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The Johns Hopkins University

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS)


SAIS Europe

STRATEGY AND POLICY

Fall 2014 Marco Cesa


Office Hours: mcesa@jhu.edu

Course Description: The course, intended both for complete novices in military affairs and
for students with some knowledge in the field, examines the historical foundations and current
development of strategic thought and practices. The course focuses on theoretical issues as
well as policy questions.

Course Requirements: The course will combine lectures and discussion of the readings.
The work load consists of thirteen lectures, structured reading assignments, 2 book reviews of
1,500 words each on volumes to be agreed upon with the instructor (25% of the final grade
each), and a final exam (2 essay questions, 50% of the final grade).

In all courses and all student activities at SAIS, students are expected to adhere to the rules
and spirit of the schools Honor Code, which are detailed in the Student Handbook and posted
on-line. Violation of the Honor Code in an assignment or activity will almost invariably result
in failing that assignment and possibly more severe sanctions, including but not limited to
course failure, depending on the specific circumstances.

COURSE OUTLINE

1. What is Strategy?
2. Strategy and Policy in the Modern Age
3. Napoleon and Clausewitz
4. Strategy and Geopolitical Thought in the 20th Century
5. World War I
6. World War II
7. The Cold War, Nuclear Strategy and Arms Control
8. Revolutionary War and Guerrilla Strategy
9. Strategy in a Unipolar World
10. Warfare in a Unipolar World
11. Asymmetric Warfare and Cyber-Warfare
12. Nuclear Proliferation
13. The Obsolescence of War?
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1. Introduction: What is Strategy?

H. Strachan, The Lost Meaning of Strategy, Survival, 47, 3, 2005, 33-54.

B. H. Liddell Hart, Strategy New York: Meridian, 1991 (2nd rev. ed. 1967), pp. 319-333
(The art of distributing and applying military means to fulfil the ends of policy).

A. Beaufre, An Introduction to Strategy, New York: Praeger, 1965, chapt. 1.

2. Strategy and Policy in the Modern Age

M. Howard, War in European History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976, pp. 1-93.

G. Rothenberg, Maurice of Nassau, Gustavus Adolphus, Raimondo Montecuccoli and the


"Military Revolution" of the Seventeenth Century, in P. Paret (ed.), Makers of Modern
Strategy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 32-63.

R. Palmer, Frederick the Great, Guibert, Blow: From Dynastic to National War, ibid., pp.
91-119.

3. The Napoleonic Age and Clausewitz

P. Paret, Napoleon and the Revolution of War,in P. Paret, ed. Makers of Modern
Strategy,Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 123-142.

J. Shy, Jomini, ibid., pp. 143-185.

P. Paret, Clausewitz, ibid., pp. 186-213.

C. von Clausewitz, On War (edited and translated by M. Howard and P. Paret), Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 1984, Book I and VIII.

M. Howard, The Influence of Clausewitz, ibid., pp. 27-44.

4. Strategy and Geopolitical Thought in the 20th Century

A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783, Boston: Little, Brown
and Company, 1890, read 1-12, 25-59, skim 60-81, read 82-89.

P. M. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery (1st. ed. 1976), London: The
Ashfield Press, 1983, pp. 1-9, 347-349.

H. J. Mackinder, The Geographical Pivot of History (1904), in H. J. Mackinder,


Democratic Ideals and Reality, New York: Norton, 1962, 241-264.
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5. World War I

G. Rothenberg, Moltke, Schlieffen, and the Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment, in P. Paret


(ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 296-325.

M. Howard, Men against Fire: The Doctrine of the Offensive in 1914, ibid., pp. 510-526.

M. Geyer, German Strategy in the Age of Machine Warfare, 1914-1945, ibid., pp. 527-597.

6. World War II

M. Geyer, German Strategy in the Age of Machine Warfare, 1914-1945, in P. Paret (ed.),
Makers of Modern Strategy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 527-597.

B. Bond and M. Alexander, Liddell Hart and de Gaulle: The Doctrine of Limited Liability
and Mobile Defense, ibid., pp. 598-623.

D. MacIsaac, Voices from the Central Blue: The Air Power Theorists, ibid., pp. 624-647.

J. Mearsheimer, Hitler and the Blitzkrieg Strategy, in R. J. Art and K. N. Waltz (eds.), The
Use of Force. Military Power and International Politics, New York: Rowman & Littlefield,
2004 (6th ed.), pp. 138-152.

*** First Book Review Due***

7. The Cold War, Nuclear Strategy and Arms Control

L. Freedman, The First Two Generations of Nuclear Strategists, in P. Paret, ed. Makers of
Modern Strategy, Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 735-778.

T. Schelling, Arms and Influence, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 1-91.

M. Bundy, The Unimpressive Record of Atomic Diplomacy, in R. J. Art and K. N. Waltz


(eds.), The Use of Force. Military Power and International Politics, New York: Rowman &
Littlefield, 2004 (6th ed.), pp. 85-93.

