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QUESTIONS.

1. What is optimization.

2. State optimization problem mathematically and explain different parameters of optimization


problem.

3. Write down the classification of optimization problem.

4. Design a uniform column of tubular section, with hinge joints at both ends, (Fig.) to carry a compressive load
P = 2500 kgf for minimum cost. The column is made up of a material that has a yield stress (y ) of
500kgf/cm2, modulus of elasticity (E) of 0.85 106 kgf/cm2, and weight density () of 0.0025kgf/cm3.The
length of the column is 250 cm. The stress induced in the column should be less than the buckling stress as well
as the yield stress. The mean diameter of the column is restricted to lie between 2 and 14 cm, and columns with
thicknesses outside the range 0.2 to 0.8 cm are not available in the market. The cost of the column includes
material and construction costs and can be taken as 5W + 2d, where W is the weight in kilograms force and d is
the mean diameter of the column in centimeters.

5.Four identical helical springs are used to support a milling machine weighing 5000 lb. Formulate the problem
of finding the wire diameter (d), coil diameter(D), and the number of turns (N) of each spring (Fig.) for
minimum weight by limiting the deflection to 0.1 in. and the shear stress to 10,000 psi in the spring. In addition,
the natural frequency of vibration of the spring is to be greater than 100Hz.The stiffness of the spring(k), the
shear stress in the spring ( ), and the natural frequency of vibration of the spring (fn) are given by

where G is the shear modulus, F the compressive load on the spring, w the weight of
The spring, the weight density of the spring, and Ks the shear stress correction factor.
Assume that the material is spring steel with G = 12 106 psi and = 0.3 lb/in3, and
the shear stress correction factor is Ks 1.05.
6. A scaffolding system consists of three beams and six ropes as shown in Fig. Each of the top ropes A and B
can carry a load of W1, each of the middle ropes C and D can carry a load of W2, and each of the bottom ropes E
and F can carry a load of W3. If the loads acting on beams 1, 2, and 3 are x1, x2, and x3, respectively, as shown in
Fig, formulate the problem of finding the maximum load (x1 + x2 + x3) that can be supported by the system.
Assume that the weights of the beams 1, 2, and 3 are w1,w2, and w3, respectively, and the weights of ropes are
negligible.

7. What is single variable optimization and write down the necessary condition for relative minima of a function
f(x) defined in interval axb.

8. What is multivariable optimization with no constraints.


9. Determine the maximum and minimum values of the function
f(x) = 12x5 45x4 + 40x3 + 5
10. Find the second-order Taylors series approximation of the function

about the point X = {1, 0, 2}T.


11. Figure shows two frictionless rigid bodies (carts) A and B connected by three linear elastic springs having
spring constants k1, k2, and k3. The springs are at their natural positions when the applied force P is zero. Find
the displacements x1 and x2 under the force P by using the principle of minimum potential energy.

12. Write a short note on multivariable optimization with equality constraints.


13. Find the dimensions of a box of largest volume that can be inscribed
in a sphere of unit radius.
14. What is linear programming and write down the applications of linear programming.
15.illustrate standard form of linear programming.
16. In the limit design of steel frames, it is assumed that plastic hinges will be developed at points with peak
moments. When a sufficient number of hinges develop, the structure becomes an unstable system referred to as
collapse mechanism. Thus a design will be safe if the energy-absorbing capacity of the frame (U) is greater
than the energy imparted by the externally applied loads (E) in each of the deformed shapes as indicated by the
various collapse mechanisms. For the rigid frame shown in Fig.1,plastic moments may develop at the points of
peak moments (numbered 1 through 7 in Fig.1). Four possible collapse mechanisms
are shown in Fig. 2 for this frame. Assuming that the weight is a linear function

(FIG .1)

(FIG 2.)
17. Explain simplex algorithm and solve the following question by graphical method
A manufacturing firm produces two machine parts using lathes, milling machines, and grinding machines. The
different machining times required for each part, the machining times available on different machines, and the
profit on each machine part are given in the following table.

18. Write a short note on


(a).Dual Simplex Method.
(b).Transportation Problem.
19. Classify Unconstrained Minimization Methods.
20.Write a short note on:
(a ). Random search methods
(b).Newtons method
(c).Quasi Newton method of Rank 1
21.What is Geometric Programming and illustrate it in unconstrained minimization form.
22. It has been decided to shift grain from a warehouse to a factory in an open rectangular box of length x1
meters, width x2 meters, and height x3 meters. The bottom, sides, and the ends of the box cost, respectively,
$80,$10, and $20/m2. It costs $1 for each round trip of the box. Assuming that the box will have no salvage
value, find the minimum cost of transporting 80m3 of grain.
23.Define the following:
(a). Point in n-dimensional space.
(b). Hyperplane
(c). Line segment in n dimensions