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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE

A PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE


MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND
SPEED LIMITS IN TANZANIA

THE MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS TANZANIA


POLICE FORCE AND THE MINISTRY OF WORKS

A REPORT OF THE CONTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL OF


THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

National Audit Office of Tanzania

Vision
To be a centre of excellence in public sector auditing

Mission
To provide efficient audit services in order to enhance accountablity
and value for money in the collection and use public resources

Our core values


Objectivity

Excellence

Integrity

Peoples Focus

Innovation

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Table of Contents

Table of Contents........................................................................................iii
List of Tables and Figures...........................................................................v
Preface.........................................................................................................vii
Terminology used in this report.................................................................ix
Map of Tanzania showing regions covered in this audit........................x
Acronyms and Abbreviations.....................................................................xi
Executive Summary...................................................................................xii
Chapter One..................................................................................................1
Introduction...................................................................................................1
1.1 Background....................................................................................1
1.2 Audit objective...............................................................................2
1.3 Audit scope, methods and limitation..........................................3
1.4 Assessment criteria......................................................................5
1.5 Structure of the audit report........................................................6
Chapter Two..................................................................................................7
2.1 Development of road crashes..........................................................7
2.2 Policy and regulation.........................................................................9
2.3 Main actors for management of traffic inspections.....................11
2.4 Main actors for management of speed limits...............................12
2.5 Steps and procedures in Traffic inspections and speed limits.12
Chapter Three..............................................................................................17
Traffic Inspections.......................................................................................17
3.1 Where are inspections carried out?........................................17
3.2 Are risk factors prioritized in Inspections?..............................18
3.3 Are sanctions applied properly?...............................................25
3.4 Do planning documents address the risk of road traffic
accidents?....................................................................................28
3.5 Are there guidelines for conducting risk based traffic
control?................................................................................33
3.6 Are resources allocated in relation to risk?............................37
3.7 Are staff properly trained and equipped?...............................42
3.8 Are inspections monitored and evaluated?............................46
3.9 Quality of the information..........................................................50
Chapter Four...............................................................................................52
Speed Limits................................................................................................52
4.1 Are the setting of speed limits based on risks?.....................52
4.2 How are road conditions monitored?......................................56
Chapter Five................................................................................................59
Conclusions.................................................................................................59

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5.1 Inadequate Planning of Traffic Inspections............................59


5.2 Poorly Managed Traffic Inspections.........................................62
5.3 Inadequate Allocation of Resources for Traffic Inspections.64
5.4 Insufficient Monitoring and Evaluation of Traffic Inspections..
......................................................................................................64
5.5 Ineffective Sanctions for Traffic Offenders..............................67
5.6 Unsatisfactory Management of Speed Limit..........................68
Chapter Six..................................................................................................71
Recommendations.....................................................................................71
6.1 Planning of traffic inspections...................................................71
6.2 Managing of traffic inspections.................................................72
6.3 Resource allocation for traffic inspections..............................73
6.4 Monitoring and evaluation of traffic inspections.....................73
6.5 Sanctions for traffic offenders...................................................74
6.6 Setting speed limit......................................................................74
6.7 Managing speed limit.................................................................74
References..................................................................................................76
Appendices..................................................................................................80
Appendix One: Audit Questions and Sub Questions........................81
Appendix Two: Methodology.................................................................82
Appendix Three: Computations made in the report .........................85
Appendix Four: Analysis of the Relative weight in inspections.......90
Appendix Five: List of Officials Participated in Stakeholders
Conference .............................................................................................92
Appendix Six: List of Recommendations and TPFs Responses....94
Appendix Seven: Summary of Questionnaires Responses..........101
Appendix Eight: Assessment of the Risk based traffic inspections
carried out .............................................................................................105
Appendix Nine: The comparison between the best practices and
Actual work performed .......................................................................107
Appendix Ten: Location of reported traffic crashes (black spots)
and inspection spots ...........................................................................110
Appendix Eleven: Definition of Terms................................................112

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List of Tables and Figures


List of tables

Table 2.1 Number of registered vehicles and car crashes 7


in Tanzania mainland, 2005 - 2010
Table 3.1 Major causes to road crashes 19

Table 3.2 Inspection efforts vs. causes to road crashes 20

Table 3.3 Risk for road crash vs. priority in inspection 21

Table 3.4 Percentage of offences caught in response to 23


the directives on enforcing speeding given by
the Police Headquarters
Table 3.5 Areas with a high rate of road crashes without 24
inspection spots
Table 3.6 Applied sanctions to defaulting drivers 26
according to the Police Force for the year 2009
Table 3.7 Repetitions of fines for similar traffic offences 27
which took place in 2010
Table 3.8 Efforts of Police Force in addressing key risk 30
factors
Table 3.9 Quality of Inspection plans reviewed 31

Table 3.10 Directives issued to Regional Police Offices and 34


their objectives
Table 3.11 Directives issued within a very short span of 35
time addressing the same or a different issue
Table 3.12 Focus of Directives issued to Regional Police 36
Offices
Table 3.13 Length of Road network per fatal crash in 39
relation to number of Traffic police officers
(2010)
Table 3.14 Comparison of Number of crashes per Length 40
of Road network to number of policemen (2010)

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Table 3.15 Amount of fines collected per region and the 41


present number of enforcement equipment
(2009)
Table 3.16 Available enforcement equipment for traffic 45
inspection in relation to length of road network
(2010)
Table 3.17 Frequency of conducted monitoring of TPFs 47
staff
Table 4.1 Speed limits in Tanzania for different types of 56
vehicles
Table 4.2 Black spots which have not been addressed by 57
the Ministry

List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Cumulative number of registered vehicles 8
during the year
Figure 2.2 Crashes per 100 vehicles 2005 - 2010 9
Figure 3.1 Inspection efforts of the Traffic Police 22

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Preface
The Public Audit Act No. 11 of 2008, Section 28 authorizes the
Controller and Auditor General to carry out Performance Audit (Value-
for-Money Audit) for the purposes of establishing the economy,
efficiency and effectiveness of any expenditure or use of resources
in the MDAs, LGAs and Public Authorities and Other Bodies which
involves enquiring, examining, investigating and reporting, as deemed
necessary under the circumstances.

I have the honour to submit to His Excellency the President of the


United Republic of Tanzania, Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete and through
him to Parliament the first Performance Audit Report on Road Safety
Management programs and activities in Tanzania.

The report contains conclusions and recommendations that are focusing


mainly on planning and resources allocation for traffic inspections,
management of traffic police inspections, managing speed limits and
monitoring and evaluation system for traffic inspections and speed
limits that directly concerns the Tanzania Police Force and the Ministry
of Works in ensuring that the road safety management in the country
is provided with economy, efficiency and effectiveness.

The management of the Tanzania Police Force and the Ministry of


Works have been given the opportunity to scrutinise the factual
contents and comment on the draft report. I wish to acknowledge
that the discussions with the auditees have been very useful and
constructive.

My office intends to carry out a follow-up at an appropriate time


regarding actions taken by the auditees (namely the Tanzania Police
Force and the Ministry of Works) in relation to the recommendations
in this report.

In completion of the audit, the office subjected the report to the critical
review of the following experts namely; Prof. Theophil Rwebangira,
Prof. David Mfinanga, Dr. Estomihi Masaoe and SACP James Kombe
(Retired) who came up with useful inputs in improving the output of
this report.

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This report has been prepared by George C. Haule, Godfrey B.


Ngowi, Leonard Nyanda Mabuga, Elisante Mshana and Esnath Henry
Nicodem. I would like to thank my staff for their assistance in the
preparation of this report. My thanks should also be extended to the
auditees for their fruitful comments on the draft report.

Ludovick S. L. Utouh
Controller and Auditor General
Dar es Salaam,
March 2012

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Terminologies used in this report


Throughout this report, the following terminologies will be used:

Excessive speed or Over-speeding means speeds above a


prescribed speed limit.

Inappropriate speed means speeds too high for the prevailing


conditions, but within the speed limit.

Speeding encompasses both excessive and inappropriate speed.

Accident / Crash
The audit office decided to use the term crash throughout the report,
as it reflects the terminology used by majority of the international
organizations such as WHO etc., It is synonymous, in this report, to
the word accident widely used in Tanzania.

Drunk driving refers to driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs


which rendered the driver incapable of controlling his/her decisions.

Reckless or dangerous driving refers to inappropriate speed for a


given road and traffic conditions.

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Map of Tanzania showing regions covered in


this audit

Regions Covered in this Audit

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


CBOs - Community Based Organizations
GNP - Gross National Product
GPS - Global Positioning System
ICF - Investment Climate Facility
IGP - Inspector General of Police
INTOSAI - International Organization of Supreme Audit
Institutions
LGAs - Local Government Authorities
MDAs - Ministries, Departments and Agencies
MoHA - Ministry of Home Affairs
MoHSW - Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
MoW - Ministry of Works
NGOs - Non Governmental Organizations
NIT - National Institute of Transport
OECD - Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development
PGO - Police General Orders
RTA - Road Traffic Accidents
RTI - Road Traffic Injuries
SACP - Senior Assistant Commissioner of Police
SUMATRA - Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory
Authority
TABOA - Tanzania Bus Owners Association
TANROADS - Tanzania National Roads Agency
TBS - Tanzania Bureau of Standards
TPF - Tanzania Police Force
TPPDA - Tanzania Professional Passenger Drivers
Association
WHO - World Health Organization

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Executive Summary

Introduction

Road crashes are a serious societal and public health issue in Tanzania.
The situation is deteriorating. During the period between 2000 and
2008, the total number of road crashes increased by 42 percent (from
approximately 14,500 to 20,600). The number of injuries went up 27
percent and the number of people killed increased by 67 percent. This
is 30 to 40 times higher than in most Western European countries.
Apart from the loss of many lives, the impact of the road crashes on
the countrys economy is enormous.

According to the traffic police statistics, human factors caused 75


percent of the road crashes in 2008, while other factors such as
Mechanical and Road Conditions contribute to the remaining 25
percent.

The purpose of this audit is to examine whether traffic inspections and


speed limits were risk based and managed efficiently and effectively.
The audit covered planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
of traffic inspections and speed limits.

The Police Force (Police Traffic Headquarters) and the Ministry of


Works through the Directorate of Road Safety and Environment were
the main auditees. The Audit also covered key players in Road Safety
Management and Environment including SUMATRA and TANROADS.

The audit covered a period of four years (January, 2007 December,


2010). Data was collected from nine (9) of the 21 regions in Tanzania
Mainland. Highways, Regional and District roads were covered
including various types of vehicles.

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Main findings

Traffic inspections do not sufficiently address key risk factors

The audit noted that the traffic inspections were not prioritized to
address major factors which contribute to road crashes. The priority
was given to factors such as mechanical factors with a 12% relative
risk for road crashes and other factors such as road license, absence
of triangle and fire extinguishers etc which contribute very little to road
crashes. Human factors contribute up to 74% of all road crashes that
occurred in Tanzania in year 2010. This is depicted in the following
table:

Risk for road crash vs. priority in inspection for 2010


Causes of Road Relative risk Relative weight in
crashes for road crash inspections (%)
(%)

Human factors 74 17
Mechanical factors 12 14
Road conditions 14 4
Other factors 0 65
TOTAL 100 100
Source: Traffic Police Annual Report

The above table shows that the traffic inspections do not prioritise key
risk factors. There is no target set to allocate adequate time and staff,
enforcement tools (breath analyzer and laser speed guns) in order
to make inspections focus on human factors such as speeding and
drunken driving.

Drivers repeat offences

The desired deterrent effects of the applied sanctions were not


accomplished since the majority of the drivers kept on repeating
offences committed earlier. More than two thirds out of 445 drivers
that responded to our questionnaire acknowledged that they had
committed similar traffic offences more than three times in one year.
The reasons given by traffic police for these repetitions of similar
offences is lack of records for use in tracing the traffic offenders which
makes it hard to take different punitive measures.

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Police resources not allocated according to risk for road


crashes

The allocation of human resources (traffic police officers) and


inspection devices such as speed radar guns and alcohol testers
(breathe analyzers) for traffic inspections in regions examined is not
done based on the risk for road crashes.

The regions which have high risk (number of fatal crash/km) have
been allocated fewer traffic police officers compared to other regions
which have a relatively smaller risk for road crashes. Similarly, regions
with high number of crashes had only 1 to 2 breath analyzers and laser
speed guns.

Limited monitoring and evaluation

The monitoring of traffic inspections by the Police Force was limited.


Out of the four parameters which the Police Force uses to monitor
the performance of its staff on traffic inspections, the following three
have rarely been monitored: to what extent drivers are inspected, the
availability of inspection equipment, and the TPFs staff performance
evaluation.

The fourth parameter, the revenue collected based on fines from traffic
offences has been monitored adequately and regular reports are
submitted to the regional police offices from the district police offices.

Traffic Inspections conducted by Traffic police have not been evaluated


to examine whether the traffic inspections requirements and objectives
were met.

The Ministry of Works has not conducted periodical reviews of the


existing speed limits set in the country for the past 30 years. This has
resulted into lack of knowledge on the performance of the existing
speed limits. Similarly, there is no analysis conducted based on traffic
accidents and type of roads in order to review the existing or setting
new speed limits.

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Conclusions

The audit concluded that, despite a number of accomplishments


registered by the Ministry of Works and the Police Force, the
management of traffic inspections and speed limits in Tanzania has
several weaknesses.

The Tanzania Police Force through the Traffic Police Department does
not have adequate plans for traffic inspections conducted in the country.
This weakness has led to non-prioritization of traffic inspections; failure
to address key risk factors (such as human factors) and the inspections
are focusing on factors (mechanical) which contribute relatively less
to road crashes.

The traffic inspections are insufficiently managed and there is no


reliable system for monitoring and evaluating the traffic inspection
interventions.

It was also noted that the applied sanctions do not have the desired
deterrent effect. The allocation of resources (such as time, inspection
tools, money, vehicles and personnel) for traffic inspections were
not allocated based on risk for road crashes in different regions and
districts.

The Ministry of Works has not taken effort to alter the speed limit with
changing road conditions. The present speed limits were set in 1973.
Similarly, the present system for monitoring road conditions and road
crashes is weak. There is no coordinated data base which is essential
for the review of speed limits.

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Recommendations

Based on the audit findings and conclusions, it is recommended that:

The Tanzania Police Force has to ensure that:

Inspection plans for Traffic Policing are based on analysis of


road crashes data and should be targeted to the roads and
locations where crashes occur most frequently ;
An action plan to identify and address the biggest risks to road
safety posed by drivers is developed;
Efficiency and activity based indicators are developed and
adopted to monitor performance of traffic inspections;
Guidelines on conducting risk based traffic control / inspections
are developed and put into use by all traffic police officers;
Resources (human, money, inspection tools and vehicles)
are allocated adequately and all areas with high risks of road
crashes are given higher priority;
Periodically, monitor and evaluate the effect of interventions
as well as carry out more analysis/research to address the
emerging issue of distractions in traffic as a risk factor to road
crashes as a basis for improvements;
The application of sanctions to traffic offenders is done
according to the stipulated laws and regulations; and identify
ways of assessing and evaluating the effectiveness of the
applied sanctions.

The Ministry of Works should ensure that:

Speed limits in different roads are managed properly and are


periodically reviewed;
Setting of speed limits is preceded by a thorough analysis of
land use and road crashes occurred and the type of the road;
There is a periodical monitoring of the road conditions and road
crashes occurring on our roads.

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Chapter One

Introduction
1.1 Background

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), road crashes are


the ninth factor worldwide for causing deaths. If the situation is not
reversed, road crashes will rise to the third place in causing deaths by
the year 2020.1

In the developing countries, road crashes are major causes of deaths


and injuries and account for almost 10 % of the deaths reported in
the 5 - 44 years age group. This situation represents considerable
economic waste corresponding to at least 1-2 % of these countries
Gross National Product (GNP) per annum. In addition it causes huge
human grief and suffering.2

The Road Safety situation in Tanzania has been deteriorating. During the
period between 2000 and 2008, the number of road crashes increased
by 42 percent (from approximately 14,500 to 20,600) whereby; the
number of injuries had gone up by 27 percent and number of people
killed had increased 67 percent3. This is 30 to 40 times higher than in
most Western European countries.4 Apart from the loss of many lives,
the impact of the road crashes on the countrys economy is enormous.

Causes of road crashes can be inferred from the Traffic police statistics.
According to this information human factors caused 75 percent of the
road crashes in 2008. Human factors include sub-factors whereby
reckless or dangerous driving accounts for more than half (55%) of
the crashes caused by human factors.

1 WHO 2010, World Health Day


2 Institutional Set up of Road Safety activities by Cuthbert W. Chiduo
3 National Road Safety Policy , September 2009
4 Institutional Set up of Road Safety activities by Cuthbert W. Chiduo

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The Tanzania Government has formulated a number of initiatives in


trying to reduce the problem of road crashes. Some initiatives include
introduction of new driving licenses with an intention of controlling the
increasing number of unqualified drivers or those with fake licenses.
Another initiative was the introduction of speed governors with an
objective of limiting the speed of some of the commercial operating
vehicles.

In 2009, the Tanzania Government developed the national safety policy


in accordance with the five Es strategy for reduction/ prevention of
crashes. These strategies include; Engineering and traffic environment,
education and information, enforcement and legislation, emergency
response, evaluation and other comprehensive actions.

Despite these initiatives, the road crashes situation is still serious in


Tanzania.

Based on the above background the audit office decided to conduct a


performance audit of the management of the road safety focusing on
traffic inspections and speed limits. The traffic inspections and speed
limits are aiming at addressing human factors.

1.2 Audit objective

The purpose of the audit is to examine whether traffic inspections


and speed limits were risk based and were managed efficiently and
effectively. The audit covered planning, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of traffic inspections and speed limits.

The audit is based on analysis of answers to two main questions. The


audit questions used in this audit are stated below:

Audit Question 1: Is the management of the inspection service risk


based and efficiently and effectively conducted?

Audit Question 2: Are speed limits risked based and managed


efficiently?

More specific sub questions are provided in Appendix One.

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The Police Force (Police Traffic Headquarters) and the Ministry of


Works5 through the Directorate of Road Safety and Environment were
the main auditees. The Audit also covered key players in Road Safety
Management and Environment including SUMATRA and TANROADS.

1.3 Audit scope, methods and limitation

The first audit question is focused on whether the traffic police


management of traffic inspections is risk based. A risk based traffic
inspection would concentrate its activities on (a) roads where there is
a high risk for car crashes and (b) the human factors known to be the
major causes of crashes.

The second question is focused on whether TANROADS dealing with


speed limits in various roads is adjusted to suit the quality of roads,
traffic conditions and crashes that have occurred.

