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COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS


SYLLABUS: Rankine cycle - improvisations, Layout of modern coal power plant, Super Critical Boilers, FBC Boilers, Turbines,
Condensers, Steam & Heat rate, Subsystems of thermal power plants Fuel and ash handling, Draught system, Feed water
treatment. Binary Cycles and Cogeneration systems.

RANKINE CYCLE: The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical
work while undergoing phase change. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the
working fluid.
Rankine Cycle: Rankine Cycle Processes:
Process 1-2: Isentropic Expansion (Steam Expanded after
turbine workdone) WT=h1-h2
Process 2-3: Isobaric Heat Rejection (Steam converted as
water in condenser) QR=h2-h3
Process 3-4: Isentropic Compression (Water compressed
by pump) WP=h4-h3=v3(p4-p3)
Process 4-1: Isobaric Heat Addition (Boiler converts
water to steam) QS=h1-h4 = h1-(h3+WP)
Rankine Cycle PV Diagram Rankine Cycle Ts Diagram

Network output, W=WT-WP Specific steam consumption, SSC=3600/W (kg/kWhr)


Efficiency, = (WT-WP)/QS = [(h1-h2)-(h4-h3)]/(h1-h4) Work ratio= network/gross work = (WT-WP)/WT
Reheat Rankine Cycle Reheat Rankine Cycle Ts Diagram

Flue gas reheat Rankine Cycle Live gas reheat Rankine Cycle
Combined flue and live gas reheat Rankine Cycle: Reheat Rankine cycle
QS=(h1-h6)+(h3-h2)
W=(WT1+WT2)-WP=(h1-h2)+(h3-h4)-(h6-h5)
= [(h1-h2)+(h3-h4)-(h6-h5)] / [(h1-h6)+(h3-h2)]
Regenerating Rankine cycle
QS = (h1-h7) ; QR = (1-m)(h3-h4) = (1-m)(h3-hf3)
WT = (h1-h2)+(1-m)(h2-h3) ; WP = (1-m)(h5-h4)+(h7-h6)
m = (h6-h5)-(h2-h5)

Regenerative Rankine Cycle: Regenerative Rankine Cycle Ts diagram:

Steam Power Plant Circuits


1- Coal and Ash circuit
Coal storage, Coal delivery, Coal
preparation, Coal handling, Boiler,
Ash handling and Ash storage.

2- Air and flue gas circuit


Forced draught fan, Air-preheater,
Boiler furnace, Superheater,
Economiser, Dust collector, Induced
draught fan and Chimney.

3- Feed water and steam circuit


Feed pump, Economiser, Boiler
drum, Superheater, Turbine and
Condenser.

4- Cooling water circuit


Pump, Condenser and Cooling
tower.

Selection of Power Plant site:


1-Availability of raw material
2-Ash disposal facilities
3-Nature of land
4-Cost of land
5-Availability of water
6-Size of plant
7-Availability of workforce
8-Transportation facilities
9-Load centre
10-Public problems
11-Future extension
Super critical boilers La Mont Boiler Super critical boilers Benson(Once through)Boiler

Capacity: Capacity:
1-Steam: 45-50 tonnes/hr 1-Steam: 750 tonnes/hr
2-Pressure: 120 atm 2-Pressure: 500 atm
Disadvantages: Advantages:
Heat flow reduced due to bubbling formation and 1-Only 4% blow down losses
sedimentation. 2-20% less weight compare to other boilers
Super critical boilers Loeffler Boiler Super critical boilers Velox Boiler

Capacity: Capacity:
1-Steam: 100 tonnes/hr 1-Steam: 100 tonnes/hr
2-Pressure: 140 bar 2-Pressure: 80 bar
Advantages: Advantages:
1-Handling of high salt concentrations 1-High combustion rate
2-More compact 2-Less air requirement
Supercritical boilers Advantages Supercritical boilers Advantages
1-Less scale formation. 5-More flexibility
2-Economical less weight tubes absorbs more heat. 6-Plant efficiency increased by 40% to 42%.
3-Uniform heating tube surfaces 7-Rapid cold starting.
4-There is no leakages 8-Cogeneration can be possible.
Boiler Drum type - Natural circulation Boiler Drum type Forced circulation

Boiler Once through type Forced circulation Boiler mountings:


Pressure gauge, Stop valve, Feed check valve, Safety
valve, Fusible plug, Blow-off cock, Water level indicator
and Man holes.
Boiler accessories:
Economiser, Steam superheater, Air preheater,
Deaerators, Steam injector, Steam separator and Steam
trap.
Fluidized bed combustor: Defined as bed of solid
particles behave as fluid (800C-900C). SO2 emission
controled by addition of limestone.
Fluidized bed boilers-types:
1-Bubbling fluidized bed boilers (BFB)
2-Circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB)
Bubbling fluidized bed combustor Atmospheric bubbling fluid bed boiler combustor

Circulating fluidized bed combustor Pressurized fluidized bubbling bed combustor


Pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor Turbine - Throttling governing

Turbine - Bypass governing Condensor - Two pass down-flow condensor

Condensor - Down flow condensor Condensor - Central flow condensor

Condensor - Evaporation condensor Coal handling system


Coal preparation plant

Fuel handling system:


1-Coal preparation process: Sizing, removal of sulphur, moisture.
2-Coal cleaning equipment: Removal of dirt, coal drying, coal sizing, sulphur removal, washing(water jigs,
Concentrating table, hydro-cyclone, heavy medium)
3-Coal blending or mixing: Bed blending, Belt blending, Automatic blending.
4-Coal desulphurization:
5-Coal handling system: Outplant handling and inplant handling.
6-Coal transfer equipment: Belt conveyors, Bucket elevator, screw conveyors, flight conveyors, grab bucket conveyor,
skip hoist.
7-Combustion equipment for burning coal: Fuel bed (overand under feed) furnaces, (Atmospheric and Pressurized)
fluidized bed furnaces, cyclone furnaces, pulverized coal (dry-bottom and wet-bottom) furnaces.
TRW Meyers Desulphurization process Belt conveyor

Screw conveyor
Bucket elevator Flight conveyor

Grab bucket conveyor

Skip hoist Pulverised coal furnace

Cyclone furnace
Dry-bottom furnace Wet-bottom furnace

Mechanical stokers types Overfeed stoker

Underfeed stoker

Pulverizer - Ball mill Pulverizer - Bowl mill


Pulverizer - Hammer or Impact mill Pulverizer - Ball and race mill

Pulverized coal firing - Unit Coal delivery system Pulverized coal firing - Central Coal delivery system

Pulverized fuel burners - Long flame burner Pulverized fuel burners - Short flame burner

Pulverized fuel burners - Tangential burner Pulverized fuel burners - Cyclone burner
Pulverized Coal handling plant Vaccum extraction ash handling system

Ash extraction hydraulic system Ash handling system - Belt conveyor (Mechanical)

Ash handling system pneumatic system Dust collector types

Gravitational dust separator system Cyclone dust separator system

Packed type wet dust collector Spray type wet dust collector
Electrostatic dust precipitator Forced draught

Induced draught

Balanced draught Natural draught

Hyperbolic Cooling tower Dry Cooling Tower

Forced draught cooling tower Induced draught cooling tower


Indirect cooling tower with surface condensor Indirect cooling tower with spray condensor

Indirect cooling tower using Ammonia

Boiler feed water treatment process

Demineralization plant
Osmosis condition No-osmosis condition

Binary vapour cycle Binary vapour cycle Ts diagram

Gas turbine topping CHP plant Staem turbine topping CHP plant

Topping cycle Bottoming cycle