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13-P6

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Petrolero de Crudo
280.000TPM

Cuaderno N12

Equipos y Servicios

Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido


Grado en Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
09/10/2014
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1. CONTENIDO DEL CUADERNO. ............................................................................................. 3


2. EQUIPO DE AYUDA A LA NAVEGACIN. ............................................................................. 4
3. EQUIPO DE SALVAMENTO. ................................................................................................. 5
4. EQUIPO DE LASTRE. ............................................................................................................ 7
5. EQUIPO DE CARGA, DESCARGA Y SISTEMA COW. .............................................................. 8
6. SISTEMA DE INERTIZADO DE TANQUES. ............................................................................. 9
6.1. CLCULO DE LAS CARACTERSTICAS DEL SISTEMA. ................................................... 12
6.2. SELECCIN DEL SISTEMA DE GAS INERTE. ................................................................. 13
7. SERVICIO DE VENTILACIN ............................................................................................... 14
7.1. VENTILACIN EN LA CMARA DE MQUINAS. ......................................................... 14
7.2. AIRE ACONDICIONADO. ............................................................................................. 15
8. EQUIPOS DE ELEVACIN. .................................................................................................. 15
8.1. EQUIPOS EXTERIORES DE ELEVACIN. ...................................................................... 15
8.2. EQUIPOS DE ACCESO Y ELEVACIN. .......................................................................... 16
9. INSTALACIONES SANITARIAS. ........................................................................................... 17
9.1. SERVICIOS SANITARIOS. ............................................................................................. 17
9.2. CLCULO DEL GENERADOR DE AGUA DULCE. ........................................................... 18
9.3. BOMBA DE AGUA SANITARIA. ................................................................................... 18
9.4. SERVICIO DE AGUA POTABLE..................................................................................... 19
9.5. SERVICIO DE AGUA CALIENTE. ................................................................................... 20
10. SERVICIO DE FONDA Y HOTEL. ...................................................................................... 21
10.1. COCINA Y GAMBUZAS. ........................................................................................... 21
10.2. LAVANDERA. ......................................................................................................... 21
11. EQUIPO CONTRAINCENDIOS. ........................................................................................ 22
11.1. EQUIPOS PASIVOS. ................................................................................................. 22
11.2. EQUIPOS ACTIVOS. ................................................................................................. 22
12. EQUIPO DE AMARRE Y FONDEO. .................................................................................. 29
12.1. CCULO DEL NUMERAL DE EQUIPO. ..................................................................... 29
12.2. CCULO DE LA POTENCIA DE LOS MOLINETES. ..................................................... 30
12.3. SELECCIN DE LOS MOLINETES (Windlass). .......................................................... 32

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12.4. MAQUINILLAS DE AMARRE (Mooring winches). ................................................... 32


13. GENERACIN DE VAPOR. .............................................................................................. 33
13.1. CALENTADORES DE LAS PURIFICADORAS. ............................................................. 33
13.2. CALENTADORES DE HFO DEL MOTOR PRINCIPAL. ................................................. 34
13.3. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES ALMACN DE HFO. ................................................ 35
13.4. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES SEDIMENTACIN DE HFO. .................................... 35
13.5. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES DE USO DIARIO DE HFO. ....................................... 35
13.6. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES DE CARGA. ............................................................. 35
ANEXO 1 MEDIOS DE SALVAMENTO .
ANEXO 2 GRAS DE CUBIERTA .
ANEXO 3 C.O.W.
ANEXO 4 CALDERA Y GASES DE ESCAPE.
ANEXO 5 GENERADOR DE GAS INERTE.
ANEXO 6 EQUIPO DE AMARRE Y FONDEO.
ANEXO 7 EQUIPO CONTRAINCENDIOS.
ANEXO 8 CARACTERSTICAS DEL CRUDO.

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Escola Politcnica Superior

DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERA NAVAL Y OCENICA

GRADO EN INGENIERA DE PROPULSIN Y SERVICIOS DEL BUQUE

CURSO 2.012-2013

PROYECTO NMERO 13-P6

TIPO DE BUQUE : BUQUE TANQUE DE CRUDOS

CLASIFICACIN , COTA Y REGLAMENTOS DE APLICACIN : DNV, SOLAS,


MARPOL

CARACTERSTICAS DE LA CARGA: Crudos de petrleo 280000 T.P.M.

VELOCIDAD Y AUTONOMA : 16,0 nudos en condiciones de servicio. 85 % MCR+


15% de margen de mar. 18.000 millas a la velocidad de servicio.

SISTEMAS Y EQUIPOS DE CARGA / DESCARGA : Bombas de carga y descarga en


cmara de bombas. Calefaccin en tanques de carga.

PROPULSIN : Un motor diesel acoplado a una hlice de paso fijo

TRIPULACIN Y PASAJE : 30 Personas en camarotes individuales. Cabina personal de


Suez

Ferrol, Febrero de 2.013

ALUMNO : D. Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido.

1
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1. CONTENIDO DEL CUADERNO.


En este cuaderno se definirn tanto los equipos que llevar a bordo nuestro buque,
como los sistemas de navegacin, los sistemas de carga y descarga, maniobra, fondeo,
amarre, equipamiento de cocina etc.
Las caractersticas del buque sern las siguientes.

Eslora entre Perpendiculares Lpp 316,49 m


Eslora Total Lt 329,19 m
Manga B 57,57 m
Puntal D 29,70 m
Navegacin Normal 21,073 m.
Calado T
Navegacin Suez 17,50 m
Francobordo FBV de verano 6809 mm
Francobordo FBI de invierno 7286 mm
Peso Muerto DW 290255 t
Capacidad de Tanques (incl. Slops) 331501 m3
Desplazamiento 352568 t
Coeficiente de Bloque CB 0,89
Coeficiente de la Maestra CM 0,99
Coeficiente de la Flotacin CF 0,96
Coeficiente Prismtico CP 0,89
Potencia con 15% M.M, a 82 rpm 29492 kW

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2. EQUIPO DE AYUDA A LA NAVEGACIN.


Los equipos de ayuda a la navegacin se repartirn en las distintas zonas en las que se
divide el puente como se ha indicado en el plano de habilitacin.

En la siguiente tabla mostraremos los distintos equipos, su localizacin y el nmero de


unidades instaladas.
EQUIPOS DE AYUDA A LA NAVEGACIN SITUACIN UNIDADES
Consola alerones. Alerones 2
Equipo V.H.F.-RT 4800 Sailor. Alerones 2
Telfonos automticos. Alerones 2
Transpondedores de radar. Alerones 2
Indicador de ngulo de timn. Alerones/Puente 2/1
Indicador de revoluciones M.P. Alerones/Puente 2/1
Repetidor girocomps. Alerones/Puente 2/1
Sistema ECDIS. Consola Puente 1
Consola radiocomunicaciones GMDSS. Derrota 1
Corredera. Derrota 1
Ecosonda. Derrota 1
Equipo V.H.F. Derrota 1
Receptor 2182. Derrota 1
Receptor Facsmil. Derrota 1
Receptor G.P.S. Derrota 2
Receptor NAVTEX. Derrota 1
Registrador de rumbos. Derrota 1
Reloj maestro. Derrota 1
Unidad de control girocomps. Derrota 1
Girocomps Comunicaciones 2
Amplificador de Radio y T.V. Comunicaciones 1
Consola puente. Puente 1
Controlador satlite. Puente 1
Impresora. Puente 1
Ordenador PC. Puente 1
Radiotelfonos porttiles. Puente 3
Telefax. Puente 1
Telfono. Puente 1
Transceptor Estndar B. Puente 1
Unidad Radiotelefnica FM./AM. Puente 1
Comps magntico. Techo Puente 1

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3. EQUIPO DE SALVAMENTO.
Tenemos que cumplir con el reglamento del SOLAS (Captulo III), por lo que debemos de
disponer de los siguientes medios de salvamento.
Bote salvavidas. (Captulo III. Parte B. Seccin III. Regla 31.1.2.1).
Se dispondr de dos botes salvavidas de cada libre cerrados que cumplan lo prescrito
en la seccin 4.7 del Cdigo, que puedan ponerse a flote por cada libre por la popa
del buque y cuya capacidad conjunta baste para dar cabida al nmero total de
personas que vayan a bordo. El material de construccin ser de polister reforzado
con fibra de vidrio. Los botes salvavidas cumplirn con lo prescrito par un bote de
rescate y podrn recuperarse tras la operacin de salvamento. Todas las
embarcaciones de superviviencia irn provistas de materiales retrorreflectantes. Idem
para los botes de rescate, chalecos y aros salvavidas.
Como botes salvavidas se han seleccionado los botes de cada libre tipo DAVITS
ANEXO 1 Salvamento. del fabricante alemn BECSO autopropulsados con hlice en
tobera que acta a su vez como timn favoreciendo la maniobrabilidad con
capacidad para 19 personas cada uno.
Balsas salvavidas. (CaptuloIII Parte B.Seccin III. Regla 31.1.2.2)
Se dispondrn cuatro balsas salvavidas con capacidad suficiente, a cada banda. Irn
adecuadamente estibadas en la zona de popa del buque, dos a cada banda.
La distancia horizontal desde el extremo de la roda hasta el extremo ms prximo de
la embarcacin de supervivencia ms cercana es mayor de 100m, por lo que
dispondremos de otra balsa junto al mamparo de popa del castillo.
Las balsas irn estibadas de manera que estn fcilmente disponibles en caso de
emergencia y que puedan soltarse y flotar libremente, inflarse y zafarse del buque si
este se hunde.
Se han seleccionado las balsas GIVENS BUOY LIFERAFT ANEXO 1 Salvamento. con
capacidad para 12 personas que son estables hidrodinmicamente sin necesidad de
emplear lastre. Se encontrarn equipadas con el equipo de supervivencia que incluir
vveres, agua, bengalas de mano, pistola de bengalas lanzables, un equipo de pesca,
botiqun de primeros auxilios, recolector de agua, etc

Aros salvavidas. (Captulo III. Parte B. Seccin III Regla 32.1.1).


Se dispondrn al menos 14 aros salvavidas dispuestos a lo largo de la eslora del
buque (aplicable a buques de 200 o ms metros de eslora) como se puede observar en
la tabla siguiente.

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ESLORA DEL BUQUE EN METROS NMERO DE AROS SALVAVIDAS


Menos de 100 8
De 100 a menos de 150 10
De 150 a menos de 200 12
200 o ms 14
El nmero de aros salvavidas instalados ser mayor que el valor mnimo indicado por
el SOLAS, ya que debido a la eslora de nuestro buque consideramos que as debe ser
en aras de la seguridad de la tripulacin. Se instalarn por lo tanto 21 aros salvavidas.
A cada banda del buque habr como mnimo un aro salvavidas provisto de una rabiza
flotante de una longitud igual por lo menos al doble de la altura a la cual va estibado
por encima de la flotacin de navegacin martima con un calado mnimo o a 30
metros, si este valor es superior. En nuestro caso la altura desde la flotacin con el
calado mnimo la calcularemos del siguiente modo:

As obtenemos que nuestro calado mnimo es 11,980m, hasta los candeleros de la


cubierta resistente donde estibaremos los aros es de 17,72m ya que el puntal es de
29,70 y la altura del aro sobre la cubierta es de 1 m.
Por lo tanto la rabiza de cada aro salvavidas tendr una longitud de 35,44m.
La mitad al menos del nmero total de aros salvavidas estarn provistos de luces de
encendido automtico y al menos dos de estos aros llevarn tambin seales
fumgenas de funcionamiento y se podrn soltar rpidamente desde el puente de
navegacin; los aros salvavidas provistos de luces y de seales fumgenas irn
distribuidos por igual a ambas bandas del buque y no sern aquellos que estn
provistos de rabiza.
En nuestro caso en caso de ser necesario un rescate se dispondrn de diez aros con
rabiza y los once restantes estarn dotados de seales luminosas y fumgenas como
se ha indicado. Ambos tipos irn estibados de forma alterna.
Chalecos salvavidas. (Captulo III. Parte B. Seccin I Regla 7.2.1).
Para cada una de las personas que vayan a bordo se proveer un chaleco salvavidas.
Los chalecos salvavidas se colocarn de modo que sean fcilmente accesibles y su
emplazamiento estar claramente indicado.
Debido a las dimensiones de la habilitacin, consideramos escaso dicho nmero. Por
lo tanto, situaremos los chalecos salvavidas junto con los trajes de supervivencia en
los paoles dedicados a tal efecto y situados cerca de la salida de la superestructura,
tanto en los costados como a popa de la misma.

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Respondedores de radar. (Captulo III Parte B. Seccin I. Regla 6.2.2).


Todo buque de pasaje y todo buque de carga de arqueo bruto igual o superior a 500
llevar por lo menos un respondedor de radar a cada banda. Dichos respondedores de
radar se ajustarn a normas de funcionamiento no inferiores de radar y que estn
equipados con botes salvavidas de cada libre (como es el caso), uno de los
respondedores de radar ir estibado en un bote salvavidas de cada libre y otro estar
situado en las proximidades inmediatas del puente de navegacin de modo que se
pueda utilizar a bordo y est listo para trasladarlo rpidamente a cualquiera de las
otras embarcaciones de supervivencia.
Bengalas para seales de socorro. (Captulo III. Parte B. Seccin I. Regla 6.3).
Se llevarn por lo menos 12 cohetes lanzabengalas con paracadas que cumplan lo
prescrito en la seccin 3.1 del Cdigo, estibados en el puente de navegacin o cerca
de ste.
En los botes salvavidas, tambin contaremos con bengalas de este tipo en el
equipamiento de superviviencia.

4. EQUIPO DE LASTRE.
De los registros de las sociedades de clasificacin y de otros proyectos estimamos una
cantidad mxima de lastre a embarcar de unos 104145,898t (101605,754m3).
Si estimamos que para lastrar un buque el tiempo necesario es de 12 horas, y que la
prdida de carga a salvar por la bomba ser del orden de la altura del tanque de lastre.
Necesitaremos una presin aproximada de 3 bares. Si disponemos de 3 bombas:
Capacidad de las bombas:

Capacidad de cada bomba:

Potencia de cada bomba:

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5. EQUIPO DE CARGA, DESCARGA Y SISTEMA COW.


Estar formado por tres turbo bombas en Cmara de Maquinas segn lo indicado en los
RPA con una capacidad cada una de 5500m3/h lo que permite descargar nuestra carga
de 332.501m3, en 20 horas, con lo cual, permite reducir la estancia en puerto de destino
ms de un da con el consiguiente ahorro para el armador, cuanto ms tiempo est el
buque parado ms rentabilidad perder el armador.
Las bombas se accionarn por el vapor generado en la caldera auxiliar de escape y sus
turbinas sern turbinas de contrapresin, es decir, la descarga del vapor no se realiza a
un condensador de vaco sino que descarga a otro consumidor en el cual la presin es
mayor o igual que la atmosfrica. Al tener este tipo de turbinas podemos obtener una
gran potencia con una turbina pequea en dos etapas tipo CURTIS tambin denominada
de accin.
Los impulsores de las bombas sern dobles, ya que el dimetro ser menor que si
utilizsemos un impulsor simple y as evitaramos el consiguiente empacho en Cmara
de Bombas.
Podemos calcular la potencia absorbida por las bombas para as calcular la potencia de
las turbinas.

es el caudal del fluido en m3/h 5500m3.


es la altura manomtrica de descarga en metros de columna de agua (m.c.a.)
hasta el manifold de descarga aproximadamente unos 27m.
densidad del fluido en kg/m3, es de 870kg/m3.
La potencia por bomba resulta ser de 478,5 H.P. Si consideremos el rendimiento
mecnico =0,97, la potencia que debe entregar la turbina Curtis es de 493H.P.
La exhaustacin de las turbinas se realizar al circuito de vapor de los serpentines de
calentamiento de la carga para aprovechar su calor remanente. De estos pasar al
condensador de vapor, que ser un condensador de vaco.
Los serpentines podrn ser alimentados directamente por el vapor generado en la
caldera sin necesidad de accionar las turbinas. Esto ser as en los instantes previos a
la descarga del crudo para reducir su viscosidad y facilitar el bombeo.
Los tanques dispondrn de una mquina de lavado hidrulica tipo COW de lavado
con crudo cumpliendo as la normativa MARPOL. Los restos del lavado de crudo irn
hacia los tanques SLOP que es el lugar donde se almacenarn y posteriormente sern
descargados en puerto antes de realizar una nueva carga de crudo. Las mquinas de
lavado tipo COW utilizan la presin del propio crudo empleado en la operacin para

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girar sobre su propio eje de rotacin y en torno a ese cabezal de lavado. El consumo
de la bomba de crudo para esta mquina se ha estimado en el cuaderno n11, en
20kW. ANEXO 3 COW.

6. SISTEMA DE INERTIZADO DE TANQUES.


Cumplir los reglamentos internacionales para el transporte de mercancas peligrosas
por mar.
Segn la Regla 62 del Captulo II-2 del SOLAS, la misin del sistema inerte es:suministrar
a los tanques de carga, en todo momento, un gas o una mezcla gaseosa tan faltos de
oxigeno que la atmsfera interior del tanque resulte inerte, es decir, incapaz de propagar
las llamas.

Adems este sistema debe satisfacer las siguientes prescripciones:

1. No penetrar aire fresco en ningn tanque durante las operaciones normales,


excepto cuando se le est prestando para que entre en l personal, es decir
cuando se busque una atmsfera salubre.
2. Una vez extrada la carga, se podrn purgar los tanques vacos de gas inerte a
razn de un 125% de la capacidad mxima de las bombas de carga/descarga.
3. En condiciones normales el sistema deber poder mantener una presin positiva
en el interior de los tanques para evitar la entrada de aire fresco.
4. Las purgas de gas (HI-JETS) estar situados en posiciones convenientes al aire
libre y se ajustarn a las mismas prescripciones generales que los de ventilacin
de tanques.
5. El sistema dispondr de medios que eviten el retorno de gas inerte desde los
tanques hacia los espacios de mquinas y eviten la formacin de vaco y presin
excesivos.
6. Habr instalados instrumentos que indiquen y registren de modo continuo, en
todo momento en que se est suministrando gas inerte, la presin y el contenido
del oxgeno del gas en el colector de suministro del gas inerte, en el lado de
descarga del ventilador, la temperatura y presin del colector de gas inerte.
7. Los dispositivos de alarma indicarn:
o Contenido excesivo de oxgeno en el gas del colector de gas inerte.
o Presin insuficiente del gas en el colector de gas inerte.
o Presin insuficiente en el abastecimiento destinado al cierre hidrulico de
cubierta
o Temperatura excesiva del gas en el colector de gas inerte.

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o Presin insuficiente del agua de entrada en la torre de lavado.


Se dispondr adems de medios de parada automtico del sistema, que actuarn
cuando se alcancen lmites predeterminados al ocurrir lo indicado en los apartados
anteriores.

La necesidad de este sistema es justificado por la volatilidad del la carga. El crudo de


petrleo desprende hidrocarburos, y aunque la velocidad a la que estos se desprenden
disminuye al estabilizarse el petrleo durante su almacenamiento, en las operaciones
que suponen el movimiento de la carga en especial la carga y limpieza de tanques,
tiende a aumentar esta velocidad. Por lo tanto dentro de un tanque siempre habr
gases combustibles de hidrocarburos, aunque se encuentre vaco y presentar una
situacin de riesgo de incendio siempre que en los tanques exista oxgeno en una
proporcin adecuada para la formacin de una atmsfera inflamable dentro de la cual
un foco de ignicin puede producir una explosin.

Debe considerarse pies que este factor del tetraedro del fuego, el combustible, est
siempre presente en los tanques. Por ello para evitar un posible incendio solo podremos
actuar sobres los otros factores. Los focos de ignicin que son varios y no siempre
controlables, y el comburente oxgeno, que es lo nico que puede ser controlado
eficazmente mediante el control de la atmsfera y la inertizacin.
La planta de tratamiento de gas inerte debe realizar las siguientes funciones:
1. Suministrar el gas inerte a una presin determinada al sistema de distribucin de
cubierta y de ah a los tanques.
2. Suministrar aire fresco a los tanques de carga para desgasificarlos como medida
previa a trabajos en su interior o a la entrada en dique.
Debido a la gran demanda de gas en estas operaciones cada uno de los dos
ventiladores deber tener una capacidad igual o superior al 150% de la capacidad
mxima de las bombas, teniendo en cuenta las prdidas de carga en el circuito de
forma que el sistema siempre suministre el 125% de la capacidad mxima de las
bombas de carga.
Durante el viaje en carga se necesita una pequea cantidad de gas inerte para
rellenar los tanques y mantenerlos a presin para impedir la entrada de aire.

El gas inerte cumplir su cometido si tiene la siguiente composicin:

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COMPOSICIN DE LOS GASES


(valores en volumen)
GASES DE COMBUSTIN GAS INERTE
Oxgeno 4,2% 4,2%
Nitrgeno 78% 78%
Dixido de carbono 13,5% 13,5%
Dixido de azufre 0,2-0,3%(2000-3000ppm) 0,02-0,03% (100-150ppm)
xidos de nitrgeno 150ppm 150ppm
Arrastre de agua 5,5% 0,125%
3
Slidos libres 250 mg/m 8 mg/m3
Temperatura 300C 2C sobre el agua del mar

Ventiladores.
Su finalidad es impulsar el gas inerte a presin hacia el sistema de distribucin a travs
del sello de cubierta. Debido a la presin y capacidad necesaria (un 125% de la de las
bombas de descarga) se emplean ventiladores centrfugos, de una sola etapa con
rodetes de gran dimetro, y pequea altura movido en general por un motor elctrico.
Los impulsores han de probarse a una velocidad un 20% superior a la de diseo y el
motor debe de ser autolimitado, es decir, que incorpore un mecanismo que evite su
embalamiento, caracterstico de estos ventiladores cuando trabajan con la descarga o
admisin cerradas.