The audit covered the four years period starting from January, 2007
December, 2010. Data was collected from nine (9) of 21 regions
in Tanzania Mainland.6 Highways, Regional and District roads were
covered including passengers and goods vehicles. The selected
nine regions included five regions with high rates of crashes while
the remaining four regions had low rates of crashes. The selection
was made to ensure that the entire country is represented in terms
of geographical coverage. Another purpose of the selection was to
facilitate comparison of results from similar roads between various
regions (i.e. higher and lower recorded crashes for comparison and
balancing of the picture).

The formal picture of management and performance of the Road


Safety in Tanzania was studied using the Ministry of Works, Traffic
Police, TANROADS and SUMATRA documents.

5 Formerly, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development

6 The examined regions are Coast, Morogoro, Dodoma, Arusha, Mtwara, Mbeya,
Tabora, Kagera and Kigoma.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

The main documents studied regarding management of inspections


at Tanzanias Police Force and the nine selected regions were the
following:
Planning procedures; studied through Annual reports and
inspections plans.
Resource allocation; studied through inspections plans,
strategic plans and operational plans.
Conducted inspections; studied through inspection plans and
the Police Form Number 212.
Monitoring and evaluation; studied through inspection reports.

Other documents used were accident registers, monthly returns,


Notification Forms and monthly evaluation reports, all covering the
period 2007 2010.

A questionnaire was also administered to 445 drivers from nine regions


in order to establish their perceptions about activities by the traffic
police to combat road crashes.

With regard to the management of speed limits the main documents


used were; Road Traffic Act (Sections 51 and 52), the Safe Road
Design Manual of the Ministry of Works and Tanzania Police Forces
annual inspection reports.

Interviews were conducted with officers at responsible institutions,


stakeholders such as drivers from the studied regions, and Service
Providers in the transportation area. The interviews were mainly
conducted to:
Confirm or explain information from the documents reviewed;
Give clues to relevant information in cases where information in
the formal documents was lacking or missing; and
Provide context and additional perspectives to the information
gathered from the Ministry of Works and Traffic Police.

In many cases the required data for the examination in the audit was
missing, limited or questionable, and the audit office had difficulties with
crosschecking and confirmation of data provided during interviews. It
is however the assessment of the audit office that the examination of
nine Regions in this audit provides a relevant picture of the audit area
and therefore the conclusions from these regions can be applicable to

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other Regions in the country as well7.

The information was crosschecked and discussed with practicing


scientists and other experts in the field of Road Safety Management
in Tanzania in order to ensure validation of the information collected.

The Ministry of Works and Traffic Police were given an opportunity to


go through the draft report. They confirmed the accuracy (the situation
it reflects) of the information presented.

The various methods used for collecting data are described in more
details in Appendix 2.

1.4 Assessment criteria

The assessment of the audit were based on the following two general
criteria:

1.4.1 Traffic inspection should be managed, conducted and


reported on in compliance with policies, directives,
regulations and best practices

According to the National Road Safety Policy of 2009, the government


should continually ensure that there is reduction of occurrence and
severity of road crashes and consequently the level of fatalities and
injuries in an efficient and professional manner. The aim is to reduce
road deaths by at least 25% by 2015, taking 2008 being the base year.

The road traffic regulations and best practices for traffic inspection
state that, in order to successfully combat the problem of increasing
traffic accidents, the planning, resource allocation and implementation
of traffic inspections should be addressed towards risk areas for road
crashes and the major risk factors, human factors and conducted in
accordance with best practice. This in turn requires access to proper
and reliable statistics on road crashes/incidents. Data collected
should be recorded and analysed and used as a base for risk based
management of road safety. In addition, sanctions should be used
to combat the occurrence of road crashes in accordance with the
stipulated laws and regulations.

7 The Traffic Police Headquarters and road safety experts agreed that conclusions
from nine selected regions can be applicable to other regions not covered in this audit.

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1.4.2 Speed limit signs should be planned and updated in


accordance with policies, directives, regulations and best
practices

The road safety policy states that, road authorities shall give highest
priority to actions aiming at reducing excess and inappropriate speed
problems and reducing the risk for vulnerable road users.

The road traffic regulations require the drivers to drive at the set
speed in order to ensure safety to all road users. According to the
best practices8, set speed limits should be properly planned based on
risk analysis. The situation should continuously be monitored in order
to adjust the speed limits according to the traffic and road conditions.
This requires that compliance is followed up by the Police Force and
reported on to the responsible authorities for speed limit signs.

1.5 Structure of the audit report

The remaining part of the report covers the following:

Chapter 2 gives the account of the audit area with the Road Safety
Management system set up, procedures for drivers inspection,
monitoring, evaluation and budget allocation for Road Safety
Management related activities.

Chapter 3 and 4 presents the findings on Road Safety Management


mainly focusing on traffic inspections and regulation of speed limits
respectively in Tanzania.

Chapter 5 provides conclusions and chapter 6 presents


recommendations in order to improve the current situation of Road
Safety Management in Tanzania.

8 WHO Speed Management (a road safety manual for decision makers and
practitioners) and OECD Report on Speed Management

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Chapter Two
Road safety through traffic inspections and
speed limits

The aim of this chapter is to give the background to the traffic inspections
and speed management related activities. In this chapter a number of
issues have been covered including; the development of road crashes
and increase in vehicles, policies and regulations in road safety arena,
main actors for the management of traffic inspections, speed limits
and steps and procedures in Traffic inspections and setting of speed
limits.

2.1 Development of road crashes

An increasing number of vehicles and road crashes


Since 2005, the number of road crashes has been increasing every
year. As a consequence the number of fatalities and injuries has also
increased.

The table below shows the number of registered vehicles and


crashes per year for the period from 2005 2010 for Tanzania
mainland.

Table 2.1 Number of registered vehicles and car crashes in


Tanzania mainland, 2005 - 2010

Year Number of Number of car Crashes per


Registered crashes 100 vehicles
Vehicles
during the
year
2005 97,373 16,388 17
2006 73,523 17,677 24
2007 70,587 17,753 25
2008 95,364 20,615 22
2009 147,499 22,739 15
2010 178,531 24,665 14
Source: Tanzania Revenue Authority and Tanzania Police Force
(2011)

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Figure 2.1 below summarizes the data on cumulative number of


registered vehicles from 2005 to 2011.

Figure 2.1: Cumulative number of registered vehicles during the


year

1200000
Comulative number of registered vehicles

1000000

800000

600000

400000

200000

0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Year

Source: Tanzania Revenue Authority

The figure above shows that the number of registered vehicles


(cumulatively) has been increasing year after year.

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Figure 2.2: Crashes per 100 vehicles 2005 2010

Figure 2.2 above shows that the number of crashes per 100 vehicles
increased between year 2005 and 2007. Starting year 2007 number
of crashes per 100 vehicles decreased.

Areas where road crashes mainly occur

According to the traffic police most of the fatal crashes tend to occur
on trunk roads and regional roads. One important factor behind this is
that the roads are single lane, tarmac and hence it is possible to drive
at high speed. Another explanatory factor is that trunk and regional
roads have a high traffic density.

2.2 Policy and regulation

Road Traffic Act of 1973 (Cap. 168 R.E. 2002) and its accompanying
traffic regulations is in force since 1973. Together with several
amendments made therein it remains the principal regulation for all
traffic matters in Tanzania.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

The Ministry of Home Affairs through the Tanzania Police Force is


responsible for enforcement of the traffic laws and regulations as
stipulated in the Road Traffic Act of 1973. In 1976 the Traffic Police Unit
as one of the Units forming the Tanzania Police Force was established
under the Police Force Ordinance, Cap.322 to enforce traffic laws and
regulations.

The Ministry of Home Affairs through the Tanzania Police Force during
their enforcement of traffic laws and their regulations is responsible
for:
o Giving priority to offences that most directly affect safety;
o Making a follow up of all road crashes that have
occurred;
o Carrying out investigation and prosecution of traffic
safety offences in courts; and
o Enforcing rigorously the traffic law.

The National Road Safety Policy of 2009 provides directions on


how Tanzania will address problems encountered in road safety
management. It also provides:

T he basis for the working towards attaining the vision of


a society with a safe traffic environment;
A framework for the undertaking of corrective
programme interventions;
Guidance and coordination of actions of the relevant
ministries and organizations; and
Rationalize the use of scarce resources and reduce
duplication of efforts.

According to the National Road Safety Policy of 2009, Road Safety


Audits should be conducted with an intention of ensuring that roads
are safe. TANROADS is responsible for conducting these audits for
the national roads while PMORALG is responsible for all roads falling
under the jurisdiction of local government authorities.

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2.3 Main actors for management of traffic inspections

One of the main actors responsible for the management of traffic


inspections is the Traffic Police Department, which is part of
the Police Force under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Traffic
Police Head Office is focused on policies while the regional police
commanders are responsible for implementation.

The department is also responsible for enforcing the Road Traffic Act
of 1973 regarding:

Planning of traffic inspections (overall on central level


and planning activities on regional and district level);
Identification of risk areas and allocation of resources for
traffic inspections based on risks
Deciding on sanctions (Issue fixed penalties, Immobilize
vehicles and Prosecution);
Monitoring and evaluating the traffic inspection activities;
Documentation (Records of traffic offenders, Road
crashes reports and Annual traffic accidents and safety
reports)
Speed controls.

According to the Tanzania Police Force Annual Report for the year
2010, one of the objectives was to decrease traffic crashes and make
the streets safer through the following strategies:

Locating and identifying the main locations and causes


of crashes;
Continuing to build support for neighborhood speed
watch;
Utilization of directed patrols and highly visible traffic
enforcement endeavors;
Increasing Tanzania Police Force (TPF) participation in
the traffic-related Task Forces at national and regional
levels; and
Public awareness.

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Types of inspections

There are two main types of inspections conducted by the Traffic


Police in Tanzania. These are:

Road side inspections; and


Mandatory car inspections.

This audit focused on the road side inspections conducted by the


Traffic Police.

2.4 Main actors for management of speed limits

TANROADS under Ministry of Works is responsible for

Monitoring and management of Trunk and regional


roads;
Roads design and their conditions on safety;
Road Safety Audits and implementation of findings;
Identifying blackspots and provide necessary remedial
measures; and
Carrying out before and after studies on blackspot
schemes

The Road Safety Unit under the Ministry of Works which was
established in 1990s is responsible for policy formulation on road
safety in Tanzania.

2.5 Steps and procedures in Traffic inspections and speed limits

2.5.1 Traffic Inspections

Overall Planning of Traffic Inspections

The overall planning of traffic inspections in Tanzania is done by the


Traffic Police Head Office situated in Dar es Salaam. The Head Office
is responsible for issuing guidance on what to be inspected on a
particular period of time and highlights the important aspects or areas
for the inspection.

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At regional level, the Regional Traffic Officer is responsible for planning


inspection activities within the region. The same is done at the level of
District.

Identification of risk areas and risk factors

All levels of the Traffic Police Management is responsible for the


identification of risk areas. These are the areas which tend to have
lots of road crashes or potential for the occurrence of road crashes.

The Commander of Traffic Police in Tanzania, the Regional Traffic


Officers and Officers in charge of traffic in Districts are responsible
for allocating resources for the traffic inspections. When allocating
resources they take into account the risk areas in their jurisdiction.

The same officials are required to prioritize inspections based on


special risk factors caused by drivers such as; speeding, reckless/
dangerous driving, drunkenness etc. in their inspection.

Imposition of sanctions to defaulters

Traffic offences are punishable through imposition of fines or court


hearing as detailed below:

Imposing fine. This is done through a notification handed


to the defaulter after being inspected by the traffic officer.
Once the defaulter is notified about the clause he/she
contravened, then he/she is given an option of either
paying the fine or being sent to court. The fines imposed
are TShs. 20,000 per offence for bicycles and TShs.
30,000 for motor vehicles regardless of the severity of
the offence.

Court proceedings. When the defaulting drivers opt for


court, charges are written by Police/Public prosecutor
and sent to court. The fine option is not applicable to
drivers who cause accidents that result into death or
injuries. Such offences are tried in courts.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Monitoring and Evaluation of drivers inspections

The Commander of Traffic Police in Tanzania (at the Head Office) is


responsible for monitoring and evaluating all the inspection activities
carried out by Regional Traffic Officers. Similarly, the Regional Traffic
Officers are supposed to monitor all the activities carried out in the
Districts of their regions.

Furthermore, the Regional Traffic Officers are supposed to report to


both the Commander of Traffic Police in Tanzania and Regional Police
Commanders while those in the District reports to the Regional Traffic
Officers.

Regional and District Traffic Police prepares quarterly, bi-annually


and annually reports on the achievements made regarding drivers
inspections conducted in their jurisdiction.

The traffic police approach on enforcement of regulations

The current approach on enforcement of traffic regulations comprises:

Prevention
Intelligence; and
Enforcement.

The Police enforces regulations mainly through roadside and fleet


checks, intelligence information which includes data obtained from; the
Polices own management systems, other government departments
and members of the public.

The traffic polices role in enforcing traffic regulations

The Department of Traffic Police sets out its high level enforcement
objectives in its annual plan. The responsibility to develop strategies
and enforce road safety management lies with the Traffic Police
Department.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

The traffic police directs its enforcement activities against two broad
areas of non-compliance:

Traffic Offences related to roadworthiness defects: including


brakes, tyres and steering. These checks are undertaken by
vehicle inspectors; and

Traffic Offences related to the use of road or road users


behaviours: primarily reckless/dangerous driving, carelessness
of motor vehicle drivers and pedal cyclists, excessive speed,
careless pedestrians, overloading, drivers hours regulation
and intoxication as well as operator licensing. These checks
are undertaken by Traffic Police Officers.

2.5.2 Speed limits

Setting of speed limits

According to section 51 of the Road Traffic Act, speed limit of a


particular road or road section is to be determined by the Engineer-in-
Chief (Ministry of Works).

In setting speed limits, the Engineer-in-Chief considers factors such


as; types of carriageway (single or dual carriageway), super-elevation,
straightness of the road, vehicle weight, functional classification, traffic
volume, amongst others.

The Road Traffic Act of 1973 sets speed limit for private cars and
Heavy Goods Vehicles as follows:

Private car speed management: inter-city roads

There are few sections of roads that are subject to speed limits. They
include settlements, tight curves and other hazardous sections).

Although there are no speed limits for private cars other than for
sections mentioned above, the trunk roads are generally designed for
a speed of 110 km/hour according to the Manual.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Speed management of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV)

The speed management of HGV is very critical due to their momentum


at high speed. The speed of goods vehicles exceeding 3.5 tonnes are
subject to speed limit of 80 km/hour.

Monitoring Road conditions

The Ministry of Works through the Engineer-in-Chief is responsible


for monitoring the performance of different speed limit sets.

The Ministry use other key stakeholders such as the Tanzania Police
Force which is responsible for enforcing the set speed limit, while
TANROADS and PMORALG are responsible for ensuring that roads
are passable (mobility objective).

Post crash response

This is the responsibility of different actors on the road safety in


Tanzania. The main actors who ought to take part in Post crash
response includes: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Fire and
Rescue Services, Insurance companies and Police Force.

According to the UN decade of action9, it requires that there must be


increased responsiveness to post-crash emergencies and improve the
ability of health and other systems to provide appropriate emergency
treatment and longer term rehabilitation for crash victims.

9 Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020

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Chapter Three

Traffic Inspections
In this chapter, we present our findings regarding the first audit question,
i.e. Is the Traffic Police managing the inspection service efficiently and
effectively?

The first sections present findings that relate to the activities/inspections


themselves, e.g. where, when and how they are carried out. The
subsequent sections address conditions and factors influencing and
explaining how the activities are carried out. Conditions and explanatory
factors are represented by planning, guidelines and allocation of
resources. The training of staff is also addressed.

Finally monitoring and evaluation is dealt with. They represent ways of


eventually improving operations by changing conditions.
Details on data collection and computations are presented in Appendix
3.

3.1 Where are inspections carried out?


According to the traffic police annual plans for 2009 and 2010,
decision on where traffic inspections can be carried out is influenced
by three main factors. These are:
Traffic volume,
Road conditions,
Road Users behaviour.

There are three main road categories in Tanzania: trunk roads,


regional roads and district roads.

According to the traffic police most of its inspections are carried out
on trunk roads. The reason behind this is that the risks for crashes
are higher on trunk roads due to:

Higher traffic volume on trunk roads than on other road


categories.
Better road conditions on trunk roads leads to over-
speeding, which in turn is a major factor behind car
crashes.

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3.2 Are risk factors prioritized in Inspections?

According to traffic police statistics for the period from 2000 to 2005,
human factor was the major cause of road crashes, causing more than
75 percent. The Human factor is made up of sub-factors where by
54% is reckless or dangerous driving.10 Reckless or dangerous driving
refers to inappropriate speed for a given road and traffic conditions.

The causes of road traffic crashes in Tanzania were established by the


Traffic Police according to the definitions in the Road Traffic Act 1973.

The causes can be combined into three major factors contributing to


road crashes as human, vehicle/mechanical and road conditions.

Human factors11 include all factors which are caused by human errors
such as speeding, overtaking, drinking and driving, overloading or
poorly loaded and careless driving.

Vehicle or Mechanical factors are factors caused by mechanical


problems of vehicles such as defective brakes, defective steering or
suspension, defective lights, tyre burst etc.

Road condition such as slippery roads is one of the factors of road


conditions. In the National Road Safety Policy of 2009, human factor
is singled out as the factor causing most road crashes. During our
interviews most senior traffic police officers acknowledged that the
major cause of road accidents is excessive speed.

10 Study on Road Accidents in Mainland Tanzania, conducted by Bureau for


Industrial Cooperation (BICO) of the University of Dar es salaam, September 2007.
11 Related to driver experience, performance and behaviour

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Table 3.1 below shows the major causes of road crashes in Tanzania.

Table 3.1: Major causes to road crashes

Contributory percentage (%)


Causes of Road crashes 20002005 2010
Human factors 77 74
Including, Careless driving 54 57
Over-speeding 8 9
Improper overtaking 7 8
Drink and Drive 3 0
Overloading 4 n.a

Mechanical factors 16 12
Road conditions 7 1412
TOTAL 100 100
Source: Police Form 212 for the period 20002005 and 2010

From the table above, it can be seen that most road crashes involving
vehicles were associated with drivers performance, such as careless
driving, dangerous driving and excessive speed. These are factors
which the Police can influence through their inspections.

According to interviews with different regional traffic Police officers,


drinking and driving is one of the key risk factors for vehicle crashes.
However, the Police Force lack tools for testing alcohol intake (breathe
analyzer). Consequently, there are no reliable figures for drinking and
driving.

Table 3.2 below shows how the traffic police in Tanzania have
concentrated their inspection efforts on different risk factors. Effort is
measured in terms of offences brought to charge for each category.

12 These are factors such as slippery roads, weather conditions etc.

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Table 3.2: Inspection efforts vs. causes to road crashes


Causes of Road crashes Priority (weight) in
inspections (%)
Human factors 17
Including, Careless driving 4
Over-speeding 4
Overtaking 0
Drink and Drive 1
Overloading 8
Mechanical factors 14
Road conditions 4
Other factors 6513
TOTAL 100
Source: Police Form 212 (2011)

During the interviews with drivers from nine different regions, it was
noted that those factors given emphasis are the ones that are easy
to prove and that they are the ones that are easy to extract bribes on,
even though they are not necessarily the most critical ones in causing
vehicle crashes.

According to the interviews with the traffic police officers, most of


the traffic police officers do not have enough knowledge on traffic
inspections and thats why they focus on simple issues such as
defective lights (vehicle), road license, insurance cover, absence of fire
extinguisher, triangle etc instead of concentrating on the main issues.

Similarly, they commented that more risky offences such as speeding


and drinking and driving can not be enforced without adequate
enforcement equipment in place.

In table 3.3 the figures from the previous two tables have been
combined. This enables a comparison between risk factors for car
crashes and how the Traffic Police prioritize their inspections.

13 These are factors such as not having road license, absence of


triangle, absence of fire extinguisher etc.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Table 3.3: Risk for road crash vs. priority in inspection for 2010
Causes of Road Relative risk Relative weight in
crashes for road crash inspections (%)
(%)
Human factors 74 17
Including, Careless driving14 57 4
Speeding 9 4
Overtaking 8 0
Drink and Drive15 0 1
Overloading16 n.a. 8
Mechanical factors 12 14
Road conditions 14 4
Other factors 0 6517
TOTAL 100 100
Source: Traffic Police Annual Report

As seen in appendix four, police force data do not capture all the
information properly due to lack of equipment such as speed radar,
alcohol tester and GPS Locator. These equipment are necessary for
enforcing speeding and alcohol drinking and even measuring and
recording the crash location.

Factors that contribute to road accidents

The reviewed road safety data and the TPFs own data on accidents
show that:
The main risk factors contributing to vehicle road crashes
related to driver experience, performance and behaviour.
Mechanical faults were not major factors but, where they
did occur, they tended to relate to functioning of vehicle
lights, etc and rarely checked tyre and brake defects;

The most severe road crashes involving vehicles were


associated with driver performance, speeding, reckless
driving and tiredness, which the TPF may be able to
influence through its inspections;

14 Sometimes it is referred as Reckless driving


15 Efficiency impaired by alcohol
16 Mainly include poorly loaded vehicles
17 These are factors such as not having road license, absence of
triangle, absence of fire extinguisher etc.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Most accidents are attributed to drivers actions which


fall within the TPFs remit and the Traffic Police Officers
are expected to check or be able to influence them
directly during roadside checks, for example failing to
estimate the distance and speed of other users. The
TPF through its inspections and checks is responsible
for tackling poor driving or driver fatigue, similarly it may
be able to influence some of these behaviours through
traffic compliance inspections and education work.

The data can also be summarized as in figure 3.1.

Figure 3.1: Inspection efforts of the Traffic Police

Figure 3.1 and table 3.3 above show that the inspection efforts of the
Traffic Police are focusing on areas which contribute very little to the
road crashes. This is according to police records.

Inspection efforts for addressing the problems of mechanical defects


and overloading are high compared to their contribution of road crashes
in the country. At the same time, inspection efforts for addressing the
four major contributing factors to traffic crashes speeding, overtaking,
careless and dangerous driving, and drinking and driving is however
minimal.

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Offences inspected in the regions

The audit team took initiative to assess what the regional traffic police
focus on during the inspections.

One of the regions that provided well structured information on the


focus of their inspection is the Morogoro Regional Police.

The provided information represents feedbacks on the implementation


of enforcement of speeding in Morogoro region.

Table 3.4: Percentage of offences caught in response to the


directives on enforcing speeding given by the Police
Headquarters
Offences dealt Number of Percentage of
offences offences
(%)
Mechanical defects 270 39
Violation of SUMATRA 190 28
regulations
Speed 103 15
Negligence/Careless driving 42 6
Licenses 83 12
Total 688 100
Source: Traffic Police Inspection Plans (2009 and 2010)

Table 3.4 above, shows to what extent the number of offences


corresponded with the given directives.

According to the same table 3.4, a lot of attention has been given to
mechanical issues and SUMATRA related issues, but not to the same
extent as speed.

Although the intention of directives was to address the problem of


speeding, the inspections were too general or aligned on different
issues and ended up with a long list of offences on mechanical defects
and violation of speed limits which accounted for 50% of all offences.

The table gives an indication that the police, in spite of giving a priority
on speeding, found a lot of other offences and did not like to prioritize
speeding.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

3.2.1 Location of inspection points in relation to black spots18

The Tanzania Police Force has identified a number of areas as their


inspection points.

The inspection point is a spot which the traffic police use for conducting
their road side checks. The aim is to check whether the drivers comply
with the laid down traffic rules and regulations.

The inspection points are located on various areas along different


roads.
The audit team evaluated the inspection points in comparison with the
major risk factors they have to address.

In doing so, the audit team mapped out the black spots and inspection
points and the analysis are shown on table 3.5.

Table 3.5: Areas with a high rate of road crashes without


inspection points
Region Areas with a Black spots % Blackspots
high risk of without without
road crashes inspection inspection
(Blackspots) points points
Kigoma 17 14 82
Mtwara 14 10 71
Tabora 7 4 57
Morogoro 15 8 53
Mbeya 21 8 38
Dodoma 9 3 33
Arusha 16 5 31
Sources: Auditors analysis on Traffic allocation timetables and road
accidents reports Police (2011)

18 Black spot is an areawhich has got above average road crashes. For this
audit the maximum number of crashes in a black spot is 90 road crashes and the
minimum is 7 crashes.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Table 3.5 shows that in all regions audited, there is a large number
of areas with a high rate of road crashes without inspection points.
More than half of black spots are without inspection points. Kigoma
and Mtwara regions seem to have a much worse situation compared
to other regions.

The Tanzania Police Force was expected to use different ways of


addressing or conducting inspections at black spots without inspection
points. However, when the traffic police officials were asked about it,
they pointed out that road traffic patrols are few and when carried out,
they cover all areas. They do not concentrate only on areas without
inspection points.

The Police Force was of the opinion that it has few inspection points
simply because the Force has limited human resources.

The audit tried to establish whether the few inspection points that
are catered for are the highest priority black spots. According to the
interviews with Traffic Police Officers, the audit team learnt that the
police inspections are not focusing on the highest priority black spots;
the inspection points were picked because they are within easy reach.
Another reason was the suitability of the location in that it is possible
for many vehicles to be inspected.
3.3 Are sanctions applied properly?

The Road Traffic Act has set up and stated a system of sanctions for
enforcement of the traffic laws.

This section concerns the use of sanctions in cases where individuals


violate traffic laws and regulations.

The sanction system covers various steps which include notification


and fines, prosecution and revoking the drivers license.

According to the Police Force, violations of traffic laws and regulations


are common and well known among the individuals. The degree in
which the sanctions are applied is, however, limited as shown in Table
3.6 below:

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Table 3.6: Applied sanctions to defaulting drivers according to


the Police Force for the year 2009
Type of action Frequent Several Very Never
times seldom
Verbal warnings19 20
Notification and fines
Revoke the Suspension
driving license of of driving
a driver license
Cancellation
of driving
license
Prosecution (sent to court)
Source: Traffic Police Annual Report - 2009

The table 3.6 above shows that the Police Force has frequently applied
verbal warnings and fines against many defaulters who failed to meet
their obligations.

At the same time, the Force has not applied other sanctions like
revoking the driving license of the drivers, and prohibiting some drivers
from driving for a certain period of time.
As stated in Table 3.6, the Police frequently applied verbal warnings.
Though verbal warning is not provided for in the Act and regulations,
police force uses it frequently.

The reviews of different traffic police records showed that the Police
do not record verbal warnings issued to drivers.

Failure of the Police to file verbal warnings given to the drivers can
result into the difficulty of tracing the drivers who have been warned
before so that other punitive measures can be taken against them
when they commit the offence next time.

Although the Traffic Police institute different punitive measures to


defaulting drivers, still the same drivers repeat the same offences. The
repetitions of offences are coupled by the repetitions of fines for similar
traffic offences.

19 This has been applied several times though is not provided for in the Road Traffic
Act.
20 This estimation is according to the Police Force

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

A total of 445 drivers were interviewed from nine different regions


(a total of 27 districts) in order to establish their perceptions about
activities by the traffic police in combating road crashes.

Interviews were conducted with different drivers (see Appendix seven


the summary of the interviews results).

Table 3.7 shows the extent of repetitions of fines for similar traffic
offences which took place within a year (i.e. 2010). The result is
according to the interviews with 445 drivers from nine different regions
of Tanzania Mainland.

Table 3.7: Repetitions of fines for similar traffic offences which


took place in 2010
Number of repetitions Percentage repetition (%)
Once 14
2 3 times 19
More than 3 times 67
Total 100
Source: Interviews with the 445 drivers from nine different regions

Table 3.7 shows that a large number of drivers (67%) interviewed


continued with their offences more than three times in one year. During
that period of time, they were fined for similar traffic offences.

The same interviews revealed that other punitive measures to similar


repetitive traffic offences were not taken by the police.

19% of the interviewed drivers indicated that they repeated similar


offences at least twice and in both instances they were fined.

According to the traffic police, the reason behind the repetitions of


fines for the similar traffic offences is lack of records for tracing down
the drivers who committed the same traffic offences before.

Lack of records to trace down the repeated traffic offenders is in


existence despite the fact that the regulations requires the police
force to institute more stringent punitive measures to repeated traffic
offences.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

However, for the repeated traffic offenders who were fined more than
once, they paid Tshs. 20,000/= for every offence no matter how many
times it was repeated.

The interviews further revealed that, deterrent effect of TShs. 20,000/=


for most of the traffic offenders is very small. Most of the drivers can
afford to pay that amount of fine.
3.4 Do planning documents address the risk of road traffic
accidents?
3.4.1 Identification of main risk in planning and policy
document

Enforcement priorities need to be clearly identified in a policy document


such as a strategic plan. In recent years, strategic plans have been
used to specify Tanzania police forces objectives and the actions
intended to help achieve the stated objectives.

The main objective is to reduce road crashes by at least 25% by the


year 2015. The plan started in 2008.21

Target deadlines are also provided in the strategic plan to allow


monitoring of the work undertaken.

The reviewed strategic plan and annual plans (2009 2011) of the
Police Force shows that order of traffic offences for consideration is
as follows:

1) safety: offences that could lead to road crashes, i.e., speeding,


signal violations, drunk-driving and violation of zebra crossing
by drivers;

2) traffic management: offences which though not inherently


dangerous do not facilitate smooth movement of traffic, i.e.,
illegal parking or buses loading and unloading passengers
within a junction and at other place along the road;

3) equipment: offences such as lighting or tire defects that could


contribute to an accident but have a much lower correlation
with accidents than do the safety offenses;
21 From 2905 deaths in 2008 National Road Safety Policy of 2009

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4) administrative: paperwork offences such as improper vehicle


registration or transfer of ownership.

The reviewed plans (operational plans) at both the Police Headquarters


and nine visited regions, show that despite the fact that the Strategic
Plan has identified the issue of safety as number one priority, this is not
the case with operational plans. In operational and inspection plans
key risk factors are neither addressed nor given high priority.

The identified key risk factors which are the major contributory factors
to most of the road crashes according to the TPF are:

Speeding22
Drunk and Drive;
Traffic signs violations; and
Pedestrian zebra crossing violations by drivers.

During the interviews with traffic police officers from nine visited regions
and traffic police headquarters, they commented that the prioritization
of the above identified risk factors was supposed to be reflected within
the:
present set target for addressing them,
allocation of staff and time to address those areas,
inspection tools is in place,
inspections on those areas is carried out,
a statement acknowledging the importance of those
areas.

The same interviews with the Traffic Police Officers shows that the
traffic inspection plans need to be locally based. Each region and
district needs to come up with or assess their own key risk factors and
use them as the basis for their inspections. The reviewed operational
and inspections plans were not developed following that path.

Table 3.8 shows the extent to which the Police Force has engaged
itself in trying to address the identified risk factors in their planning
documents.

22 include Careless driving and Dangerous driving

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Table 3.8: Efforts of Police Force in addressing key risk factors


Risk factors Criteria on assessing the prioritization of key
risk factors
Target Staff and Inspection Targeted
set Time are tools such inspections
specifically as speed
allocated laser and
breath
analyzer
Speeding None No Very few None
Drunk and None No Very few None
Drive
Traffic signs None No - None
violations
Pedestrian None No - None
crossing
violations by
drivers23
Source: Traffic police inspection plans (2009 and 2010)

The specific interventions addressing the key risk factors (see table
3.8 above) were not taken by the Police Force. The Police Force took
the general intervention of these key risk factors on the same weight
similarly to other factors such as Mechanical defects and overloading.
See Appendix eight on assessment of traffic inspections.

According to the interviews with senior traffic officers, they have


identified the same key risk factors such as speed, drunk driving and
reckless driving but these risk factors did not appear in their plan with
the same emphasis as expected.

The reasons for not prioritizing key risk factors in traffic inspection
plans as per the interview with senior traffic police officers were that
there is no guiding document in place which guides the officers on how
they can prioritize.

23 Pedestrians using zebra crossing violated by drivers

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3.4.2 Quality of inspections plans

According to the interviews with the traffic police officials, to ensure


that traffic police inspections are carried out properly and come up with
the desired level of impact, it is important to ensure that there is a good
inspection plan which states clearly the set objective, targets, methods
of execution, reporting plan and ways of monitoring and evaluation of
planned activities.

The reviewed inspection plans of the nine (9) regional police offices
visited had varied qualities. None of the region had a plan containing
all the elements of a good operational or inspection plan (see table
3.9).

The following table 3.9 shows the quality of plans reviewed based on
the basic criteria used from best practices.

Table 3.9: Quality of Inspection plans reviewed


Region Contents of a plan
Objective Activities Target Performance Methods Timing M&E
indicators of Plans
execution
Coast Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Dodoma Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Tabora Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Morogoro Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Mbeya Yes Yes Yes24 No Yes Yes No
Arusha Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Mtwara Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Kigoma Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No
Kagera Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No

Source: Traffic Police Inspection Plans (2009 and 2010)

Table 3.9 above shows that the inspection plans reviewed from different
regional police offices and their districts do not have all the necessary
elements of a good inspection plan.
24 To reduce road crashes and injuries by 5%

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Most of the regional inspection plans reviewed failed to include targets


to be achieved, indicators for measuring the performance of the
inspection activities and monitoring and evaluations plans.

According to the interviews with senior traffic officers, the reason for
failure of inspection plans to meet the basic quality of planning was
that there is no standard document which guides the Traffic Police
Officers on the structure and contents of good inspection plans.

The traffic police officers identified the following reasons for the
deficiencies in planning the enforcement operations of the traffic
policing as:

Inadequate basic training and in-service training offered


to police officers
Insufficient short courses to equip the planning and
operational staff for their planning work
The traffic police are not regularly updated on the
legislation.

3.4.3 Addressing the main risks in traffic inspections

High-risk factors and road crash sites should be targeted in order to


have a high deterrent effect of traffic inspections conducted by the
Traffic Police in Tanzania.

According to sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 above the TPF do not identify
key risk factors in their operational and inspection plans and similarly,
the plans developed at Central and Regional levels lack a number of
elements.

Insufficient effort by the TPF in addressing main risk factors is attributed


to lack of selective enforcement. Whereby safety violations are
identified through accident data analysis and professional judgment,
which provide the basis for staff deployment and other resources such
as enforcement equipment e.g. speed radar guns, breath analyzer
etc,.

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3.5 Are there guidelines for conducting risk based traffic


control?
Traffic Police inspections are supposed to be guided by well defined
traffic police guidelines which adequately addresses how to conduct
risk based traffic control.
The TPF has not developed guidelines which directs traffic police
officers on how they can conduct risk based inspections.
In the absence of written guidelines, the Force has been issuing
periodical directives to regional police offices.

3.5.1 Frequent, contradicting and frequently changing directives


Most of these directives came from the Commissioner of Operations
and from the Traffic Commanding Officer, and were issued immediately
following the occurrence of major road crashes.

In year 2008 to 2010, 15 directives from the Inspector General of Police


through the Commissioner of Operations and the Traffic Commanding
Officer were analyzed.

These directives were frequently issued, contradicting and frequently


changing. Some of the directives were very contradictory and hard to
implement since they were too general and not focused.

Table 3.10 shows some of the directives which were contradictory and
hard to implement.

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Table 3.10: Directives issued to Regional Police Offices and their


objectives
Directive Focus of the Date Issuing
number Directive issued Authority
Directive one Violation of Road 04/04/2008 Traffic Police
Traffic Laws Commander
Directive two Numerous25 23/04/2009 Inspector General of
Police
Directive three Road Safety Strategy 24/08/2009 Inspector General of
to reduce crashes Police

Source: Traffic General and Operation files (2008 to 2010)

The above mentioned three directives issued by the top management


of the police force were found to be too general and lacking the focus
on how they can be implemented by the traffic police in different
regions. This is according to the interviews with traffic officials from
nine regions visited by the audit team.

The above three directives are focusing on the issue of violation of


road traffic laws, numerous and road safety strategy. These directives
cover a very large number of traffic offences within each of them.

When officials asked to comment on the level of implementation of


these directives, they pointed out that it was not easy for them to fully
comply with, since they are too general.

Directives issued in a very short span of time

One example of the contradicting and hard to implement directives


which were issued within a very short span of time are as shown on
table 3.11.

25 Prepare special operation, Motor vehicles inspection, motor cycles, inspect


and give stickers to all inspected motor vehicles, operation on defective motor vehicles,
inspection on driving license and insurance, operation should focus on drivers behavior
offences e.g. Drunk and Drive, speeding, fake license, and violation of SUMATRAs
timetable

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Table 3.11: Directives issued within a very short span of time


addressing the same or a different issue
Directive Focus of the Date Difference in
number Directive issued time between
directives
Directive one Numerous 23/04/2009
Directive two Special operation on 24/04/2009 One day
Mechanical Defects
Directive three Special operation on 07/08/2009
Speeding One day
Directive four Special operation on 08/08/2009
Speeding
Source: Traffic General and Operation files (2008 to 2010)

The four issued directives (see table 3.11 above) were issued between
2008 and 2009 addressing a range of issues such as speeding,
mechanical defects and roadblocks.

The first two directives were issued between 23/04/2009 and


24/04/2009 which is just a span of one day. This means that the first
directive was supposed to be implemented within one day and send
the feedback to the concerned officials.

The same scenario is reflected on directive three and four which have
a one day span.

While table 3.11 shows that some similar directives were issued a
day apart, it is also important to note that they came from different
offices or officers, which shows poor coordination within the Police
Force.

3.5.2 Factors addressed by the directives

The main contributor to road crashes in Tanzania is the Human factor


which accounts for more than 75% of road crashes in the country.

The directives issued by the top management of the Force were


expected to address the main contributor to road crashes.

The table below shows the analysis of the 15 directives issued between
2008 and 2010 to regional police offices on various areas.

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Table 3.12: Focus of Directives issued to Regional Police Offices


Number of Focus of the Directive Factor
Directives covered
Two Violation of Road Traffic Laws and Mixed26
Road Safety Strategy to reduce crashes
Four Operation order on Defective Motor Mechanical factor
vehicles
Two Re-scheduling of unwarranted Road Mixed
Blocks and Assigning Area Traffic
Officers to all black spot
One Numerous Mixed
Three Special operation on Speeding Human factor
One Give education to citizens who close Human factor
roads after the re-occurrence of road
crashes
Two Operation on Motor cyclist who do not Human factor
put on Helmet
Source: Traffic General and Operation files (2008 to 2010)

Only six out of 15 issued directives addresses the Human factors. This
does not correspond with the extent to which human factors contribute
towards road crashes in the country.

3.5.3 The Regional and District police dont comply with issued
directives
Regional Police Commanders are supposed to issue feedback on the
directives given by the Police Headquarters.

The underlining objectives for the provision of feedback from the


Regional Police Offices to the Police Headquarters are:

To help the Police Headquarters assess the level of


performance of the Regional Police Offices in the
implementation of the issued directives; and
Take suggestions from Regional Police offices and find
ways of improving the situation based on the experience
gathered during the implementation of the given directive.

Most of the visited regional police offices did not provide well recorded
feedbacks to the Police Headquarters on the implementation of the
issued directives.

26 Mixed factors cover factors such as Human, Mechanical and Road Conditions.

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The interviews with senior traffic police officers indicated that, the
Police Force does not carry out thorough analysis of the impact of
those directives issued to the Regional Police Offices. The Force did
not compare the statistics or records of the crashes before the issuance
of the directives and the number of crashes after the implementation of
the directives to see if there are improvements or not.

Similarly, the interviews and reviewed documents indicated that while


the regional police officers are blamed for not providing feedback to the
Police Headquarters, the problem is likely with the Police Headquarters
for not doing its duty of monitoring and evaluating the implementation
of issued directives and therefore, does not make any follow up on the
feedback from regions.
3.6 Are resources allocated in relation to risk?

This section focuses on how the Tanzania Police Force allocates


resources in different regions and districts for traffic policing. The
resources under discussion involve staff (traffic police officers) and
inspection devises such as speed radar guns and alcohol testers
(breathe analyzers).

3.6.1 Money for traffic policing is not fully allocated according


to the high risk of road crashes

Different regional police offices receive annual budget from TPF


Headquarters after the budget for the Police Force have been
appropriated.

The Inspector General of Police distributes the funds appropriated to


his subvote to different regional police offices and among the distributed
funds is for the traffic policing and other related activities.

The annual budgets for the Police Force for the years 2007/08 to
2009/10 indicated that there is no money set aside specifically for
Traffic Policing in different regions.

The budget for Traffic Policing is embedded together with other


sections within the Force. This budget is under the management of
the Regional Police Commander who decides how the money should
be used according to the regional priorities.

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According to the interviews with the Traffic Officers from nine visited
regions there is a weak direct relationship between the risk for road
crashes and the amount of money distributed to different regions.

Similarly, according to the same interviews, the allocation of money


for the traffic policing within the region does not really address the
following key factors:

Level of risk for road crashes


Length of road network to be patrolled or inspected by
the traffic police
Required number of enforcement equipment such as
speed radar and alcohol tester
Present number of policemen (traffic police officers) in
that particular region.

Failure to have a well defined system for allocating money for traffic
policing may result into regions with relatively low risk of road crashes
to receive a large amount of fund for traffic policing than regions with
high risk of road crashes.

3.6.2 Resources for traffic law enforcement

The table below shows the available major resources for the traffic
inspections in nine selected regions of Tanzania. The resources in
discussion are speed radar, alcohol tester and traffic police officers.

The length of road network and number of crashes per annum have
been included in table 3.13 since these are factors that are considered
during the allocation of resources for traffic inspections.

The allocation of traffic police officers was also compared in relation to


length of road network per fatal crashes that occurred in the particular
region.

Table 3.13 shows the allocation of police officers in different regions.

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Table 3.13: Length of Road network per fatal crash in relation to


number of Traffic police officers (2010)
Region Number of fatal crashes Number of Traffic
/Length of road (fatal Police
crash /km)
Coast 0.14 178
Arusha 0.13 208
Mbeya 0.13 104
Morogoro 0.11 168
Mtwara 0.08 73
Dodoma 0.07 144
Kagera 0.07 110
Kigoma 0.06 67
Tabora 0.05 75
Source: Regional Traffic Police Offices (2011)

The table above shows that allocation of police officers in different


regions is not based on the risk for road crash.

Regions such as Mbeya and Mtwara which have high risk (number of
fatal crash/km) have been allocated smaller number of traffic police
compared to regions such as Dodoma and Kagera which have a
relatively small risk for road crash.

3.6.3 Allocation of Policemen in areas with high frequency of


road crashes

The table below shows the comparison of risk for road crashes to
number of policemen per crash.

Similarly, the audit team compared the number of crashes per length
of road network to number of traffic police officer for nine regions in
Tanzania with the intention of establishing how adequately the Tanzania
Police Force allocates police officers.

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The comparison is as shown on Table 3.14 below.

Table 3.14: Comparison of Number of crashes per Length of


Road network to number of policemen (2010)
Region Number of crashes Number of Traffic police
per Length of Road officers
network (crash /km)
Arusha 1.97 208
Morogoro 0.92 168
Coast 0.81 178
Mtwara 0.59 73
Tabora 0.39 75
Mbeya 0.36 104
Kigoma 0.36 67
Dodoma 0.15 144
Kagera 0.10 110
Source: Regional Traffic Police Offices (2011)

The table above shows that allocation of police officers in different


regions is not based on the risk for road crash.

Regions such as Mtwara and Tabora which have high risk (number
of crash/km) have been allocated smaller number of traffic police
compared to regions such as Dodoma and Kagera which have a
relatively small risk for road crash.

3.6.4 Allocation of money for purchasing enforcement


equipment

Breath analyzers and radar speed guns are important inspection


equipment for the traffic police when dealing with the problem of
human factors as a major contributor to road crashes

The TPF need to set money aside for the purchase of these enforcement
equipment.

The table 3.15 shows the amount of fines collected in nine regional
police offices which could be used for the purchase of the enforcement
equipment.

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Table 3.15: Amount of fines collected per region and the present
number of enforcement equipment (2009)
Region Amount of fines No. of No. of alcohol
collected Speed tasters (breath
(Million TShs.) radars analyzers)
Mbeya 483 3 1
Arusha 381 1 0
Coast 359 2 1
Morogoro 353 1 1
Kagera 313 0 1
Dodoma 257 1 0
Mtwara 139 0 0
Kigoma 133 1 1
Tabora 106 1 1
Source: Regional Traffic Police Offices (2011)

The table above shows that despite the fact that all nine regions had
collected more than one hundred million shillings each; still the number
of enforcement equipment is very small. Only one District out of six
Districts (an average number of districts for each region) has either
one breath analyzer or speed radar and is lacking GPS Locator.

The average market price for the speed radar is Shs. 3,900,000/=,
alcohol breath analyzer is Shs.3, 963,000/= and that of GPS Locator
is Shs. 450,000/=.

When comparing the cost of the enforcement equipment and the


amount of fines collected per annum, one may observe that, if the fines
are centrally kept then they would be ploughed back to the regions.
Each regional police office would be able to have sufficient number of
equipment and, through that, improve the quality of traffic inspections.

Purchase of the above mentioned equipment is not possible even by


using the money allocated for each Regional Police Commander since
the money allocated is meant for enforcement activities only and not
for the purchase of equipment. Purchase of equipment is controlled by
the Police Headquarters.

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3.6.5 Allocation of resources from Regional Level to the


districts

The audit team carried out analysis of the average number of road
crashes or traffic police officer, average number of road crashes per
speed radar and per breath analyzers for each district visited during
the audit. The analysis was done based on three main resources
allocated to the district police offices. These resources are staff and
enforcement equipment (speed radar and breathe analyzers).

The analysis showed that there is significant difference among the


District Traffic Police Offices on the allocated number of traffic police
officers and the enforcement equipment (speed radar and breathe
analyzers).

The difference in road crashes per traffic officer, varied from 1 to 15


road crashes per traffic police in year 2010. This means that in some
districts one police officer has to deal with only one road crash per
annum (e.g. Bukoba) while in other districts such as Arusha, in average
one traffic police has to handle fifteen crashes per annum.

The analysis showed that most districts did not have a radar gun or
breath analyzer.

3.7 Are staff properly trained and equipped?

Training programs need to be capable of producing not only technically


qualified but also professional officers with integrity who can present a
good public image.

Professionalism and integrity are the core values of the road safety
management in Tanzania; this is according to the National Road Safety
Policy of 2009. For the traffic policing to be done in a professional
manner, it is important to ensure that Traffic police are well trained and
equipped to discharge their role.

3.7.1 Training of traffic police officers

According to the training and annual plans for the traffic police, the
following training courses should be provided to the Traffic Police
Officers who are responsible for traffic inspections, these are:

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traffic management and control (junior and senior level


courses),
traffic law,
accident investigation,
highway patrolling,
speed control, and
use of breathalyzers.

Driver and rider training, including basic maintenance, and this should
be provided for all patrol officers. Similarly, traffic police training should
provide courses in public relations and management skills.

According to the interviews with Traffic Police Officers, the training


offered to most of the traffic police in the country is not adequate
enough to help them to discharge their duties in professional manner.

The officers selected to join the traffic police department receive only
basic training on traffic laws, highway patrolling and traffic management
and control. The basic training course according to them is not enough
to equip the traffic police with enough skills for adequate traffic policing.

They lack detailed training on how they can use different inspection
equipment such as speed radar, breathalyzers, GPS Locator for
locating scene of road crashes etc., public relations, management
skills and accident investigation.

Lack of training is at all levels and senior police officers are frequently
transferred into traffic policing without receiving any previous traffic
training.

Although the top management of Police Force acknowledges the


importance of courses mentioned above, lack of adequate funding
for training traffic police officers and the sudden increase in number
of traffic police in various places due to their demand have made it
difficult for the TPF to train them adequately.

3.7.2 Enforcement equipment

Traffic police need to have modern equipment if they are to be able


to do their job properly. This include enforcement equipment, such as
alcohol testers and radar speed guns.

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Similarly, in locating scenes of road crashes, it is important to ensure


that GPS locator is used. Hence there is a need for one to know how
to use GPS locator.

According to the interviewed senior traffic police officers, the main


human factors which contribute to road crashes are:
Speeding; and
Alcohol drinking.

During the interviews, the police officers acknowledged that speeding


and alcohol drinking are the major contributors to road crashes. But
they could not quantify or show the extent of the problem.

Failure to show the extent of the problem is attributed to the following


three factors:

Lack of enough enforcement equipment for testing


alcohol and drivers who are speeding;

Inadequate skills on how to use the enforcement tools


once present in different regional police offices;

Lack of strategies for the enforcement of speeding and


alcohol drinking.

The enforcement of speed limits and alcohol undertaking is a


necessary road safety function, especially near locations where an
accident problem has been identified with speed and alcohol drinking
as significant causes.

Therefore, for the police to have effective traffic inspections against


the two factors mentioned above they need to use alcohol testers and
radar speed guns during their inspections.

Table 3.16 shows the number of alcohol testers (breath analyzers),


radar speed guns and GPS Locator equipment present in nine visited
regions in Tanzania.

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Table 3.16: Available enforcement equipment for traffic


inspection in relation to length of road network (2010)
Region Length No. of No. of alcohol GPS Locator
of Road Speed tasters (breath
network radars analyzers)
(km)
Mbeya 2,261.5 3 1 0
Kagera 2130.0 0 1 0
Tabora 1,965.3 1 1 0
Morogoro 1,894.8 1 1 0
Dodoma 1,695.3 1 0 0
Coast 1,388.0 2 127 0
Arusha 1,257.9 1 0 0
Kigoma 1,124.7 1 1 0
Mtwara 1,055.7 0 0 0
Source: Regional Traffic Police Offices (2011)

The above table shows that all nine visited regions in Tanzania are
lacking necessary enforcement equipment for addressing the problems
of alcohol and speeding.

On the other hand, all regions lack GPS Locator which is necessary for
locating the precise location of scene of crash.

It should also be noted that, although some of the regions have


speed radar and breath analyzers, some are either not working at
all (defective) and/or are not calibrated12 properly and hence tend to
result into huge errors.

The other challenge admitted by the Police Force during the interviews
is that some of the officials are not conversant enough in using the
available equipment. This resulted into disputes with some of the
drivers who questioned the authenticity and reliability of the reading
from such equipment.

Failures to make extensive use of enforcement equipment in traffic


policing makes the traffic inspections ineffective and in that sense
critical offences such as speeding, drunk and driving which contributes
to a large extent to road crashes are not addressed properly.

27. It is defective

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Failure to make use of GPS Locator in recording the exact


locations of crashes makes road accident reports inaccurate and
incomprehensive.

3.8 Are inspections monitored and evaluated?

A system for inspections, monitoring and evaluation of the Traffic


inspections is set up for the TPF. This system is regulated and guided
in the Road Traffic Act, Policing Guidelines issued by TPF and also in
the National Road Safety Policy. TPF has the overall responsibility for
safeguarding road safety through traffic policing.

This responsibility covers functions such as planning of traffic


inspections, conducting traffic inspections, allocating resources to
different roads, collecting data on road crashes, monitoring and
evaluation of the traffic inspections and quality assurance of the Traffic
Inspections.

The following sub-sections deals with TPFs management of the


Traffic inspections and the result of monitoring and evaluation of the
traffic inspections. The first part deals with monitoring and evaluation,
the second part deals with inspections and the third part with quality
assurance.

3.8.1 Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring covers 4 parameters: to what extent drivers are inspected,


the availability of inspection equipment and performance, the TPFs
staff and their performance and the revenue collection. Only revenue
collected as a result of fines is subject to continuous and documented
monitoring. According to TPF, the reason for this less developed
monitoring system is for instance lack of capacity (IT-systems, staffs
competence etc.)

The frequency of the monitoring activities is shown in Table 3.17.

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Table 3.17: Frequency of conducted monitoring of TPFs staff


Parameters to be Several Every Every Very Never
monitored times month year seldom
per month
Drivers inspection
Availability
of Inspection
equipment and
performance
Traffic police and
their performance
Revenue collected
in relation to the
traffic offences
(fines)

Source: TPF based on studies of documents and assessments


by Audit team in collaboration with TPF officials (2011).

As seen above, most of the parameters are seldom or never monitored.


The Revenue collected in relation to the traffic offences (fines) is
monitored, and regular reports are sent to the Regional Police offices
from different police stations.

Apart from this, there are no systematic forms of monitoring. The


TPF Headquarter and Regional Police Offices were expected by the
Government to evaluate TPFs staff performance in order to examine
whether the Traffic inspections requirements are met. Such evaluations
have not been conducted by Traffic Police. Instead TPF has chosen a
more limited approach by getting feedback from the daily inspections.
This approach does not allow for much transparency, since nothing of
what has been observed, discussed and done is documented.

3.8.2 The inspection system

TPF uses traffic police officers to conduct inspections of the vehicles.


The inspection should follow certain procedures. The traffic police
officers are expected to conduct inspections on stationary or movable
check sites and carry out traffic patrols along the road. They are also
expected to provide Management of TPF with daily reports on whether
Traffic inspections have been conducted and if actions have been
taken that will solve the problems observed.

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This is ideal, but according to interviews with Traffic Police officials these
procedures are far from being followed. TPF has no documentation of
these inspections.

The reason for this according to Traffic Police officials is that such a
formal system is likely to require a lot of human resources and time.
No attempts have been made to test a more simplified documentation
system.

3.8.3 Quality assurance

TPF is responsible for the quality assurance of Traffic inspections


conducted in different roads in Tanzania.

This assurance system concerns the drivers, pedestrians and other


road users as well as TPFs own staff.

The quality assurance system includes two main issues. One issue
deals with planning, conducting and documenting traffic inspections
results. The other issue deals with whether TPFs own staff are abiding
to the established ways of planning, conducting and documenting
traffic inspections.

According to the interviews with Traffic Police officials, TPF has not
issued or required its staff to prepare and observe the above elements
of quantity and quality assurance. Also, during the site visit, the audit
team observed a number of weaknesses in the way Traffic inspections
were handled. Some of the factors which are contrary to the best
quality assurance are:

There is no adequate planning for the traffic inspections.


Inspections are conducted in sporadic manner without
having clearly defined objective. When there is a set
objective, traffic inspectors tend to deviate from it due
to either difficulty of implementing it as a result of lack of
inspection equipment or because of the personal gains

The management of traffic inspections is not really well


done as most of the time the inspectors tend to focus on
issues which are simple to verify which contributes very
little to road crashes

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Documentation of traffic inspection results is not done


properly. It is hard to find enough and adequate information
regarding the number of inspections conducted, objective
of the inspections, number of defaulters etc.

The reasons given by TPF are that, it has no set strategies for ensuring
that quality assurance are in place. According to Traffic Police Officers,
the Force is not well equipped with modern vehicles and its staff are
not well aware of the planning issues. Supervision is slack. The result
of this is that TPF has failed to ensure that its staff follow the best
principles of Traffic inspections.

3.8.4 Evaluation of enforcement activities

The Traffic Police collects high level data on the performance of its
enforcement activities. It does not currently have sufficient performance
data in a useable format to assess the effectiveness of specific individual
enforcement activities, such as the roadside checks/inspections.

The Force, therefore, cannot compare how activity performed and


costs change over time or assess the effectiveness of its different
enforcement activities.

The only performance information compiled by the Police Force as a


result of individual traffic inspections is the amount of fines collected
as a result of the work of each individual traffic police officer. This
is done basing mainly on the number of notifications issued and the
amount of fines paid by the defaulting drivers.

Similarly, not all officers are deployed in enforcement activities; others


are deployed in activities such as education to the public, record
keeping and other related activities.

This measure of evaluating the effectiveness of the traffic inspections/


enforcement activities does not provide any clue on how best the
enforcement activities can be improved over the time.

The other measure for evaluating the enforcement activities carried


out by the traffic police is to assess the nature of the offences they
focus on.

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As Traffic Police does not assess the effectiveness of the enforcement


activities and clearly evaluate the performance of individual traffic
officers, it risks measuring only a small part of effectiveness of its
activities and not the wider value for money implications.

3.9 Quality of the information

3.9.1 Reliability of Road Crashes Data Collected

Data reliability includes the following components: consistent results


when measured or tested; Information which is clear, unbiased
and accurate; all claims or factual statements are supported by the
information; only certain factors are focused on and the one which is
authoritative, timely and authentic.

The officials of Tanzania Police Force acknowledged that there is a


delay on receiving data on road crashes from different areas (regions
and districts) which are supposed to be submitted on a monthly basis.

The interviews and reviewed reports indicated weaknesses in the


collection of data on road crashes. Often data collection is delayed.
Feedback to collecting facilities, particularly from the district level
is practically nonexistent. The registration of vital events (causes
of road crashes, deaths, exact location etc.) does not have a good
coverage, while this information is required for the purpose of planning
enforcement of traffic laws at both the district, regional and the national
levels.

3.9.2 Traffic Road Injuries (TRI) Data Management

The reporting of road traffic crashes often lack location information.


When the audit team went through the accident reports, and tried to
assess the exact locations where road crashes occurred, they found
that precise locations29 had not been located apart from the name of
the place.

The police acknowledged that they do not have Global Positioning


System (GPS) equipment/tools which could help them measure and
record the exact locations where road crashes had happened.

29 The exact spot which have been located by coordinates

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Therefore, this rendered the Traffic Police data not useful to other
stakeholders on road safety management in the country. For instance,
TANROADS who are responsible for hazardous road location treatment
do not rely much on traffic police records.

Similarly, a number of fatalities is under-reported, hence does not


raise alarm about the seriousness of the problem. Officially released
Police fatalities data (for 2010 it is 3,582 fatalities) include only about a
third of actual fatalities complying with the UN definition of Road Traffic
Injury (RTI) as a cause of death; that is death occurring within 30 days
of the crash.

By virtue of these circumstances, it is apparent that the Tanzania Police


Force did not have timely and accurate data for making appropriate
decisions on road safety management in the country.

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Chapter Four

Speed Limits
This chapter mainly deals with the second audit question, i.e. Are
Speed Limits Risk based and Managed efficiently?

The road network consists of a variety of different types of roads; from


trunk roads for long distance inter regions travel, to arterials in urban
areas and down to the small local roads in residential areas and city
centres. A speed management policy must be based on an evaluation
of what are the appropriate speeds on these different parts of the road
network.

The appropriate speed for a section of a road is set taking into


account safety, mobility and environmental considerations and the
impact of the speed on the quality of life for the people alongside the
road. Appropriate speed differs from one type of road to another in
recognition to the different weight given to the various elements on the
different parts of the road network.

Speed limits act as a key source of information for road users. Set
correctly, they help reinforce drivers assessments of a safe speed and
act as a pointer to the nature of the road and related level of risk to
both drivers and other road users.

Speed limits are therefore an important part of the toolkit for achieving
appropriate vehicle speeds and wider road safety benefits.

4.1 Are the setting of speed limits based on risks?

The setting of speed limit is the responsibility of the Engineer-in-Chief


(Ministry of Works) who has the task of determining the speed limits
of roads or sections of roads.
Factors that are considered when setting speed limits are:

The road and its road environment (road function,


number of lanes, alignment, etc.).

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Existing development (presence of schools, residential


areas, etc.).
The nature and level of road user activity (pedestrian,
cyclist, heavy vehicles, etc.).
Accident record.

Other factors which are considered when setting speed limits and their
revision include: type of carriageway (single or dual carriageway),
super-elevation, straightness of the road, functional classification,
volume of traffic, vehicle weight etc.
In Tanzania there are three general speed limits stipulated by law:
according to Section 51 & 52 of the Road Traffic Act of 1973, the speed
limit for the vehicles with more than 3.5 tonnes is 80km/h. For Lorries
and buses the general speed limit on all road types, except on urban
roads, is 80 km/h.

In urban and built-up areas, the speed limit is usually 60km/h and
50km/h respectively.
In general, speed limits are coupled to function and road type.
According to the interviews with the officials of the Ministry of Works,
the Ministry has not set other speed limits.
Despite the fact that there are factors which are used to determine
speed limits of most of the roads constructed in Tanzania, the Ministry
is not using the analysis of traffic accidents to determine the operating
speed of roads.
The Ministry was expected to look at the speed which is safe and most
likeable by the majority30. Most of the countries are using 85th Percentile
speed whereby 85% are using it and forgo about the remaining 15%.
The Ministry has not tested what is the speed distribution of most of
roads in Tanzania.
Speed Limit Management in Urban Areas when Traffic is light

Vehicle/pedestrian crashes due to speed are most likely to occur at


night when traffic is light and human enforcement is not practical. This
is very common in urban areas whereby most of the pedestrians tend
to use roads. In urban areas there is a high number of pedestrians
killed and use of motorcycles (high risk mode) is increasing rapidly.

30 Based on the follow up speed used on new roads

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The setting of speed limit during the design stage addressed only
Geometrical factors (design speed) and there is no set speed limit
(operating speed). The only effort taken by the government is to
construct speed humps and bumps in urban roads without carrying out
thorough analysis of road crashes (analysis of traffic accidents) which
have occurred on a particular road section.

This trend of constructing speed humps and bumps has been increasing
in most of the urban and highway roads following the increase of fatal
road crashes.

The above mentioned measure of constructing speed humps and


bumps, most of the time is not properly planned. In some instances,
the speed humps and bumps were installed following protests by
stakeholders and road users mostly prompted by the occurance of a
road accident on this area of concern.

The interviews with different experts on Road Safety arena showed that
enforcement of speeding is better than the erection of speed humps.
On the issue of motorbike riders, there is no set speed limit for them.
The Engineer-in-Chief has not addressed this matter in urban areas
even though of late this is becoming a serious social problem.

Private car speed limit management: inter-city roads

There are few sections of roads that are subject to speed limits
(settlements, tight curves, other hazardous sections). This is according
to the Road Design Manual of the Ministry of works.

In all other places there is no speed limit that applies to private cars
although the roads are designed for a speed of up to 110km/hour.

The consequences of crashes involving private cars are not limited to


the motorists alone but also to pedestrians and people living along the
roads.

The only reason sighted by the officials is that it is their expectation


that drivers of private cars will be careful enough to drive their vehicles
within the safest speed limits.

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Speed management of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV)

Because of their momentum at high speeds, the speed management


of HGV is very critical. The speed of goods vehicles exceeding 3.5
tonnes are subject to speed limit of 80km/hour.

When the officials of the Ministry were asked about their strategy on
managing the HGV speed, they responded that there is no strategy in
place. Currently, they heavily rely on the Traffic Police enforcement.

Speed management of Passenger Service Vehicles (PSV)

According to the Road Traffic Act of 1973, Inter-city PSV speed limit is
set at 80km/hour this is according to the Road Traffic Act.

Road traffic crashes involving PSV results in many fatalities especially


if speed of the involved vehicle was excessive.

Use of speed governors, time-table enforcement and limiting hours of


operations during night time were some of the measures implemented
by the government to address the problem of crashes involving PSVs.

The government through the Tanzania Police Force has not effectively
enforced the above mentioned measures to ensure that PSV drivers
comply with the government directives.

Speed limits for different road types

An effective speed limit regime requires nationwide consistency. Some


administrations help achieve this by adopting speed limit hierarchies
based upon road function.

The principle behind this is that higher speed limits are expected
on principal roads (trunk roads and other interurban roads) for long
distance travels than for distributor roads. Lower speed limits are
expected on residential streets or local access roads where the risk to
vulnerable road users is much higher and more frequent.
Table 4.1 shows the speed limits set in Tanzania for different types of
vehicles.

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Table 4.1: Speed limits in Tanzania for different types of vehicles


Built-up Urban Single Dual
area31 area carriageways carriageways

Cars and motorcycles 50 km/h 60km/h Not stated Not stated


Cars towing caravans or 50 km/h 60km/h Not stated Not stated
trailers
Buses and coaches 50 km/h 60km/h 80km/h 80km/h
(not exceeding 12 m in
overall length)
Goods vehicles (not 50 km/h 60km/h 80km/h 80km/h
exceeding 3.5 tonnes
maximum laden weight)
Source: Road Traffic Act, Sections 51 & 52
Setting speed limit using speed control devices
Devices such as speed governors and car track devices were
introduced with the purposes of limiting the speed of the PSV.
There is no standard specifications of speed control devices. The
Engineer-in-Chief has not set standard specifications of speed control
devices. These speed control and tracking devices have been used
in the country without the Government clearly stipulating what kind
of devices should be used, which standard specifications have to be
followed.

The failure to formulate a well planned use of speed limiting devices


has resulted into unsuccessful attempts to use speed control devices
such as speed governors.
The consequences of not adequately setting speed limits in areas
which are very risky, affect road safety in three ways by increasing
the:
risk of having an accident, because of the reduced time
available for a driver to respond to hazards;
impact of collisions; and
risk of death and severity of injuries in a crash.
4.2 How are road conditions monitored?

The Engineer-in-Chief is required to conduct periodical review


and monitor road conditions and see if there is a need to change
the set speed limit according to the performance of the particular
road section. Similarly, speed limits need to be altered if the road
conditions found to have improved or deteriorated.
31 Outside the urban centres

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The audit has noted that the Engineer-in-Chief has not reviewed the
set speed limit periodically as required. The reviews have not taken
place despite the fact that a number of accidents have occurred
throughout the country. This is according to the interviews with the
Ministry officials.
Based on studies of documents from police sources and interviews
with officials from the Ministry of Works, a number of black spots had
been noted where several crashes had occurred. Some of the noted
black spots which have not been acted upon by the Ministry (Engineer-
in-Chief) are shown on table 4.2:
Table 4.2: Black spots which have not been addressed by the
Ministry
Region Black spots which have not been addressed by the
Ministry
Morogoro Msimba, Kidahi, Iyovi, Mikumi National Park, Ibuti, Tabu Hotel,
Mtumbatu and Magengeni.
Dodoma St Gasper Hotel, Ihumwa and Msembeta.
Mbeya Mlowo, Ihanda, Wawa mjini, Maporomoko and Ilomba.
Tabora Bulyangombe, Ziba, Mgongolo and Udutu.
Arusha Kambi ya Mkaa, Radio Habari maalumu, Mbuga Nyeupe, Kisongo
and Silalei.
Mtwara TRA, Coco Beach, Mahenge, Msijute, Jida, Tokula Base, Mkuti,
Mtandi and Masasi Mbovu.
Kigoma Manyovu, Bangwe, Mwembetogwa, Gungu, Veta, Kibirizi, Kigoma
kati, Ujenzi, Mlole, Mayange, Kidiama, Kosovo, Busunzu and
Mshindu.
Sources: Road accidents reports Police (2011)

The Ministry has not carried out a comprehensive study or assessment


of road crashes in relation to road conditions. The only planned
method was to use Road safety Audits which so far the Ministry has
not frequently conducted.

Through the road safety audit reports, the Ministry was not able to
come up with useful information on how best they should alter the
speed limit according to the changing road conditions.

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Monitoring the development of speeds

When implementing speed management measures as part of a wider


road safety effort, it is essential to monitor the development of speed
limits on the roads as well as the accident situation. Speed (as well as
accidents and traffic volume) should be regularly measured on roads
which have received specific treatment, to evaluate the effectiveness
of individual measures.

Speed measurements should also be conducted across the overall


network, in order to effectively evaluate the actual effectiveness of a
speed management package.

These measures are useful for the authorities to assess the success
of a speed management policy in using our roads.

Further evaluation on whether the Ministry monitors speed development


and evaluates them with an intention of reviewing them showed that
very little has been done.

According to the interviews with the Ministry of Works Officials, it was


noted that the present speed limits were set more than 30 years ago
(1973 by Road Traffic Act). Since then the speed limits have not been
reviewed and hence no risk analysis had been carried out even though
the state of our roads have undergone tremendous reforms in that
period.

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Chapter Five

Conclusions
5.1 Inadequate Planning of Traffic Inspections

Failure to address risk factors

The Police Force plans did not document key risk factors for road crashes
which have occured on our roads, such as speeding, drunkenness etc.
and did not prepare mitigating actions. This is despite the fact that
during the interviews with different Police Officers, they seemed to be
aware of major risk factors in their respective regions and districts.

Although Police Officers are aware of risk factors, their inspection plans
did not reflect that. The failure to prepare their traffic inspections based
on the major risk factors made their plans less effective and resulted
into sporadic inspections which were conducted just to address adhoc
events and leave the major risks unattended.

The inspection plans were not evaluated based on the major risk
factors and adjusted regularly over the course of the inspection period.

The Police Force did not explain how the day to-day work of traffic
inspectors would change as identification and documentation of major
risk factors were integrated with traditional planning activities.

Failure to prioritize key risk factors

Enforcement priorities need to be clearly identified in a policy document


such as strategic plan. In recent years, strategic plans have been used
to specify police forces objectives and the actions to be taken in order
to achieve the stated objectives.

The Police Force has failed to prioritize the key risk factors and for
that matter failed to come up with targeted inspections which are more
effective and addresses the major risk factors.

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This has led into the traffic inspections conducted so far, to be carried
out without having a clear focus and set objectives to be accomplished.
Police has been conducting a number of inspections which indeed
addresses a lot of issues at once and render the entire exercise not
productive and less effective.

Selective enforcement, whereby key risk factors (safety violations) are


identified through accident data analysis and professional judgement,
was not used in providing the basis for staff deployment.

Targeted enforcement, both stationary and mobile, were undertaken


without specified objectives and agreed methods of evaluating the
effectiveness of the inspections.

The effect of not prioritizing key risk factors in inspection plans is


that, the plans failed to give more weight to factors which contribute
most to road crashes and which would lead to major reduction of road
accidents. The result of not focusing on these major risk factors is that
it would make it difficult to reach the set target of reducing deaths due
to road accidents by at least 25% by the year 2015.

Ad hoc directives issued to Regional and District levels

Based on the chain of command within the Police Force, the Police
Headquarters tends to issue a number of directives to the Regional
Police and the same is cascaded down by the Regional Police to the
District Police.

These directives are mostly originated from the Directorate of


Operations within the Force. Other sources of these directives are
from Traffic Police Headquarters. They are all directed to the regional
and districts traffic officers.

With regard to traffic policing, a number of directives have been issued


to the regions with an intention of addressing different challenges
encountered on the roads.

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Most of these directives are ad hoc and when issued are sent to
all regions and later on to the districts for implementation. They are
issued without a thorough analysis of what are the major objectives
of the operation, how should that operation be executed in order to
gain maximum impact and how the key results should be reported and
evaluated.

These operations often tend to be designed following the occurrence


of road crashes at a certain period of time and after a brief period of
time no follow up is made of the executed operations. During the short
time execution of those operations they neither consider the resources
available (e.g. funds, human resources, inspection tools and time) nor
existing plans in the respective region or district.

Since these operations are executed in different regions without


considering the major root causes of the problems to be addressed
they tend to have little impact.

Similarly, since the Police Force failed to provide clear objectives and
targets for the operations, during the executions the traffic police tend
to focus on less important risk factors.

Records have shown that, despite all the efforts of having these
unplanned operations during the year the number of road crashes kept
on increasing. This situation had at the same time left the Regional
and District Traffic police to be dependent on the directives from
Headquarters. Consequently, they fail to be proactive on planning their
traffic inspections based on the persisting local conditions.

Inadequate Quality of the Inspection Plans

For the traffic inspection to be effective it is important to start with a


well prepared traffic inspection plan.

During the audit, it was noted that the quality of the inspection plans
is inadequate. The reviewed inspection plans were found to lack a
number of necessary key elements of good plans.

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Some of the important elements which could not be found on the


prepared inspections plans include specific objectives for the traffic
inspections, targets to be achieved, allocation of resources in terms
of who is responsible for what during the inspection and what kind
of inspections tools or devices are needed as well as reporting
mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation of the planned inspections.

Failure to have a well articulated inspection plans have hampered


the overall goal of reducing the number of road crashes which are
happening in the country.

This is due to the fact that, it has been very difficult for the Police
Force to assess themselves in terms of whether the set objectives
of the inspections have been reached or not, and if they have not
been reached what are the underlining causes of failures and what
measures should be taken to address them.

5.2 Poorly Managed Traffic Inspections

Inappropriately oriented traffic inspections

It was expected that the traffic police interventions would address the
major causes of road crashes (key risk factors) i.e. human behavior
than other factors such as vehicle conditions and road environment.

There is a huge discrepancy of what the major causes of road


accidents are and what the traffic police concentrate on during their
interventions. It suffices to say that traffic police do not prioritize what
to inspect and in few incidences when they prioritize, they divert from
the focus areas because it is easy for them to inspect mechanical
factors. Similarly, they divert because the system for monitoring
performance of individual traffic police officers is weak as it focuses
mainly on the amount of fines collected without critically analyzing the
nature of offences committed.

However, according to the National Road Safety Policy of 2009 most


road crashes are caused by human factors i.e. over speeding, drink
and drive etc,. Most senior traffic police officers during our interviews
also acknowledged that the major causes of road crashes are human
factors.

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But when reviewing the data obtained from the same traffic police,
human factors seem not to be the major cause of road accidents
and as such it is not given the weight it deserves during traffic police
inspections. The reason why police data underestimate the human
factors is that they need to be backed up by the use of enforcement
equipment such as speed radars and breath analyzers. Such equipment
are not enough within the Police Force.

Based on the findings, we conclude that the traffic police at central


and regional levels do not give due weight to major risk factors during their
interventions. It suffices to conclude that the problem of road crashes
will for years not improve if they do not change the way of handling
traffic inspections.

Lack of formal guidelines for conducting traffic inspections

The traffic police lack formal guidelines for carrying out risk based
traffic inspections in the country. The traffic Police in different regions
are using a range of methods in carrying out their traffic inspections.

This has resulted into different traffic policing practices across the
country. Some of the practices differ from one part of the country to
another. The documentation of the traffic issues, planning of the traffic
inspections, measurement of the performance of traffic officers and
even conducting of those inspections are practiced differently.

Some regions have created their own risk indicator databases, some
document the decisions made in the risk analysis process in detail,
and others make decisions without documenting key details, such as
the rationale.

The use of different methods in conducting traffic inspections/


enforcement increases the likelihood of reaching different
conclusions forsimilar situations. In addition, differences in the level
of documentation could make it more difficult for new inspectors to
understand the rationale for decisions made by inspectors who have
left the Region or the District.

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5.3 Inadequate Allocation of Resources for Traffic Inspections


For the organization or department to effectively maximize the use of its
resources, it is very important to ensure that resources are adequately
allocated.
The allocation of resources for the traffic policing within the Police
Force is inadequate. This is manifested by the fact that the number of
Police Officers in various regions with different levels of road crashes is
almost the same. The allocation of Officers does not take into account
the level of risks of road crashes which tend to happen on those areas.

The same situation is also manifested by the presence of enforcement


equipment (inspection tools) such as speed laser and breath analyzers.
Whereby, in those areas where the risk of speeding and drunkenness
are high, these tools are rarely there.

Other weakness of resource allocation is seen on the areas of location


of inspection spots. The audit team failed to understand why the Police
Force locates their inspection points in certain areas which are not
having a high number of road crashes.

The audit observed that the Traffic police tend to conduct their
inspections on areas where they are least needed or where there are
less frequent road crashes.

Failure of the Police Force to allocate the little resource they have in
their disposal has likely resulted into having an ineffective enforcement
of traffic laws; This may ultimately result into an increase in road
crashes all over the country. The fact that there were no personnel or
inspection tools where they were supposed to be at the required time,
rendered traffic inspections less effective.

5.4 Insufficient Monitoring and Evaluation of Traffic Inspections


During the audit it was noted that the Police Force has not developed a
national mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the traffic inspections
activities. There is no single region out of all nine (9) visited regions
where they have a consistent system in place for monitoring and
evaluating the inspections of traffic. The only means of evaluating the
adequacy or performance of different traffic police officers is through
the number of offences they got and the amount of the fines imposed/
paid so far.

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The audit team failed to establish the adequacy of this measure since
it emphasizes minor offences by putting pressure on Traffic Police
Officers going out to catch traffic offenders. That has prompted the
tendency of some of the officers to dwell much more on easily seen
offences such as mechanical defects etc. and underscore other critical
offences such as speeding, drunken driving etc. which are seriously
detrimental.

Mechanisms such as reviewing different traffic police files to determine


whether procedures were followed and sufficiently documented were
not deployed.

Without a national mechanism in place for monitoring and evaluating


their performance, the Police Force cannot determine whether traffic
inspections activities are carried out consistently and according to
procedures.

To measure the level of consistency in its monitoring activities, the


Force isexpected to develop a formal process as part of their Integrated
Management System of traffic inspections.

Lack of Historical Data of Traffic offenders

The effective traffic inspections management is based on a systematic


approach that includes the collection, analysis, interpretation and
application of good data. Data for the road traffic offences are collected
and stored manually by the Traffic Police.

The system used for capturing and storing data for traffic offences is
a manual and stand alone which does not provide room for the Traffic
Police Officers to trace down a driver who has committed similar traffic
offences previously.

More than two thirds out of 445 drivers interviewed had committed
similar traffic offences more than three times in one year. These
drivers who committed similar traffic offences were given the same
punishment (fined) while they were supposed to have been given
more stringent punishment.

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This situation has been rendered so by the fact that the Traffic Police
do not have historical data of traffic offenders which can be retrieved
quickly by the Traffic Police Officer while looking for the historical
records of a driver who has committed a certain traffic offence. The
Traffic Police ought to look for the historical data of the traffic offender
before they can decide on what kind of punitive measure should be
taken. Once a Traffic Police Officer understands the historical records
of the traffic offender, he/she can very easily decide on the appropriate
punitive measure based on the strength of the offence and historical
records of the traffic offender.

Therefore, the repetition of similar traffic offences was due to lack of


records for use in tracing the traffic offenders which makes it hard
to take different punitive measures against the same driver who has
committed similar offences previously.

In summary, the police needs historical data of traffic offenders in order


to:
monitor the occurrence of traffic law infringements;
keep track of legal proceedings such as court appearances,
and outcomes such as fines and sentences; and
enable an intelligence-led approach to enforcement, such as
identifying where speed radar guns should be located, and
when and where alcohol testing should occur for maximum
effect.

Lack of reliable and detailed data on road crashes

The audit indicated weaknesses in the collection of data on road


crashes. Often data collection is delayed. The registration of vital
events (causes of road crashes, deaths, exact location etc.) does not
have a good coverage. These rendered data collected by the Traffic
Police is unreliable.

The reliable and detailed data help practitioners accurately identify


problems, risk factors and priority areas, and to formulate strategy, set
targets and monitor performance. This cycle of gathering data, taking
action and then evaluating is fundamental for any road safety strategy,
including the Safe System approach to road safety.

Without ongoing data-led diagnosis and management of the leading

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road injury problems, there will be no significant, sustainable reductions


in exposure to crash risk or the severity of crashes.

Reliable, accurate data can also help build stakeholders will to prioritize
road safety by:
documenting the nature and magnitude of the road traffic injury
problem;
demonstrating the effectiveness of interventions that prevent
crashes and injuries; and
providing information on reductions in socio-economic costs
that can be achieved through effective prevention.

The use of reliable data to identify problems and target resources


more effectively is a key element of the Safe System approach to
road safety an approach increasingly recognized as the most
effective way to make road transport systems safer for all users.

5.5 Ineffective Sanctions for Traffic Offenders

The Police Force uses road side checks and inspections to identify
and deal with non-compliant drivers. The non compliant drivers are
caught and legal actions are imposed upon them.

The sanctions for offenders are divided into three main parts which;
are fines, prosecution or both.

During the audit it was revealed that most of the time the sanctions
applied to the traffic offenders were not very effective. This is evidenced
by the fact that the same drivers tend to repeat the same offences
knowing that the sanction to be applied were bound to be ineffective.

The Police Force frequently uses fines as a main sanctions in most of


the offences and it has been proved that the fine of TSH. 20,000/=32
per the offence is easily affordable by most of drivers.
The Police Force was found to rarely use other means of sanctions
while dealing with traffic offenders. Failure to use other means of
sanctions (such as sending the offenders to court or revoking their
driving licenses) particularly for habitual offenders has rendered the
whole process ineffective.
32 Following the enactment of the 2011/2012 Appropriation Act (annual budget) the
rate of fines to traffic law violators has increased from TShs. 20,000/= to 30,000/=

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It has been very difficult at the same time for the Police Force to change
the nature of the sanctions since they dont have a database of drivers
who have committed different traffic offences.

Failure of the Police Force to use the existing sanctions more effectively
led into the drivers to take the sanctions lightly and repeat committing
more and more traffic offences which contribute to more causalities.

5.6 Unsatisfactory Management of Speed Limit

Lack of Effort to Alter the Speed Limit with Changing Road


Conditions

When road conditions change, there is a need to alter the speed limit
to match with the improvements or deteriorations.
The method of altering the speed limit is very important in order to
ensure that road users are using roads in a safe way.

During the audit, the audit team tried to assess whether the speed
limits are altered if the road conditions have changed. The team failed
to get any evidence that the set speed limits in different roads have
been altered to suit the changed environment of the roads.

In certain areas, despite the fact that a number of road crashes have
occurred as a result of speeding, nothing has been done to ensure that
the speed limits are lowered and in that sense reduce the extent of the
problem as the Traffic Police would have been empowered to enforce
the newly set speed limit.

The only effort which is commonly taken is to install speed humps and
bumps which have proved to be ineffective in certain areas.

Weak system for Monitoring Road Conditions and Road Crashes

For the speed limits to be managed effectively, it is important to


ensure that road conditions are monitored. The monitoring of the road
conditions can help to provide necessary information which would
assist in:
Analysing suitability of the existing speed limit and the
type of the road; and
Altering the speed limit with the changing or improving

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road conditions.

The audit team learnt that there is no system in place at the moment
for monitoring road conditions and road crashes that occur on different
roads.

Failure to have the monitoring system has resulted into lack of analysis
of road crashes and the type of the road; and altering the speed limit
with the changing road conditions.

The consequence of this is that drivers and other road users are using
roads and driving at the set speed limits which put them in danger.

Lack of coordinated data base to review speed limits

The Ministry of Works, the Ministry responsible for addressing issues


of Road Safety in the country is supposed to ensure that there is in
place a well defined and coordinate system for data base necessary
for reviewing the present speed limits and even setting new ones.

The audit found that there is weak coordination among different


stakeholders who are responsible for providing the necessary
information for the revision of speed limits in Tanzania.

The present data provided by the Police Force on speed enforcement


are not really acceptable to the Ministry. The underlining problem is
the reliability of available data which is the most important input for the
setting and reviewing of speed limits.

There is no visible effort taken by the Ministry to address this endemic


problem and even communicating with the Police Force so that the
information can be collected during the speeding enforcement. The
collected data could be used to review speed limits and even become
input for setting new ones.

The Ministry do not request for the data from the police and do not set
the level of data quality necessary for them to use in their responsibility
of reviewing speed limits periodically.
Similarly, the Ministry does not maintain a data base for speeding
problems in the country and no visible effort has been done to introduce
a database.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Analysing suitability of the existing speed limit and the


type of the road; and

Altering the speed limit with the changing or improving


road conditions.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Chapter Six

Recommendations

This chapter contains recommendations to the Ministry of Works,


Ministry of Home Affairs and Tanzania Police Force (Traffic Police
Department) regarding the weaknesses pointed out in the previous
three chapters. The audit office believes that these recommendations
need to be fully addressed if the Road safety issues are to be
managed properly ensuring that the 3Es of Economy, Efficiency and
Effectiveness are achieved in the use of public resources.

6.1 Planning of traffic inspections

The Tanzania Police Force has to ensure that it appropriately plans its
inspections.

This can be done by ensuring that:

1. Traffic Policing should be based on analysis of road crashes data


and targeted on the roads and locations where crashes occur
most frequently, and on the related unsafe driver behaviours
and traffic offences;

2. Traffic police training should be expanded and improved to create


a specialist traffic police skilled in use of modern enforcement
equipment, tactics, and strategies, and with the ability to conduct
targeted and effective enforcement campaigns; and

3. Efficiency and activity indicators should be adopted to monitor


performance, including the frequency of use and prosecutions
resulting from modern technical enforcement equipment, such
as alcohol testing devices and radar speed meters.

The Tanzania Police Force should prepare a plan that documents


risks to the Road Safety laws enforcement, mitigating actions, and
expected costs, and provides a timetable for evaluating and adjusting
communication efforts.

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The Tanzania Police Force should, within the areas of its responsibility,
develop an action plan to identify and address the major risks to road
safety posed by drivers.

The plan should address:

1. The deployment of traffic police officers should be flexibly


around the country on those areas which have been identified
to have high risks to road safety;

2. The location of check points for checking/inspecting drivers


behaviour should be focused on the strategic road networks
(located on areas with a high risk to road safety) ; and

3. Conduct mobile inspections on strategic routes.

6.2 Managing of traffic inspections

The Tanzania Police Force should ensure that:

1. The guidelines on conducting risk based traffic control/


inspections are developed and put into use by all traffic police
officers.

2. The traffic inspections are prioritized based on special risk


factors such as speeding and drunkenness;

3. Road crashes reports are accurately and comprehensively


captured so as to allow analysis and engineering reviews to be
conducted in addition to legal prosecution; and

4. A means to capture all information including the historical data


of traffic offenders is put in place and it is relevant to oversight
of road safety in an integrated manner. This would allow the
Police Force to develop and track safety profiles for different
drivers and to assess the relative level of risk.

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6.3 Resource allocation for traffic inspections

The Tanzania Police Force should ensure that:

1. Key resources (human, money, inspection tools and vehicles)


are allocated adequately and all areas with high risks of road
accidents are given a high priority;

2. It puts in place a national human resources plan for Road Safety/


traffic enforcement as soon as possible. This plan should be
aligned with the strategic plan, specify the required number of
traffic police officers and inspectors and their competencies,
and include a recruitment strategy to meet these needs;

3. It develops a training strategy that is aligned with the human


resources plan for Road Safety/traffic enforcement. The
strategy should address required competencies, training
needs, courses to meet those needs, and a schedule for
recurrent training; and

4. The traffic control check points are located on areas which are
expected to have the highest impact in terms of reducing the
number of road crashes.

6.4 Monitoring and evaluation of traffic inspections

In order to improve the Monitoring and evaluations of traffic Police


inspections in the country, The Tanzania Police Force should:

1. Ensure that they monitor and evaluate periodically the effect


of interventions. They should also carry out more analysis/
research to address the emerging issue of distractions in traffic
as a risk factor to road crashes. All these to be used as a basis
for improvements;

2. Develop a set of quantitative and qualitative short- and medium-


term key performance indicators to assess the extent to which
its Road Safety/traffic enforcement programs and initiatives
contribute to achieving its long-term objectives of reducing the
number of road accidents/crashes; and

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

3. Put in place its national risk indicator program for the enforcement
of Road Safety laws as soon as possible, in order to have a
standardized method to assess risk for the allocation of scarce
resources. The Police Force should document all decisions
made in the risk analysis process.

6.5 Sanctions for traffic offenders

The Tanzania Police Force should ensure that the application of


sanctions to traffic offenders is done properly and according to the
stipulated laws and regulations; and come up with ways of assessing
and evaluating the effectiveness of the applied sanctions.

6.6 Setting speed limit

The Ministry of Works should ensure that speed limits in different roads
are properly set.

This can be done by ensuring that:

1. Appropriate speeds for all types of roads in the network are


determined;

2. Set speed limits that are credible in relation to the road type and
its environment; and

3. Set local speed limits based on achieving lower than average


accident risk.

6.7 Managing speed limit

The Ministry of Works should ensure that speed limits in different roads
are managed properly.

This can be done by ensuring that:

1. Speed limits are reviewed periodically based on the land use


and road conditions (change the speed limit depending on
whether there are improved or deteriorated road conditions);

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

2. Existing speed limits are reviewed from time to time to assess


whether they reflect the appropriate speed in relation to road
function;

3. The setting of the speed limit is preceded by a thorough analysis


of land use and road crashes occurred and the type of the road;

4. There is a periodical monitoring of the road conditions and road


crashes that occur in our roads; and

5. The system of enforcing speed limits is introduced using ICT


e.g. speed cameras.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

References
1. The Auditor General of New Zealand [New Zealand]. 2002.
Bringing down the Road Toll: The Speed Camera program. The
Report of the Auditor General of New Zealand. Wellington, New
Zealand.

2. Chiduo C [Tanzania]. 2007. Institutional Set up for road safety:


A paper presented at the Annual Roads Convention organized by
TARA, Karimjee Hall. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

3. World Health Organization (WHO) [Switzerland]. 2010. Data


systems: A road safety manual for decision-makers and
practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland.

4. Global Road Safety Partnership [Switzerland]. 2007. Drinking


and Driving: a road safety manual for decision-makers and
practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland.

5. Kibogoyo, Chrisant [Tanzania]. 2009. Want fewer road accidents


article on The Guardian Newspaper, 28 August 2009. Dar es
salaam, Tanzania.

6. Kisaka, Johson, SUMATRA [Tanzania]. 2007. Policy and


Institutional Set up for road safety in Tanzania: A paper presented
at the Annual Roads Convention organized by TARA, Karimjee
Hall. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

7. Kivuyo, Peter and Balele, Edward, Tanzania Police Force


[Tanzania]. 2005. Road traffic enforcement in Tanzania: A paper
presented at the Annual Roads Convention organized by TARA,
Karimjee Hall. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

8. The Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania [Tanzania].


1965. Motor Vehicle Driving Schools (Licensing) Act, 1965. Dar
es salaam, Tanzania.

9. Mtaki, Cornelli [Tanzania]. 2005. Enforcement of Road Safety


Law in Tanzania the case of non motorized vehicles: A paper
presented at the Annual Roads Convention organized by TARA,
Karimjee Hall. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

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10. Ministry of Works (MoW) [Tanzania]. 2003. National Transport


Policy, 2003 Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

11. European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) [Belgium]. 1999.


Police enforcement strategies to reduce traffic casualties in
Europe .Brussels, Belgium.

12. Mshana John (Prof.) and Minja Philemon S. (Eng.) [Tanzania].


2005. Reducing Road Accidents by Introducing Regular motor
Vehicle inspections: A paper presented at the Annual Roads
Convention organized by TARA, Karimjee Hall. Dar es salaam,
Tanzania.

13. HMIC Constabulary, [United Kingdom]. 1998. Road Policing and


Traffic Thematic inspection report. London, United Kingdom.

14. The Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania [Tanzania].


2002. Road traffic Act, [CAP 168 R.E 2002]. Dar es salaam,
Tanzania.

15. Global Road Safety Partnership [Switzerland]. 2008. Speed


management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and
practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland.

16. The Bureau for Industrial Cooperation (BICO), University of Dar


es Salaam (UDSM), [Tanzania]. 2007. Study on road Accidents
in mainland Tanzania. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

17. The Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania [Tanzania].


2001. Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority Act,
2001. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

18. The Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania [Tanzania].


1965. The Police and Auxiliary Service Act Chapter 322 (GN No:
73 of 1965). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

19. The Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority


(SUMATRA) [Tanzania]. 2008. Technical Safety and Quality of
Service Standard: (Passengers Vehicles) Rules, 2008 (GN No.
14 of 2008). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

20. The Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority


(SUMATRA) [Tanzania]. 2007. The Transport Licensing (Road
passenger Vehicles) Regulation, 2007. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

21. The Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania [Tanzania].


1973. The Transport Licensing Act of 1973. Dar es salaam,
Tanzania.

22. World Health Organization (WHO) [Switzerland]]. 2004. The


World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Geneva,
Switzerland.

23. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic Police Accidents


Reports (2007-2010). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.
24. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic police allocation
timetables (2007-2010). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

25. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic police monthly,


quarterly and annually reports (2007-2010). Dar es salaam,
Tanzania.

26. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic police Operation


files(2007-2010). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

27. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic police Accident


registers (2007-2010). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

28. Tanzania Police Force [Tanzania]. 2011. Traffic Police General


Files(2007-2010). Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

29. European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) [Belgium]. 2001.


Transport safety performance indicators .Brussels, Belgium.

30. United Nations (UN). 2010. United Nations General Assembly


Resolution No. 25 .New York, USA.

31. Ministry of Home Affairs Police (Vote 28) [Tanzania]. 2010.


Financial Statements for the Year ended 30th June 2010. Dar es
salaam, Tanzania.

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32. Ministry of Home Affairs Police (Vote 28) [Tanzania]. 2009.


Financial Statements for the Year ended 30th June 2009. Dar es
salaam, Tanzania.

33. Jeshi la Polisi Kikosi cha Usalama barabarani [Tanzania].2009.


Taarifa ya Jeshi la Polisi 2009. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

34. Jeshi la Polisi Kikosi cha Usalama barabarani [Tanzania].2008.


Taarifa ya Jeshi la Polisi 2008. Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

35. Tanzania Police [Tanzania]. 2010. Annual Police Report 2010.


Dar es salaam, Tanzania.

36. SSIG Secretariat [Australia]. 2011.Victoria speed limit review.


Melbourne, Australia

37. Transport Research Centre [France]. 2006. Speed


Management, Paris France

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Appendices

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Appendix One: Audit Questions and Sub Questions

This report provides the results obtained from the following two audit
questions:
Audit Question 1: Is the management of the inspection service risk
based and efficiently and effectively conducted?
Sub Questions

Sub-question 1.1: Do the policy and overall planning


documents for the Traffic Control services
genuinely address the risks of road traffic
accidents?

Sub-question 1.2: Do the traffic police guidelines clearly


describe how risk based traffic control
should be conducted?

Sub-question 1.3: Are road traffic accidents/risk areas taken


into account when resources for traffic
control inspection are allocated between
and within regions?

Sub-question 1.4: Are the inspections carried out when


the risks for accidents or risky drivers
behaviors are high?

Sub-question 1.5: Do the inspections prioritize special risk


factors as speeding and drunkenness in
their inspection?

Sub-question 1.6: Is the inspection staff properly trained and


equipped?

Sub-question 1.7: Are the inspections properly monitored and


evaluated, as a basis for improvements?

Sub-question 1.8: Are sanctions properly applied?

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Audit Question 2: Are the speed limits risked based and managed
efficiently?
Sub Questions
Sub-question 2.1: Are speed limits based on analysis of traffic
accidents and the type of road?

Sub-question 2.2: Are speed limits altered if the conditions of


the roads have changed?

Sub-question 2.3: Are the conditions of the roads and the


accidents regularly monitored?

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Appendix Two: Methodology

The main elements of our fieldwork, which took place between


January 2011 and December 2011, were:
Selected method Purpose

1. Regional Visits

Visits to eight regional police To gather primary data about the


offices chosen according to planning, management and outcomes
performance characteristics of enforcement and the use made of
(high and low rate of road prevention of road accidents in this work
accidents) and geographical
location To gather evidence of the practical conduct
of compliance activities by observing
around 48 road side inspections.
2. Interviews

Interviews with 97 individuals To gather evidence about the setting


within the Traffic Police of enforcement strategies and targets;
Department, Ministry of Works resources of compliance activities and
and SUMATRA performance report; the conduct of
joint inspections and effectiveness of
data sharing with other agencies e.g.
TANROADS and Directorate of Road
Safety within the Ministry of Works; and
the application of available sanctions.

3. Consultation
Consultation with Road To establish their perceptions about the
safety experts in Tanzania, efficiency and effectiveness of the traffic
including University of Dar es police enforcement activity and to identify
Salaam lecturers and retired the scope for improvements.
senior government officials
who worked with, or have an
interest in traffic inspections
by the Police.

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4. Review of risk analysis


system and Road safety
data
Review of the Traffic Police To assess the extent to which the Polices
risk rating system. risk based targeting system reflects the
actual risks to road safety caused by
Analysis of the Traffic Polices vehicles.
road safety data, the Polices
accident database and
roadside encounter database.
Comparison of roadside
inspections to road safety risk.
5. Performance data
analysis
Analysis of the Traffic Polices To gather evidence about the numbers
performance data, annual and proportions of Traffic Police
compliance check data, examinations and sanctions and
prosecutions data, and risk compare performance over time and
score data. between Areas.

6. Document review
Review of documents from To assess the administrative and
the Traffic Police, other bodies strategic context of enforcement.
such as the Department of
Road Safety from the Ministry
of Works and SUMATRA and
research reports, papers and
articles.

7. Questionnaire
Questionnaires were To establish their perceptions about
administered to 445 drivers the efficiency and effectiveness of the
from nine different regions. traffic police enforcement activity and to
identify scope for improvements.

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Appendix Three: Computations made in the report

1. Table 3.1 : Major causes for road crashes

The information used in this table were extracted from Traffic Police
Annual Reports, National Road Safety Policy of 2009 and study
conducted by the University of Dar es salaam (BICO) for the period
2000 to 2005 and 2010

Contributory percentages were determined by using the following


formula:

Contributory percentage= No of road crashes caused by a certain factor


Total No of Road crashes

2. Table 3.2: Inspection efforts vs. causes of road crashes

The information used in this table was extracted from Police Form 212
for the period of 2000 to 2005 and 2010

Priority weight in inspection in percentage was determined by using


the following formula:

Priority weight in inspection (%) = No of traffic offences caused by a particular factor


Total Number of offences

3. Table 3.3: Risk for road crash vs. priority in inspection

The information used in this table was extracted from Traffic Police
Annual Reports, National Road Safety Policy of 2009 and study
conducted by the University of Dar es salaam (BICO) for the period of
2000 to 2005 and 2010.

Formulas used for development of this table are the same as the ones
used in Tables 3.1 and 3.2.

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4. Table 3.4: Percentage of offences caught in response to


the directives on enforcing speeding given by the Police
Headquarters

The information was obtained from Traffic Police General and


Operational files for the year 2008 to 2010.

The directives which were issued by Police Headquarters to the


Regional Police Offices contained information on what was to be
enforced.

Morogoro Regional Police provided feedbacks on the implementation


of ten directives which wanted them to focus on the issue of speeding.
Then the result of the feedback was then analysed and the formula
used to compute the percentage of offences caught is as shown below:

Percentage of Offences (%) = Number of offences x100%


Total Offences

5. Table 3.5: Areas with a high rate of Road crashes without


inspection points

The information used in this table was obtained from Annual Traffic
Reports and Regional Traffic Accidents Report for different regions in
Tanzania.

Then the statistics were used to compute the following:


Black spots without inspection points = black spots without inspection points
Total number of black spots

6. Table 3.6: Applied sanctions to defaulting drivers according


to police force for the year 2009

The information used in this table was obtained from different sources.
These sources were interviews with regional traffic police officers from
all nine regions visited, views of the top management of Traffic Police
Head Office, Traffic Police Annual Reports, review of notification forms
etc.

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Based on the information obtained from different sources, the audit


team was able to come up with a summarised situation with regard to
application of sanctions.

7. Table 3.7: Repetitions of fines for similar traffic offences which


took place in 2010

The information used in this table was obtained through the interviews
conducted by 445 drivers from the nine different regions. In each region
visited, the audit team was able to interview a number of drivers and
got their views on a number of issues.

They were also asked to rate the extent of repetitions of fines for similar
offences and categorize them into three groups i.e. once, 2 3 times
and more than three times.

Percentage was then obtained for each grouping and then tabulated
as shown in table 3.7.

8. Table 3.8: Efforts of Police Force in addressing key risk factors

The information was obtained from the current plans within the Police
Force (Traffic Police Inspection Plans (2009 and 2010)). The audit team
then assessed the extent to which targets were set, timely allocation
of staff, presence of inspection tools which could be used to enforce
speed and alcohol drinking. These were the four criteria necessary for
prioritization of key risk factors.

Rankings were then done by stating whether the factor was met or not
met at all.

9. Table 3.9: Quality of Inspection plans reviewed

The information was obtained from present plans within the Police
Force (Traffic Police Inspection Plans (2009 and 2010)). The audit
team assessed the extent to which objective, targets and performance
indicators were set, activities were planned, methods of execution were
defined, time was set and finally if there were means of conducting,
monitoring and evaluating. These were the seven criteria necessary
for a good inspection plan.

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Rankings were then done by stating whether the factor was met or not
met at all.

10. Table 3.10: Directives issued to Regional Police Offices and


their objectives

The information was obtained from Traffic Police General and


Operational files for the years 2008 to 2010.

The directives which were issued by Police Headquarters to the


Regional Police Offices contained information on what was to be
enforced.

11. Table 3.11: Directives issued within a very short span of time
addressing the same or a different issue

The information was obtained from Traffic Police General and


Operational files for the year 2008 to 2010.

The directives which were issued by Police Headquarters to the


Regional Police Offices contained information on what was to be
enforced.

12. Table 3.12: Focus of directives issued to Regional Police


Offices

The information was obtained from Traffic Police General and


Operational files for the year 2008 to 2010.

The directives which were issued by Police Headquarters to the


Regional Police Offices contained information on what was to be
enforced.

13. Table 3.13: The Length of Road network per fatal crash in
relation to number of Traffic police officers (2010)

The information used in this table was obtained from Annual Traffic
Reports, Regional Traffic Accidents Report and statistics from
TANROADS on the length of road network for different regions in
Tanzania.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Then the statistics were used to compute the following:

Length of Road network per fatal crash

Length of Road network per fatal crash = Length of road network


Number of fatal crashes

14. Table 3.14: Comparison of the Number of crashes per Length


of Road network to the number of policemen (2010)

The information used in this table was obtained from Annual Traffic
Reports, Regional Traffic Accidents Report and statistics from
TANROADS on the length of road network for different regions in
Tanzania.

Then the statistics were used to compute the following:

Number of crashes per Length of Road network

Number of crashes per length road network= Number of Road crashes


Length of road network

15. Table 3.15: The Amount of fines collected per region and the
present number of enforcement equipment(2009)

The information used in this table was obtained from Annual Traffic
Reports, Regional Traffic Reports and statistics obtained from
Notification Forms for different regions in Tanzania.

The amount of fines collected annually from each region were then
verified and checked against the figure submitted to Traffic Police HQ
through the Annual Traffic Report.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Appendix Four: Analysis of the Relative weight in inspections

Factors Traffic Number Percentage Rounded


offences
of of traffic figure
Offences offences
Human
Reckless/
factors 4
careless driving 6,682 4.1
Excessive speed 6,408 3.9 4
Overloading 13,379 8.3 8
Drink and drive
(Efficiency
Impaired) 1,627 1 1
Sub total 1 17
28,096 17.3
Mechanical All Mechanical
factors defects 13
21,704 13.4
Lighting offences 1,823 1.13 1
Sub total 2 14
23,527 14.53
Road
condition All traffic signs 5,848 3.6 4
factors offences
Sub total 3 5,848 3.6 4

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Other
factors Drivers licenses
offences 9,820 6.1 6
Vehicles Tax
offences 7,245 4.5 5

Transport
licenses
offences 11,726 7.82 8

Motor Vehicles
insurance
offences 9,825 6.1 6

Failure to
stop or report
accident(s) 5,374 3.3 3
Other Motoring
Offences 22,249 13.8 14

Private Taxi
Cabs offences33 4,014 2.4 2
Taxi Cabs
Offences34 4,863 3 3

Omnibuses
offences35 28,289 17.55 18
Sub total 4
103,405 64.57 65
Grand Total
160, 876 100 100

33 These are offences of vehicles which operate as taxis while are not really
registered to do that business
34 These are offences concern registered taxis which are having problems such as
expired business license etc.
35 These are offences concern registered passenger vehicles and relate to either
failure to comply with SUMATRA Timetable, etc.

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Appendix Five: List of Officials Participated in Stakeholders


Conference

A list of participants who attended Focus Group Discussion prepared


by NAOT on 10th of May 2011 to discuss preliminary findings of a
Performance Audit on the Management of Traffic Inspections and
Speed Limits in Tanzania.

NO. Name of the Organization Designation


Participant

1. ASP Henry W. Traffic Police Officer


Nguvumali Mbeya Commanding
Station Traffic
Mbeya
2. Inspector Leopold N. Traffic Police Ilala Officer
Fungu Commanding
Station Traffic Ilala
3. ASP Bonaventura Traffic Police H.Q Assistant
D. Nsokolo Superintendent of
Police-Traffic HQ
4. ACP Rashid K. H. Police Force H.Q Assistant
Seif Commissioner of
Police-Police HQ
5. Eng. Japhet E. TANROADS H.Q Weighbridge
Kivuyo Engineer
6. Eng. George L. TANROADS H.Q Safety Engineer
Daffa
7. Eng. Ntando S.D. Ministry of Works Principal Engineer
Nkinga (MoW)
8. Eng. Samson Ministry of Works Assistant Director,
Kundineza (MoW) Directorate of
Road Safety and
Environment, MoW
9. Dr. Grace Saguti World Health National Profession
Organisation (WHO) Officer - Disease
Prevention and
Control Unit
10 Dr. Estomihi Masaoe University of Dar-Es- Senior Lecturer
Salaam (UDSM)

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11 Eng. Paul F. Tanzania Roads Honorary Secretary


Basondole Association (TARA)
12 Mr. Chard S. Wemba National Institute of Assistant Lecturer
Transport (NIT)
13 Professor Theophil University of Dar-Es- Associate
Rwebangira Salaam (UDSM) Professor

14 Mr. Abdul A. Awadh Tanzania Roads Chairman


Association (TARA)
15 Mr. Henry M. Bantu Safe Speed Chairman
Foundation

16 Mr. Saad Ahmed Tanzania Drivers Secretary General


Salim Association
17 Mr. Hans Mwaipopo National Institute of Head of Road
Transport (NIT) Safety Department

18 Assistant Inspector Traffic Police- Vehicle Inspector


Mpamba J. Suleiman Morogoro

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Appendix Six: List of Recommendations and TPFs Responses


The following is a list of recommendations found in Chapter 5 and
the Tanzania Police Forces responses. Thenumber in front of the
recommendation indicates the paragraph where it appears in the chapter.
S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE
1 PLANNING OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS
The Tanzania Police The recommendation is accepted.
Force has to ensure that TPF is currently shifting from
it appropriately plan its focusing on general crime patterns
inspections. to analysis of road crashes and
This can be done by locations where crashes most
ensuring that: occur.
The shift has shown slight
Traffic policing should be improvements since 2010 where
based on analysis of road the number of road accidents has
crashes data and targeted decreased from 24,665 in 2010 to
to the roads and locations 23,986 in 2011 which is equivalent
where crashes occur to a 3% decrease.
most frequently, and on This system will be sustained
the related unsafe driver through implementation of
behaviours and traffic ongoing reform initiatives in crime
offences. prevention, adherence to Police
General Orders No. 18, IGP
Circulars No 2 of 2009 and No 1 of
2010.
Traffic police training should We agree to the recommendation.
be expanded and improved There is need to improve traffic
to create a specialist police training.
traffic police skilled in use Currently Traffic Police training
of modern enforcement is given during basic training and
equipment, tactics, and promotion courses as well as on
strategies, and with ability job trainings.
to conduct targeted and Through the ongoing Police
effective enforcement Reform initiatives, Police training
campaigns; and institutions are accredited to
become Police Academies
and training curriculum have
been revised including traffic
management courses.
Through the Police/ICF project,
traffic police officers operating on
road blocks will be trained on the
use of specialized communication
equipment (hand held palm tops-
Blackberries).

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE


Efficiency and activity Accepted.
indicators should be adopted Currently, monitoring of
to monitor performance, performance is done through
including the frequency routine inspections as per Police
of use and prosecutions General Orders No 47 and IGP
resulting from modern Circular No 2/2010.
technical enforcement Through the ongoing reforms, a
equipment, such as alcohol road safety work plan with activities
testing devices and radar and performance indicators will be
speed meters. developed.
Modern technical enforcement
equipment including alcohol testing
devices and speed radars have
been procured.

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE

The Tanzania Police Force TPF is embarking on developing


should prepare a plan that a road safety strategy under the
documents risks to the road general Police Reform Program.
safety laws enforcement, The strategy will include, among
mitigating actions, and other things, risk factors, mitigating
expected costs, and actions, expected costs and
provides a timetable for a monitoring and evaluation
evaluating and adjusting component and tools.
communications efforts.

The Tanzania Police Force Every District in the country is


should, within the areas of in high risk for road accidents
its responsibility, develop an due to the increasing number
action plan to identify and of motorcycles as a means of
address the major risks to transport and transportation
road safety posed by drivers. countrywide.
The plan should address:

The deployment of traffic One of the resolutions in recently


police should be flexibly ended Police Senior Officers
around the country on those Conferences is to deploy traffic
areas which have been officers under Officer Commanding
identified to have high risks District in order to enhance traffic
to road safety; control in every district. Following
this recommendation, placement
and allocation of traffic police
officers will be made as advised.

The location of check points The recommendation is accepted.


for checking/inspecting The deployment of police officers
drivers behavior should be within regions/districts shall be
focused on the strategic made basing on road safety risk
road networks (located on levels as per IGP Circular No
areas with a high risk to road 1/2010 and PGO No 18.
safety); and

Conduct mobile inspections Currently mobile inspections are


on strategic routes. hindered by shortage of funds.
According to ongoing Police
Reform initiatives, intelligence
led operations including mobile
inspection as per IGP Circular No
1/2008 shall be given prominence.

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE


2 MANAGING OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS

The Tanzania Police Force TPF is embarking on developing


should ensure that: a road safety strategy under the
The guidelines on general Police Reform Program.
conducting risk based traffic The strategy will include, among
control/inspections are other things, guidelines on
developed and put into use conducting risk based traffic
by all traffic police officers. control/inspections as required by
PGO No 18.

The Traffic inspections The Traffic inspections will be


are prioritized based on prioritized immediately based
special risk factors such as on special risk factors which are
speeding and drunkenness; speeding, drunkenness, reckless
driving, and unlicensed drivers as
per Traffic Police 2012 work plan.

Road crashes reports We accept the recommendation.


are accurately and ICT Master Plan projects No
comprehensively captured 9 (Integrated Road Traffic
so as to allow analysis and Management System) and 10
engineering reviews to be (Geographical Information System)
conducted in addition to will be reviewed to accommodate
legal prosecution; and this requirement once executed.

A means to capture all The recommendation is accepted.


information is put in ICT Master Plan projects No
place and it is relevant to 9 (Integrated Road Traffic
oversight of road safety in Management System) once
an integrated manner. This implemented will address this
would allow the Police Force requirement.
to develop and track safety Utilization of e-driving license
profiles for different drivers platform and coming into force of
and to assess the relative a proposed bill on demerit point
level of risk. systems shall mitigate the existing
shortfall.

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE


3 RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR TRAFFIC
INSPECTIONS
The Tanzania Police Force The recommendation is accepted.
should ensure that: The TPF Reform Program under
Key resources (human, Key Result Areas 4 (Human
money, inspection tools Resources Management),
and vehicle) are allocated 5 (Infrastructure, Tools and
adequately and all areas Equipments) and 7 (Program
with high risks of road Governance and Management
accidents are given a high Arrangements) currently being
priority; implemented is addressing the
shortage of resources. Following
recommendations contained
herein, available resources will be
allocated as advised.

It puts in place a national We accept.


human resources plan A Traffic Unit Human Resource
for Road Safety/traffic Plan will be developed basing on
enforcement as soon as TPF Strategic Plan, UN Decade of
possible. This plan should Action and Smarter Traffic Program
be aligned with the strategic recommendations.
plan, specify the required
number of traffic police
officers and inspectors
and their competencies,
and include a recruitment
strategy to meet these
needs.

It develops a training The recommendation is accepted.


strategy that is aligned A Traffic Unit training strategy
with the human resources will be developed basing on TPF
plan for Road Safety/traffic Strategic Plan and Traffic Unit
enforcement. The strategy Human Resource Plan.
should address required
competencies, training
needs, courses to meet
those needs, and schedule
for recurrent training and

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE

The traffic control check We agree to the recommendation.


points are located on areas Under the TPF/ICF project
which are expected to have (Improvement of Movement and
the highest impact in terms Security of Goods and Services
of reducing the number of transported on Dar es salaam
road crashes. Rusumo highway), 15 checkpoints
have been designated to monitor
movement of vehicles travelling
along that route. Other high risk
spots are attended by routine road
patrols and spot checks. However,
these means are not adequate;
improvements will be made
following this recommendation and
further research.

4 MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF TRAFFIC


INSPECTIONS
In order to improve the We accept.
monitoring and evaluations Monitoring and evaluation of
of traffic Police inspections effectiveness of inspection
in the country, The Tanzania interventions will be carried out
Police Force should; by using a special form (Fomu ya
Tathmini ya Utendaji) which is part
Ensure that they monitor of 2012 Traffic Police Workplan.
and evaluate periodically
the effect of interventions. On the other hand, the Research
They should also carry out and Statistics section within the
more analysis/research to Traffic Unit will be revived and
address the emerging issue staffed.
of distractions in traffic as a
risk factor to road crashes.
All these to be used as a
basis for improvement

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S/N RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE

Develop a set of quantitative The recommendation is accepted.


short- and medium-term The Road Safety Strategy will
key performance indicators include short and medium term
to assess the extent to quantitative Key Performance
which its Road Safety/traffic Indicators.
enforcement programs
and initiatives contribute
to achieving its long-term
objectives of reducing the
number of road accidents/
crashes; and

Put in place its national risk We accept.


indicator program for the Stakeholders will be involved in
enforcement of Road Safety developing the program.
laws as soon as possible, in
order to have a standardized
method to assess risk for
the allocation of scarce
resources. The Police
Force should document all
decisions made in the risk
analysis process.

5 SANCTIONS FOR TRAFFIC OFFENDERS


The Tanzania Police Force The recommendation is accepted.
should ensure that the Supervision shall be enhanced
application of sanctions to ensure the application of
to traffic offenders is done sanctions to traffic offenders is
properly and according to done properly to achieve the
the stipulated laws and purpose of punishment (retribution,
regulations; and come up reformation, rehabilitation and
with ways of assessing and restoration).
evaluating the effectiveness Laws will be enforced without
of the applied sanctions. deviation.

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Appendix Seven: Summary of Questionnaires Responses


Results of the Questionnaires

This section discusses the results of the feedback from questionnaires


sent to drivers from different districts. The questionnaires were
focused on whether drivers had been subjected to some kind of traffic
inspection during the last year.

The questionnaires were used to collect the qualitative data aiming


at eliciting drivers, identifying issues during the drivers behavior
inspection and measuring drivers level of satisfaction on the inspections
conducted by the traffic police.

The questionnaires were used to elicit information on drivers


involvement in traffic inspections, assessment and implementation of
necessary decisions as a result of traffic inspections.

The questionnaires were also used to obtain the views of the drivers
with regard to the problem of corruption/bribing during the traffic
inspections.

A total of 445 respondents (all of them drivers) responded to the


survey. The questionnaire was designed to get feedback on how often
they had beed stopped by police, for what reason, what punishment
was given for offences they had committed and if they had bribed the
police officers, and how much was paid as bribe.

Outcome of the survey

Number of time stopped and inspected by Police

The survey shows that 85.6% (381 respondents) responded that they
have been stopped more than three (3) times. The remaining 14.2%
(63 respondents) were only stopped less than three times (i.e. one or
two times).
According to the survey, the traffic inspections focused mainly on
Licenses inspection (22.9%), vehicle inspections (35.5%), overloading36
(13.6%) and both License and vehicle inspection (14.3%). In total the
top four offences comprise about 86.3% of all offences.
36 Overloading in this case means road tonnage limits on roads in urban
areas and excessive number of passengers in the PSV

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

The remaining 13.7% were based on other risk factors such as speed
(2.5%), Alcoholism (2.0%) and Negligence/Careless driving (0.9%).

Punishment on the traffic offences

According to the respondents, various punitive actions were taken


to drivers who were caught with different traffic offences. The survey
shows that 2.9% (13 respondents) responded that they were sent
to court, 68.6% (304 respondents) were given notification and paid
fines, 14% (63 respondents) had gone through prosection in court and
paid fines and the remaining 14.2% (63 respondents) responded that
although they committed traffic offences no punitive action were taken
against them (were give verbal warning).

Bribing the police officers and the reasons for paying bribe

The survey revealed that, 12.6% (56 respondents) have never bribed
the traffic police even though they were caught with a number of
offences. 24.9% (111 respondents) have bribed the traffic police once
or twice and 62.5% (278 respondents) have bribed the traffic police
more than three times in order to buy themselves out of trouble.

The survey identified a number of reasons or offences which had forced


the drivers to bribe the Police Officers. According to the respondents,
the bribe was paid on the following areas: Mechanical defects (39.4%),
Overloading (21.3%) and Lack of driving licenses/Outdated License
(11.7%). These reasons or offences accounted for more than 72.4%.

The remaining reasons account for less than 26.6%. These are such
as over-speeding (5.3%), Alcoholism (1.6%), etc.

The survey also revealed that the amount paid for bribe ranged from
Tanzanian shillings 3,000 50,000/= depending on the nature and
type of the offence. According to the respondents, 31.0% had paid
bribe less than TShs. 5,000/=, 40% had paid bribe ranging between
Tanzanian shillings 5,000 10,000/= and the remaining 29.0% paid
more than Tanzanian shillings 10,000/=.

Similarly, 69.4% of the respondents revealed that the practise of paying


bribes to Police officers was very common while the remaining 30.6%
said that practise of paying bribes is not common.

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The tabulated summary of responses on the 445 administered


questionnaires to drivers in nine regions namely Arusha, Kigoma,
Morogoro, Tabora, Dodoma, Mbeya, Kagera, Coast and Mtwara are as
shown below. The questionnaires had nine questions which covered
the issues of Traffic inspections, sanctions and bribery.

Question Number of Type of Percentage


responses Response of the
Response
How many times 445 None 0.2
have you been 1-2 times 14.2
stopped by the More than 3 times 85.6
traffic?
Total 100
Why were you 442 Licenses Inspection 22.9
stopped by the Vehicle inspection 35.5
traffic? Overloading/Poor 13.6
Loading
Speed 2.5
Alcoholism 2
Negligence/Careless 0.9
driving
License & Vehicle 14.3
inspection
Driving License & 0.9
Vehicle inspection &
negligence driving
Overloading & Vehicle 3.2
inspection & Driving
Licenses
No reason given 2.5
Licenses & Speed & 1.1
Vehicle inspections
Road signs 0.2
Alcohol & Speed 0.5
Total 100
How were you 443 Taken to court 2.9
punished? Given notification 68.6
both 14.2
No action taken 14.2
Total 100
No 12.6
1-2 Times 24.9
445 More than 3 times 62.5
Total 100

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PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAFFIC INSPECTIONS AND SPEED LIMITS

Question Number of Type of response Percentage


responses of the
Response

Reasons 376 Speeding 5.3


for the Drinking and driving (Alcoholism) 1.6
bribe? Negligence or Careless driving 5.1
Misjudgement in overtaking 4.8
Lack of valid driving licenses/ 11.7
Outdated License
Mechanical defects 39.4
Overloading 21.3
Negligence & Speed & Mechanical 0.8
defects
No offence at all 4.3
Mechanical defects & Overloading 4.0
Mechanical defects 0.5
`&Speed&Licence&Overloading
Mechanical defects&Licence 1.3
Total 100
Amount 390 Less than Tsh 5000 31.0
paid for the Between Tsh 5000-10000 40.0
bribe? More than Tsh 10000 29.0
Total 100
From the 412 No 30.6
experience Yes 69.4
are these Total 100
amounts
of bribes
common?
Knowledge 431 Yes 82.1
of friends No 17.9
and other Total 100
people who
have paid
bribes?
If yes how 352 Few Cases 12.5
many Several 24.7
times have Many cases 62.8
they paid
bribes? Total 100

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Appendix Eight: Assessment of the Risk based traffic inspections


carried out

Below is the result of the assessment carried by the audit team to check
whether the traffic inspections conducted by the Tanzania Police Force
are risk based oriented or not.

S/N Element of What is What is happening in


risk based supposed to be the field
Inspections done
1 Identifying risk Documented According to the interview
inspection program with Traffic Police officials
which shows step by in different levels they seem
step on screening to understand the key risk
the major cause of factors and risk areas but
road accidents and they do not document them
high risk areas as per anywhere for developing
established data base solutions.
of a respective traffic
police region in order Despite having collected data
to identify key risk from road crashes, there is
factors on that area. no evidence on whether they
analyze them and interpret
them for the purpose of
identifying key risk factors
2 Assessing risk Documented There is no assessment made
inspection program by traffic police on the risk
which estimates the identified and the magnitude
value associated with of its impacts.
each key risk factors
based on: There is no documented
Major cause program for ranking the risk
of accidents based on its consequences
identified and its rate of occurrence.
probability of its
occurrence
magnitude of its
consequences
Risk ranking

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S/N Element of What is What is happening in


risk based supposed to be the field
Inspections done
3 Developing risk The police traffic There is no risk factors profile
profile based on risk ranking developed at any level though
need to develop a the police verbally tried to
risk profile which justify it of being in place.
registers;
The major No data base of black spots
factors which which has been developed
have high using the available data
impact and in district and region level
contribute despite traffic police officers
most to the knowing them through
occurrence of experience.
road crashes.
data base of
black spots
4 Developing mitigation The police traffic There are some inspection
strategy need to develop plans but they do not give
inspection plans weight to the major risk
which address the factors.
effective and efficient
way of mitigating the
risk identified by: The way resources are
Prioritizing allocated in these inspection
resources plans do not comply with the
on risk to be risk based approach
mitigated
Formulating
performance
There are no documented
indicators and
inspection technique,
set reasonable
frequency and accepted
targets
criteria
Developing
methodology
for inspection
technique,
frequency
and accepted
criteria
5 Monitoring and Documenting the No monitoring and evaluation
evaluation plan interventions carried especially at regional
out and monitoring and district level on how
its progress inspections are carried and
tracking of the overall trend
of risk factors with mitigation
plan
Source: Data compiled by the Auditors from the National Audit Office
and Best Practices37 (2011)
37 World Health Organization (WHO). 2010. Data systems: A road safety manual
for decision-makers and practitioners and Global Road Safety Partnership. 2008. Speed
management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva,
Switzerland.

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Appendix Nine: The comparison between the best practices and


actual work performed

The table below highlights the comparisons between the best


practices in traffic inspections worldwide and actual work performed
by traffic police during their inspections

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S/N Key risk What is supposed to be What is happening in


factors done the field
1 Over There must be a specific The team has found that
speeding project focused on issue of the traffic police officer
over speed formulated by who are provided with
traffic police with specific speed radar do not
objective, targets, indicators have specific project
and time frame with specific objective,
Speed parameters are targets, indicators and
accepted to be essential implementation time
indicators of enforcement frame
effects, notwithstanding The team found
the speedtargeted project that the speed used
or a general surveillance for enforcement is
operation. conducted only on areas
Speed measurement is with speed limits sign.
performed at least twice; The team found that
before the project (baseline) speed measurement is
and during the project. performed only once
In enforcement operations when the traffic police
it will be only possible want to determine the
to prosecute a driver for speed used by driver.
measured speed that exceeds The team found that
the limit by more than the there is no defined
tolerance. tolerance speed limit
Data to be collected include which is communicated
total number of inspection to the public
done, number of drivers The traffic police keep
tested/checked and their record only for the
recorded speed, drivers who commit the
The number of locations of offence of over speed in
measurement sites depends the notification form.
with the project scope. Also the over speed
When local enforcement activity, recorded only during the
one or two street/road sections, accident when the traffic
is involved, the measurements finding the cause of
are usually performed along accidents.
side the enforcement or some The team found that
times several hundred meters police stand along the
downstream to it. paved high way roads
When project spread over an to detect over speed
area (e.g. city, road network) the drivers
representative sample of sites is The team found out
built (10-20) that there is only one
Penalties for various level of fixed penalty which is
speeding should reflect the TZS 20,000/ for over
relative risk to human life, e.g. speeding at any level of
in some countries license loss speed lmit
can take place when driver
caught driving at 25km/h or
more above the speed limit

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S/N Key risk What is supposed to be What is happening in


factors done the field
2 D r u n k There must be a specific The team found that
driving project focused on issue of there is no specific
drunk driving formulated by project focused on
traffic police with specific issue of drunk driving
objective, targets, indicators formulated by traffic
and time frame police with specific
objective, targets,
There must be an agreed indicators and time
method of testing e.g. frame
Random Breath Testing
The team found that the
Data to be collected include Traffic police test the
total number of drivers suspected drunk drivers
stopped, the number of and specifically when
negative and positive breath- that driver causes an
test performed, the offences accident.
numbers and total number of
hours spent by police officers Only data for drivers who
on the Random Breath Test committed the offence of
drunk driving is recorded
The data should be analyzed in the notification form.
and compared in terms of
applicable ratios so as to No evidence shows data
measure the enforcement is analyzed with regard
quality and quantity. to the issues of drunk
driving
Source: Data compiled by the Auditors from the National Audit Office
and Best Practices38 (2011)

38 World Health Organization (WHO). 2010. Data systems: A road safety manual
for decision-makers and practitioners and Global Road Safety Partnership. 2008. Speed
management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners. Geneva,
Switzerland.

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Appendix Ten: Location of reported traffic crashes (black spots)


and inspection spots

Region Location of Location of inspection Blackspots


Blackspots points without
closely
Located
inspection
points
Morogoro Melela, Weighbridge Nane Nane, Oilcom, Msimba, Kidahi,
(Dodoma road), Mkambarai, Masei, Mikese, Iyovi,Mikumi
Msimba, Kidahi, Iyovi, Fulwe, Msamvu, Mkundi National
Mikumi National Park, (Weighbridge), Wami Dakawa, Park, Ibuti,
Ibuti, Kiyegeya, Tabu Magubike, Kiyegeya, Gairo, Tabu Hotel,
Hotel, Wami Dakawa, Chamwino, Kasanga, Melela, Mtumbatu and
Wami Sokoine, Doma, Sangasanga, Mlima Magengeni.
Mangae, Mtumbatu Ngalo, Kilakala Junction, Wami
Magengeni,Nanenane Sokoine, Wami Dakawa, Doma
and Chamwino. and Mangae.
Dodoma St Gaspar Hotel, Neiman Bar, Nanenane, Kizota, St Gasper
Ihumwa, Kizota, Weighbridge, Narco, Kibaigwa, Hotel, Ihumwa
Msembeta, Narco, Pandambili, Silwa and Mbande. and Msembeta.
Pandambili, Kibaigwa,
Silwa and Mbande.
Mbeya Uyole, Mwanjela, Songwe, Mbalizi, Iyunga, Forest, Mlowo, Ihanda,
Mbalizi, Senjele, Mwanjela, Kabwe, Soweto, Sai, Wawa Mjini,
Mlowo, Ihanda, Nanenane, Uyole, Inyara, Iboya, Maporomoko
Wawa mjini, Mpemba Simbeye, Rwanda, Senjele, and Ilomba.
Chapwa, Igawa Stand, Kamsamba, Kwa Wachina,
Igurusi, Tunduma Tunduma Secondary, Mpemba,
Road, Maporomoko, Sogea, Custom, Rujewa, Igawa,
Iyunga, Kabwe, Sae, Mpakani, Mabadaga,Chimala
Ilomba, Mafiati, Sinde Mizani and Igurusi.
and Sogea.
Tabora Bulyangombe, Ziba, Iborogero,Hanihani,Igunga Bulyangombe,
Mgongolo, Igunga Town, Ziba, Mgongolo
Town, Ipazi, Nzega Kitangari,Miguwa,Nata,Umondo and Udutu.
Ndogo and Manongo and Nzega
(Udutu).
Arusha Makumira, Maji ya Ngaramtoni, Oldonyo Sambu, Kambi ya
Chai, Kambi ya Mkaa, Tengeru, Usa River, Nduruma, Mkaa, Radio
Nduruma Darajani, Maji ya Chai, Katiti, Kingori, Habari
Radio Habari Maalum, Makumira, Meserani, Oasis, Maalumu,
Mbuga Nyeupe, Mti Mmoja, Makuyuni, Sironga, Mbuga Nyeupe,
Kisongo, Tengeru, Mbuyuni, Mto wa Mbu, Kibaoni, Kisongo and
Mti Mmoja, Meserani, Monduli Town, Ngaramtoni, Silalei.
Silalei, Makuyuni, Bus Stand Area, Nduruma,
Ngaramtoni, Usa Kitendaguro, Shoprite, Mianzini,
River, Katiti and Sanawari, Kwa Mrombo, Unga
Kingori. Limited, Chini ya Mti, Zebra,
Metropole, Kijenge Round
about, Kisongo, Njiro, Kilombero
Sokoni, TCA and Philips.

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Mtwara Bima, Magomeni, Bima, Magomeni, Msijute, TRA, Coco


TRA, Mikindani, Stand Mikindani, Bus Stand (Four Beach,
,Coco Beach, Four Ways) and Lindi Road. Mahenge,
ways, Mahenge, Jida, Msijute, Jida,
Mkuti, Mtandi, Masasi Tokula base,
Mbovu, Tokula base Mkuti, Mtandi
Camp and Msijute. and Masasi
Mbovu.
Kigoma Mwanga, Kakonko, Maweni, Mwanga, Manyovu,
Manyovu, Bangwe, Kigoma Town and Stand. Bangwe,
Mwembetogwa, Mwembetogwa,
Gungu, Veta, Kibirizi, Gungu,
Kigoma mjini, Kigoma Veta, Kibirizi,
kati, Ujenzi, Mlole, Kigoma Kati,
Mayange, Kidiama, Ujenzi, Mlole,
Kosovo, Busunzu, Mayange,
Kakonko and Mshindu Kidiama,
Kosovo,
Busunzu and
Mshindu.
Sources: Road Accidents Reports, Traffic Inspctions Allocation
Timetables Police (2011)

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Appendix Eleven: Definition of Terms

Speeding; Section 51 of Road Traffic Act;

(1) Any person who drives or who aids, abets, counsels or


procures any other person to drive, a motor vehicle, whether
with or without a trailer attached thereto, or trailer of any class
or description on a road at a speed greater than the maximum
speed limit prescribed for that class of motor vehicles or trailers
in respect of that road under the provisions of this Act, shall be
guilty of an offence.

(2) Any person who drives, or who aids, abets, counsels or


procures any other person to drive, a motor vehicle or trailer on
any road or in any public place at a speed in excess of a speed
limit lawfully imposed in relation to that road or public place
shall be guilty of an offence.

Drunk and Drive; Section 44 of Road Traffic Act; Driving a


motor vehicle while under the influence of drink or drugs
Any person who, while under the influence of drink or drugs
to such an extent as to be incapable of having proper control
of a motor vehicle or trailer, drives or attempts to drive or is in
charge of a motor vehicle or trailer on any road or other public
place shall be guilty of an offence.

Careless driving; Section 50 of Road Traffic Act; Careless or


inconsiderate use of motor vehicle

(1) Any person who uses parks or stands a motor vehicle or trailer
on any road carelessly or without reasonable consideration for
other persons using the road shall be guilty of an offence.

Reckless or dangerous driving; Section 42 of Road Traffic


Act; Reckless or dangerous driving. Any person who, on any
road

(a) Recklessly drives a motor vehicle or trailer; or

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(b) Drives a motor vehicle or trailer at a speed which, having


regard to all the circumstances of the case, is or might be
dangerous to the public or to any person; or

(c) Drives a motor vehicle or trailer in a manner which, having


regard to all the circumstances of the case is or might be
dangerous to the public or to any person, shall be guilty of
an offence.

113