K. N. Waltz, Nuclear Myths and Political Realities, ibid., pp. 102-117.

T. C. Schelling, An Astonishing Sixty Years: the Legacy of Hiroshima, Nobel Prize


Lecture, Dec. 8, 2005.
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8. Revolutionary War and Guerrilla Strategy

G. Chaliand, Revolution in the Third World, rev. ed., London: Penguin, 1989, pp. 33-50, 69-
74.

A. Mack, Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars, World Politics, 27, 2, 1975, pp. 175-200.

P. Paret and J. Shy, Guerrilla Warfare and US Military Policy, in T. N. Greene (ed.), The
Guerrilla and How to Fight Him, New York: Praeger, 1962, pp. 37-53.

G. Merom, How Democracies Lose Small Wars: State, Society, and the Failures of France in
Algeria, Israel in Lebanon, and the U.S. in Vietnam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2003, pp. 33-80.

9. Strategy in a Unipolar World

B. Posen and A. Ross, Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy, International Security,
21, 3, 1996-1997, pp. 5-53.

J. Joffe, How America Does It, Foreign Affairs, 76, 5, 1997, pp. 13-27.

S. Huntington, The Lonely Superpower, Foreign Affairs, 78, 2, 1999, pp. 35-49.

S. Brooks, G.J. Ikenberry, W. Wohlforth, Don't Come Home, America: The Case against
Retrenchment, International Security, 37, 3, 2012-2013, pp. 7-51, and the rejoinders,
International Security, 38, 2, 2013, pp. 181-199.

10. Warfare in a Unipolar World

Robert A. Pape, The Limits of Precision-Guided Air Power, Security Studies, 7, 2, 1997-98,
pp. 93-114.

John A. Warden III, Success in Modern War. A Response to Robert Pape's Bombing to
Win, Security Studies, 7, 2, 1997-98, pp. 172-190.

Stephen D. Biddle, Allies, Airpower, and Modern Warfare. The Afghan Model in
Afghanistan and Iraq, International Security, 30, 3, 2005-2006, pp. 161-176.

S. Burg, Coercive Diplomacy in the Balkans, in R. J. Art and K. N. Waltz (eds.), The Use
of Force. Military Power and International Politics, New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004
(6th ed.), pp. 247-269.

M. O'Hanlon, The Afghan War: A Flawed Masterpiece, ibid., pp. 270-280.


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11. Asymmetric Warfare and Cyber-Warfare

D. Kilcullen, Counterinsurgency, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 1-13, 165-227.

T. E. Ricks, Fiasco. The American Military Adventure in Iraq, New York: The Penguin Press,
2006, skim 149-188, read 189-202.

L. Kello, The Meaning of the Cyber Revolution, International Security, 38, 2, 2013, pp. 7-
40.

E. Gartzke, The Myth of Cyberwar, International Security, 38, 2, 2013, pp. 41-73.
Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted Warfare, 1999 (selections available at:
http://cryptome.org/cuw.htm read chapt. 8).

12. Nuclear Proliferation

V. Utgoff, Missile Defence and American Ambitions, in R. J. Art and K. N. Waltz (eds.),
The Use of Force. Military Power and International Politics, New York: Rowman &
Littlefield, 2004 (6th ed.), pp. 333-346.

K. N. Waltz, Missile Defence and the Multiplication of Nuclear Weapons, ibid., pp. 347-
352.

B. Posen, What If Iraq Had Nuclear Weapons?, ibid., pp. 353-369.

S. Sagan, Nuclear Instability in South Asia, ibid., pp. 370-381.

K. N. Waltz, Nuclear Stability in South Asia, ibid., pp. 382-393.

M. Kroenig, Time to Attack Iran, in Foreign Affairs, 91, 1, 2012, pp. 76-86.

C. Kahl, Not Time to Attack Iran, in Foreign Affairs, 91, 2, 2012, pp. 166-173.

K. N. Waltz, Why Iran Should Get the Bomb. Nuclear Balancing Would Mean Stability, in
Foreign Affairs, 91, 4, 2012, pp. 2-5.

13. The Obsolescence of War?

J. Mueller, The Obsolescence of Major War, Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 21, 3, 1990, pp.
321-328.

K. Kaysen, Is War Obsolete? A Review Essay, International Security, 14, 4, 1990, pp. 42-
64.
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M. Mandelbaum, Is Major War Obsolete?, Survival, 40, 4, 1998-99, pp. 20-38.

The symposium on Mandelbaum, published in Survival, 41, 2, 1999, pp. 139-152.

E. Luttwak, Toward Post-Heroic Warfare, Foreign Affairs, 74, 3, 1995, pp. 109-122.

E. Luttwak, Where Are the Great Powers? At Home with the Kids, Foreign Affairs, 73, 4,
1994, pp. 23-28.

J. Orme, The Utility of Force in a World of Scarcity, International Security, 22, 3, 1997/98,
pp. 138-167.

D. Johnson and M. Duffy Toft, Grounds for War. The Evolution of Territorial Conflict,
International Security, 38, 3, 2013/2014, pp. 7-38.

*** Second Book Review Due***