Los ventiladores de gas inerte son del tipo de carcasa partida que permiten el acceso al
impulsor sin necesidad de desconectar tuberas ni el motor. Tambin tienen una purga
para elimina el agua que pueda acumularse.

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Los ventiladores se aslan con vlvula de mariposa de asientos de goma situadas en la


aspiracin y descarga, telemandadas por solenoides con dos posiciones una abierta y
otra cerrada.
Antes de realizar los clculos necesarios para la eleccin del sistema ms apropiado,
conviene destacar la principal diferencia entre los dos tipos de sistemas posibles:
Flue Gas System:
El gas inerte se genera a partir de los gases de exhaustacin del motor principal o de
los auxiliares. Para ello estos gases deben cumplir con las propiedades expuestas , en
la tabla anterior, especialmente con la cantidad de oxgeno en volumen (<5%)>, ya
que el sistema no puede eliminar el acceso de oxgeno, tan slo dar la alarma. Por
ello este sistema solo se utiliza cuando se puede garantizar que los gases de
exhaustacin del motor principal o calderas, no contengan ms de un 5% de oxgeno.
No obstante este sistema cuenta con un pequeo generador autnomo que se
emplea cuando el caudal de gases de escape de los motores no es suficiente.
Inert Gas System:
El gas inerte se genera a partir de los gases de exhaustacin generados por la
combustin H.F.O. (Heavy Fuel Oil) en el generador de gas. De este equipo depende
exclusivamente la produccin de gas inerte, ya que no se emplea los gases de
exhaustacin de los motores en ningn caso. Este sistema se utiliza cuando los gases
de exhaustacin de los motores tienen un contenido mayor del 5% de oxgeno en
volumen.

6.1. CLCULO DE LAS CARACTERSTICAS DEL SISTEMA.


Se seguir el Captulo II-2 del SOLAS.
Capacidad de los ventiladores:
Como la capacidad mxima de las bombas de carga es de 5.500m3/h, la capacidad
de los ventiladores ser:

Por lo que la capacidad mxima de nuestros ventiladores ser de 20.625m3/h.


Por lo tanto el sistema de gas inerte deber suministrar un caudal de gas igual o
mayor que el caudal de los ventiladores.
Tiempo necesario para el inertizado:
El tiempo mnimo necesario para el inertizado de los tanques simultneamente con
ambos ventiladores ser:

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Donde es la permeabilidad de los tanques en funcin de que tengan los refuerzos


exteriores (=1) o interiores (=0,98 aproximadamente). El tiempo mnimo para la
desgasificacin de todos los tanques simultneamente ser tambin de 15,75h ya
que se emplean, como hemos visto, los ventiladores para la desgasificacin e
inertizado.

6.2. SELECCIN DEL SISTEMA DE GAS INERTE.


Para seleccionar el sistema, ms adecuado debemos conocer previamente la
composicin de gas de escape del motor principal. Para ello empleamos partimos de los
datos del motor y de la composicin porcentual del combustible. El combustible
contiene los siguientes elementos principales:

El mtodo de clculo ser el expuesto en el libro Mquinas para la propulsin de


buques de D. Enrique Casanova Rivas. De esta forma obtenemos los siguientes
resultados:
MASA DE GAS POR kg DE H.F.O. (kmol/kg) VOLUMEN (m3/kg.fuel)
=0,07363 =1,7966
=0,05375 =2,3115
=0,0735 =1,7165
=0,64272 =15,6824
TOTAL Mg=0,84045 Vg=20,5070

El contenido mximo en volumen de oxgeno no puede superar el 5%, por lo tanto,


como el volumen total de gases de escape es Vg=20,5070m3/kg fuel el lmite para la
cantidad de oxgeno es 1,0254m3/kg fuel, inferior al volumen de oxgeno que se obtiene
en los gases de exhaustacin del motor principal (ver tabla superior).
Si emplesemos un sistema FGS, con los gases obtendramos un contenido de O2 del
8,37% muy por encima del mximo permitido para obtener una atmsfera no inflamable
por empobrecimiento de la misma. Por lo tanto, de estos resultados concluimos que el
sistema adecuado para este buque es el sistema de gas inerte con generador autnomo
I.G.G.

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Para la seleccin de un sistema de gas inerte del tipo I.G.G, solo es necesario conocer el
caudal y nuestro caudal es de 20.625m3/h, para el cual hemos encontrado la siguiente
opcin.
FABRICANTE CAUDAL PRESIN CONSUMO
ELEMENTO
Y EQUIPO (m3/h) (mmcda) D.O. (t/h) ELCTRICO (Kw)
DETEGASA Generador de gas 1.500 1,73 334
22.000
FGS-R22 Rompedor P/V 2300/750

El consumo y tiempo necesario para realizar la operacin de inertizado de tanques con


cada equipo funcionando al 100% vienen dados en la siguiente tabla:

FABRICANTE Y EQUIPO TIEMPO INERTIZADO (h) CONSUMO TOTAL de M.D.O. (t)


DETEGASA FGS-R22 15,06 26,06

Aunque el caudal considerado, el nominal de cada equipo, excede al calculado con


anterioridad, aquel es la capacidad mnima exigida por el SOLAS, y al considerar una
mayor capacidad no se penaliza econmicamente la instalacin (al estar entonces
sobredimensionados los ventiladores), ya que estos elementos se suministran como
parte integrante del sistema en ambos casos.
Ver ANEXO 5 Sistema de Gas Inerte.

7. SERVICIO DE VENTILACIN
7.1. VENTILACIN EN LA CMARA DE MQUINAS.
Se dispondr de un sistema de ventiladores en la Cmara de Mquinas. Partiendo de
que las renovaciones necesarias en la Cmara de Mquinas son de 40 renovaciones por
hora, y de que el espacio de la Cmara de Mquinas es de unos 25.286,24m3,
necesitaremos mover:

Disponemos de ocho ventiladores de 127.000m3/h y 40mm.c.a. Para el clculo de


potencia supondremos un rendimiento mecnico de 0,65. La potencia ejercida por el eje
ser:

Para el motor elctrico que acciona cada ventilador se considera un rendimiento de 0,88
y de 0,73 para el que acciona el extractor. Por tanto:

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Por lo que la potencia para los ocho ventiladores ser de 193,36kW.

7.2. AIRE ACONDICIONADO.


Primero hemos de conocer el volumen de la Cmara de Mquinas y de la Habilitacin:
Volumen de la Cmara de Mquinas 60m3, con 40 renovaciones por hora.
Volumen de habilitacin 7367m3, con 15 renovaciones por hora.
El total de volumen de aire acondicionar ser de
Instalaremos un aire acondicionado con los siguientes consumidores:
Ventilador del aire acondicionado 55,63kW
Compresor del aire acondicionado 131,28kW

8. EQUIPOS DE ELEVACIN.
8.1. EQUIPOS EXTERIORES DE ELEVACIN.
Para el manejo de provisones y mangerotes de carga y descarga, se instalarn cuatro
gras.
Dos de ellas se situarn a popa de la superestructura para el aprovisionamiento y para la
recuperacin de los botes salvavidas que deben servir, como se ha indicado, como botes
de rescate.
Otros dos se situarn en la seccin media, prximas a las conexiones del manifold de
carga en ambos costados. A continuacin estimaremos la potencia elctrica de las gras
suponiendo para las cuatro una velocidad mxima de elevacin de 5m/min.

Gras de maniobra de mangas:

Gras de aprovisionamiento:

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CAPACIDAD (t) POTENCIA(Kw) BRAZO (m)


Gras de maniobra de mangas 20 23,15 22
Gras de aprovisionamiento 8 9,26 16

Las gras seleccionadas sern las siguientes:


CAPACIDAD (t) POTENCIA(Kw) BRAZO (m)
TOWIMOR PH 200-20 (para mangas) 20 75 20
TOWINOR P 100-10 (de servicio) 10 45 20

Ver ANEXO 2- Gras de Cubierta.

8.2. EQUIPOS DE ACCESO Y ELEVACIN.


Escala real:
Se dispondrn de dos escalas reales, una a cada banda del buque, que irn abatidas
en posicin horizontal sobre la cubierta. La anchura til de las escalas ser de 0,7m.
Los peldaos sern fijos autodeslizantes y curvos, de manera que se pueda utilizar la
escala con una inclinacin entre 30 y 60 grados con la horizontal.
Escala de prctico:
Se dispondrn dos escalas de gato de longitud suficiente para el alcance desde la
cubierta principal hasta la lnea de flotacin en lastre. El costado estar provisto de
barandillado fijo y un paso de cadena a cada banda.
Elevador:
Se instalar un elevador con capacidad para 8 personas OTIS 2000 VF-MRL de 630kg
de capacidad entre la cubierta principal de superestructura y el puente. Este ascensor
presenta la ventaja de que la maquinaria se sita en el mismo hueco del ascensor en
una de sus paredes por lo que no es necesario disponer de la consabida caseta de
maquinaria sobre el hueco quedando el techo del mismo a la misma altura que el
techo puente. Para el clculo de la potencia supondremos que el peso de la cabina es
el 20% de la capacidad de carga. La altura de elevacin es de 15m.
La potencia elctrica la calculamos como si se tratase de una maquinilla:

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Equipo de desmontaje.
Se dispondr de un polipasto de 5t. situado sobre el motor y a popa de la
superestructura para el mantenimiento y reparacin del motor principal.
Consideraremos una velocidad del gancho de aproximadamente 4m/min. Y un
rendimiento mecnico de 0,85 para el clculo de la potencia mecnica:

Sabiendo que nuestro rendimiento elctrico es de 0,83, tendremos una potencia


elctrica de:

9. INSTALACIONES SANITARIAS.
Dispondremos de dos sistemas de agua dulce a bordo, uno para los servicios sanitarios y
otro para el agua potable.

9.1. SERVICIOS SANITARIOS.


Estar compuesto por un tanque hidrforo que aspira de los tanques de agua sanitaria.
El tanque a presin suministrar agua sanitaria a los siguientes servicios:
Alimentacin del tanque calentador de agua sanitaria.
Suministro de agua para baldeo de aseos y cocina.
Suministro de agua fra a todas las duchas y lavabos.
Tanque de expansin de agua dulce para los cilindros del motor propulsor.
Tanque de agua sanitaria (para trasiego).
Tanque filtro agua alimentacin caldera.
Tanque de expansin de agua dulce para los cilindros de los motores auxiliares.
Tanque de expansin de agua dulce para el sistema centralizado.
Tanque de expansin para el sistema de circulacin de agua caliente y fra del aire
acondicionado.
El elemento principal de todo servicio ser el generador de agua dulce a partir de la
evaporacin de agua salada, aprovechando para ello el agua de refrigeracin de las
camisas del motor principal. El agua producida por el generador se conducir
directamente a los tanques de agua sanitaria. Este circuito constar de dos tanques
almacn de agua sanitaria, que estarn alimentados desde el generador de agua dulce
pero tambin dispondrn de conexiones en cubierta para poder cargarlos de agua dulce
del exterior.

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9.2. CLCULO DEL GENERADOR DE AGUA DULCE.


El generador de agua dulce absorber un 40% del calor disipado en el enfriador de
cilindros 4130 kW por lo tanto la potencia disponible en el generador es
0.4*4130 kW= 1652 kW
Usando un generador de agua dulce del tipo de evaporador de vaco de simple efecto, la
produccin de agua se puede estimar en 0,03t/24h por cada kW por lo tanto
0,03*1652 = 49,56 t/dia

9.3. BOMBA DE AGUA SANITARIA.


Se dispondrn de dos bombas centrfugas autoaspirantes, una de ellas de reserva.
Suponiendo que en la hora punta un 60% de la tripulacin est empleando un lavabo o
una ducha, y que el consumo de estos elementos sea de 0,1 l/s, el caudal mximo puede
considerarse:

La presin diferencial de la bomba debe de ser capaz de elevar agua dulce sanitaria
desde el tanque almacn, el aseo ms alto, que est en el puente de navegacin.
Tomamos como presin diferencial mnima que debe dar la bomba 50m.c.a.
La potencia de la bomba la calcularemos con estos parmetros: 6,48m3/h y 50 m.c.a.
Potencia Hidrulica:

Potencia Mecnica:

Potencia elctrica:

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9.4. SERVICIO DE AGUA POTABLE.


Hasta hace relativamente poco tiempo se utilizaba en agua dulce obtenida por el
proceso anterior para abastecer el servicio de agua potable que debido al proceso
seguido para su obtencin, por evaporacin de agua salada a 45C y presin inferior a la
atmosfrica, no era directamente apta para el consumo humano y portaba grmenes.
Era necesario instalar una planta potabilizadora.
Actualmente gracias al desarrollo de membranas de fibra de vidrio altamente eficientes
la obtencin de agua dulce y su potabilizacin se pueden confiar a una planta de
smosis inversa. Las plantas de smosis inversa se dimensionan en funcin del consumo
diario de agua potable. El consumo habitual de agua por miembro de tripulacin y da es
de 80 litros. El gasto diario de agua ser:

Sobre este consumo supondremos un margen del 20% ya que parte de su travesa la
realizar por zonas tropicales. Tenemos entonces un consumo de agua dulce de:

De las plantas potabilizadoras de smosis inversa disponemos en el mercado de


diferentes fabricantes y modelos. La planta seleccionada para nuestro buque es:

Aqua Wisper AWS 900-2

Tiene un consumo elctrico incluyendo los motores de alimentacin de 2,7 HP (2,01kW)


alimentada a 230V/60Hz.
Este equipo alimentar a todos los servicios de agua potable del buque.
Se instalar una bomba. Para calcular el mximo caudal de esta bomba, supondremos
que en la hora punta un 10% de la tripulacin un 10% de ella est consumiendo agua
dulce, y que el consumo es de 0,1l/s, el caudal mximo considerado ser:

La presin diferencial mnima es igual que para el agua sanitaria, 50 m.c.a.


La potencia de la bomba la calcularemos con estos parmetros: 1,08m3/h y 50m.c.a.
Potencia Hidrulica:

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Potencia Mecnica:

Potencia elctrica:

9.5. SERVICIO DE AGUA CALIENTE.


El servicio de agua caliente se suministra a las duchas, lavabos, piletas de la cocina,
oficios, lavandera y un ramal para la limpieza de las ventanas del puente. El suministro
de agua caliente se har por medio de un circuito cerrado, en el que la bomba del
sistema har circular el agua dulce a travs del calentador. Este sistema suministrar
tambin agua sanitaria caliente para lavado de las purificadoras de combustible y de las
turbosoplantes del motor principal.
Es costumbre suponer para el agua caliente un consumo de aproximadamente la mitad
del consumo estimado para agua sanitaria. Por tanto se considerar la instalacin de
una bomba con un caudal de 3.240 l/h y un calentador de vapor de 300 litros (que
elevar la temperatura del agua caliente de 15C a 70C), el cual ir conectado al
hidrforo de agua dulce. La presin debe llegar a los mismos lugares supuestos para el
agua potable, por lo que la presin debe ser la calculada anteriormente.
La potencia de la bomba la calcularemos con estos parmetros: 3,24m3/h y 50 m.c.a.
Potencia Hidrulica:

Potencia Mecnica:

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Potencia elctrica:

10. SERVICIO DE FONDA Y HOTEL.


10.1. COCINA Y GAMBUZAS.
Se dispone de una cocina en la primera cubierta de la habilitacin, con acceso directo a
la gambuza que estar por debajo de la cocina, en la cubierta principal de habilitacin, y
dnde se almacenarn los vveres. A este fin, se segregar la gambuza seca y gambuza
refrigerada, en atencin al tipo de conservacin que requieran los mismos. Dentro de la
gambuza refrigerada, se mantendrn dos temperaturas: una cercana a los 0C para la
conservacin de fruta, verdura, y lcteos y otra de -15C para las carnes, pescados y
alimentos congelados.
Los vveres se separarn en cada una de estas gambuzas por su naturaleza y periodo de
conservacin, identificando convenientemente los ms perecederos para ser
consumidos antes de su deterioro.
El equipamiento de la cocina constar de un horno, dos frigorficos, dos cocinas
elctricas en el centro de la cocina, amasadora, peladora, parrilla, freidora, lavavajillas,
microondas, molinillo, cafetera y cafetera de agua.
Anexos a la cocina y accesibles desde ella, se disponen como se muestra en la
disposicin general, dos oficios, uno para oficiales y otro para tripulacin, dotados de
cafetera, microondas y frigorfico domstico.

10.2. LAVANDERA.
En la cubierta principal de habilitacin habr una lavandera destinada a la limpieza de la
ropa de trabajo, personal y de cama de todo el buque. La ropa sucia se almacenar en
cubos, separando la de trabajo de la personal. La ropa de cada tripulante ser encerrada
en unas redecillas perfectamente identificadas con el nombre de su propietario antes de
introducirlas en la lavadora.
La lavadora tendr una capacidad de carga mnima de 5kg y mxima de 20. La ropa de
cama ser manipulada por el camarero de almacn que existe a su efecto en el interior
de la lavandera.
Se dispondr adems de una secadora y una plancha industrial.

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En los paoles de cada cubierta de la habilitacin habr una plancha y una tabla de
planchar.

11. EQUIPO CONTRAINCENDIOS.


Hemos de distinguir entre equipos activos y pasivos.

11.1. EQUIPOS PASIVOS.


Proteccin del tipo I.C. Se usarn detectores de humos sensibles a la presencia de humo
en la atmsfera, y en todos los mamparos sern ignfugos, no ardern ni producirn
vapores txicos a menos de 500C. Las puertas de la habilitacin sern de acero del tipo
A60, que resisten 1h. expuestas al fuego.

11.2. EQUIPOS ACTIVOS.


Su elemento principal son las bombas de contraincendios (CI). Impulsar agua salada
hacia las bocas de incendio equipadas (BIE) con mangueras situadas en distintos puntos
del buque y convenientemente sealizadas segn SOLAS Captulo II-2 Regla 10:
2.1.5.1 El nmero y la distribucin de las bocas contraincendios sern tales que por lo
menos dos chorros de agua que no procedan de la misma boca contraincendios, uno de
ellos lanzado por una manguera de una sola pieza, puedan alcanzar cualquier parte del
buque normalmente accesible a los pasajeros o a la tripulacin mientras el buque
navega, y cualquier punto de cualquier espacio para vehculos, en este ltimo caso, los
dos chorros alcanzarn cualquier punto en el espacio, cada uno de ellos lanzado por una
manguera de una sola pieza. Adems, ests bocas contraincendios estarn emplazadas
cerca de los accesos a los espacios protegidos.
Nmero de Bombas CI.
El SOLAS en el Captulo II-2, Regla 2.2.2 determina el nmero de bombas a instalar en
funcin del tamao del buque.
En buques de carga de arqueo bruto igual o superior a 1000 se instalarn al menos
dos bombas CI
Presin de las bocas contraincendios.
La presin de las BIE y dems bocas contraincendios viene indicada en la Regla 2.1.6:
Se mantendrn las siguientes presiones en todas las bocas contraincendios: buques
de carga. de arqueo bruto igual o superior a 60000,27 N/mm2.
Siempre ser tal que se garantice el fcil manejo de las mangueras.
Las mangueras tendrn una longitud que se encontrar entre los siguientes valores.

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LONGITUD MNIMA (m) LONGITUD MXIMA (m)


Espacios de Mquinas 10 15
Otros espacios y cubiertas 10 20
Cubiertas expuestas 10 25

Caudal del colector CI.


El caudal del colector viene dado por el SOLAS Captulo II-2 Regla 10 2.1.3.
El dimetro del colector y de las tuberas contraincendios ser suficiente para la
distribucin eficaz del caudal mximo de agua requerido para dos bombas
contraincendios funcionando simultneamente, salvo cuando se trate de buques de
carga, en cuyo caso bastar con que el dimetro sea suficiente para un caudal de
agua de 140m3/h.

Potencia de las Bombas CI.


El caudal de las bombas ser no superior a 180m3/h en cualquier buque de carga
dividida por el nmero de bombas prescritas y no inferior a 25m3/h.
Como la capacidad mxima es 180m3/h y el 80% es 144m3/h, y adems tenemos 2
bombas CI el caudal sera 72m3/h. Sin embargo consideramos el lmite impuesto por
SOLAS que en nuestro caso es de 90m3/h por bomba.
Podemos hallar la potencia de cada bomba si tenemos que cada una mover un
caudal de agua salada de 90m3/h y tiene que proporcionar 40,09 metros de columna
de agua, que es la distancia desde el fondo de Cmara de Mquinas donde van
alojadas las bombas, hasta la cubierta continua ms alta que es la cubierta puente. Si
a esto le sumamos la presin mnima necesaria en las bocas, de 0,27N/mm2 es decir
2,7 bar o 2m.c.d.a., tenemos la presin total que debe proporcionar la bomba.
Con esta presin y el caudal necesario podemos calcular la potencia de las bombas.
Potencia Hidrulica:

Potencia Mecnica:

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Potencia elctrica:

Bomba CI de Emergencia.
La bomba CI de emergencia tendr una capacidad no menos del 40% de la capacidad
de cada bomba CI, y nunca menos de 25 m3/h.

Suponiendo la misma presin de descarga, la potencia necesaria para accionar la


bomba CI de emergencia ser:
Potencia Hidrulica:

Potencia Mecnica:

Potencia elctrica:

Con estos parmetros seleccionamos las bombas contraincendios. Elegimos un


fabricante que suministra las bombas y sus controles como un mdulo prefabricado
listo para su montaje a bordo.

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BOMBAS CONTRAINCENDIOS IDEAL FOC-65-26

La situacin de esta bomba contraincendios de emergencia viene determinada por el


SOLAS Captulo II-2 Regla 10 2.2.3.2.1 segn la cual ni su local ni el local que alberga a
su fuente de energa pueden tener acceso directo desde la Cmara de Mquinas. Por
lo tanto la situaremos en la primera cubierta de la caseta del guardacalor separada
del mismo por un coferdam de 1 m de espesor al igual que el local del grupo
generador de emergencia, que ser su fuente de energa.

Sistema CI por inundacin con CO2.


Viene definido en el SOLAS Captulo II-2 Regla 10 7.1.
Se dispondr un sistema de extincin de incendios por CO2, que modifica la
atmsfera desplazando el oxgeno presente en ella por gravedad, esto es porque el
CO2 es ms pesado que el O2. Al desplazar al oxgeno la atmsfera se empobrece en
comburente hasta situarse por debajo el lmite inferior de inflamabilidad.
El disparo DEBE ser manual y NUNCA automtico para evitar disparos fortuitos que
puedan provocar la muerte por asfixia de todo el personal presente en el local donde
se produzca el disparo. El disparo solo puede ser automtico en locales o espacios
donde no sea posible la presencia humana: Interior de motores, envueltas de
turbinas de gas, etc
El local de almacenamiento de las botellas de CO2 estar por encima de la cubierta
principal y con acceso directo desde sta.
El volumen necesario de CO2 a instalar ser el necesario para la extincin de un
incendio en la Cmara de Mquinas y en la Cmara de Bombas. Para conseguir la
extincin, la densidad de CO2 en la atmsfera de dicho local ha de verse elevado
hasta ocupar el 30% en la Cmara de Mquinas. La densidad de CO2 es de 0,56 kg/m3.
Volumen de la Cmara de Mquinas=25.286,24m3
Volumen de CO2=
Masa necesaria de CO2=
Si las botellas donde se almacena el CO2 pueden contener hasta 50kg de este gas
necesitaremos un total de 84,96 es decir unas 85 botellas de CO2.

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Equipos de cubierta.
Se definen en SOLAS Captulo II-2 Regla 10 8.1. Se instalarn en cubierta lanzas de
espuma de alta expansin capaces de alcanzar cualquier tanque con el fin de:
Extinguir el fuego prendido en sustancias derramada e impedir la ignicin de
los hidrocarburos derramados que todava no estn ardiendo.
Combatir incendios en tanques que hayan sufrido roturas.
Su situacin se encuentra especificada en el Cdigo CIQ 83.90 en las siguientes reglas:
11.3.2 Se proveer un solo tipo de concentrado de espuma, el cual habr de ser para
el mayor nmero posible de las cargas que se vayan a transportar.
11.3.3 Los dispositivos destinados a dar espuma podrn lanzar sta sobre toda la
superficie de cubierta correspondiente a tanques de carga y en el interior de uno
cualquiera de stos cuando la parte de cubierta que le corresponda se suponga
afectada por una brecha.
11.3.4 Su puesto principal de control ocupar una posicin convenientemente
situada fuera de la zona de la carga.
11.3.5 El rgimen de alimentacin de solucin espumosa no ser inferior a la mayor
de las tasas siguientes:

(1) 2 l/min por metro cuadrado de superficie de cubierta correspondiente a


tanques de carga, entendiendo por superficie de cubierta correspondiente a
tanques de carga de manga mxima del buque multiplicada por la longitud
total de los espacios destinados a tanques de carga
En nuestro caso tenemos un rea de , lo que
supone un caudal de 29.287,01 l/min.
(2) 20 l/min por metro cuadrado de la seccin horizontal del tanque que tenga la
mayor rea de seccin horizontal.
En nuestro caso tenemos la mayor rea horizontal en el tanque n5 con
1802,85 y un caudal total de 36.053,4 l/min.
(3) 10 l/min por metro cuadrado de la superficie protegida por el can, y sin que
la descarga pueda ser inferior a 1.250l/min eficaz.
Por lo tanto el rgimen de alimentacin de la solucin espumosa no ser
inferior a 36.053,4 l/min.

11.3.7 Para la entrega de espuma del sistema fijo habr caones fijos y
lanzaespumas mviles. Cada uno de los caones podr abastecer el 50% al menos del
caudal correspondiente a las tasas sealadas en 11.3.5.1 11.3.5.2. La capacidad de
todo can fijo ser al menos de 10 l/min de solucin espumosa por metro cuadrado

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de superficie cubierta protegida por el can de que se trate, encontrndose toda esa
superficie a proa del can.
Por lo tanto cada can debe abastecer un caudal de 18.026,7 l/min.
11.3.8 La distancia desde el can hasta el extremos ms alejado de la zona
protegida, situada a proa del can, no ser superior al 75% del alcance del can
con el aire totalmente en reposo.
11.3.10 Los lanzaespumas quedarn dispuestos de modo que den flexibilidad de
operacin en la extincin de incendios y cubrn las zonas que los caones no puedan
alcanzar porque estn interceptadas. Todo lanzaespumas tendr una capacidad no
inferior a 400 l/min y un alcance, con el aire totalmente en reposo, no inferior a 15m.
Se proveern de cuatro lanzaespumas por lo menos.
Situados por lo tanto seis caones situados por parejas, uno a cada banda y sobre los
mamparos de proa de:

en la Cubierta A.
Tanque n5.
Tanque n3.

Sistema de agua nebulizada.


La proteccin contra incendios en el mar es especialmente exigente, con numerosos
requisitos que se deben cumplir para garantizar que las operaciones marinas son
seguras. El cumplimiento de dichos requisitos por parte de HI-FOG est bien
demostrado a travs de su historia tan enraizada en la proteccin marina contra
incendios.
En la actualidad, HI-FOG protege la mayora de cruceros de pasajeros en el mundo.
A travs de una investigacin y un desarrollo extensivos, adems de la realizacin de
pruebas rigurosas, Marioff es capaz de ofrecer una amplia gama de aplicaciones,
desde yates de lujo, cruceros y ferris de pasajeros, hasta barcos convencionales,
naves de suministro y aplicaciones navales y offshore.

o Beneficios de HI-FOG para astilleros:


Proveedor nico para todas las aplicaciones.
Proveedor nico para la ejecucin de proyectos y para la formacin.
Ahorros de diseo y coordinacin.
Proteccin contra incendios durante la construccin.
Socio proveedor fiable y con experiencia.

o Beneficios de HI-FOG para propietarios de barcos:


Daos de incendios reducidos debido a la rpida activacin y a la
pequea cantidad de agua utilizada.
Formacin de la tripulacin para un solo sistema de proteccin
contra incendios.

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Solo es necesario mantener un sistema.


Un solo panel mmico para todas las aplicaciones.
Componentes de calidad y larga vida til.
Punto nico de asistencia postventa.
Solucin sostenible.

HI-FOG es una solucin de proteccin contra incendios ideal para muchos tipos de
embarcaciones, incluidas las que no son para pasajeros, como los buques de carga.
HI-FOG se usa principalmente para proteger las salas de mquinas de buques de
carga, al haberse demostrado que mejora la seguridad contra incendios
considerablemente y consigue reducir los incendios en dichos espacios a un mnimo
absoluto.

Como sistema de agua nebulizada a alta presin, HI-FOG ofrece muchas ventajas en
comparacin con las soluciones convencionales, como por ejemplo:

Activacin inmediata y, por tanto, daos mnimos.


Refrigeracin efectiva de espacios.
Uso mnimo de agua que resulta en el uso de depsitos pequeos de agua.

El sistema de extincin seleccionado es de tipo diluvio. A diferencia del sistema de


tubera hmeda, un sistema de diluvio normalmente tiene boquillas nebulizadoras
abiertas y el flujo del agua est controlado mediante vlvulas cerradas. Cuando se
abre una vlvula, el agua nebulizada se descarga por todas las boquillas en la seccin
controlada por dicha vlvula. Ver ANEXO 7 Contraincendios.

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12. EQUIPO DE AMARRE Y FONDEO.


12.1. CCULO DEL NUMERAL DE EQUIPO.
Antes de comenzar debemos calcular el numeral de equipo, que se determina mediante
la frmula que viene definida en el DNV en la Parte 3 Captulo 3 Seccin 3 C101.

Donde:
Desplazamiento correspondiente a un calado de 21,07m y un desplazamiento de
352.568t.
Manga de trazado en metros.
es la altura efectiva, en metros, desde la flotacin de verano hasta la
cubierta de la superestructura. A su vez es la distancia en metros en la maestra desde
la lnea de carga de verano hasta la cubierta superior.
es la altura en cruja de cada hilada de casetas que tengan una manga mayor de B/4.
Para la hilada ms baja se mide sobre cruja desde la cubierta superior.

es el rea en m2 del perfil del casco, superestructura y casetas sobre la lnea de carga
de verano que estn situadas dentro de la eslora reglamentaria. Las superestructuras
con una manga menor de B/4 sern excluidas en este cmputo.

El Numeral de Equipo ser:

Con este valor, entramos en la Tabla C1 de 3.3-3 C100 del reglamento DNV. Como el
valor calculado excede de 7900 y no excede de 8400 el Numeral de Equipo se define por
el valor calculado y la letra F.

Letra del equipo F.

Las caractersticas del equipo son las siguientes:


ANCLAS DE LEVA REDONDO DEL ESLABN ESTACHAS
ESTACHAS DE AMARRE
SIN CEPO (acero calidad NV-K3) DE REMOLQUE
Carga Carga
Masa
Longitud Dimetro Longitud rotura L c/u rotura
Nmero (kg) N
(m) (mm) min (m) min (m) min
c/u
(kN) (kN)
2 24500 770 122 300 1471 11 200 735

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Sin embargo segn la Parte 3.3-D104 del Reglamento DNV en el caso de utilizar un ancla
de tipo HHP (High Holding Power) el peso de la misma podr ser reducido en no ms del
75% del peso obtenido de la tabla C1 de 3.3-3 C100. Por lo tanto el peso de cada una de
las anclas ser el siguiente.

W ancla=18375kg.

La validez de este tipo de anclas debe ser aprobada por DNV segn lo establecido en la
parte 3.3-3 D500.
Volumen de la caja de cadenas. Est definido en funcin del dimetro y longitud de la
cadena.

Como la longitud total de la caja de cadenas se divide en dos, babor y estribor, el


volumen de cada una de las dos cajas de cadenas ser la mitad del calculado. La caja de
cadenas se situar centrada en cruja.

12.2. CCULO DE LA POTENCIA DE LOS MOLINETES.


Se realiza en base al peso del ancla y teniendo en cuenta las distintas fases de levar que
son:
Hacer por el ancla hasta tener esta a pique. La traccin que se considera
es:

Zarpar el ancla del fondo. La traccin se compondr de los conceptos


detallados a continuacin.
o Peso del ancla dentro del agua dado por donde;

p es el peso del ancla en kg.


7,82 es la densidad considerada del acero en t/m3
1,025 es la densidad del agua de mar en t/m3
De donde el peso del ancla dentro del agua es de 15.986,25kg.
o Adherencia del ancla al fondo=2p=36.750kg.

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o Peso de la cadena sumergida dado por donde n es el nmero de


largos de cadena sumergidos, tomamos n=2, y el peso sumergido es
18.375kg.
o Rozamiento en el escobn, con los siguientes coeficientes correctores:

Levar el ancla y la cadena.

El coeficiente considerado, 1,5 se da en el caso de

Potencia del Molinete.


Si consideramos una velocidad de izado de 10 metros por minuto, un
rendimiento mecnico de 0,65 y un rendimiento elctrico de 0,80, tenemos que
la expresin de la potencia del molinete es:

Velocidad que se utiliza para zarpar el ancla.

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12.3. SELECCIN DE LOS MOLINETES (Windlass).


Segn los resultados obtenidos el molinete seleccionado ser el modelo.

MW 150HCU125K3

Fabricado por Rauma Winches perteneciente a Kamewa LTD.


Se instalarn dos unidades, una a babor y otra a estribor con un peso de 28.540kg y una
potencia de 152kW. Cada uno cuyas caractersticas se incluyen el ANEXO 6.

12.4. MAQUINILLAS DE AMARRE (Mooring winches).


Su dimensionamiento se realizar segn la parte 3 Captulo 3 sec. 3G 501 del
Reglamento DNV segn el cual cada cabrestante mecnico (prrafo 3) deber tener
frenos de tambor suficientes para evitar el giro del carretel cuando la tensin del cable
tiene un valor no inferior a ,5 y no mayor de 1/3 de la capacidad de rotura de la
estacha de la primera capa.
Segn la tabla del equipo, obtenida por medio del numeral, la carga de rotura de la lnea
es de 1471kN. Entonces la potencia al freno es de 490,33kN.
Para cumplir con este requerimiento se dispondrn de seis maquinillas de amarre de 50
toneladas de traccin, y una velocidad de izada de 9 metros por minuto. De los
catlogos disponibles hemos seleccionado el siguiente modelo.

TTS Mod. 50T

Fabricado por ENGINOR y cuyas caractersticas se incluyen en el Anexo antes


mencionado. Tiene un peso de 21.300kg y una potencia total de 234kW.
Por lo tanto podemos construir el siguiente cuadro resumen del equipo de maniobra y
fondeo.
EQUIPO MODELO POTENCIA (kW) PESO (t) XG (m)
Molinetes (x2) MW 150HCU 125K3 152 kW 28,54t 300,24
300,24 PROA
Maquinillas (x2) TTS Mod. 50T 234kW 21,30t
8,66 POPA
Anclas (x3) TIPO HHP - 18,38t 307

LONGITUD(m) DIMETRO (mm) PESO (t) Xg(m)


Cadena (x2) 770 122 58t 300

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La posicin longitudinal de las anclas se toma, por similitud, del buque base ya la
cadena, a efectos del clculo del centro de gravedad la consideramos estibada en la caja
de cadenas.
Ver ANEXO 6 Amarre y fondeo.

13. GENERACIN DE VAPOR.


A continuacin realizaremos un clculo del vapor y potencia necesaria en cada uno de
los servicios para finalmente seleccionar la caldera apropiada.

13.1. CALENTADORES DE LAS PURIFICADORAS.


Purificadora de Fuel Oil.
El caudal de la purificadora de FO es de 7.020 l/h y el caudal de vapor a 6 bar. de
presin para elevar la temperatura del fuel, desde la ambiente de la Cmara de
Mquinas supuesta de 35C hasta la temperatura de centrifugacin, 98C es la
siguiente:

Donde:
es el caudal de fuel a travs de las purificadoras.
es el nmero de purificadoras. Aunque cada una tenga su calentador calculamos.
es la densidad del fuel 0,98 kg/l.
es el incremento de la temperatura.
La energa necesaria para calentar este flujo de fuel es de:

Purificadora de Diesel Oil.


El caudal de las purificadoras de D.O. es de 7.020 l/h, para poder intercambiarla por
la de HFO en caso necesario, y el caudal de vapor a 6 bar de presin para elevar la
temperatura del fuel desde la temperatura ambiente de la Cmara de Mquinas
supuesta de 35C hasta la temperatura de centrifugacin, 80C es la siguiente:

Donde:

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es el caudal de D.O. a travs de las purificadoras.


es el nmero de purificadoras. Aunque cada una tenga su calentador calculamos
ambos caudales como uno solo.
es la densidad 0,90 kg/l
es el incremento de la temperatura.
La energa necesaria para calentar este flujo de combustible es de:

Purificadora de aceite.
El caudal de la purificadora de aceite es de 4.150 l/h y el caudal de vapor a 4,8 bar. de
presin para elevar la temperatura de fuel desde la temperatura ambiente de la
Cmara de Mquinas supuesta a 35C hasta la temperatura de centrifugacin, 95C
es el siguiente:

La energa necesaria para calentar este flujo de fuel es de:

13.2. CALENTADORES DE HFO DEL MOTOR PRINCIPAL.


El fuel que se encuentra a una temperatura de 70C en los tanques de uso diario debe
ser calentado hasta una temperatura de 98C para su inyeccin.
El caudal de combustible que pasa de los tanques al motor es:

Donde:
es el consumo especfico del motor en kg/h.BHP.
BHP es la potencia MCR del motor al freno.
El caudal de vapor necesario para calentar este flujo es de:

La energa necesaria para calentar este flujo es de:

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13.3. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES ALMACN DE HFO.


El fuel de los tanques almacn debe ser calefactado hasta 70C para permitir su
bombeo. Mientras el buque est en puerto o maniobrando los auxiliares y el motor
principal queman D.O. por lo que se dispone de este tiempo para elevar la temperatura
desde la temperatura media de la Cmara de Mquinas supuesta de 35C hasta 70C.
Esta temperatura deber ser mantenida durante toda la travesa. El tiempo de estancia
en puerto ha de ser como mnimo de para la descarga de crudo.
El caudal de vapor necesario para calentar ambos tanques de fuel es de:

La energa necesaria para calentar ambos tanques es de:

13.4. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES SEDIMENTACIN DE HFO.


El caudal de vapor necesario para calentar ambos tanques de fuel es de.

La energa necesaria para calentar ambos tanques es de:

13.5. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES DE USO DIARIO DE HFO.


El caudal de vapor necesario para calentar ambos tanques de fuel es de.

La energa necesaria para calentar ambos tanques es de:

13.6. CALENTADORES DE TANQUES DE CARGA.


La densidad del crudo a cargar es de 0,87t/m3.

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Sabemos que hemos de cumplir los reglamentos del canal de SUEZ, por lo tanto, debido
a la ruta que seguir este buque al Golfo Prsico y a la densidad del mismo, podemos
determinar que el crudo que transporta es crudo arbigo de grado medio, que no
precisa ser calentado para bombearlo, por lo tanto hemos decidido no instalar
serpentines de calentamiento. Las caractersticas de este crudo se pueden consultar en
ANEXO 8 Caractersticas del crudo

El caudal de vapor de los serpentines lo podemos ver en la tabla inferior, junto con las
toneladas hora de vapor que se necesitan, y la potencia.

CAUDAL DE VAPOR 16.082t/h 17t/h


POTENCIA 6.616.977kcal/h 7.696kW

La caldera y el economizador (VER ANEXO 4 )seleccionados sern los siguientes:


ECONOMIZADOR AALBORG MISSION XW 18 bar 17 t/h
CALDERA AALBORG MISSION OM 18 bar 17 t/h

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ANEXO 1 MEDIOS DE SALVAMENTO

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GIVENS MARINE SURVIVAL CO., INC.
PRESENTS

THE

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The patented hemispherical l


buoy stabilizer

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The Givens liferaft is a superior quality raft, which has


proven itself in the most severe storm conditions. A major advance in lifesaving equi
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U.S.C.G.
U.S. Navy

The Givens Buoy Raft is Hydro-dynamically stabilized, not ballasted as other rafts are.
Illustrations below show the underwater stabililization process as follows:
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bility to the raft. Importantly, this process is faster in rough seas. Simultaneously, stainless steel cables assist in deployment of the
main ballast chambers as water enters the one-way flapper valve through which it cannot escape.
2. When the dual-stabilizer chambers are fully deployed, the raft effectively becomes part of and moves with the sea: it can be towed and
rowed even when fully ballasted. This has been done in actual survival situations.
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Stability System is virtually weightless, acting on the principles of resistance and capillary integrity. Only the fabric stability chamber
itself moves through and around the water. For this reason, stress on the life raft is minimized and likelihood of capsize is practically
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DEPLOYMENT & MAXIMUM STABILIZATION


INITIAL STABILIZATION
PATENTED
DIMENSIONS
A and B
VARIABLE

Optional deballasting Flexible


port for towing Dual Stabilizer

INFLATION OF THE GIVENS BUOY LIFE RAFT


Approximate tim
e fo
r inflation
Painter line is pulled from start to end: First and second Self erecting canopy up:
12 seconds.
out to 55 feet to trigger buoyancy chambers raft fully inflated.
inflation. Additional 5 inflated. Canopy Depending on weather
feet remains attached to Inflation of raft forces inflating: duration so conditions, this can be
raft (total 60 feet). valise to open. far: approx. 7 seconds. done on deck or in water.

GIVENS MARINE SURVIVAL CO., INC. 548 Main Road, Tiverton, R.I. 02878
(401) 624-7900 http://www.givensliferafts.com
FEATURES OF THE GIVENS BUOY LIFE RAFT
Water-activated lights
Double Insulated Canopy
Automatically inflated protects occupants from
canopy arch tubes wind, waves, and spray

Rain catch for Double Insulated Floor


helps protects survivors
drinking water
GIVENS from hypothermia

Floating ring with


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Interior and exterior Automatic inflation


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SURVIVE IN A GIVENS BUOY LIFE RAF toroid provides initial
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GIVENS MARINE SURVIVAL RHODE ISLAND MANUFACTURING FACILITY

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(401) 624-7900 http://www.givensliferafts.com
GIVENS BUOY LIFE RAFT MODELS
12 PERSON 10 PERSON
Deluxe Raft Dimensions Deluxe Raft Dimensions
Diameter: 108 Diameter: 97
Height: 53.5 Height: 50.5
Base Tube Dia.: 12 Base Tube Dia.: 10.5
Top Tube Dia.: 10.5 Top Tube Dia.: 9
Arch Tube Dia.: 9 Arch Tube Dia.: 7
Floor Area: 40.33 sq. ft. Floor Area: 31.5 sq. ft.
Weight: 235 lbs. Weight: 185 lbs.

8 PERSON IOR 6, 8, 10 PERSON


Deluxe Raft Dimensions IOR 8 Raft Dimensions
Diameter: 87 Diameter: 96
Height: 50.5 Height: 50.5
Base Tube Dia.: 10.5 Base Tube Dia.: 10.5
Top Tube Dia.: 9 Top Tube Dia.: 9
Arch Tube Dia.: 7 Arch Tube Dia.: 7
Floor Area: 24.3 sq. ft. Floor Area: 32.2 sq. ft.
Weight: 135 lbs. Weight: 85 lbs.

6 PERSON 4 PERSON
Deluxe Raft Dimensions Deluxe Raft Dimensions
Diameter: 78.5 Diameter: 73
Height: 50.5 Height: 49
Base Tube Dia.: 10.5 Base Tube Dia.: 10
Top Tube Dia.: 9 Top Tube Dia.: 9
Arch Tube Dia.: 7 Arch Tube Dia.: 6
Floor Area: 20.9 sq. ft. Floor Area: 18.6 sq. ft.
Weight: 120 lbs. Weight: 100 lbs.

Larger sizes available upon request. Ask us for pricing and specs.
VALISE EQUIPMENT PACK CANISTER WITH
LOCKING BRACKET

Rugged vinyl for below-deck Various equipment packs to Best for on-deck installations.
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GIVENS MARINE SURVIVAL CO., INC.


550 MAIN ROAD TIVERTON, R.I. 02878
(401) 624-7900 FAX (401) 625-1099
web: http://www.givensliferafts.com
email: info@givensliferafts.com
SURVIVALCRAFT FREE FALL LIFEBOAT

The SURVIVALCRAFT FC FF59 FREE FALL lifeboat is designed, built and fitted out according to the latest
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SURVIVALCRAFT hydraulic ramp and is backed by a worldwide installation, commissioning, maintenance
and repair service provided by our own team of mobile engineers.

The design of the SURVIVALCRAFT range of lifeboats draws on many years of experience gained by the
founders of Survival Craft Inspectorate when they were carrying out repairs and maintenance on competitor's
lifeboats. The design brief was to ensure that SURVIVALCRAFT lifeboats are designed without compromise
to guarantee maximum reliability in the harshest marine conditions and yet have the lowest possible lifetime
ownership costs. This design philosophy is evident in every single component, from the smallest nut and bolt,
to the choice of diesel engine and the release gear.

The result of this design process and strict adherence to our rigorous quality control procedures gives us the
confidence to offer a unique five-year after sales warranty on all SURVIVALCRAFT lifeboats. Full details of
the warranty are available on request.

Main Features

Hull and canopy are double skinned and moulded in fire retardant GRP.

Integral buoyancy tanks ensure boat is self-righting even in damaged condition.

Diesel engine with twin electric start.

Available in fire protected version complete with external water spray and internal compressed air supply.

Corrosion resistant materials used throughout - GRP, stainless steel, brass, hot dipped galvanised steel or marine
grade aluminium.

Full installation, commissioning, and maintenance service available worldwide.

Unique five-year warranty.

SPECIFICATION - SC FF59 FREE FALL

Capacity 25 persons

Length 5.90 metres


Breadth 2.36 metres
Height 3.10 metres

Weight:
Dry Cargo Version
2710 kgs - unloaded
4585 kgs - davit load
Tanker version
3010 kgs - unloaded
4885 kgs - davit load
Maximum drop height - 13.5 metres
Moulded in GRP

SURVIVAL CRAFT INSPECTORATE


Findon Shore, Findon
Aberdeen, Scotland, AB12 4RN
Tel: + 44 (0) 1224 784488, Fax: + 44 (0) 1224 784111
www.survivalcraft.com E-mail: info@survivalcraft.com
Norsafe as TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

Made by: J. Dawes GES 25 Rev. date:


Approved by: B. Skaala FREE FALL LIFEBOAT Rev. No: 05
Valid from: 13.09.99 Document No. TEK - 325 Page 1 of 4

1. TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Dimensions - Overall
Length 7,50 m
Beam 2,75 m
Height 3,42 m

Boat Data
Capacity, maximum 31 persons
Weight, boat with equipment 4.443 kg
Davit load, with 40 persons 7.000 kg
Installation height, maximum 20,4m
Speed, minimum 6 knots
Colour Orange (RAL 2004)

2. MATERIALS
Hull and Superstructure
Boat structure Fire retardant glassfibre reinforced polyester
(GRP)
Buoyancy material Polyurethane foam
Seats Polyethylene seats with safety harness
Windows Impact resistant polycarbonate

Fittings
Handrails and steps Sea water resistant aluminium
Steering nozzle GRP
Tanks Sea water resistant aluminium
Towing bollard Hot dipped galvanised steel

3. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Totally Enclosed Free Fall Lifeboat designed and manufactured according to latest
SOLAS, Classification Society and National Authority requirements.

The lifeboat provides a secure and protected means of escape for persons onboard
vessels or platforms. The lifeboat is for skid launch by a specific davit. Design and
construction fulfil the need for reliable, low maintenance standby and operation.

q:\boats\ges 25\a - general technical documentation\tek-325_r05-ges25.doc


Norsafe as TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

Made by: J. Dawes GES 25 Rev. date:


Approved by: B. Skaala FREE FALL LIFEBOAT Rev. No: 05
Valid from: 13.09.99 Document No. TEK - 325 Page 2 of 4

4. HULL AND SUPERSTRUCTURE


The lifeboat is fabricated in fire retardant glassfibre reinforced polyester (GRP).

The space between hull and hull liner, and between deck and deck liner, is filled with
polyurethane buoyancy foam. In fully flooded and loaded condition, the lifeboat is
self-righting. If damaged below the waterline, buoyancy is sufficient to float the boat
at safe level.

5. RELEASE MECHANISM
Free fall release is activated by either of two, fully independent, hydraulic pump
arrangements - both located on the transom. Primary release pump control handle is
located at the helmsmans position. Secondary release pump is located within reach
of one of the aft seating positions. During launch, the hydraulic pump lifts the aft of
the boat until the hook disengages the securing bar on the davit.

The boat is equipped with a lifting sling to allow retrieval of the boat with a crew of
three persons after launch.

6. EMBARKATION AND SEATING


Embarkation is through the aft door. Seats are positioned on each side of the central
aisle. All seats are anatomically shaped and angled, rear facing and fitted with a 4-
point harness to provide optimum safety and comfort during free fall launch.

There is a forward hatch on top of the canopy and one at the helmsmans position.

7. STEERING AND CONTROLS


The lifeboat is equipped with hydraulic steering. A steering nozzle gives optimum
manoeuvrability and increased bollard pull. Emergency steering is provided.

The steering position is at the aft of the boat. The helmsman has a 360 view and
controls the following:

x Engine controls and instruments


x Steering
x Compressed air system (tanker version)
x Free fall release pump
x Electrical equipment

q:\boats\ges 25\a - general technical documentation\tek-325_r05-ges25.doc


Norsafe as TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

Made by: J. Dawes GES 25 Rev. date:


Approved by: B. Skaala FREE FALL LIFEBOAT Rev. No: 05
Valid from: 13.09.99 Document No. TEK - 325 Page 3 of 4

8. ENGINE
The boat is fitted with a SOLAS approved diesel engine with the following features:

x Electrical starter, with two independent batteries


x Fuel tank of sufficient capacity to run the fully loaded boat for 24 hours at a
speed of 6 knots
x Transmission allowing the craft to be driven ahead and astern
x Freshwater cooling with header tank and external cooler. The engine can be
run in the davit for a maximum of 5 minutes without overheating
x Engine compartment with top access is located under the steering position
x Under pressure relief valves providing sufficient air intake to prevent cabin
under pressure when engine is running

9. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
The lifeboat is equipped with the following:

x Main and emergency switch


x Electrical starter powered by two independent batteries
x Standby battery charging from 42 volt ships power supply
x Engine has a 12 volt alternator for charging batteries while boat is running
x Electrical panel with switches for interior lighting, navigation light, a 12 volt
power outlet for searchlight and a switch for additional electrical equipment.
There are circuit breakers for all electrical equipment

10. TANKER VERSION - ADDITIONAL


For boats installed on tank ships and oil installations, the following is required:

x Compressed air system of sufficient capacity to provide air for persons


onboard and engine combustion for a minimum of 10 minutes. The system
creates an over pressure inside the boat - limited by a relief valve - preventing
intake from the external hazardous atmosphere.

x Over pressure release valve preventing too large pressure inside cabin when
using compressed air system.

x Water spray system with an engine driven centrifugal pump. The system
creates a deluge over the surface of the lifeboat, protecting from fire and
maintaining cabin temperature. The sprinkler system is made of sea water
resistant aluminium pipe work with spray nozzles. The sea water intake is at a
low point under the boat, so flammable liquid is not drawn into the system.

q:\boats\ges 25\a - general technical documentation\tek-325_r05-ges25.doc


Norsafe as TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

Made by: J. Dawes GES 25 Rev. date:


Approved by: B. Skaala FREE FALL LIFEBOAT Rev. No: 05
Valid from: 13.09.99 Document No. TEK - 325 Page 4 of 4

11. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT


x Power-supply for VHF consisting of:
Separate battery with independent charging and wiring
x Stainless steel sprinkler system

Typical specification - subject to revision according to customer requirement.

All products are subject to continuous review. Norsafe as reserve the right to change
specification without prior notice.

q:\boats\ges 25\a - general technical documentation\tek-325_r05-ges25.doc


Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 2 GRAS DE CUBIERTA

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


"P" TYPE SERVICE CRANES
Service cranes are designed for: - provision handling,
- store and other deck equipment handling,
- engine room handling.

Type of Capacity Outreach Dimensions Working speeds1) Power 1) Pedestal loading Weight
crane Hoisting Luffing Slewing approx.
P Rmax Rmin A B C M F
(t) (m) (m) ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) (m/min) (s) (min -1) ( kW ) ( kNm ) ( kN ) (t)
10-08 1 8 1,6 600 1200 1900 20 50 1,0 6 170 40 2,2
10-12 1 12 2,2 600 1350 2100 20 60 1,0 6 250 45 2,9
10-16 1 16 3,2 600 1350 2100 20 60 1,0 6 340 50 3,3
20-08 2 8 1,6 770 1750 2850 20 30 1,0 12 270 55 2,8
20-12 2 12 2,5 770 1750 2850 20 40 1,0 12 405 60 3,3
20-16 2 16 3,2 930 2000 3150 20 65 1,0 12 560 70 5,3
30-08 3 8 1,6 770 1750 2850 14 40 1,0 12 370 70 3,2
30-12 3 12 2,0 930 2000 3150 20 50 1,0 18 620 95 5,2
30-16 3 16 2,7 930 2000 3150 20 50 1,0 18 850 100 5,9
40-08 4 8 1,6 930 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 24 520 100 5,0
40-12 4 12 2,0 930 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 24 750 105 5,4
40-16 4 16 2,5 1200 2000 3150 20 40 0,9 24 1000 120 7,0
40-20 4 20 4,0 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,7 24 1350 150 10,0
50-08 5 8 1,6 930 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 30 600 110 5,2
50-12 5 12 2,0 1200 2000 3150 20 40 0,9 30 950 130 7,0
50-16 5 16 2,5 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,7 30 1300 150 9,5
50-20 5 20 4,0 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,6 30 1650 160 10,5
60-08 6 8 1,6 930 2000 3150 15 60 1,3 30 750 130 5,3
60-12 6 12 2,0 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,9 30 1400 150 8,0
60-16 6 16 2,5 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,7 30 1550 180 9,8
60-20 6 20 3,6 1530 2200 3700 15 80 0,6 30 2000 190 11,0
80-12 8 12 2,2 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,7 36 1500 190 9,5
80-16 8 16 3,2 1530 2200 3700 15 80 0,7 36 2000 210 11,5
80-20 8 20 3,6 1570 3000 4850 15 100 0,6 45 2600 240 16,2
100-12 10 12 2,2 1530 2200 3700 15 70 0,7 45 1900 230 11,5
100-16 10 16 3,2 1530 2200 3700 15 70 0,7 45 2500 250 13,0
100-20 10 20 3,6 1570 3000 4850 15 100 0,6 45 3100 270 16,5
1) Data valid for 3~440V, 60Hz, for standard cranes, other data on request.
Crane can be delivered in a version with remote cable or radio controller.
TOWIMOR reserves the right to change specifications without special notice.

TOWIMOR S.A.
ul. Starotoruska 5, 87 - 100 Toru - Poland, tel. (+48 56) 62 15 374, 62 15 208, fax (+48 56) 65 42 517, 65 42 585
OWIMOR
e-mail: towimor@towimor.com.pl; www.towimor.com.pl
PH TYPE HOSE HANDLING CRANES
Cranes designed for hose handling of tankers, chemical carriers,LPG carriers

C
B
2000

Type of Capacity Outreach Dimensions Working speeds1) Power1) Pedestal loading Weight
crane Hoisting Luffing Slewing approx.
Max Min A B C M F
PH (t) (m) (m) ( mm ) ( mm ) ( mm ) (m/min) (s) (min -1) ( kW ) ( kNm ) ( kN ) (t)
20-08 2 8 1,6 770 1750 2850 20 30 1,0 12 270 55 2,8
20-12 2 12 2,5 770 1750 2850 20 40 1,0 12 405 60 3,3
20-16 2 16 3,2 980 2000 3150 20 65 1,0 12 560 70 5,3
30-08 3 8 1,6 770 1750 2850 14 40 1,0 12 370 70 3,2
30-12 3 12 2,0 930 2000 3150 20 50 1,0 18 620 95 5,2
30-16 3 16 2,7 980 2000 3150 20 50 1,0 18 850 100 5,9
40-08 4 8 1,6 980 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 24 520 100 5,0
40-12 4 12 2,0 980 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 24 750 105 5,4
40-16 4 16 2,5 1200 2000 3150 20 40 0,9 24 1000 120 7,0
40-20 4 20 4,0 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,7 24 1350 150 10,0
50-08 5 8 1,6 980 2000 3150 20 40 1,3 30 600 110 5,2
50-12 5 12 2,0 1200 2000 3150 20 40 0,9 30 950 130 7,0
50-16 5 16 2,5 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,7 30 1300 150 9,5
50-20 5 20 4,0 1200 2130 3600 20 60 0,6 30 1650 160 10,5
60-08 6 8 1,6 980 2000 3150 15 60 1,3 30 750 130 5,3
60-12 6 12 2,0 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,9 30 1400 150 8,0
60-16 6 16 2,5 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,7 30 1550 180 9,8
60-20 6 20 3,6 1715 2200 3700 15 80 0,6 30 2000 190 11,0
80-12 8 12 2,2 1200 2130 3600 15 60 0,7 36 1500 190 9,5
80-16 8 16 3,2 1715 2200 3700 15 80 0,6 36 2000 210 11,5
80-20 8 20 3,6 1800 3000 4850 15 100 0,6 45 2600 240 16,2
100-12 10 12 2,2 1715 2200 3700 13/26 2) 80 0,7 40 1900 230 11,0
100-16 10 16 3,2 1715 2200 3700 13/26 2) 80 0,6 40 2500 250 12,5
100-22 10 22 4,0 1800 3000 4850 13/26 2) 100 0,6 40 3450 290 16,0
150-12 15 12 2,4 1800 3000 4850 13/26 2) 80 0,7 60 3000 360 15,5
150-16 15 16 2,8 2560 3250 5300 13/26 2) 90 0,6 60 3900 410 21,0
150-20 15 20 3,5 2560 3250 5300 13/26 2) 90 0,6 60 4800 420 23,0
150-26 15 26 4,4 2560 3250 5300 13/26 2) 90 0,6 60 5910 430 25,0
200-10 20 10 2,4 1800 3000 4950 13/26 2) 80 0,7 75 2900 420 16,0
200-16 20 16 3,0 2560 3250 5300 13/26 2) 90 0,6 75 4950 480 22,0
200-20 20 20 4,0 2560 3250 5300 13/26 2) 90 0,6 75 6130 500 24,0
1) Data valid for 440V, 60 Hz, a.c.for standard cranes, other speed parameters on request.
2) 26 m/s only for 0-30% of load on the hook.
Cranes are designed in accordance with OCIMF requirements
Crane can be supplied from its self-contained power pack or from central pump system
and can be equipped with cabin or open platform.
TOWIMOR reserves the right to change specifications without special notice.

TOWIMOR S.A.
ul. Starotoruska 5, 87 - 100 Toru - Poland, tel. (+48 56) 62 15 374, 62 15 208, fax (+48 56) 65 42 517, 65 42 585
OWIMOR
e-mail: towimor@towimor.com.pl; www.towimor.com.pl
Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 3 C.O.W.

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


VP MONOMATIC T2S

TANK WASHING MACHINE

The VP Monomatic T2S single-nozzle tank washing machine


for fixed installations in Crude oil and product tankers, OBOs
and Bulkers.

Programmable.

Bronze or Stainless Steel construction.

Turbine drive. Self start.

Integral control head.

Deck-mounted.

Crude oil or water wash.

Powerful efficient jet.

Four overlapping wash arcs. (Multi-stage). Variable


wash pitch up to 18. (Single stage).

Two interchangeable programming modules. Single-


stage and Multi-stage.

Maintenance free below deck.

4 nozzle sizes up to 168m/hr.

1 / 2 VP-MONOMATIC-T2S.PDF Issued JULY 02


Performance Specification

Suitable for tank washing on all types of tanker subject to material selection, but in particular
VLCCs and ULCCs for crude oil washing.

Materials: Bronze cleaning head with selected Stainless Steel components. Mild Steel
downpipe and flanges all triple epoxy coated. Alternatively in Stainless Steel 316L.

Housing: Cast iron with copper addition.

Flanges: Inlet flange 100mm/DIN/BS/ASA/JIS. Separate filter screen and gasket supplied.
Deck flange designed to suit standard 318mm (10 or 12 studs) opening or built to vessel
requirements.

Design: Single maximum energy nozzle with smooth jet flow for efficiency. Self start turbine
drive with integral programmable control head for specific multi-stage tank washing. The
machine has a maintenance free cleaning head lubricated by the wash media.

Operation: Single nozzle helical wash. Nozzle pitch on each rotation infinitely variable up to
18 on single stage (set by operator). On multi stage pre set arcs 2 Down 6 Upwards Pass
nozzle pitch.

Typical wash cycle: Variable time. (Example 160 - 0 - 160 at 2/6 pitch (106 revs = 320
= 90 minutes.) Cycle time typical of 38mm nozzle.

Nozzles: Sizes from 28mm to 38mm. Performance data below.

(1) Jet (C.O.W.) = Classification society approved length of wash jet with maximum.

(2) Jet (Water) Maximum length of wash jet horizontal throw.

2 / 2 VP-MONOMATIC-T2S.PDF Issued JULY 02


Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 4 CALDERA Y GASES DE ESCAPE

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


Exhaust gas economizer

MISSION TM
XW

MINERVA ALICE equipped with one AV-6N (now called MISSIONTM XW)
and two oil-fired MISSION OM boilers.

The MISSION XW is a water tube,


forced circulation exhaust gas econo-
mizer. It is specially designed to utilize
thermal energy in diesel engine
exhaust gas but the basic design suits
numerous applications.

Steam capacity: 0.2 - 17.0 t/h

Design pressure: 18 bar(g) or 24 bar(g)


MISSIONTM XW
Exhaust gas economizer

Description The economizer can be supplied Boiler characteristics:


The MISSION XW is a water tube, with a dividing wall system for con-  Forced-circulation exhaust gas
forced circulation exhaust gas eco- nection of several exhaust gas economizer
nomizer. It is specially designed for sources to one economizer.  Water tube economizer with gil-
heat recovery from diesel engine led tubes for exhaust gas heat
exhaust gas but the basic design The MISSION may be used in con- recovery
suits numerous applications. junction with an oil-fired auxiliary  Robust, well-proven construc-
boiler or a separate steam drum, in tion, able to withstand vibra-
The heating surface is made of both cases acting as a steam/water tions and exhaust gas pulsation
double gilled tubes with a spacing separator.  Heating surface composition
which minimizes soot build-up. It is which ensures the required out-
supplied with an efficient cleaning In connection with a thorough put from the most compact unit
system with steam or with com- revision/standardisation of Aalborg  Efficient, well-proven cleaning
pressed air sootblowers. Industries' marine boiler product system with steam or air soot
range, the exhaust gas economizer blowers
Designs with single
gilled tubes or bare previously referred to as AV-6N has  Superheater and preheater as an
tubes are also available be renamed to MISSION XW. option

www.aalborg-industries.com

DATA SHEET series


Aalborg Industries Marketing, June 2005 (Reservation is made for design data changes without prior notice). Your Preferred Partner
The medium capacity
modular boiler plant

MISSION TM
OM

DN
40
DN
40

The MISSION OM boiler is the top plates of the furnace


supplied as a standard, pre- and the boiler.
assembled unit. The furnace
is built of membrane walls. Capacity range: 14-45 t/h
Sufficient circulation is 18 bar (g) design pressure
ensured by downcomers.
The optimally designed pin-
tube elements ensure high
performance. These elements
are also used for support of
14 45 t/h, 18 bar (g)
MISSION OM boiler

S TA N D A R D P R O D U C T R A N G E Capacity and dimensions

Steam Design Thermal output Height H Diameter D Width W1 Width W2 Flue gas Boiler dry Water
capacity pressure at 100% MCR (incl. insulation) Heating coil Burner outlet weight ## volume
removal removal # connection
kg/h bar (g) kW mm mm mm mm DN ton m3
14,000 18 9.8 7,300 3,000 2,015 3,320 700 19.0 8.3
16,000 18 11.2 7,800 3,000 2,015 3,440 700 20.3 8.1
20,000 18 14.0 7,900 3,300 2,165 3,595 900 24.7 10.0
25,000 18 17.5 8,700 3,300 2,165 3,820 900 27.0 10.5
30,000 18 21.0 9,000 3,600 2,315 4,000 1,000 32.9 12.6
35,000 18 24.5 9,620 3,900 2,465 4,775 1,000 38.4 15.1
40,000 18 28.0 9,660 4,100 2,565 4,735 1,200 43.3 16.6
45,000 18 31.5 9,660 4,100 2,565 5,690 1,200 45.7 17.0

# With KBSA steam atomising burner


## Without burner and accessories
Capacity 45,000 kg/h is with extended furnace.

DATA SHEET series


Aalborg Industries 2001, rev.: 3.0, October 2005 (Design data are subject to change without prior notice).
Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 5 GENERADOR DE GAS INERTE.

