*WIND tunnels

Author-Supplied Keywords:

CFD
Shelterbelt
Urban open space
Wind tunnel
Windbreak

NAICS/Industry Codes:

237210 Land Subdivision


925120 Administration of Urban Planning and Community and Rural Development

Abstract:

Abstract: This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of wind environment in an urban open space containing windbreaks
and buildings. The sheltering effects of windbreaks on outdoor open spaces has been investigated regarding their physical properties,
such as porosity and locations. A selection of turbulence models and discretization schemes has also been evaluated in the CFD
simulations in order to create a suitable module to simulate airflow in a domain containing both porous objects and bluff bodies. The
result shows that the combination of the KE-two-layer model and SMART discretization scheme provides satisfactory accuracy to the
modelling with affordable computing resources. It also shows that the effect of buildings on the flow regime behind windbreaks is
significant, equivalent to the porosity of windbreaks when the outdoor space is comparatively small in proportion to the height of the
windbreaks. [Copyright &y& Elsevier]

Copyright of Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be
copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users
may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of
the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations:
1
The School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
2
Department of Landscape Architecture, Edinburgh College of Art, Edinburgh, UK

ISSN:

0167-6105

DOI:

10.1016/j.jweia.2006.11.001

Accession Number:

25184408

New Estimates of the Demand for Urban Green Space: Implications for Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Boston's Big Dig
Project.

Authors:

Tajima, Kayo1 kayo.tajima@tuffs.edu

Source:

Journal of Urban Affairs. Dec2003, Vol. 25 Issue 5, p641-655. 15p.

Document Type:

Article

Subject Terms:

*URBAN parks
*INFRASTRUCTURE (Economics)
*URBAN planning
*REAL property

Geographic Terms:

BOSTON (Mass.)
MASSACHUSETTS
UNITED States

Author-Supplied Keywords:

Administration and Society

NAICS/Industry Codes:

925120 Administration of Urban Planning and Community and Rural Development


237210 Land Subdivision
531190 Lessors of Other Real Estate Property
531210 Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers
Abstract:

Parks and open spaces enhance the quality of life in urban areas. Over the last 15 years, the city of Boston has sponsored the most
expensive urban infrastructure project in history. This project relocates an elevated highway underground and creates urban parks,
increasing the city's green space. The study estimates the economic benefits of proximity to parks in Boston, Massachusetts, based on
hedonic pricing methods. Using Boston's land use and assessed property price data, it is determined that proximity to urban open
space has positive impacts on property values, while proximity to highways has negative impacts on property prices. Based on this
observation, it is expected that the spatial alteration will cause a significant increase in nearby property prices. [ABSTRACT FROM
AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Urban Affairs is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to
multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download,
or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should
refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Author Affiliations:
1
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Tuffs University, 97 Talbot Ave., Medford, MA 02155

ISSN:

0735-2166

DOI:

10.1111/j.1467-9906.2003.00006.x

Accession Number:

11558523

Publisher Logo: