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- Tutorial of Math.
- Chapter-1
- Classifying Real Numbers
- chap01.pdf
- Rough Complex Crash Course !
- NCERT Class IX Solution
- Surds
- calculator sheet
- 6 Fract
- 01. Basic Engineering Correlation (Algebra) v2
- teacher tube
- Revision Booklet
- Slides 4
- Computer Science 37 Lecture 10
- JQ Prelims
- Factor Practice
- Calculus 01 the x y Plane
- class6 complex
- Basic-Math-Week4.pptx
- multiplying dividing mixed numbers

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adventure ...

... an adventure

through the world of

numbers.

We can use numbers to count: 1, 2, 3, 4, etc

Humans have been using numbers to count with for thousands of years. It is a very

natural thing to do.

a field can have "6 cows"

and so on.

So we have:

Zero

The idea of zero , though natural to us now, was not natural to early humans ... if there is

nothing to count, how can you count it?

Example: you can count dogs, but you can't count an empty space:

Placeholder

But about 3,000 years ago people needed to tell the difference between numbers

like 4 and 40.Without the zero they look the same!

So they used a "placeholder", a space or special symbol, to show "there are no digits

here"

52

(5 hundreds, nothing for the tens, and 2 units)

The idea of zero had begun, but it wasn't for another thousand years or so that people

started thinking of it as an actual number.

"I had 3 oranges, then I ate the 3 oranges, now I have zero oranges...!"

So, let us add zero to the counting numbers to make a new set of numbers.

But we need a new name, and that name is "Whole Numbers":

The Natural

Numbers

You may also hear the term "Natural Numbers" ... which can mean:

or the "Whole Numbers": {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}

depending on the subject. I guess they disagree on whether zero is "natural" or not.

Negative Numbers

But the history of mathematics is all about people asking questions, and seeking the

answers!

"if you can go one way, can you go the opposite way?"

Now we can go forwards and

backwards as far as we want

"negative"?

freezes ... but if we get colder we need negative

temperatures.

Negative Cows?

Think about this ...If you had just sold two bulls, but

can only find one to hand over to the new owner... you

actually have minus one bull ... you are in debt one

bull!

So negative numbers exist, and we're going to need a new set of numbers to include

them ...

Integers

If we include the negative numbers with the whole numbers, we have a new set of

numbers that are called integers

The Integers include zero, the counting numbers, and the negative of the counting

numbers, to make a list of numbers that stretch in either direction indefinitely.

Fractions

If you have one orange and want to share it with someone, you need

to cut it in half.

You took a number (1) and divided by another number (2) to come up with half (1/2)

The same thing would have happened if you had four biscuits (4) and needed to share

them among three people (3) ... they would get (4/3) biscuits each.

Rational Numbers

Any number that can be written as a fraction is called a Rational Number.

So, if "p" and "q" are integers (remember we talked about integers), then p/q is a rational

number.

The only time this doesn't work is when q is zero, because dividing by zero is

undefined.

and all fractions.

People didn't stop asking the questions ...and here is one that caused a lot of fuss during

the time of Pythagoras:

If you draw a square (of size "1"), what is the distance

across the diagonal?

... in fact you cannot answer that question using a ratio of two integers

Wow! There are numbers that are NOT rational numbers! What do we call them?

Irrational Numbers

So, the square root of 2 (2) is an irrational number. It is called irrational because it is

not rational (can't be made using a simple ratio of integers). It isn't crazy or anything, just

not rational.

And we know there are many more irrational numbers. Pi () is a famous one.

Useful

to work out lots of calculations with circles (using ),

and more,

Real Numbers

That's right, another name!

the irrational numbers

In fact a Real Number can be thought of as any point anywhere on the number line:

This only shows a few decimal places (it is just a simple computer)

but Real Numbers can have lots more decimal places!

Any point Anywhere on the number line, that is surely enough numbers!

But there is one more number which has turned out to be very useful. And once again, it

came from a question.

Imagine ...

The question is:

Think about this: if you multiply any number by itself you can't get a negative result:

11 = 1,

and also (-1)(-1) = 1 (because a negative times a negative gives a

positive)

"if you can imagine it, then you can play with it"

So, ...

Imaginary Numbers

... let us just imagine that the square root of minus one exists.

Answer: (-9) = (9 -1) = (9) (-1) = 3 (-1) = 3i

OK, the answer still involves i, but it gives a sensible and consistent answer.

And i has this interesting property that if you square it (ii) you get -1 which is back to

being a Real Number. In fact that is the correct definition:

And i (the square root of -1) times any Real Number is an Imaginary Number. So these

are all Imaginary Numbers:

3i

-6i

0.05i

i

There are also many applications for Imaginary Numbers, for example in the fields of

electricity and electronics.

Imaginary Numbers were originally laughed at, and so got the name "imaginary". And

Real Numbers got their name to distinguish them from the Imaginary Numbers.

So the names are just a historical thing. Real Numbers aren't "in the Real World" (in fact,

try to find exactly half of something in the real world!) and Imaginary Numbers aren't

"just in the Imagination" ... they are both valid and useful types of Numbers!

Complex Numbers

Yes, if you put a Real Number and an Imaginary Number together you get a new type of

number called a Complex Number and here are some examples:

3 + 2i

27.2 - 11.05i

A Complex Number has a Real Part and an Imaginary Part, but either one could be zero

part of 0):

So the Complex Numbers include all Real Numbers and all Imaginary Numbers, and all

combinations of them.

There are other types of numbers, because mathematics is a broad subject, but that

should do you for now.

Summary

Here they are again:

Type of Number Quick Description

Complex Numbers Combinations of Real and Imaginary Numbers

End Notes

History

The history of mathematics is very broad, with different cultures (Greeks, Romans,

Arabic, Chinese, Indians and European) following different paths, and many claims

for "we thought of it first!", but the general order of discovery I discussed here gives a

good idea of it.

Numbers

A Prime Number can be divided evenly only by 1 or itself.

And it must be a whole number greater than 1.

it is a prime number.

composite number).

Example:

6=23

Like this:

or

But 7 cannot be divided up evenly:

up evenly it is a Composite Number

And that explains it ... but there are some more details ...

We are only dealing with whole numbers here! We are not going to cut things into halves

or quarters.

OK, we could have divided 7 into seven 1s (or one 7) like this:

7=1x7

So we should also say we are not interested in dividing by 1, or by the number itself.

(except 1 or itself).

We cannot divid

e 7 evenly by 2

(we get 2 lots of

3, with one left over)

We cannot divide 7 evenly by 3 (we get 3 lots of 2, with one left over)

We cannot divide 7 evenly by 4, or 5, or 6.

We can only divide 7 into one group of 7 (or seven groups of 1):

7=1x7

So 7 is a Prime Number

And also:

by numbers other than 1 or itself.

Like this:

6=16

6=23

So 6 is a Composite Number

1 12 = 12

2 6 = 12

3 4 = 12

So 12 is a Composite Number

What About 1?

Years ago 1 was included as a Prime, but now it is not:

Factors

We can also define a Prime Number using factors.

"Factors" are numbers we

multiply

together to get another number.

And we have:

When the only two factors of a number are 1 and the number,

then it is a Prime Number

It means the same as our previous definition, just stated using factors.

And remember this is only about Whole Numbers (1, 2, 3, ... etc), not fractions or

negative numbers. So don't say "I could multiply times 6 to get 3" OK?

Examples:

3=13

Prime

(the only factors are 1 and 3)

6 = 1 6 or 6 = 2 3

Composite

(the factors are 1,2,3 and 6)

Examples From 1 to 14

Factors other than 1 or the number itself are highlighted :

Number

Divided By Composite?

2 1, 2 Prime

3 1, 3 Prime

4 1, 2, 4 Composite

5 1, 5 Prime

6 1, 2, 3, 6 Composite

7 1, 7 Prime

8 1, 2, 4, 8 Composite

9 1, 3, 9 Composite

10 1, 2, 5, 10 Composite

11 1, 11 Prime

12 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 Composite

13 1, 13 Prime

14 1, 2, 7, 14 Composite

So when there are more factors than 1 or the number itself, the number is Composite.

Because we can "break apart" Composite Numbers into Prime Number factors.

It is like the Prime Numbers are the basic building blocks of all numbers.

together.

2 is Prime, 3 is Prime, 4 is

Composite (=22), 5 is Prime,

and so on...

12 = 2 2 3

12 = 22 3

And that is why they are called "Composite" Numbers because composite

means "something made by combining things"

There are many puzzles in mathematics that can be solved more easily when we "break

up" the Composite Numbers into their Prime Number factors. A lot of internet security is

based on mathematics using prime numbers.

Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

The Basic Idea is that any integer above 1 is either a Prime Number , or can be made

bymultiplying Prime Numbers together. Like this:

10 is 25

11 is Prime,

12 is 223

13 is Prime

14 is 27

15 is 35

16 is 2222

17 is Prime

etc...

Let us start with the definition:

a unique product of prime numbers (ignoring the order).

Let's build up the ideas piece by piece:

"Any integer greater than 1" means the numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... etc.

A Prime Number is a number that cannot be evenly divided by any other number

(except 1 or itself).

The first few prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, ... ( and more )

So, by multiplying prime numbers we can create any other whole number.

Example: 42

2 3 7 = 42

Yes, 2, 3 and 7 are prime numbers, and when multiplied together they make 42.

Try some other examples for yourself. How about 30? Or 33?

It is like the Prime Numbers are the basic building blocks of all numbers.

"... unique product of prime numbers" means there is only one (unique!) set of prime

numbers that will work

2 3 7 = 42

So there you have it!

Any of the numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... etc are either prime numbers, or can be

made by multiplying prime numbers together.

And there is only one (unique) set of prime numbers that works in each case.

More examples:

Example: 7

Example: 22

2 11 = 22

Also, at the top I said "ignoring the order". By that I mean:

2 11 = 22 is the same as

11 2 = 22

So don't just rearrange the numbers and say "it isn't unique", OK?

Repeated Numbers

We may have to repeat a prime number!

12 = 2 2 3

12 = 22 3

2 Is a Prime

3 Is a Prime

4 = 22 = 22

5 Is a Prime

6 = 23

7 Is a Prime

8 = 222 = 23

9 = 33 = 32

10 = 25

11 Is a Prime

12 = 223 = 223

13 Is a Prime

14 = 27

... ...

Summary

The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic is like a "guarantee"

that any integer greater than 1

is either prime

or can be made by multiplying prime numbers

and

Whole Numbers

Whole Numbers are simply the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (and so on)

No Fractions!

Counting Numbers

Counting Numbers are Whole Numbers, but without the zero. Because you can't

"count" zero .

So they are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, (and so on).

Natural Numbers

"Natural Numbers" can mean either "Counting Numbers" {1, 2, 3, ...}, or "Whole

Numbers" {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}, depending on the subject.

Integers

Integers are like whole numbers, but they also include negative numbers ... but still no

fractions allowed!

-2,-3, -4, -5, }, positive {1, 2,

3, 4, 5, }, or zero {0}

this:

Integers = { ..., -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... }

Confusing

Just to be confusing, some people say that whole numbers can also be negative, so that

would make them exactly the same as integers. And sometimes people say that zero is

NOT a whole number. So there you go, not everyone agrees on a simple thing!

My Standard

I must admit that sometimes I say "negative whole number", but usually I stick to:

Whole Numbers { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, } 0, 27, 398, 2345

Counting Numbers { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, } 1, 18, 27, 2061

Integers { ... -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, } -15, 0, 27, 1102

But nobody disagrees on the definition of an integer, so when in doubt say "integer", and

if you only want positive integers, say "positive integers". It is not only accurate, it makes

you sound intelligent. Like this (note: zero is neither positive nor negative):

Negative Integers = { ..., -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 }

Positive Integers = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... }

Non-Negative Integers = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... } (includes zero, see?)

Other Numbers

For an interesting look at other types of numbers read The Evolution of Numbers

Rational Numbers

A Rational Number is a real number that can be written as a simple fraction (i.e. as

a ratio).

Example:

1.5 is a rational number because 1.5 = 3/2 (it can be written as a fraction)

5 5/1 Yes

2

? NO !

(square root of 2)

Oops! The square root of 2 cannot be written as a simple fraction! And there are many

more such numbers, and because they are not rational they are called Irrational .

Formal Definition

of Rational

Number

More formally we would say:

where p and q are integers and q is not equal to zero.

p

q

Examples:

p q p/q =

1 1 1/1 1

1 2 1/2 0.5

100

1 1/1000 0.001

0

7 0 7/0 No! "q" can't be zero!

use, so I have a special page on how to:

Pythagoras' Student

The ancient greek mathematician Pythagoras believed that all numbers were

rational (could be written as a fraction), but one of his

students Hippasus proved (using geometry, it is thought) that you

could not represent the square root of 2 as a fraction, and so it was irrational.

because he believed that all numbers had perfect values. But he could not

disprove Hippasus'"irrational numbers" and so Hippasus was thrown

overboard and drowned!

Using Rational Numbers

How to add, subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers

A rational number is a number that can be written as a simple fraction (i.e. as a ratio).

Examples:

Number As a Fraction

5 5/1

1.75 7/4

.001 1/1000

0.111... 1/9

In general ...

So a rational number looks like this:

p/q

When the rational number is something simple like 3, or 0.001, then just use mental

arithmetic, or your calculator!

Adding Fractions,

Subtracting Fractions,

Multiplying Fractions and

Dividing Fractions

way.

Multiplication

To multiply two rational numbers multiply the tops and bottoms separately, like this:

Here is an example:

Division

To divide two rational numbers, first flip the second number over (make it a reciprocal)

and then do a multiply like above:

Here is an example:

Addition and Subtraction

We will cover Addition and Subtraction in one go, as they are the same method.

Before we add or subtract, the rational numbers should have the same bottom

number (called a Common Denominator ).

Multiply both parts of each number by the bottom part of the other

Simplest Form

Sometimes we will have a rational number like:

1

0

1

5

1 =

2

0

1

3

5

Now it is in the "simplest form", which is how most people want it!

We may be tempted to write an Improper Fraction (a fraction that is "top-heavy", i.e.

where the top number is bigger then the bottom number) as a Mixed Fraction :

Mixed

7/4 1 3/4

=

But for mathematics the "Improper" form (such as 7/4) is actually better.

Because Mixed fractions (such as 1 3/4) can be confusing when you write them down in a

formula, as it can look like a multiplication:

Mixed Fraction: What is: 1 + 2 1/4 ?

Is it: 1 + 2 + 1/4 = 3 1/4 ?

Or is it: 1 + 2 1/4 = 1 1/2 ?

4/4 + 9/4 = 13/4

It is:

Irrational Numbers

An Irrational Number is a real number that cannot be written as a simple fraction.

Examples:

Rational Numbers

be written as a Ratio of two

integers (ie a simple fraction).

Example: 1.5 is rational, because it can be written as the ratio 3/2

ratio 1/3

Irrational Numbers

not because it is crazy!

= 3.1415926535897932384626433832795 (and more...)

accurate.

Rational vs Irrational

So you can tell if it is Rational or Irrational by trying to write the number as a simple

fraction.

this:

9.5 = 19/2

Rational or

Number As a Fraction

Irrational?

2

? Irrational !

(square root of 2)

Square Root of 2

Let's look at the square root of 2 more closely.

what is the distance across the diagonal?

... in fact you cannot write the square root of 2 using a ratio of two numbers

Pi is a famous irrational number. People have calculated Pi

to over a quadrillion decimal places and still there is no

pattern. The first few digits look like this:

irrational number. People have also calculated e to lots of

decimal places without any pattern showing. The first few

digits look like this:

digits look like this:

numbers. Examples:

3 1.7320508075688772935274463415059

(etc)

99 9.9498743710661995473447982100121

(etc)

... so not all roots are irrational.

= 2 is irrational

But 2 2 = 2 is rational

Apparently Hippasus (one of Pythagoras' students) discovered irrational numbers when

trying to represent the square root of 2 as a fraction (using geometry, it is thought).

Instead he proved you couldn't write the square root of 2 as a fraction and so it

was irrational.

However Pythagoras could not accept the existence of irrational numbers, because he

believed that all numbers had perfect values. But he could not

disprove Hippasus' "irrational numbers" and so Hippasus was thrown overboard and

drowned!

The idea is that 0.9 recurring

(0.999..., with the digits going on forever)

is actually equal to 1

(Here we write 0.999... as notation for 0.9 recurring,

the correct way is to put a little dot above the 9, or a line on top like this: 0.9)

Does 0.999... = 1 ?

Let X = 0.999...

Then 10X = 9.999...

9X = 9.999... - X

9X = 9.999... - 0.999...

or: 9X = 9

X=1

X = 0.999... = 1

So 0.999... = 1

Does anyone disagree with this? Let me know on the Math is Fun Forum.

Real Numbers

Real Numbers are just numbers like:

In fact:

Whole Numbers (like 0,1,2,3,4, etc)

Irrational Numbers (like , 3, etc )

Imaginary Numbers like -1 (the square root of minus 1)

are not Real Numbers

And there are also some special numbers that mathematicians play with that aren't Real

Numbers.

The Real Numbers did not have a name before Imaginary Numbers were thought of.

They got called "Real" because they were not Imaginary. That is the actual answer!

The Real Number Line is like a geometric line .

A point is chosen on the line to be the "origin", points to the right will be positive, and

points to the left will be negative.

then whole numbers can be

marked off: {1,2,3,...}, and also

in the negative direction: {-1,-2,-

3, ...}

or rational (like 20/9)

or irrational (like )

because they show the value of

something real.

In mathematics we like our numbers pure, when we write 0.5 we mean exactly half, but

in the real world half may not be exact (try cutting an apple exactly in half).

Imaginary Numbers

Try

Let's try squaring some numbers to see if we can get a negative result:

22=4

00=0

It seems like we cannot multiply a number by itself to get a negative answer ...

imaginary) that could do this:

i i = -1

Would it be useful, and what could we do with it?

that need the square root of a negative number.

Hey! that was interesting! The square root of -9 is simply the square root of +9, times i.

In general:

(-x) = ix

need to multiply by -1 we are safe to continue with our solution!

Example: Solve x 2 = -1

Using Real Numbers there is no solution, but now we can solve it:

Answer: x = -1 = i

The "unit" Imaginary Number (the equivalent of 1 for Real Numbers)

is (-1)(the square root of minus one).

use j (because "i" already means current, and the next letter after i is j).

i 12.38i -i 3i/4 0.01i -i/2

Imaginary Numbers were once thought to be impossible, and so they were called

"Imaginary" (to make fun of them).

But then people researched them more and discovered they were

actually useful and importantbecause they filled a gap in mathematics ... but the

"imaginary" name has stuck.

And that is also how the name " Real Numbers " came about (real is not imaginary).

Here are 2 cases where they are useful:

Electricity

negative in a sine wave .

and it can bevery hard to figure out the new current.

But using imaginary numbers and real numbers together makes it a lot easier to do the

calculations.

And the result may be "Imaginary" current, but it could still hurt you!

Quadratic Equation

give results that include

imaginary numbers

Interesting Property

The Unit Imaginary Number, i, has an interesting property. It "cycles" through 4 different

values each time we multiply:

i i = -1,

then -1 i = -i,

then -i i = 1,

So we have this:

i = -1 i2 = -1 i3 = --1 i4 = 1 i5 = -1 ...etc

Example What is i 6 ?

i6 = i4 i2

= 1 -1

= -1

Conclusion

equals the square root of minus 1

Imaginary Numbers are not "imaginary", they really exist, and you may need to use them

one day.

Complex Numbers

A Complex Number is a combination of:

a Real Number

when we square a negative number we also get a positive result (because a

negative times a negative gives a positive)

But just imagine there is such a number, because we will need it!

The "unit" imaginary number (like 1 for Real Numbers) is i, which is the square root

of -1

A Combination

So we have this definition:

Number

Examples:

Can a Number be a Combination of Two Numbers?

made up of a 3 and an 8. We know it means "3 of 8 equal parts".

Well, a Complex Number is just two numbers added together (a Real and an Imaginary

Number).

So, a Complex Number has a real part and an imaginary part.

But either part can be 0, so all Real Numbers and Imaginary Numbers are also Complex

Numbers.

Complex

Real Part Imaginary Part

Number

3 + 2i 3 2

5 5 0

-6i 0 -6

Complicated?

It means the two types of numbers, real and imaginary, together form

acomplex, just like a building complex (buildings joined together).

Adding

To add two complex numbers we add each element separately:

Multiplying

To multiply complex numbers:

each part of the second complex number

Just use "FOIL", which stands for "Firsts, Outers, Inners, Lasts" (see Binomial

Multiplication for more details):

Firsts: a c

Outers: a di

Inners: bi c

Lasts: bi di

Like this:

(3 + 2i)(1 + 7i) = 31 + 37i + 2i1+ 2i7i

= 3 + 21i + 2i + 14i2

= 3 + 21i + 2i - 14 (because i2 = -1)

= -11 + 23i

And this:

Example: (1 + i) 2

(1 + i)2 = (1 + i)(1 + i) = 11 + 1i + 1i + i2

= 1 + 2i - 1 (because i2 = -1)

= 0 + 2i

= ac + adi + bci - bd (because i2=-1)

= (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i (gathering like terms)

This rule is certainly faster, but if you forget it, just remember the FOIL method.

Let us try i2

Just for fun, let's use the method to calculate i2

Example: i 2

i2 = (0 + i)2 = (0 + i)(0 + i)

= (00 - 11) + (01 + 10)i

= -1 + 0i

= -1

Complex Plane

We can also put complex numbers on a Complex Plane .

Conjugates

A conjugate is where we change the sign in the middle like this:

A conjugate is often written with

a bar over it:

Example:

5 - 3i = 5 + 3i

Dividing

The conjugate is used to help division.

The trick is to multiply both top and bottom by the conjugate of the bottom.

2 + 3i

4 - 5i

=

4 - 5i 4 + 5i 16 + 20i - 20i - 25i2

8 + 10i + 12i - 15

=

16 + 20i - 20i + 25

Add Like Terms (and notice how on the bottom 20i - 20i cancels out!):

-7 + 22i

=

41

-7 22

= + i

41 41

DONE!

We can save a little bit of time, though.

And since i2=-1 we ended up with this:

(4 - 5i)(4 + 5i) = 42 + 52

(a + bi)(a - bi) = a2 + b2

Example: What is

2 + 3i

4 - 5i

= =

4 - 5i 4 + 5i 16 + 25 41

-7 22

= + i

41 41

DONE!

Mandelbrot Set

is based on Complex Numbers.

simple equation z2+c (both complex

numbers) and feed the result back into z time

and time again.

black means it stays within a certain range.

Mandelbrot set

zoomed in even further:

Complex Plane

No, not this complex plane ...

... this complex plane:

It is

a plane f

or compl

ex numb

ers!

A Complex Number is a combination of a Real Number and an Imaginary Number.

A Real Number is the type of number you are used to dealing with every

day.

With real numbers we can do things like squaring (multiply a number by itself):

22=4

? ? = -4

Well, -2 won't work because multiplying negatives gives a positive : (-2) (-2) =

+4, and no other Real Number works either.

... but we can fill the gap by imagining there is a number that, when multiplied by itself,

gives -1 (call it i for imaginary):

i2 = -1

2i 2i = 4i2 = 4 (-1) = -4

500i

And together:

Number

You may be familiar with the number line :

But where do we put a complex number like 3+4i ?

Let's have the real number line going left-right as usual, and an imaginary number line

going up-down:

It is placed

And here is 4 - 2i :

It is placed

plane because it is like a geometric plane (2 dimensional).

Now we can bring the idea of a plane ( Cartesian coordinates , Polar

coordinates , Vectors and more) to complex numbers, and we open up a whole new

world of numbers that are more complete and elegant, as you will see.

Complex Number as a Vector

You can think of a complex number as being a vector .

This is a vector.

It has magnitude (length) and

direction.

as a Vector:

Add the real numbers, add the imaginary numbers, like this:

Polar Form

Again, here is the complex number 3 + 4i

As a Vector:

In polar form:

So the complex number 3 + 4i can also be shown as distance (5) and angle (0.927

radians).

= tan-1 (y/x) = tan-1 (4/3) = 0.927 (to 3 decimals)

We can also take Polar coordinates and convert them to Cartesian coordinates:

x = r cos( ) = 5 cos( 0.927 ) = 5 0.6002... = 3 (close enough)

y = r sin( ) = 5 sin( 0.927 ) = 5 0.7998... = 4 (close enough)

So 3 + 4i = 5 cis 0.927

Summary

imaginary numbers running up-down.

r = (x2 + y2)

= tan-1 ( y / x )

x = r cos( )

y = r sin( )

There are sets of numbers that are used so often that they have special names and

symbols:

Symb Description

ol

Natural Numbers

The whole numbers from 1 upwards. (Or from 0 upwards in some fields of

mathematics). Read More ->

Integers

negative whole numbers {...,

-3,-2,-1} and zero {0}. So the

set is {..., -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,

3, ...}

(Z is for the German "Zahlen", meaning numbers, because I is used for the set of

imaginary numbers). Read More ->

Rational Numbers

The numbers you can make by dividing one integer by another (but not dividing by

zero). In other words fractions . Read More ->

Irrational Numbers

Any real number that is not a Rational Number. Read More ->

Algebraic Numbers

Includes all Rational Numbers, and some Irrational Numbers. Read More ->

Transcendental Numbers

Real Numbers

All Rational and Irrational numbers. They can also be positive, negative or zero.

A simple way to think about the Real Numbers is: any point anywhere on the number

line (not just the whole numbers).

They are called "Real" numbers because they are not Imaginary Numbers. Read More

->

Imaginary Numbers

If you square a real number you always get a positive, or zero, result. For example

22=4, and (-2)(-2)=4 also, so "imaginary" numbers can seem impossible, but they are

still useful!

The "unit" imaginary numbers is (-1) (the square root of minus one), and its symbol

is i, or sometimes j.

i2 = -1

Complex Numbers

A combination of a real and an imaginary number in the form a + bi, where a andb are

real, and i is imaginary.

The values a and b can be zero, so the set of real numbers and the set of imaginary

numbers are subsets of the set of complex numbers.

Illustration

Natural numbers are a subset of

Integers

Numbers

the Real Numbers

Imaginary numbers make up the

Complex Numbers.

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