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


Inert Gas Systems
for the tanker industry

Risk Management during sea trans-


port, unloading and tank cleaning
is crucial to the tanker industry.
International IMO/SOLAS conven-
tions requiring installation of IGS
plant have therefore existed since
1974. Aalborg Industries offers an
innovative, compact IGS solution
that can be controlled and monitor-
ed in unison with the boiler plant.
Inert Gas Systems help
prevent explosions in cargo tanks

To funnel

To funnel

P/V breaker
(pressure/vacuum)

Aux. boiler Scrubber

IGS fan
Deck water seal

Leading the way in safety Risk-reduction made compact


Aalborg Industries has almost 30 The extensive expertise gained over
years of experience in the develop- the years was put into Aalborg
ment and delivery of around 600 Industries own compact and effi-
Inert Gas Systems (IGS) to the worlds cient IGS plant which was first devel-
Aalborg Industries IGS
major tanker operators. In fact, oped in 1996/97. Trend-setting
The Frontline crude oil tankers, Aalborg Industries helped pinpoint product development and constant
Golden Stream and New the causes and factors involved in design improvements are key factors
Vista, built at Hitachi Zosen the series of tanker explosions that in the innovative approach of
Corp. are equipped with IGS of
in 1969 prompted the tanker indu- Aalborg Industries.
20,250 m3/h respectively 20,630
stry to voluntarily introduce the IGS
m3/h capacity.
to help prevent explosions in cargo A thoroughly global group of com-
The Chevron tanker Frank A. tanks. Regulations for installation of panies, Aalborg Industries is the
Shrontz (centre page), built at IGS on tankers were adopted by the worlds only IGS producer who is
Samsung Heavy Industries, is International Conference on Safety also a boiler manufacturer. We offer
equipped with an 18,750 m3/h IGS.
of Life at Sea (SOLAS) in 1974. our customers the benefits of com-
bined control of IGS and boiler sys-
tems always ensuring optimal
performance.
Risk Management
with an innovative design

Based on years of experience effectively reduces the oxygen con- The scrubber tower ensures stable
During transportation and storage tent in cargo tanks to below 8% by cooling and cleaning performance
of crude oil and refined products supplying inert gas. The IGS washes under any operating condition. And
there is a real risk that explosive gas and cools the boiler flue gas, con- the design of the filler material pro-
mixtures form in cargo and slop verts it to an inert gas, and distrib- vides a well-balanced distribution of
tanks. Often referred to as the fire utes it to the cargo tanks. the gas flow and spray water in the
triangle, the three elements in a scrubber tower.
tank explosion are flammable gas, Cost-effective solution
oxygen and heat. By controlling the The design of the corrugated IGS plant advantages:
oxygen content in the cargo tanks, packing in scrubber and demister Effective gas cooling and
the IGS prevents explosions, even ensures highly effective removal of cleaning
when the two other elements are solid particles, SOx and water mist. Stable performance
present. The innovate, compact design gives Low power consumption
low cooling water consumption and Minimum maintenance
Flexible capacity therefore high efficiency and low Long life
Aalborg Industries IGS plants are power consumption.
designed for capacities of 3,000-
30,000 Nm3/h. Our IGS solution
Easy implementation
and on-screen documentation

Technological excellence Customer-oriented approach


Aalborg Industries offers fast quota- We can provide a package offer and
tions thanks to the standard design commissioning of the IGS and boiler
of our IGS solutions. CAD dimension plants.
and arrangement drawings can be
supplied on floppy disk for easy Maintenance The IGS can be supplied with a
inclusion in shipyard drawings, sup- Less servicing and longer lifetime topping up Inert Gas Generator with
plemented by simple and standard with: a standard capacity of 500 m3/h.

technical specifications. This mini- No maintenance of scrubber


mises the amount of engineering packings and demister
required by the shipyard and im-
High-performance lining
proves overall economy.
Materials selected to cope with
corrosive working environments

The IMO/SOLAS 1974 regulations


covering all new crude and product
carriers of 20,000 tonnes dwt or above
require that the oxygen content in the
tanks is controlled to prevent explosions.
Combined control
of IGS and boiler systems

Versatility and integration Designed for the real world


The boiler load can be controlled A PC monitor with a graphic user
automatically in optimised opera- interface enables complete remote
tion to meet inert gas demand and control and monitoring of the inte-
steam demand for cargo unloading. grated IGS and boiler systems, either
Easy remote control and Automatic operation also applies from the engine control room or the
monitoring of the integra- when boiler operation is required cargo control room. This joint moni-
ted IGS and boiler system only for production of flue gas for toring of the IGS and boiler systems
the IGS. effectively simplifies operation and
meets todays requirements for
The IGS system is optimised for
Fuel oil saving during IGS topping reduced ship crews.
maximum safety during cargo
up mode is made possible by instal-
unloading and tank cleaning.
ling a burner with a very large turn Aalborg Industries offers both boiler
down ratio while maintaining a low plant and IGS from our own product
oxygen content in the flue gas. line and can integrate them in a
combined system.
World-wide service network
Aalborg Industries international boiler
and combustion technology and pro-
duction network are certified to the
highest quality standards. Consequent-
ly, the end users of Aalborg Industries
equipment receive full technical sup-
port from our own dedicated engineers
in both service and spare parts'
supplies.

Complete capability
Recognised as the worlds leading
marine boiler manufacturer, Aalborg
Industries also has an extensive produc-
tion of inert gas systems, thermal fluid
heating systems and heat exchangers.

Please visit our website:


http://www.aalborg-industries.com

Business Centre:
Aalborg Industries K.K.
Sannomiya Intes, 6th floor Your local contacts:
1-8, 7-chome, Isogami-dori China: Tel. +86 21 6886 3565 Japan: +81 3 3584 8351
Chuo-ku, Kobe 651-0086 China: Tel. +86 411 270 9291 Korea: Tel. +82 51 703 6162
Japan Denmark: Tel. +45 9930 4000 Netherlands: Tel. +31 181 650 500
Tel. +81 78 271 5720 Dubai/UAE: Tel. +971 4 324 1061 Singapore: +65 261 9898
Fax +81 78 271 5741 Finland: Tel. +358 2 838 3100 Sweden: Tel. +46 8 580 243 00
Halskov & Halskov 03/2001

E-mail: ukb@aalborg-industries.co.jp Hong Kong: Tel. +852 2836 3826 USA: Tel. +1 281 862 2245
DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

FLUE-GAS SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION N FGS-18000

SIZE 18000

Techinical Characteristics of the main components of the system are detailed below.

201 SCRUBBER (ITEM 14)


The unit incorporates a three (3) stages of impingement baffle trays to clean the flue gases from the boiler up-
take.
The DETEGASA system incorporates a control to maintain a constant and correct operating velocity through
the scrubber at varying output gas volumes required to the tanks. This is achieved by recirculating some inert
gas around the scrubber.
The operation is controlled by the modulating valves, main control and recirculation, described later in this
specification.

Scrubber Performance

Solid Particle: 90% of all particles in the flue gas greater than five microns in size
with inlet contents as large as 250 mg/m3.
Substantial removal of submicronparticles is achieved.

Sulphur Compounds: At a sea temperature of 65 degress F. 90% of sulfur dioxide will be


removed, with inlet contents of 0,3%.

Material Of Construction

Scrubber Shell: Fabricated from mild steel plates.

Scrubber Lining: Flexible rubber or Polyester coating over all surfaces and flange faces-Spark
tested for continuity.

Gas inlet: AISI 316L in incoloy 825 partly submerged in water to give water seal against
stack pressure.

Baffle Trays GRP in PVC.

Demister Polypropylene knitteed held between top and bottom GRP or PVC support
grids.

Quench Spray Incoloy 825

External Finish One coat Zinc Silicate (60 microns)

Spray Nozzles Inconel 625 or similar.

( Unit is pressure tested to 5 PSI before dispatch ).

Ancillary Equipment

The gas scrubber is complete with the following items and features:
DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)
Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

Gas temperature gauge High water level switch Drain valve

Adequate access Pressure points Inspection ports

Main Dimensions Of Gas Scrubber See drawing N TL-000-G01

Sea Water Supply

To top tray 215 m3/h. Quench sprays 140 m3/h.

Water seal scrubber 15 m3/h. Total to scrubber 370 m3/h.

To Deck Water Seal 10 m3/h.

202 FAN UNITS (ITEM 21-22)

Qty. 2

Casings

Material Fabricated from 6 m/m thick mild steel plate stiffened

Connections Inlet and outlet connections can be oriented to suit plant layout.

Lining With soft rubber, poliester coating or adequate protection.

Shaft Stainless Steel 316, or CU-AL-10NI.

Drain Connections at lowest part of scroll (2").

Other Inspection cover. Water washing connections.

Impeller

Material Fabricated from Ni-AL-Br or AISI 316. Coupling Grid type flexible coupling

Bearings Mounted externally Balance Dynamic

Supply Complete with prime mover on a combined base frame.

Temperature switches are provided for fan outlet connections for alarm indication and shutdown.

Perfomance Details

Flow at 20 C-500 mm.W.G. 20340 Total Delivery Pressure mm.W.G. 1.900

Absorved Power. Kw. 132 Speed. RPM 3.550

Motor fitted. Kw 160

Motor enclosures - Marine TEFC: 440 VAC, 3 Phase, 60 Hertz.

203 DECK SEAL - WET TYPE UNIT (ITEM 36)

Qty 1

Overall Dimensions: I.G. inlet and outlet Dia.ND 550

Material Of Construction

Casing Mild steel


DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)
Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
PHONE: +34-981-494000 admin@detegasa.com
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

Lining Soft rubber ; poliester coating or adequate protection.

External finish One coat Zinc Silicate (60 microns).

Demister Polypropylene; fitted between top an bottom grids.

Steam heating coil Suitable for sea water.

Other Elements Non - return valve, at water inlet connection.

Water flow switch with alarm contacts for installation by shipyard in the water feed pipe in a "GAS-SAFE"
area.

204 PRESSURE / VACUUM BREAKER (ITEM 43)

Qty. 1

Material Mild steel plate Internal Coating Epoxy

Overall Dimensions See drawing N RPV-000F-G01.

Pressure 2100-2300 mm.wc. Vacuum 500 - 750 mm.wc.

Filling Medium Ethylene Glycol

DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)


Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
PHONE: +34-981-494000 admin@detegasa.com
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

800 SCOPE OF SUPPLY


STANDARD SUPPLY
We detail below our Standard Scope of supply.
! Engineering. As detailed in Chapter 100 of the Specification.
! Scrubber unit complete with accessories as detailed in Chapter 201 of the Specification
! Two (2) electrically driven inert gas blowers, 100% capacity each, as detailed in Chapter 202 of the
Specification.
! One (1) deck water seal complete as detailed in Chapter 203 of the Specification.
! One (1) P/V Breaker as detailed in Chapter 204 of the specification.
! One (1) local control panel (Main Control Panel) as described in Chapter 205 of the specification.
! One (1) cargo control room panel with mimic diagram as detailed in Chapter 206 of the Specification.
! One (1) panel for installation in engine control room.
! One (1) panel in the wheelhouse.
! One (1) pneumatic control panel situated nearby the inert gas fans, comprising, solenoid valves,
pressure switches and other equipment as required.
! One (1) set of control equipment, including the elements detailed in Chapter 207 and other control
elements that would be required for the correct operation of the system.
! One (1) oxygen analyzer, fixed type.
! Different Inert Gas Valves:
-Two (2) boiler uptake. Items 07/08.
-Two (2) main fan inlet. Item 17/18
-Two (2) rubber expansion bellows Item 19/20.
-Two (2) main fan outlet. Item 27/28
-Two (2) rubber expansion bellows. Item 23/24.
-One (1) main control valve. Item 33. -One (1) recirculation valve. Item 31.
-One (1) non-return valve. Item 37. -One (1) gas-free inlet valve. Item 16
-One (1) purge valve. Item 94 -One (1) safety valve. Item 34.
-One (1) deck main isolation valve. Item 38. -Two (2) air seal valves. Item 12/13.

Optional Supply:
One (1) topping-up Inert Gas Generator Capacity 500 Nm3/h. Item 93 (See Annex I)

DRAWING LIST
Flow Diagram (4 pages) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GI-001F-F01I
Srubber General Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TL-000F-G01I
Deck Seal General Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SC-000F-G01I
Pressure/Vacuum Breaker General Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RPV-000F-G01I

DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)


Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

Annex I
Topping-up Inert Gas Generator
(Item 93)
OPTIONAL SUPPLY

An inert gas topping-up generator is described below. Can be supplied


as an option for the production of inert gas by combustion of 2
Diesel oil.
1. Generator IGG 500 Nm3/h.
Type

2. Output
Data
2.1.1. Capacity 500 Nm3/h.
2.1.2. 1500 MM. WC.
Discharge
Pressure
2.1.3. 5 C. Above sea water.
Discharge
Temperature
2.1.4. Gas (Dry Basis)
Composition
Nitrogen (N2) 84%
Oxygen (O2) Max. 4%
Sulphur Oxides 50ppm max.
(SO2+SO3)
Hydrogen (H2) 100 ppm max.
Inert Trace Gases Balance
2.1.5. Saturated.
Dewpoint

3.- This unit is also able to deliver the same amount of air for gas
freeing with the same dewpoint.

DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)


Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

4. Supply Data
4.1. Fuel Type: 2 Inlet 0,6 Ata
Diesel. Pressure
Flashpoi 72 C. Consumpti 39 Kg/h.
nt Min. on

4.2. Instrument air for starting only


Quality Free of Capacity 20 m3/h max.
dirt
Supply pressure 5 Kg/cm2 min.
7 Kg/cm2 max.

4.3. Electricity
Supply System 440 V III 60 Hz
Power of
electric motors:
1 x 100% Blower, HP 15/10 Controls KW 0,3
Rating/actual Kw
Oil Pump Rating/actual KW 0,5/0,3

4.4. Cooling water for combustion chamber and scrubber


Consumption 46 M3/h. Outlet 3 mWC or less.
Pressure
Quality 0,5 Mesh filtered
Inlet Pressure 30 mWC Max. Inlet 32C. Max.
Temperature
14 mWC. Min. 0C. Min.

4.5. Combustion air


Average Pressure 760 MM Inlet 40C.
Mercury Temperature Max.
Consumption for 590 m3/h. Relative Max.
combustion Humidity (40C) 90%
4.6 Instrument air
Quality Free of dirt, oil Supply Pressure Max. 7
and water. (Kg/cm2).

DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)


Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
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DETEGASA FLUE GAS SYSTEM
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FGS18000

Consumption (Aprox.) 7m3/h. Min. 5

DRAWING LIST
General Arrangement & Interfaces . . . . . . . . . GGI-0500-G01I
Flow Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GI-00F-F01I

DESARROLLOS TECNICAS INDUSTRIALES DE GALICIA, S.A. (D.E.T.E.G.A.S.A.)


Address: CTRA. CASTRO / MEIRAS, VALDOVIO, 15550 LA CORUA, SPAIN
P.O. BOX: 566 - 15480 EL FERROL - (LA CORUA) - SPAIN E-MAIL: detegasa@jet.es
PHONE: +34-981-494000 admin@detegasa.com
FAX: +34-981-486352 WEB: www.detegasa.com Page 7 of 7
Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 6 EQUIPO DE AMARRE Y FONDEO.

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


MOORING CAPSTANS
WITH HYDRAULIC DRIVE
Technical parameters

Hydraulic Drive
Nominal Rope breaking
Pull Volume Work
Type Speed force
Flow Press
[ kN ] [ m/min ] [ l/min ] [ bar ] [ kN ]

G1H 10 10 30 50
G2H 20 20 50 80
G3H 30 30 100 200
G5H 50 55 250 300
0 15 250
G8H 80 85 300 350
G10H 100 100 300 350
G12H 125 140 350 400
G16H 160 150 350 400

Other sizes and parameters on request.

Dimensions

Dimensions
Nominal Pull
[ kN ] A B C D L
[ mm ]

10 250 250 457 710


20
400
30 360 360 640 900
50
80
100
450 450 960 1 300 650
125
160

TOWIMOR S.A.
ul. Starotoruska 5, 87 - 100 Toru - Poland, tel. (+48 56) 65 50 772, 62 15 208, fax (+48 56) 65 42 517, 65 42 585
OWIMOR
e-mail: towimor@towimor.com.pl; www.towimor.com.pl
Modular Deckmachinery

Significant time saving for installation


More flexibility for foundation design
Deck sheer has no influence on
installation
Low requirements on the foundations
accuracy
Full motor protection against sea-water
No lead-through of wires through the
deck

design acc. to DIN 3730 and DIN 4568 - patent pending worldwide
Reliable solutions
make efficient operations

Rolls-Royce plc 2003


The information in this document is the property
of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied, or
communicated to a third party, or used, for any
purpose other than that for which it is supplied
without the express written consent of Rolls-Royce plc
Rolls-Royce plc.

Whilst this information is given in good faith Commercial Marine


based upon the latest information available to
PO Box 160, N-6065 Ulsteinvik, Norway
Rolls-Royce plc, no warranty or representation is
given concerning such information, which must Tel. +47 70 01 40 00
not be taken as establishing any contractual or Fax +47 70 01 40 05
other commitment binding upon
Rolls-Royce plc or any of its subsidiary or
associated companies. Naval Marine
PO Box 31 Fishponds, Bristol BS16 1XY, England
MPDM 0503 Tel. +44 117 974 8500
deck machinery

Printed in Norway Fax +44 117 979 2607

www.rolls-royce.com www.rolls-royce.com
A pioneer in technology
and development
Deck machinery

There is a proud tradition behind the hydraulic, high-pressure hydraulic available; two for re-generative tests
name Rauma Brattvaag. The first and electric drive options for its and four for tests with load.
Rauma Brattvaag hydraulic winch winch range. This provides the
was manufactured as early as 1942. customer with the best option Focusing strongly on continuous
The name itself is a result of the programme available for customised development, the customer benefits
merger of Hydraulic Brattvaag, installations on all types of vessels. from fully optimised performance
Norwinch and Rauma Winches. and consistent equipment support
Today, the winch systems have To ensure the best performance, an approach that delivers quality at
practically become an industry Rolls-Royce has a test facility for the lowest operating cost.
standard for offshore, merchant, winches located in Brattvg, Norway.
fishing and naval applications. The test centre has automatic
hoisting capacity up to 15 tonnes,
Rolls-Royce is one of few suppliers and manual hoisting capacity above
worldwide that offer low-pressure 100 tonnes. Six winch stands are

The ergonomically-designed Captains At the test centre the new winches are The Rauma Brattvagg modular concept
chair features integrated winch controls tested and approved. It is also used for offers tailor-made anchoring and
in the armrests. testing and calibration of winches after mooring winch solutions from a range of
repairs. standard modules.
3
Rauma Brattvaag drive
options for all types of
vessel

The low-pressure drive gives The high-pressure drive has The electric based winches are
dynamic braking, low noise excellent stall characteristics and delivered with pole-change or
level and is easy to operate. effective low speed performance. frequency-converter drives.
Drive options

Rolls-Royce offers three different exposed to wear and tear, giving low Frequency converter drive
drive options suitable for all types of maintenance costs. The frequency converter model
vessel. represents the latest and the most
High-pressure advanced electric drive technology
The power source for the winch The hydraulic system for the high- available. The stepless control allows
systems can be, as required by the pressure drive is of an open loop, the use of very low speed for clutch
customer, low-pressure hydraulic, constant pressure type. One pump control and anchor nesting. The drive
high-pressure hydraulic, frequency- can simultaneously supply a number system also offers good stalling
converter electric drive or pole- of winches and other hydraulically performance, and smooth low noise
change electric drive. The choice of driven devices. The high-pressure operation helps to provide a good
drive type often depends on type of drive has excellent stalling and living and working environment.
application and the actual winch effective low speed performance. It is
operations. easy to install, operate and maintain.

Low-pressure Three speed pole-change drive


The low-pressure drive has been The nearly maintenance-free electric
produced by Rolls-Royce since 1942. motor is of squirrel-cage rotor type,
The key characteristics of the motor without mechanical contact between
are foremost reliability and robust- the rotor and the stator. The motor is
ness. In addition, the low-pressure equipped with standstill heating,
drive gives dynamic braking, low temperature sensors and a fail-safe
noise level and is easy to operate. brake. The winch control is precise
Further advantages are stepless and easy. Speed steps in both
speed regulation and high-torque. directions are obtained by a single
Because it has few mechanical parts, lever. Electric systems are easy to
the low-pressure drive is less install and provide quick start in all
environmental conditions.

4 5
Anchoring and mooring
the modular concept

The Rauma Brattvaag modular risks, variety of lay-out and low life-
Typical
concept offers tailor-made anchoring applications: cycle costs.
and mooring winches made up from Suitable for all kinds of
standard modules for naval and vessels such as: Both mechanical and system design
tankers
commercial vessels. The production dry cargo ships are our own, and the Rolls-Royce
process enables flexibility and passenger ships team controls the whole delivery
ferries
Anchoring & mooring

efficiency in customer applications process. The equipment is tested in


workboats
as well as in delivery times. Further offshore vessels our own assembly workshops before
benefits are short lead times, high fishing vessels delivery.
naval vessels
quality, elimination of prototype

COOPERATION SHORT RESPONSE TIME CONFIGURATION


TIMELY DELIVERY LOCAL EXPERTISE GLOBAL SERVICE AND SUPPORT
Rolls-Royce sales representatives are When Rolls-Royce or our international Using our database system we can
Global production and distribution ensures Through a number of subsidiaries around Rolls-Royce provides worldwide back-up
experienced in module-based system representatives receive your enquiry, our customise the winches with our wide range
that the module-based winches are the world, our experienced service for its winches. Our service engineers carry
technology, and are highly knowledgeable marine engineers will configure a of standard options and get quotation and
produced close to our customers at engineers can carry out close product out scheduled inspections and mainte-
about the possibilities that it offers. They module-based system to meet your dimensional drawings for the winch
competitive prices, to an agreed quality follow-up on site. This covers technical nance programmes under specific agree-
give advice to suit customer requirements requirements. system.
and with the promise of timely delivery. back-up and installation assistance, con- ments with an owner. We take life-long care
early in the project stage.
sultancy services and quality assurance. of supplied equipment!
6 7
The Rauma Brattvaag
Manual brake Hydraulic brake
module-based system

The range of mooring winches is


from 5 to 40 tonnes of pulling
capacity and anchor windlasses
up to 137 mm chain.

The range of anchoring and mooring brake. All important brake parts, Hydraulic high-pressure systems Low-pressure systems OPTIONS Windlasses
winches is light, compact and easy to such as the pins, are made of The system consists of the hydraulic The system is characterised by Mooring winches automatic remote control for anchor
install. The modular design and the stainless steel. power pack and the winch itself, simple, yet extremely, reliable autotensioning lowering
standard option programme allows with a hydraulic motor and the solutions. The low-pressure system remote control for speed, direction independent driving gear
the customer to combine the relevant Electric systems control valve mounted on the winch. of rotation, brakes and clutches
has dynamic braking as standard and cable length indicator
modules to meet the strictest The electric anchoring and mooring The high-pressure systems is based stainless steel brake drums
high lowering speed and no over- chain stopper
Anchoring & mooring

budgetary constraints and optimum system consists of three basic on a working pressure of 200 to 280 speed. In addition, use of band brake stainless steel brake drum surface
performance. components the winch with an bar. The design of the internal during anchor operation is
electric motor, starter for the electric hydraulic circuits avoid the need to unneccesary, which reduces wear and
All shafts, including the main shaft, motor and one or more freely install separate drain lines instead, tear, safe and easy operation.
run on roller bearings. The drum locatable control stands. Only the oil is led through return lines.
brake is an external contracting band starter is located below deck.

Cable lifter Chain stopper Power pack Control stand

8 9
A total system supplier
for supply and service vessels

Anchoring and mooring windlasses are tailored to


the vessel and its operation. Up to 30 tonnes.

Rolls-Royce is the most experienced to satisfy the supply and service


Capstan winches from supplier to the offshore supply and Typical market to the best of our ability.
1.5 - 15 tonnes. applications:
service fleet. The range comprises all This includes winches with pull
Suitable for:
kinds of winches, spooling devices, platform supply vessels capacity from 1.5 tonnes to 625
chain rollers, stern rollers, power offshore support vesssels tonnes. The low maintenance costs
diving support vessels
pack systems, control and monitoring stand by/field support
throughout the vessels lifetime
systems. Rolls-Royce also offers vessels contributes further to ensure high
Tugger winches from anchor handling tug
tailor-made cargo handling systems operating profitability.
supply vessels
1.5 - 30 tonnes. with remote controls, tanks and
valves, air dryers and compressors. The winches can be delivered with all
Solutions that meet our customer available types of drive systems.
requirements from individual This capability is unique to
products to integrated systems. Rolls-Royce and has been developed
in close cooperation with customers.
handling winches
Towing and anchor

The Rauma Brattvaag products are The dimensions of the winches are
developed by utilising the latest tailored to the specific application.
technology in design and production,

Rolls-Royce bulk tank The air dryer de-humidifies The compressors compress The cargo handling system is
systems are delivered for compressed air before entering the air (5.6 bar) which is used delivered with easily operated
Cement, Barite and the dry bulk tanks. De-humidified for transport of dry bulk monitoring and control
Bentonite with dome or air reduces the possibility for material. systems. Electric driven windlass/mooring winch.
cone-shaped tanks. pipe clogging.
10 11
Winches and winch equipment
for offshore and harbour tugs

Rolls-Royce is the fore-runner in as well as all other kinds of winch


developing the largest anchor- Typical systems that towing vessels require.
handling and towing winches. The applications:
Suitable for:
strongest towing winch ever built is AHTS vessels
The Towcon NT monitoring system
a Rauma Brattvaag solution. These combined offshore gives the operator complete control
service vessels
winches are used by operators world- of the winch systems, whether it is Rolls-Royce offers a wide range of towing
harbour tugs
wide to secure valuable applications. deep sea or towing operations. winches and systems for harbour tugs.
The DTL (digital tension and length
Rauma Brattvaag winches for anchor- monitoring) equipment provides
handling winches
Towing and anchor

handling and towing duties use low- information about length, speed and
pressure hydraulic or electric drives, tension of the wires.
and offer capacities of up to 625
tonnes pull. These winch systems are The use of highly advanced computer
suitable for both AHTS vessels and based systems is of vital importance,
harbour tugs. The dimensions of the in order to minimise the risks of
winches are tailored to the specific human failure. In addition, they
vessel and its operations. assure great precision, which is
especially important in deep waters.
The product range also includes
storage winches and stern rollers Towcon NT is a Windows-based monitoring Storage winch. Stern rollers are delivered as single,
system. Graphic display shows length, twin and triple rollers. MWL up to
The DTL NT is a dual-winch monitoring tension, pressure, speed, temperature, 800 tonnes.
system, informing the user about length, couplings and brakes.
12 speed and tension. 13
Serving the exploration
and production market

Rolls-Royce provides a complete The winches can be supplied with


range of deck machinery customised low-pressure or high-pressure
to applications in the offshore oil & hydraulics, or electric drive.
gas industry. The Rauma Brattvaag
product range comprises turret bea- We have a reputation for supplying
rings and turnings, anchor mooring high-quality and reliable machinery
windlasses, anchor mooring drums, Typical applications: for safe operation in all climate zones,
Suitable for:
combination winches (wire/rope/ semi-drilling vessels very much thanks to continuous close
chain) and traction winches. In addi- rigs customer cooperation.
semi-FPSO/production rigs
tion, Rolls-Royce supplies fairleads, Being a total supplier with in-house
FPSO
chain jacks and chain stoppers. jack-up design and production of all major
pipe-laying barges items, Rolls-Royce provides a single
seismic vessels
Most of the products are delivered shuttle tankers point of contact, enabling us to
with control and monitoring systems drilling ships develop the best solutions possible
for precise handling and control. for every task.
handling winches
Towing and anchor

Chain jacks

Windlasses Drum winches Traction winches Chain stoppers Chain fairleads Wire fairleads

14 15
Rauma Brattvaag
Synchro Autotrawl system

The Synchro Autotrawl system is


developed for dynamic control of
single-rig demersal trawl, twin-rig
demersal trawl, triple-rig demersal
trawl, pelagic trawl and pair trawl.
The trawl system is one of the most
advanced on the market, and all
essential control and monitoring
functions are fully integrated.

It keeps the trawls fully open when


changing course during trawling. Key features
The trawl is kept moving at constant Custom designed display pictures,
The illustrations show the advantage
speed, even under difficult con- based on monitoring system with in controlling the trawl(s) by using
ditions, and if the trawl snags the touch screen Synchro Autotrawl.

system pays out wire automatically Graphical display of net alignment


to prevent damage. The Synchro Split function, for independent
Autotrawl is the optimum solution length adjustment
for maximising the catching ability Automatic start/stop of required
for single-, double- and triple-trawl pumps in automatic mode
arrangements. Can handle single-, double- and
triple-trawl systems
The system is based on the latest Handles bottom- and pelagic
technology providing excellent trawling
stability, simple operation and great Automatic communication with
flexibility. net sensors, echo sounders etc.

Innovations since 1942


1942 The first hydraulic winch
1969 Release of the first and the original
Synchro Autotrawl System
Winches for

1988 Twin-rig trawling innovation


fishing vessels

1999 New generation Synchro Autotrawl


2000 New generation hydraulic motor
2002 Electric drive systems
The first winch

Synchro RT makes it possible to trawl


with split function on the winch,
16 17
with both single-, double- and triple
trawl.
Rauma Brattvaag
fishing solutions

Trawl purse winches


from 6 - 120 tonnes.

Rolls-Royce offers a complete system The low-pressure system also


of deck machinery for all kinds of provides advantages of stepless speed
fishing vessels. The solution includes regulation, low maintenance costs and
winches, Synchro Autotrawl, winch flexible arrangement.
monitoring and control systems, and a
The new high-torque hydraulic motor
choice of three different winch drives. Typical
for direct driven trawl winches from
applications:
Suitable for: 6 tonnes to 75 tonnes provides
The power source of the drives can be
bottom trawlers with advantages including; no gear
electric, low-pressure hydraulic or single-, double- and
transmission, less maintenance,
high-pressure hydraulic according to triple-trawl
pelagic trawl higher shooting speed and very
customer requirements. The most
purse seiner smooth-running.
commonly used drive system is the danish seiner
low-pressure hydraulic, which has a longliners
All winch systems are delivered with
scientific research
robust construction and is easy to remote controls.
operate.
Winches for
fishing vessels

The radio control system ensures that The picture shows a remote control
Auxiliary winches Net drum winches Net sounder winches the operator is free to work in direct panel for modern trawlers. Equipped
from 0.7-50 tonnes. from 6-120 tonnes. from 2-6 tonnes. contact with the load, or to control with background light for easy night
the winch at long range. operation.
18 19
Underway replenishment Upgrading is a good
and refuelling systems investment

Upgrading and replacement compo-


nents can pay dividends in vessel
The latest all-electric systems enable
replenishment vessels to supply both performance and fuel savings. Once
fuels and solid stores quickly and a product is in service, it is expected
safely in rougher conditions. to last 25 years or more. During that
Rolls-Royce specialise in providing
time, there will be tremendous changes
underway replenishment (UNREP) in the technology available.
systems as part of an integrated To continuously improve your vessels
The latest systems enable replenishment
package. With many modern navies vessels to supply both fuels and solid
performance, we provide a variety of
moving to the low-manned all-electric stores quicker and in rougher conditions.
ship concept, Rolls-Royce has deve- upgrading solutions.
loped fully automated all-electric
systems to complement its range of
conventional abeam and astern refuel- stopping as it approaches the The advances in deck machinery upgraded by increasing the pressure, the performance of the product as
ling rigs. For liquids and solids trans- programmed position on the design and new technology can help but with no visible changes to the well as restoring it to health.
fer, the latest dual-purpose systems receiving vessel. The control system older vessels to be more effective and installation. This will give 30% more With Rolls-Royce as your service
can automatically transfer payloads ensures that the position of the reliable. One has experienced that a output from existing components partner, our experienced engineers
of two tonnes or hose catenaries from payload is maintained regardless combination of Synchro NT and an with no extra weight added. upgrade old applications or purpose
a single station, and operate safely up of the relative movement of the upgrading from single to double The Rauma Brattvaag spare parts are fit new equipment to your vessel.
to sea-state 6 and 7. One man, from vessels. trawl has given a catch increase of up often developed so that when an old This means that in many cases you
the custom designed control platform to 100%. Upgrading of drive systems unit is overhauled, a new module is can meet changing markets without
on the supply ship controls all func- Associated equipment: is also possible. For example, the substituted for worn components of having to do expensive rebuilds.
tions. Once in automatic mode the Moveable highpoints low-pressure system can be the original design. This upgrades
payload accelerates as it departs the Astern refuelling rigs
supply ship and decelerates, safely Crane refuelling rigs

Naval deck machinery Products include:

The Rolls-Royce range of naval deck Mooring/towing winches

machinery comprises a wide range Anchor windlasses

of windlasses and winches designed Mooring capstans

to meet exacting naval standards. Anchor cable and warping

They can be tailored to virtually any capstans

naval requirement. Operation is by Towed array sonar winches

thyristor controlled electric, hydro- Deep-sea scientific winches

electric or 3 speed AC electric pole


change drive depending on custo-
mer preference. Cable and warping capstan

20 21
Upgrading & Support
Naval deck machinery
POLAND INDIA
NORTHERN EUROPE
ROLLS-ROYCE ROLLS-ROYCE
DENMARK Gniew (Deck Machinery) Mumbai
ROLLS-ROYCE Tel: +48 58 535 22 71 Tel: +91 22 820 45 41/-823 53 19
Aalborg (Service) Fax: +48 58 535 22 18 Fax: +91 22 820 45 42
Tel: +45 99 30 36 00 Gdynia SINGAPORE
Fax: +45 99 30 36 01 Tel: +48 58 782 06 55
Fax: +48 58 782 06 56 ROLLS-ROYCE
FINLAND Singapore
ROLLS-ROYCE SWEDEN Tel: +65 686 21 901
Helsinki ROLLS-ROYCE Fax: +65 686 22 477
Tel: +358 9 686 6330 Kristinehamn (Propulsion) U N I T E D A R A B E M I R AT E S
Fax: +358 9 686 63339 Tel: +46 550 84000
Fax: +46 550 18190 ROLLS-ROYCE
The winch maker Kokkola (Water jets) Dubai
Tel: +358 6 832 4500 UNITED KINGDOM Tel: +971 4 299 4343
Fax: +358 6 832 4511 Fax: +971 4 299 4344
ROLLS-ROYCE
Rauma (Propulsion/ Newcastle (Bearings)
Deck Machinery) Tel: +44 191 273 0291 NORTH EAST ASIA
Tel: +358 2 837 91 Fax: +44 191 272 2787
Fax: +358 2 837 94804 J A PA N
Dartford
FRANCE ROLLS-ROYCE
Tel: +44 1322 394 300
Tokyo
For more than half a century Rolls-Royce has ROLLS-ROYCE Fax: +44 1322 394 301
Tel: +81 3 3237 6861
Rungis Dunfermline (Motion Fax: +81 3 3237 6846
Tel: +33 1 468 62811 Control/RAS)
Fax: +33 1 468 79398 Tel: +44 1383 82 31 88 KO R E A
been the leading manufacturer of highly reliable
Paris (Naval Marine) Fax: +44 1383 82 40 38 ROLLS-ROYCE
Tel: +33 147 221 440 Bristol (Naval Marine) Busan (Deck Machinery)
winch systems to customers worldwide. Fax: +33 147 457 738 Tel: +44 117 974 8500 Tel: +82 51 831 4100
Fax: +44 117 979 2607 Fax: +82 51 831 4101
GERMANY
Bristol (Marine Systems) RUSSIA
ROLLS-ROYCE
A supplier who has the capability to meet Tel +44 117 979 5456 ROLLS-ROYCE
Hamburg, Jessenstr.
Fax +44 117 979 5632 Vladivostok
Tel: +49 40 381 277
Fax: +49 40 389 2177 Derby (Naval Marine- Tel: +7 4232 495 484
customer demands regarding performance and Submarines) Fax: +7 4232 495 484
Hamburg, Kamerunweg
Tel: +44 1332 661 461
(Service)
Fax: +44 1332 622 935 AMERICAS
Tel: +49 40 780 91 90
cost-effectiveness. Fax: +49 40 780 91 919 Manchester (Engines-Crossley
BRAZIL
Pielstick)
Norderstedt ROLLS-ROYCE
Tel: +44 161 223 1353
Tel: +49 40 52 87 36 0
Fax: +44 161 223 7286 Rio de Janeiro
Fax: +49 40 52 31 58 0
Worcestershire (Allen Gears) Tel: +55 21 3860 8787
THE NETHERLANDS Tel: +44 1386 552 211 Fax: +55 21 3860 4410
Ongoing research and development is the key to Rio de Janeiro (Naval Marine)
ROLLS-ROYCE Fax: +44 1386 554 491
Rotterdam, Pernis (Service) Tel: +55 21 2277 0100
the success of Rolls-Royce, with a total company Tel: +31 10 40 90 920 SOUTHERN EUROPE Fax: +55 21 2277 0186
Fax: +31 10 40 90 921
C R OAT I A CANADA
investment exceeding 5 billion in the last N O R WAY
ROLLS-ROYCE ROLLS-ROYCE
ROLLS-ROYCE Rijeka Halifax
decade. Combining technology and skills Bergen (Foundry) Tel: +38 5515 00100 Tel: +1 902 468 2883
The high standard of Rolls-Royce product range is Tel: +47 55 53 65 00 Fax: +38 5515 00101 Fax: +1 902 468 2759
accumulated over 100 years, Rolls-Royce today attributed to years of continuous research and development. Fax: +47 55 53 65 05 St. Johns
I TA LY Tel: +1 709 364 3053
Bergen (Engines)
has the broadest range of deck machinery Tel: +47 55 53 60 00 ROLLS-ROYCE Fax: +1 709 364 3054
Fax: +47 55 19 04 05 Genova Vancouver (Propulsion)
Tel: +39 010 572 191 Tel: +1 604 942 1100
products, services and expertise in the world. Bergen (Steering gear)
Fax: +39 010 572 1950 Fax: +1 604 942 1125
Tel: +47 56 57 16 00
Fax: +47 56 30 82 41 S PA I N USA
Brattvg (Deck Machinery) ROLLS-ROYCE ROLLS-ROYCE
Tel: +47 70 20 85 00 Tarragona Fort Lauderdale
Fax: +47 70 20 86 00 Tel: +34 977 296 444 Tel: +1 954 745 5400
The Rolls-Royce commitment to customer Hareid (Rudders) Fax: +34 977 296 450 Fax: +1 954 745 5401
Tel: +47 70 01 40 00 Madrid Houston
Fax: +47 70 01 40 21 Tel: +34 917 356 736 Tel:+1 713 273 7700
satisfaction is your guarantee for the highest Longva (Automation) Fax: +34 917 356 737 Fax: +1 713 273 7776
Tel: +47 70 20 82 00
ASIA PACIFIC New Orleans
Fax: +47 70 20 83 51
Tel: +1 504 464 4561
levels of quality, expertise and performance. Content: Tennfjord (Steering Gear) AU S T R A L I A Fax: +1 504 464 4565
Tel: +47 70 20 88 00
ROLLS-ROYCE Seattle
Fax: +47 70 20 89 00
Deck machinery page 2 - 3 Melbourne Tel: +1 206 782 9190
With a truly international presence, Rolls-Royce Ulsteinvik (Head Office) Tel: +61 3 9873 0988 Fax: +1 206 782 0176
Tel: +47 70 01 40 00 Fax: +61 3 9873 0866
Drive options page 4 - 5 Annapolis (Naval Marine Inc)
Fax: +47 70 01 40 05
provides service availability and maintenance Perth Tel: +1 410 224 2130
Ulsteinvik (Ship Design) Tel: +61 8 9336 7910 Fax: +1 410 266 67221
Anchoring & mooring page 6 - 9 Tel: +47 70 01 40 00 Fax: +61 8 9336 7920 Miami (Syncrolift Inc)
Fax: +47 70 01 40 13
worldwide. North Ryde (Naval Marine) Tel: +1 305 670 8800
Towing- and anchor Ulsteinvik (Propulsion) Tel: +61 2 9325 1222 Fax: +1 305 670 9911
handling winches page 10 - 15 Tel: +47 70 01 40 00 Fax: +61 2 9325 1394 Pascagoula (Foundry-Naval
Fax: +47 70 01 40 14
NEW ZEALAND
Marine)
Winches for fishing vessels page 16 - 19 Volda (Propulsion) Tel: +1 228 762 0728
Tel: +47 70 07 39 00 ROLLS-ROYCE Fax: +1 228 769 7048
Fax: +47 70 07 39 50 Christchurch
Naval deck machinery Tel: +64 3 337 6420 Walpole (Naval Marine Inc)
Oslo (Repr. office) Tel: +1 508 668 9610
Upgrading & Support page 20 - 23 Tel: +47 23 31 04 80 Fax: +64 3 337 6421
Fax: +1 508 668 2497
Fax: +47 23 31 04 99 CHINA Washington (Naval Marine Inc)
lesund (Ship Design) ROLLS-ROYCE Tel: +1 703 834 1700
Tel: +47 70 10 37 00 Shanghai Fax: +1 703 709 6086
Fax: +47 70 10 37 01 Tel: +86 21 6387 8808
Fax: +86 21 5382 5793
Hong Kong
Tel: +852 2526 6937
Fax: +852 2868 5344
Dalian
Tel: +86 411 230 5198
2 Fax: +86 411 230 8448
Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 7 EQUIPO CONTRAINCENDIOS.

