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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
DAFTAR ISI ................................................................................................... i
BAB I PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang ..................................................................................... 1
1.2 Identifikasi Masalah ............................................................................. 3
1.3 Batasan Masalah................................................................................... 4
1.4 Rumusan Masalah ................................................................................ 4
1.5 Tujuan Penelitian ................................................................................. 4
1.6 Manfaat Penelitian ............................................................................... 5
1.7 Lokasi dan Waktu Penelitian ............................................................... 5
1.8 Rencana Penelitian ............................................................................... 6
BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Deskripsi Pala .................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 Morfologi Pala ........................................................................ 7
2.1.2 Klasifikasi Pala ........................................................................ 8
2.1.3 Kandungan Kimia ................................................................... 8
2.1.4 Khasiat dan Manfaat ............................................................... 8
2.2 Simplisia ........................................................................................... 8
2.3 Jerawat .............................................................................................. 9
2.3.1 Definisi Jerawat ....................................................................... 9
2.3.2 Penyebab Terjadinya Jerawat .................................................. 10
2.4 Ekstraksi ............................................................................................ 11
2.4.1 Maserasi ................................................................................... 12
2.5 Bakteri ............................................................................................... 14
2.5.1 Bakteri Propionibacterium acne .............................................. 14
2.5.2 Klasifikasi Propionibacterium acne ........................................ 15
2.6 Antibakteri ........................................................................................ 15
2.7 Tetrasiklin .......................................................................................... 16
2.8 Sediaan Krim ..................................................................................... 17
BAB III METODOLOGI PENELITIAN
3.1 Alat dan Bahan ................................................................................... 18
3.1.1 Alat ............................................................................................ 18
3.1.2 Bahan ........................................................................................ 18
3.2 Sampel Penelitian............................................................................... 18
3.3 Prosedur Penelitian ............................................................................ 19
3.3.1 Determinasi Tanaman ............................................................... 19
3.3.2 Pengolahan Sampel ................................................................... 19
3.4 Pemeriksaan Studi Farmakognosi ...................................................... 20
3.4.1 Pemeriksaan Makroskopik ........................................................ 20
3.4.2 Pemeriksaan Mikroskopik ........................................................ 20
3.4.3 Susut Pengeringan ..................................................................... 21
3.4.4 Kadar Abu Total ....................................................................... 22

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3.4.5 Kadar Abu TIdak Larut Asam .................................................. 22
3.4.6 kadar abu larut air ..................................................................... 22
3.4.7 Kadar Sari Larut Etanol ............................................................ 23
3.4.8 Kadar Sari Larut Air ................................................................. 23
3.4.9 Kadar Air .................................................................................. 24
3.5 Skrining Fitokimia ............................................................................ 24
3.5.1 Alkaloid..................................................................................... 24
3.5.2 Tanin dan Polifenol ................................................................... 25
3.5.3 Flavonoid ................................................................................. 25
3.5.4 Saponin ..................................................................................... 25
3.5.5 Kuinon....................................................................................... 26
3.5.6 Steroid dan Terpenoid ............................................................... 26
3.5.7 Monoterpenoid dan Seskuiterpenoid ........................................ 26
3.6 Ekstraksi ............................................................................................. 27
3.7 Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri.................................................................... 27
3.7.1 Sterilisasi Alat dan Bahan ......................................................... 28
3.7.2 Pembuatan Larutan NaCl fisiologis 0,96% .............................. 28
3.7.3 Pembuatan Media Agar Mueller-Hinton .................................. 28
3.7.4 Pembuatan Suspensi Bakteri Uji ............................................... 28
3.7.5 Uji Aktivitas antibakteri Biji Buah Pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt)
Terhadap Bakteri Propionibacterium acne .............................. 29
3.7.6 Uji Konsentrasi Hambat Minimum (KHM) ............................. 29
3.7.7 Uji Kesetaraan aktivitas Ekstrak Biji Buah Pala dengan Antibakteri
Tetrasiklin ................................................................................. 30
3.8 Pembuatan Sediaan Krim .................................................................... 30
3.9 Uji Antibakteri Sediaan Krim ............................................................. 31
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel Halaman
1.1 Jadwal Rencana Penelitian .............................................................. 7
2.1 Klasifikasi Hipertensi ...................................................................... 9
2.2 Terapi Farmakologi ......................................................................... 15

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DAFTAR DIAGRAM
Diagram Halaman
2.1 Kerangka Pemikiran ........................................................................... 20
3.1 Alur Perizinan Penelitian ................................................................... 22
3.2 Prosedur Penelitian............................................................................. 22

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN
Lampiran
Lembar Persetujuan Setelah Penjelasan(Informed Consent) ...................... 24
Kuisioner Penelitian .................................................................................... 25
Formulir Pencatatan Data ............................................................................ 29
Formulir Pemberian Obat............................................................................ 30

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DAFTAR SINGKATAN

ACE I : Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor

DEPKES : Departemen Kesehatan

IFRS : Instalasi Farmasi Rumah Sakit

JNC : Joint National Committe

MAO Inhibitor : Monoamin Oksidase Inhibitor

mmHg : Milimeter Merkuri Hydrargyrum

NSAID : Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

RISKESDAS : Riset Kesehatan Dasar

WHO : World Health Organization

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