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


Sistemadeextincin
ndediluvio.

Fire protection for the high seas


HI-FOG for marine and offshore applications

ROYAL CARIBBEAN INTERNATIONAL


Providing maximum

If a ship fails to meet the marine


industrys tough global safety regul-
ations, the costs could be measured
in lives. The HIFOG Water Mist Fire
Protection System is proven to meet
these regulations. HI-FOG ensures
the smooth-running continuity of your
shipping business.

HI-FOGs proven operational


strength over decades is reflected
in more than a thousand of vessels
currently fitted with the system and
numerous real case fires successfully
suppressed. Originally developed for
protecting accommodation spaces
of passenger ships, HI-FOG is now
being used for the protection of all
spaces on every types of vessels.

HI-FOG delivers extremely good performance,


combating fire by removing two of the main elements
a fire needs to survive: heat and oxygen.

The HI-FOG water mist displaces oxygen at the


seat of the fire and quickly cools the surrounding air,
effectively surpressing and controlling the fire before
it can spread or reignite.

This is achieved with remarkably little water:


HI-FOG uses significantly less water than
conventional sprinkler solutions.
fire safety at sea

BAE SYSTEMS

HI-FOG benefits:
Fast: immediate activation

Proven: success in countless real fires

Safe: harmless to people and the


environment

Cooling: prevents fire from reigniting

Short downtime: economic risk reduction

Low water usage: minimized damages

Flexibility: single central pump can


service the entire integrated system

Immediate activation Safety Never depleted


The moment the fire is detected, HI-FOG HI-FOG is entirely safe for people and Remaining protected also after fire is
the environment. Premises can be en- very important. While most other solu-
springs into action, immediately attack- tered while the system is discharging as tions need recharging or special service
ing the fire. HI-FOG controls and sup- it does not affect the systems fire fighting after activation, HI-FOG is ready to go
presses the fire. The water mist cools the efficiency or pose any danger to people. again without delay.
surroundings, preventing the fire from
reigniting. HI-FOG makes evacuation and fire The system is designed so that the
fighting safer by blocking the radiant water supply is never depleted. If the
Spaces do not need to be evacuated or heat emitted by the fire. water tanks are emptied, HI-FOG can
closed off for HI-FOG to be activated. switch to sea water for continued fire
This dramatically reduces the potential protection.
damage fire can cause.
Meeting the needs of

KLAUS JORDAN

HI-FOG is fitted on nearly every


modern cruise liner. And the story HI-FOG protects all types HI-FOG protects all spaces:
of vessels:
doesnt end there. Through intensive Accommodation and service
research and full-scale testing, HI-FOG Cruise ships and ferries spaces

has become a high performance Ro-Ro/Ro-Pax vessels Machinery spaces and pump
rooms
solution well suited for marine and Cargo ships
offshore applications. Workboats
Ro-Ro decks and special
category spaces
Luxury yachts
From control and suppression in Deep-fat fryers and ducts
Naval vessels
accomodation and service spaces Balconies
Offshore exploration and
to completely extinguishing fire in
production units
machinery rooms, HI-FOG does the
Service vessels
job. Installations can be combined with
single central pump unit serving the
entire, integrated system.
all maritime operations

ROYAL CARIBBEAN INTERNATIONAL


STX EUROPE

Reliable
Countless tests and numerous real case
fires have proven HI-FOGs value time
and again.

Fully compliant with the latest Inter-


national Maritime Organization regula-
tions, HI-FOG delivers the performance
and reliability needed to protect your
business from fire. HI-FOG is compli-
ant with the latest SOLAS regulations
and the relevant marine type approvals.

A short selection of HI-FOG approvals


Proven success in all
marine applications
ROYAL CARIBBEAN INTERNATIONAL

BOURBON

COLOR LINE
DE VRIES
PETER NILSSON
FOTOFLITE

Oasis of the Seas Colour Fantasy Manon


One of the largest cruise vessels ever This massive ferry has been described as As a car and truck carrier leading the
build, the 225,000 GT Oasis of the Seas a cruise ship with a car deck. She can way in quality, safety and environmental
can carry up to 5,400 passengers. The carry 2,770 passengers and 750 cars, principles, Wallenius brought 27 of its
HI-FOG system for Oasis of the Seas and operates between Oslo and Kiel. ships in line with the IMO MSC/Circ.913
is the largest marine fire fighting pro- Fire protection is based on the HI-FOG fire protection standards by install-
tection ever done covering all accom- 2000 sprinkler system. In addition, the ing the HI-FOG. The systems protect
modation, public and service spaces. In vessel has a HI-FOG local application engine room hot spots including main
addition, HI-FOG protects machinery system, as well as a HI-FOG system for engines, auxiliary engines, purifiers and
spaces in accordance with RCCL safety the protection of deep fat fryers. boiler fronts. The retrofit program was
standards, along with laundry facilities, carried out on ships docked in harbours
galley ducts and deep fat fryers. Visby around the world, as well as on some
Each kilogram was critical for this new, while they were in service.
Bourbon Hamos, GPA 670 MKII (PSV) ultra hi-tech carbon fibre naval vessel,
This was the first of four Platform Sup- the first to feature fully developed stealth M/Y Katrion
port Vessels for Bourbon Offshore. The technology. It required an effective fire Luxury yachts are built to the highest
vessel is designed for world-wide, deep protection system which could with- standards of quality, performance and
water and shallow water operations. The stand battle conditions and be as light design. HI-FOG combines safety and
HI-FOG system protects the machinery as possible. All accomodation spaces elegance into one compact, efficient
spaces as well as the deep fat fryer and have protection coverage provided by fire protection system. The HI-FOG
galley duct. HI-FOG. system protects both accomodation and
machinery spaces of a 38m super yacht
M/Y Katrion.
Customized solutions
and expert services

Marioff provides the entire so- Design & project management Marioff Services
Marioff designs the right HI-FOG sys- Marioff provides annual, 5-year and
lution with top quality profes- tem for each vessel based on the fire risk 10-year service packages. All activities
sional services for the lifetime assessment, water supply and any spe- are performed by certified service engi-
cial protection requirements. A Marioff neers who have a deep understanding of
of the installation.
project manager ensures smooth and HI-FOG systems.
correct system delivery. Marioff also
We offer after-sales support takes responsibility for regulatory ap- Monitoring and regular checks help
provals of each installation. ensure the system operates as expected.
and services all around the Marioff offers basic operator training to
world to maintain the safety Installation all HI-FOG customers. Each course is
and operability of every vessel Marioff is expert at installation in vari- tailored based on the customer-specific
ous environments world-wide. The full HI-FOG installation.
fitted with the HI-FOG sys-
range of our experience will be placed
tem. Along with comprehen- at your disposal in the project planning As the original manufacturer of HI-FOG
sive systems and components stages. The work is scheduled in accord- components, the system will be well
ance with the operations with minimal supported with the timely supply of top-
support, we also provide crew disruption. quality spares.
training to all our customers.
12
06
01

07
11 09
08

10 03

15

04

02
14

05

01 Water Inlet 09 Fire Detector


02 Separator 10 Manual Release Button
16
03 Fire Main Inlet 11 Alarm Siren
04 T-joint 12 Fire Alarm Control Panel (ECR)
05 Section Valve 13 Fire Main
06 Distribution Block 14 Fresh Water Main 13
07 Assembly Body 15 Compressed Air Supply
08 Sprayhead 16 Feed Water Pump

The HI-FOG system uses small diameter stainless steel tubes that can be easily hidden above the inner
ceiling. The high quality tubing bends easily around corners and obstructions.

HI-FOG 3000-series nozzles

HI-FOG sprayhead The HI-FOG gas-driven pump unit (GPU). The HI-FOG electrically-driven pump unit (SPU).
The picture shows a SPU 5+1 pump unit that is the
most common unit used for marine applications.
3001F-EN Marioff Corporation Oy 2014

Information on Marioff group companies, agents/distributors and references can be found at


www.marioff.com.
Head Office
Marioff Corporation Oy Marioff Corporation Oy reserves the right to change or modify the information given in this
Plaza Business Park Halo brochure, including technical details, without notice. HI-FOG and Marioff are registered
P.O.Box 1002, FI-01511 Vantaa, Finland trademarks of Marioff Corporation Oy. Marioff is a part of UTC Building & Industrial Systems,
a unit of United Technologies Corp. (NYSE:UTX).
Tel. +358 (0)10 6880 000
Fax +358 (0)10 6880 010 All rights reserved. Reproduction of any part of this document without the express written
Email: info@marioff. permission of Marioff Corporation Oy is prohibited.
List of MARINE type approvals
BLUE: MPU / SPU / MT4 / MLPU
RED: GPU
Machinery spaces & pump rooms Accommodation areas,
GREEN: HF2000 / Bilge Foam / ML9 public spaces and Ro-Ro spaces Balconies
VIOLET: ML5-ML9 service areas
Deep fat fryers Galley ducts Total flooding Local application

ISO 15371 - MSC/Circ.1165 MSC/Circ.913 Res.A.800(19) MSC.1/Circ.1272 MSC.1/Circ.1268

EC Type Examination Certificate Council Directive 96/98 EC on Marine Equipment (MED)


11489/B0 EC MED-B-6908 DNV 09485/C0 EC 05415/C1 EC MED-B-6544 DNV MED-B-6543 DNV
BV Valid 3/2013 Valid 4/2016 BV Valid 9/2017 BV Valid 5/2014 Valid 11/2015 Valid 11/2015
MED-B-3878 DNV 12873/C0 EC 09486/C1 EC
Valid 4/2013 BV Valid 9/2017 BV Valid 5/2014
MED-B-7932 DNV 11265/C0 EC
Valid 1/2018 BV Valid 5/2014

ABS
03-LD380522-3-PDA 06-LD110221/2-PDA 01-HS149727/2-PDA 00-HS124355-3-PDA 08-LD369670-2-PDA 08-LD361737-2-PDA
Valid 5/2018 Valid 4/2016 Valid 4/2016 Valid 7/2015 Valid 5/2018 Valid 5/2018
04-LD411874/4-PDA 01-HS142249-4-PDA 04-LD411488-2/PDA
Valid 5/2014 Valid 1/2017 Valid 5/2014
13-LD964185-PDA 03-LD375738/1-PDA 03-LD376430-2-PDA
Valid 5/2018 Valid 9/2013 Valid 5/2018

Bureau Veritas
(MED) 11549/C0 17131/B0 (MED) (MED) 21458/A0
Valid 11/2017 Valid 1/2016 11263/C0 EC Valid 8/2014
09484/C0 BV Valid 5/2014
Valid 2/2017 (sprinklers approval)
31907/A0
Valid 11/2017

June, 2013 1/4


List of MARINE type approvals
China Classification Society
GB11T00006 GB11T00006 GB11T00006 GB11T00006
Valid 3/2015 Valid 3/2015 Valid 3/2015 Valid 3/2015
GB11T00006
Valid 3/2015

DNV
F-19539 F-19197 (MED) F-20124 F-20126 (MED) (MED)
Valid 12/2013 Valid 12/2013 Valid 6/2016 Valid 12/2014
F-20123 F-20125 (Store rooms)
Valid 6/2016 Valid 12/2014
F-20122 F-20341
Valid 6/2016 Valid 12/2014
F-18999
Valid 6/2013

Germanischer Lloyd
45 445-02 HH 45 446-02 HH 26 688-05 HH 15 722-00 HH 85 430-96 HH 59 248-08 HH 59 390-08 HH
Valid 11/2015 Valid 1/2017 Valid 1/2016 Valid 5/2015 Valid 7/2015 Valid 8/2018 Valid 8/2018
45 874-02 HH 15 349-00 HH 44 978-07 HH
Valid 10/2016 Valid 1/2015 Valid 7/2015
59 834 - 13 HH 45 991-03 HH 17 426-01 HH
Valid 1/2018 Valid 5/2017 Valid 7/2015

Korean Register
HEL06587-FF002
Valid 12/2014
HEL06587-FF001
Valid 12/2014
HEL06587-FF004
Valid 6/2013

June, 2013 2/4


List of MARINE type approvals
Lloyds Register
SAS F110348 SAS F110349 SAS F100289/M4 SAS F100287 SAS F090312/M1 SAS F090037 SAS F090169
Valid 6/2013 Valid 6/2013 Valid 8/2015 Valid 8/2015 Valid 7/2014 RRD (Deluge) Valid 5/2014
SAS F100080 SAS F100288 SAS F090314/M1 Valid 3/2014
Valid 3/2015 Valid 8/2015 Valid 11/2014 SAS F090038
SAS F130049 SAS F120384 SAS F110341 RRS (Sprinklers)
Valid 3/2018 Valid 12/2017 Valid 7/2015 Valid 3/2014

Nippon Kaiji Kyokai


KC09ES256
Valid 6/2014

RINA
FPE361110CS/001 FPE266611CS FPE265611CS FPE361110CS/002 FPE285311CS/003 FPE153110CS FPE192710CS
Valid 12/2015 Valid 8/2016 Valid 8/2016 Valid 4/2016 Valid 7/2015 Valid 4/2015 Valid 5/2015
FPE127407CS FPE361110CS/003 FPE285311CS/002
Valid 03/2015 Valid 4/2016 (Store rooms)
FPE190112CS Valid 7/2015
Valid 7/2017 FPE285311CS/001
Valid 7/2015
FPE285311CS/004
Valid 7/2015

Russian Maritime Register of Shipping


13.00641.313 13.00641.313 11.03575.009 11.03569.009 11.03573.009 11.03571.009
Valid 2/2018 Valid 2/2018 Valid 12/2016 Valid 12/2016 Valid 12/2016 Valid 12/2016
11.03576.009 11.03568.009 13.00639.313
Valid 2/2016 Valid 12/2016 Valid 7/2015
13.01102.313 13.00637.313
Valid 7/2015 Valid 7/2015

June, 2013 3/4


List of MARINE type approvals
Transport Canada
RDIMS#6839936 RDIMS#8165638-v1 RDIMS#8138354 RDIMS#6660392
Valid 6/2016 Valid 8/2015 Valid 7/2014 Valid 4/2016
RDIMS#4828209 RDIMS#4828209 RDIMS#4828209
Valid 3/2014 Valid 3/2014 Valid 3/2014
RDIMS#752890 RDIMS#752890
Valid 3/2014 Valid 3/2014

Autoridad Maritima de Panam


SEG-TEC-RG02/06/70 SEG-TEC-RG02/06/80

United States Coast Guard


162.135/11/0 162.135/7/0 162.135/9/0
Valid 1/2015 Valid 5/2018 Valid 6/2014
162.135/6/0
Valid 9/2016

June, 2013 4/4


Trabajo Fin de Grado Propulsin y Servicios del Buque
Mnica M Rodrguez Lapido Curso 2.013/2.014

ANEXO 8 CARACTERSTICAS DEL CRUDO.

Petrolero de Crudo de 280.000 TPM Cuaderno n12


TECHNICAL INFORMATION PAPER

FATE OF MARINE OIL SPILLS


Introduction
When oil is spilled into the sea it undergoes a number
of physical and chemical changes, some of which lead
to its removal from the sea surface, whilst others cause
it to persist. Although spilled oil is eventually assimilated
by the marine environment, the time involved depends
upon factors such as the amount of oil spilled, its initial
physical and chemical characteristics, the prevailing
climatic and sea conditions and whether the oil remains
at sea or is washed ashore.

An understanding of the processes involved and how


they interact to alter the nature, composition and
behaviour of oil with time is fundamental to all aspects
of oil spill response. It may, for example, be possible to
predict with confidence that oil will not reach vulnerable
resources due to natural dissipation, rendering a clean-
up response unnecessary. When an active response is
required, the type of oil and its probable behaviour and
fate will determine which response options are likely to
be most effective and should therefore be selected.

This paper describes the combined effects of the various


processes acting on spilled oil and the implications for
clean-up response.

Properties of Oil gravity (high API) tend to contain a high proportion of volatile
components and to be of low viscosity.
Crude oils of different origin vary widely in their physical and
chemical properties, whereas many refined products tend to Distillation characteristics of an oil describe its volatility. As the
have well-defined properties irrespective of the crude oil from temperature of an oil is raised, different components reach
which they are derived. Residual products such as intermediate their boiling point one after another and evaporate, i.e. are
and heavy fuel oils, which contain varying proportions of non- distilled. The distillation characteristics are expressed as the
refined components blended with lighter refined components proportions of the parent oil which distil within given
also vary considerably in their properties. temperature ranges. Some oils contain bituminous, waxy or
asphaltenic residues which do not readily distil, even at high
The main physical properties which affect the behaviour and temperatures. These are likely to persist for extended periods
the persistence of an oil spilled at sea are specific gravity, in the environment.
distillation characteristics, viscosity and pour point. All are
dependent on chemical composition (e.g. the amount of Viscosity of an oil is its resistance to flow. High viscosity oils
asphaltenes, resins and waxes which the oil contains). do not flow as easily as those with lower viscosity. All oils
become more viscous (i.e. flow less readily) as their
Specific gravity or relative density of an oil is its density in temperature falls, some more than others depending on
relation to pure water. Most oils have a specific gravity below their composition. Since sea temperatures are often lower
1 and are lighter than sea water which has a specific gravity of than cargo or bunker temperatures on board a vessel,
about 1.025. The American Petroleum Institute gravity scale viscosity-dependent clean-up operations such as skimming
API is commonly used to describe the specific gravity of crude and pumping generally become more difficult as the spilled
oils and petroleum products, and is calculated as follows: oil cools. The temperature-viscosity relationships for three
crude oils are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. In this paper,
141.5
API = -131.5 units of kinematic viscosity, expressed as centistokes (cSt) are
specific gravity used.

In addition to determining whether or not the oil will float, the Pour point is the temperature below which an oil will not flow.
specific gravity can also give a general indication of other The pour point is a function of the wax and asphaltene content
properties of the oil. For example, oils with a low specific of the oil. As an oil cools, it will reach a temperature, the so-

No.2 2002
called cloud point, at which the wax components begin to Table 1: Physical characteristics of three typical crude oils.
form crystalline structures. This increasingly hinders flow of the
oil until it eventually changes from liquid to semi-solid at the Arabian Bonny Light Merey
pour point. An example of this behaviour is shown for Bonny Super Light
Light in Figure 1 and Table 1. For this oil, as it cools from a
typical cargo temperature of >30C, its viscosity rises slowly,
but below 20C it begins to thicken exponentially until at Origin Saudi Arabia Nigeria Venezuela
around 12C the viscosity has increased so much that it will no API 48.5 34.6 15.7
longer flow. For the other two oils shown, the pour points and
SG at 15C 0.79 0.85 0.96
cloud points are below 0C.
Wax content 12% 13% 10%
Asphaltenes 7% No data 9%
Weathering Processes Pour point -29C 12C -18C
The physical and chemical changes that spilled oil undergoes
are collectively known as weathering. Although the individual
processes causing these changes may act simultaneously, their
relative importance varies with time. Together they affect the
behaviour of the oil and determine its ultimate fate. These
processes are illustrated in Figure 2 for a spill of a typical
medium crude oil under moderate sea conditions.

Spreading
As soon as oil is spilled, it starts to spread over the sea surface.
The speed at which this takes place depends to a great extent
on the viscosity of the oil and the volume spilled. Fluid, low
viscosity oils spread more quickly than those with a high
viscosity. Liquid oils initially spread as a coherent slick but
quickly begin to break up. Solid or highly viscous oils fragment
rather than spreading to thin layers. At temperatures below
their pour point, oils rapidly solidify and hardly spread at all
and may remain many centimetres thick. Winds, wave action
and water turbulence tend to cause oil to form narrow bands
or windrows parallel to the wind direction. At this stage the
properties of the oil become less important in determining slick Figure 1: Viscosity/temperature relationship for three crude oils.
movement. Viscosity is plotted on a double log scale.

The rate at which oil spreads or fragments is also affected by


tidal streams and currents - the stronger the combined forces, Evaporation
the faster the process. There are many examples of spills The more volatile components of an oil will evaporate to the
spreading over several square kilometres in just a few hours atmosphere. The rate of evaporation will depend on ambient
and over several hundreds of square kilometres within a few temperatures and wind speed. In general, those oil
days, thus seriously limiting the possibility of effective clean-up components with a boiling point below 200C will evaporate
at sea. It should also be appreciated that, except in the case of within a period of 24 hours in temperate conditions. The
small spills of low viscosity oils, spreading is not uniform and greater the proportion of components with low boiling points,
large variations of oil thickness from less than a micrometre to the greater the degree of evaporation. The initial spreading
several millimetres can occur. rate of the oil affects evaporation since the larger the surface

Figure 2: A schematic representation of the fate of a crude oil spill showing changes in the relative importance of weathering
processes with time - the width of each band indicates the importance of the process.

2 Fate of Marine Oil Spills


area, the faster light components will evaporate. Rough seas,
high wind speeds and warm temperatures will also increase
the rate of evaporation. Any residue of oil remaining after
evaporation will have an increased density and viscosity, which
affects subsequent weathering processes and the effectiveness
of clean-up techniques.

Spills of refined products, such as kerosene and gasoline, may


evaporate completely within a few hours and light crudes can
lose up to 40% of their volume during the first day. In contrast,
heavy fuel oils undergo little, if any, evaporation. When
extremely volatile oils are spilled in confined areas, there may
be a risk of fire and explosion or human health hazards.

Dispersion
Waves and turbulence at the sea surface can cause all or part
of a slick to break up into droplets of varying sizes which
become mixed into the upper layers of the water column.
While some of the smaller droplets may remain in suspension,
the larger ones rise back to the surface, where they either
When medium and light oils spread unhindered, the oil will
coalesce with other droplets to reform a slick or spread out in
a very thin film, often referred to as sheen. Droplets which are eventually form very thin films. These appear as iridescent
small enough are kept in suspension by the turbulent motion (rainbow) and silver sheens, which dissipate rapidly.
of the sea, which mixes the oil into ever greater volumes of sea
water, so reducing its concentration. The increased surface
area presented by dispersed oil can promote processes such
as biodegradation, dissolution and sedimentation.

The rate of dispersion is largely dependent upon the nature of


the oil and the sea state, proceeding most rapidly with low
viscosity oils in the presence of breaking waves.

Oils that remain fluid and spread unhindered by other


weathering processes may disperse completely in moderate
sea conditions within a few days. The application of dispersant
chemicals can speed up this natural process. Conversely,
viscous oils and oils at temperatures below their pour point, or
oils that form stable water-in-oil emulsions, tend to form thick
lenses on the water surface that show little tendency to
disperse, even with the addition of dispersant chemicals. Such
oils can persist for weeks and on reaching the shore may
eventually form hard asphalt pavements if not removed.

Dissolution When oil becomes mixed with sediment, the density can
The rate and extent to which an oil dissolves depends upon its become sufficiently high for it to sink if it is washed off the
composition, spreading, water temperature, turbulence and beach. In this photo, large patches of sunken oil are visible in
degree of dispersion. The heavy components of crude oil are shallow water close to the beach.
virtually insoluble in sea water whereas lighter compounds,
particularly aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and
toluene, are slightly soluble. However, these compounds are
also the most volatile and are lost very rapidly by evaporation,
typically 10 to 1,000 times faster than by dissolution.
Concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons in sea water thus
rarely exceed 1 ppm and dissolution does not make a
significant contribution to the removal of oil from the sea
surface.

Emulsification
In moderate to rough seas, most oils will take up water
droplets and form water-in-oil emulsions under the turbulent
action of waves on the sea surface. This can increase the
volume of pollutant by a factor of up to four times. Emulsions
form most readily in oils which have a combined
Nickel/Vanadium concentration greater than 15 ppm or an
asphaltene content in excess of 0.5% when they are fresh. The
presence of these compounds and the sea state determine the
rate at which emulsions form. Oils which readily emulsify do
so rapidly in sea states greater than Beaufort Force 3 (wind
speed 7 - 10 knots). Very viscous oils tend to take up water Oils spilled into the sea at temperatures below their pour point
more slowly than more liquid oils. As the emulsion develops, form solid fragments. This photo shows Nile Blend crude, pour
the movement of the oil in the waves causes the droplets of point +33o C, in sea water of 28o C. Such oils are highly
water which have been taken up in the oil to become smaller persistent and have the potential to travel great distances.

3
and smaller, making the emulsion progressively more viscous
and stable. As the amount of water absorbed increases, the
density of the emulsion approaches that of sea water. Stable
emulsions may contain as much as 70% - 80% water and are
often semi-solid and have a strong red/brown, orange or
yellow colour. They are highly persistent and may remain
emulsified indefinitely. Less stable emulsions may separate out
into oil and water if heated by sunlight under calm conditions
or when stranded on shorelines.

The formation of water-in-oil emulsion reduces the rate of


other weathering processes and is the main reason for the
persistence of light and medium crude oils on the sea
surface.

The dissipation of many oils is slowed by the formation of Water-in-oil emulsions often accumulate on shores in thick
highly viscous water-in-oil emulsions. layers.

Sediment-oil interactions
A few heavier residual oils have specific gravities greater than
sea water (more than 1.025), causing them to sink once
spilled. Most crude and fuel oils have sufficiently low specific
gravities to remain afloat unless they interact with and attach
to more dense sediment or organic particles. Dispersed oil
droplets can interact with sediment particles suspended in the
water column, thus becoming heavier and sinking. However,
adhesion to heavier particles most often takes place when oils
strand or become buried on beaches. On exposed, high
energy beaches, large amounts of sediment can be
incorporated and the oil can form dense tar mats. Seasonal
cycles of sediment build-up and erosion may cause oil layers
to be successively buried and uncovered. Even on less exposed
sandy beaches, stranded oil can become covered by wind-
A greatly magnified image (x1,000) of a water-in-oil emulsion blown sand. Once oil has been mixed with beach sediment, it
showing individual water droplets surrounded by oil. will sink if washed back out to sea by storms, tides or currents.
On sheltered shorelines, where wave action and currents are
weak, muddy sediments and marshes are common. If oil
Oxidation becomes incorporated into such fine grained sediments, it is
Hydrocarbons can react with oxygen, which may either lead to likely to remain there for a considerable time.
the formation of soluble products or persistent tars. Oxidation
is promoted by sunlight and although it occurs throughout the Shallow coastal areas and the waters of river mouths and
existence of a slick, its overall effect on dissipation is minor estuaries are often laden with suspended solids that can bind
compared to that of other weathering processes. Even under with dispersed oil droplets, thereby providing favourable
intense sunlight, thin oil films break down only slowly, and conditions for sedimentation of oily particles to the sea bed.
usually less than 0.1% per day. Thick layers of very viscous oils Like some heavy crudes, most heavy fuel oils and water-in-oil
or water-in-oil emulsions tend to oxidise to persistent residues emulsions have specific gravities close to that of sea water, and
rather than degrade, as higher molecular weight compounds even minimal interaction with sediment can be sufficient to
are formed that create a protective surface layer. This can be cause sinking. Fresh water from rivers also lowers the salinity
seen in tar balls which sometimes strand on shorelines and of sea water, and therefore its specific gravity, and can
which usually consist of a solid outer crust of oxidised oil and encourage neutrally buoyant droplets to sink. Oil may also be
sediment particles, surrounding a softer, less weathered ingested by planktonic organisms and incorporated into faecal
interior. pellets, subsequently falling to the seabed.

4 Fate of Marine Oil Spills


Figure 3: Processes acting on spilled oil.

When oil droplets in the water column adhere to very fine In contrast, oil stranded in thick layers on shorelines or above
sediment particles or particles of organic matter they can form the high water mark will have a limited surface area and will
flocculates, which may be widely dispersed by currents or be subject to drier conditions which will render degradation
turbulence. Small quantities of oil in sea bed sediments or on extremely slow, resulting in the oil persisting for many years.
beaches may also become attached to such particles and Similarly, once oils become incorporated into sediments on the
become suspended in the water as flocculates as a result of shoreline or sea bed, degradation is very much reduced or
storms, turbulence or tidal rise and fall. This process, may stop due to a lack of oxygen and/or nutrients.
sometimes referred to as clay-oil flocculation, can result over a
period of time in the removal of oil from beaches. The variety of factors influencing biodegradation makes it
difficult to predict the rate at which oil may be removed.
Biodegradation Although biodegradation is clearly not able to remove bulk oil
Sea water contains a range of marine micro-organisms accumulations, it is one of the main mechanisms by which
capable of metabolising oil compounds. They include bacteria, dispersed oil or the final traces of a spill on shorelines are
moulds, yeasts, fungi, unicellular algae and protozoa which eventually removed.
can utilise oil as a source of carbon and energy. Such
organisms are distributed widely throughout the worlds Combined Processes
oceans although they tend to be more abundant in chronically
polluted coastal waters, such as those with regular vessel traffic The processes described previously are summarised in Figure
or which receive industrial discharges and untreated sewage. 3. All come into play as soon as oil is spilled, although their
relative importance varies with time, as shown in Figure 2.
The main factors affecting the rate and extent of Spreading, evaporation, dispersion, emulsification and
biodegradation are the characteristics of the oil, the availability dissolution are most important during the early stages of a spill
of oxygen and nutrients (principally compounds of nitrogen whilst oxidation, sedimentation and biodegradation are longer
and phosphorus) and temperature. Each type of micro- term processes which determine the ultimate fate of oil. An
organism involved in the process tends to degrade a specific understanding of the way in which weathering processes
group of hydrocarbons and thus a wide range of micro- interact is important when attempting to forecast the changing
organisms, acting together or in succession, are needed for characteristics of an oil during the lifetime of a slick at sea.
degradation to occur. As degradation proceeds, a complex
community of micro-organisms develops. Although the It should be appreciated that the movement of an oil slick on
necessary micro-organisms are present in relatively small the sea surface is due to winds and surface currents, and may
numbers in the open sea, they multiply rapidly when oil is be influenced by the combined weathering processes. The
available and degradation will continue until the process is actual mechanisms governing spill movement are complex,
limited by nutrient or oxygen deficiency. Whilst micro- but experience shows that oil drift can be predicted from a
organisms are capable of degrading most of the wide variety simple vector calculation of wind and surface current direction,
of compounds in crude oil, some large and complex molecules based on about 3% of the wind speed and 100% of the current
are resistant to attack. velocity. Reliable prediction of slick movement is clearly
dependent upon the availability of good wind and current
Because the micro-organisms live in the water, from which they data. Accurate current data are sometimes difficult to obtain.
obtain oxygen and essential nutrients, biodegradation can For some areas it is presented on charts or tidal stream atlases
only take place at an oil/water interface. At sea, the creation but often only general information is available. In shallow
of oil droplets, either through natural or chemical dispersion, waters near the coast or among islands, currents may be
increases the interfacial area available for biological activity complex and are often poorly understood, rendering accurate
and so may enhance degradation. prediction of slick movement particularly difficult.

5
Table 2: Classification of oils according to their specific gravity.
The colours of each group relate to Table 1 and Figures 4 and 5. Group 3
Specific Gravity 0.85 0.95 (API 17.5 - 35)

A Pour point C
B Viscosity cSt @ 15C: 8 - Solid Average 275
Group 1 C % boiling below 200C: 14 - 34% Average 22%
D % boiling above 370C: 28 - 50% Average 46%
Specific Gravity < 0.8 (API > 45)
High Pour Point >5 C Low Pour Point
B Viscosity cSt @ 15C: 0.5 - 2.0 A B C D B C D
C % boiling below 200C: 50 - 100% Bakr 7 1,500 14 60 Arabian Heavy 55 20 56
D % boiling above 370C: 0% Belayim 15 S 22 55 Arabian Light 14 24 45
Bonny Light 12 25 30 30 Arabian Medium 25 22 51
Cabinda 17 S 18 56 Basrah Light 26 45
B C D
Dai Hung 25 S 30 33 Bonny Medium 14 39
Gasolene 0.5 100 0
Djeno 6 16 61 Buchan 14 31 39
Naptha 0.5 100 0 Duri 18 S 5 75 Champion Export 18 15 28
Kerosene 2.0 50 0 Mandji 9 70 21 53 Escravos 30 32
Morgan 7 30 25 47 Flotta 11 34 26
Nile Blend 36 S 13 59 Forcados 12 17 37
Soyo Blend 15 S 21 48 Forozan 24 49
Suez Mix 10 30 24 49 Forties 8 32 36
Trinidad 14 S 23 28 Gullfaks 13 21 40
Zaire 15 S 18 55 Hout 15 24 48
Group 2 Iranian Heavy 25 24 48
Iranian Light 26 43
Specific Gravity 0.8 0.85 (API 35 - 45) Khafji 80 21 55
Kuwait Export 30 23 52
A Pour Point C Leona 14 56
B Viscosity cSt @ 15C: 4 - Solid, Average 8 Loreto 17 50
C % boiling below 200 C: 19 - 48% Average 33% Maya 500 17 61
D % boiling above 370 C: 12 - 50% Average 31% Miri Light 25 25
Nigerian Medium 40 14 40
Oman 23 45
Qatar Marine 29 39
High pour point >5 C Low pour point Santa Maria 250 22 54
A B C D B C D Siberian Light 24 52
Amna 18 S 25 30 Abu Dhabi 7 36 31 Tia Juana Light 2,500 24 45
Argyll 9 11 29 39 Arabian Super Light 3 26 39 Upper Zakum 26 44
Arjuna 27 S 37 15 Berri 9 36 35 Medium Fuel Oil 1,500-
Auk 9 9 33 35 Beryl 9 35 34 (IFO 180) 3,000
Bach Ho 35 S 21 47 Brass River 4 45 17
Bass Straight 15 S 40 20 Brega 9 38 32 High pour point oils would only behave as Group 3 at ambient
Beatrice 12 32 25 35 Brent Blend 6 30 38 temperatures well above their pour points. At lower temperatures
Bintulu Neat 17 S 24 34 Ekofisk 4 46 25 treat as Group 4 oils.
Bunyu 18 S 29 12 Kirkuk 1 35 36
Cormorant 12 13 32 38 Kole Marine 1 34 35
Dunlin 6 11 29 36 Lower Zakum 34 35 Group 4
Es Sider 6 11 28 42 Marib Light 40 20
Escravos 10 9 35 15 Montrose 7 36 31 Specific Gravity > 0.95 (API < 17.5) or Pour Point > 30C
Gippsland Mix 15 S 40 20 Murban 7 32 34 A Pour point C
Lalang 33 S 19 49 Murchison 7 36 20
B Viscosity cSt @ 15C: 1500 - Solid
Lucina 16 S 26 41 Olmeca 32 32
Nigerian Light 9 S 35 27 Oseberg 10 28 39
C % boiling below 200C: 3 - 24% Average 10%
Qua Iboe 15 7 29 32 Palanca 30 35 D % boiling above 370C: 33 - 92% Average 65%
Rio Zulia 27 S 34 30 Qatar Land 9 36 33
A B C D
San Joachim 24 S 43 20 Sahara Blend 4 48 27 Bachequero -20 5,000 10 60
Santa Rosa 10 4 34 27 Sirtica 7 44 27 Boscan 15 S 4 80
Sarir 24 S 24 39 Bu Attifil 39 S 19 47
Seria 18 S 37 15 Gas Oil 5 Cinta 43 S 10 54
Soyo 17 S 20 50 Cyrus -12 10,000 12 66
Thistle 9 9 35 38 Daquing 36 S 12 66
Zuetina 9 9 35 30 Duri 14 S 5 74
Gamba 23 S 11 54
Handil 35 S 23 33
Heavy Lake Mix -12 10,000 12 64
Jatibarang 43 S 14 65
Merey -18 7,000 7 70
Minas 37 S 14 57
Panuco 2 S 3 76
Pilon -4 S 2 92
Quiriqure -29 1,500 3 88
Shengli 21 S 9 70
Taching 35 S 12 49
Tia Juana Pesado -1 S 3 78
High pour point oils would only behave as Group 2 at ambient Wafra Eocene -29 3,000 11 63
temperatures well above their pour points. At lower temperatures Widuri 46 S 7 70
treat as Group 4 oils. Heavy Fuel Oil (IFO 380) 5,000-30,000

6 Fate of Marine Oil Spills


Predictions of potential changes in oil characteristics with time and if the ambient temperature is low, the oil will be either a
allow an assessment to be made of the likely persistence of solid or a highly viscous liquid, and natural breakdown
spilled oil and thereby the most appropriate response option. In processes will be slow. Figure 4 shows typical increases in
this latter regard, a distinction is frequently made between non- viscosity with time after spillage for groups 2 - 4.
persistent oils, which because of their volatile nature and low
viscosity tend to disappear rapidly from the sea surface, and Figure 5 shows a simplified schematic of the rate of natural
persistent oils, which dissipate more slowly and usually require a removal of the four oil groups and also takes into account the
clean-up response. Examples of the former are gasoline, effect of the formation of water-in-oil emulsions on the volume
naphtha and kerosene, whereas most crude oils, intermediate of oil over time. The schematic has been developed on the
and heavy fuel oils, and bitumen are classed as persistent [see
footnote*]. However, this simple distinction fails to recognise the
wide variation in the properties of different oil types. Better
predictions of persistence can be made by using relatively simple
empirical calculations based on oil type. For this purpose
commonly transported oils can be roughly classified into four
main groups according to their specific gravity (Table 2).

As a general rule, the lower the specific gravity of the oil the
less persistent it will be. The concept of a half life is helpful in
defining removal rates of less persistent oils. This is the time
taken for the removal of 50% of the oil from the sea surface so
that after six half-lives, little more than 1% of the oil will
remain. Half-life calculations are less useful for heavier oils
and water-in-oil emulsions. However, it is important to
appreciate that some apparently light oils behave more like
heavy ones due to the presence of waxes. Oils with wax
contents greater than about 10% tend to have high pour points

*Footnote: The international liability and compensation


regime for tanker spills does not apply to non-persistent oils,
which for this purpose are defined as consisting of
hydrocarbon fractions, (a) at least 50% of which, by volume,
distils at a temperature of 340C, and (b) at least 95% of
which distils at a temperature of 370C, when tested by the Figure 4: Typical rates of viscosity increase in moderate to
ASTM Method D 86/78 or any subsequent revision thereof. rough seas. The viscosity of Group 1 oils never exceeds 100cSt
and so is not shown.

Figure 5: The volume of oil and water-in-oil emulsion remaining on the sea surface shown as a percentage of the original spill volume
(100%). The curves represent an estimated average behaviour for each group. The behaviour of a particular crude oil may differ
from the general pattern depending on its properties and environmental conditions at the time of the spill.

7
basis of observations made in the field and is intended to give rough sea conditions, will always place constraints on the
an impression of how persistence varies according to the effectiveness of any response option and should not be
physical properties of the oil. The precise behaviour of an underestimated. Once oil is scattered over many square
individual crude oil will depend on its properties and the kilometres of sea surface, which for low viscosity oils can
circumstances at the time of the spill. Weather and climatic happen in just a few hours, it becomes very difficult to
conditions will particularly influence the half-life of a slick. For encounter large quantities since oil recovery systems typically
example, in very rough weather an oil in Group 3 may have a swath width of only a few metres. This is the main
dissipate within a time scale more typical of a Group 2 oil. reason why response at sea rarely results in the removal of
Conversely, in cold, calm conditions it may approach the more than a fraction of a widely spread slick.
persistence of Group 4 oils. Group 4 oils, including heavy fuel
oils, which are carried as bunker fuel by many ships, are Where a response is called for, the weathering processes which
typically highly viscous and highly persistent, and are amongst can change an oil from a liquid to a semi-solid or solid state
the most problematic to clean up. Their persistence gives them will require clean-up techniques to be re-evaluated and
the potential to travel considerable distances at sea and cause modified over time. For example, dispersants applied at sea
widespread contamination. reduce in efficiency as the oil spreads and as oil viscosity
increases. Depending on the characteristics of the particular
Computerised weathering models have been developed that oil, many dispersants become significantly less effective once
attempt to predict how a spilled oil will change with time under viscosity reaches the 5,000 - 10,000 cSt level and most cease
given sets of conditions. These often draw on databases of the to work at all when the viscosity rises above this. Because oil
physical and chemical characteristics of different oils, as well viscosity can increase very quickly, the time available for using
as the results of scientific research and observations of oil dispersant can be very short and the effectiveness of the
behaviour. In some cases such weathering models are dispersant application should therefore be checked frequently.
combined with a trajectory model so that the overall fate and In a similar fashion, if collection methods are employed, the
potential impacts of a slick can be forecast. However, due to type of pumps or skimmers used may need to be changed as
the complexity of the weathering processes and slick the oil weathers and the viscosity rises.
movement, and because their precise interactions remain
poorly understood, reliable predictions of overall fate are still An understanding of the likely fate and behaviour of different
difficult to achieve. oils and the constraint that this imposes on clean-up
operations is fundamental to preparing effective contingency
It is important therefore to appreciate the assumptions on plans. In addition, information on the prevailing winds and
which weathering and trajectory models are based and never currents throughout the year will indicate the most likely
to place too much reliance on the results. Model predictions movement of the oil and which sensitive resources might be
should be verified by observations of actual oil distribution and affected for a given location. Data on the types of oil handled
behaviour. This is equally true both for simple empirical and transported can enable predictions to be made regarding
models and complex computerised numerical models. the probable lifetime of slicks and the quantity and nature of
Nevertheless, models can provide a useful method of the residue that may require a clean-up response. It will also
evaluating which clean-up techniques are likely to be effective determine the selection of appropriate clean-up techniques
and for how long, and what problems might be faced. Model and types of equipment.
simulations for specific circumstances can be of particular
value during contingency planning and training. For fixed installations such as oil terminals and offshore oil
fields, where a limited number of oil types are involved and
Implications for Clean-up and prevailing conditions are well known, fairly accurate
predictions can be made, which simplifies the development of
Contingency Planning an effective plan. Plans for areas where a wide range of oil
types are handled or where tankers pass in transit cannot
The movement of slicks and the changing nature of the oil cover all eventualities. It is therefore even more important that
through weathering can determine whether a response, the type of oil spilled is established at the earliest opportunity
beyond monitoring slick dissipation, is necessary at all. The so that when a response is required, the most appropriate
tendency of oil to spread rapidly and fragment, especially in techniques may be used.

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF) is a non-profit making organisation involved in all aspects of
combating spills in the marine environment. Its highly experienced technical staff have responded to more than 450 ship-source spills
in over 85 countries to give advice on clean-up measures, environmental and economic effects, and compensation. They also
regularly undertake contingency planning and training assignments. ITOPF is a source of comprehensive information on marine
pollution through its library, wide range of technical publications, videos and website. For further information contact:

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF)


1 Olivers Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1HQ, United Kingdom
Tel: +44 20 7566 6999 Fax: +44 20 7566 6950 Email: central@itopf.com
Web site: www.itopf.com

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited