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7/4/2015 MatchingBloodGroupsForMarriageBloodGroupsThatDoNotMatchForMarriage

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MATCHINGBLOODGROUPS

MATCHINGBLOODGROUPS

BLOODGROUPSTHATDONOTMATCHFORMARRIAGE

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Boy:A=Girl:O&B
Boy:B=Girl:O&A
Boy:AB=Girl:O,A&B
Boy:Rh+ve=Girl:Rhve

Matchingbloodgroupsformarriage

Boy:A=Girl:A&AB
Boy:B=Girl:B&AB
Boy:O=Girl:O,A,B&AB
Boy:AB=Girl:AB
Boy:Rh+ve=Girl:Rh+ve
Boy:Rhve=Girl:Rh+ve&Rhve

Whyitissuggestedtomatchbloodgroupbeforemarriage.
Matching blood group before marriage is important. This is to prevent Rh incompatibility. Rh incompatibility can lead to erythroblastosis fetalis
(HemolyticdiseaseofthenewbornHDN).FetalRBCgetdestroyed&newbornmaygetsevereanaemia,jaundice.Thisjaundiceismoreseverethan
Physiologicaljaundice(whichisthemostcommonandwillusuallyresolveonitsown).
Inverysevereform,fetusmaydieduetoheartfailure.Thisismediatedbyantigenantibodiesreaction.Transferofmaternalantibodiesacrossthe
placentaoccurs.
ThishappenswhenRh+vemanmarriesRhvelady.SoRh+vemanshouldtrytoavoidmarryingRhvelady.
Newbornwitherythroblastosisfetalismayneedexchangetransfusion.
Complete blood count, bilirubin levels are done. High levels of bilirubin may lead to kernicterus. Kernicterus means deposition of bilirubin in basal
ganglia region & can cause severe brain damage (bilirubin encephalopathy). In kernicterus, baby will be lethargic,slowly responding when breast
feedingistried.Bulgingfontanellesmaybeseen
In 1st pregnancy problem is less severe but in subsequent pregnancies problem becomes more severe. Hemolytic disease of the newborn can be
treatedbeforebirthbyintrauterinetransfusion.IncompatibilitiesofABObloodtypesdonotcauseerythroblastosisfetalis.
ErythroblastosisfetaliscanbepreventedbygivingthemotherRh0(D)immuneglobulinat28wkgestationandwithin72hofpregnancytermination.
Duetopreventivetreatmentsgiventothemother,erythroblastosisfetalisislesscommonnowadaysDirectantiglobulintest(DAT,DirectCoomb'stest
)isusedtodiagnoseHDN.

Rhesusfactor
Rhincompatibility
TherearemainlyfourtypesofmajorbloodgroupsinhumansA,B,ABandO.TheRhesusfactorisasubstanceinbloodbywhichhumanbloodmay
bedividedbyitspresenceinto(Rh+ve)or(Rhve)groups.ThefinalidentificationofabloodgroupisthusO+ve,Bveetc.

Thereissomemisconceptionthatthesamebloodgroupinbothpartnersmaybedetrimental.Thisisnottrue.Theactualproblemmayoccurwhen
themotherisRhveandthehusbandisRh+veirrespectiveoftheirabogrouping

ThebabyofsuchaunioncouldbeRhveorRh+ve.ForanRhvebabytherewillbenoproblemsandnoprecautionsneedtobetaken.ForanRh
+vebabyontheotherhandcomplicationsofvaryingseveritymaytakeplace.

Rhincompatabilityreasons
Mixingofsomebloodofthebabyandmotheroccursthrougheverypregnancybutmoresoatthetimeofdelivery.ThemixingofRh+veblood(from
thebaby)inaRhvemothercausesthemothertobuildupsomenegativefactors(antibodies)inherbloodovertimeagainsttheRh+vebloodcells.
Thesenegativefactorsmaythencrossovertothebabythroughtheplacenta(afterbirth)anddestroythebloodcellsofthebaby.thefirstpregnancyis
spared,asafewmonthsareneededforthenegativefactorstobebuiltinthemother'sbody.InthesubsequentpregnanciesRh+vebabiesarelikely
tobeaffectedbytheantibodiesfromthemother.

Symptomsofrhesusincompatability
Testsmaybedonetoestimatetheamountofvefactorsinthemothersblood.(IndirectCoombstest).Thisgivesusanideaofthechancesthebaby
maybeaffected.Ifthechancesofthebabybeingaffectedarehighserialtestsofamnioticfluidorblooddirectlyfromthebabyinthewombaredone.
Iftheconditionismild,earlydeliveryandtreatmentofthebabyisdoneafterbirth.Ifsevere,bloodtransfusionsforthebabyneedtobecarriedoutin

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7/4/2015 MatchingBloodGroupsForMarriageBloodGroupsThatDoNotMatchForMarriage
thewomb.Thesemethodsaredoneinselectedplacesbyspecialistsandcarryahighrateofcomplication.

Precautions
Injections are given both during pregnancy and soon after delivery to prevent an Rh ve mother carrying an Rh +ve baby from developing the
negativefactors.Thesameinjectionneedstobegivenafteramiscarriagetoneutralizethemixingofbloodwhichoccursinthosecases.

Generaltreatment
Treatmentasexplainedaboveessentiallydependsontheseverityofthecondition.Forseverelyaffectedbabies,theriskofdeathishigh.Precautions
includeearlyidentificationofthehighriskpregnanciesbycheckingbloodgroupswithRhfactorforallpregnantwomen.

Someone'sexperience
IamnotadoctorbutIcanansweryourquestionasIamRHve.Mymotherisrhveandmyfatherisrh+ve.Inmyparentscase,luckilymyblood
groupwasrhve.
IfagirlhasRHve&boyhasRH+veBloodGroupfactor(irrespectiveofA,B,AB,O),thenthereisabout50%chancethatthechildwillberh+ve.I
suchcase,complicationmayoccur.Dringpregnancyifchild'sbloodandmother'sbloodmixes,mother'simmunesystemstartstodevelopantibodies
againstRHfactor.ThismayresultindestructioninRBCasmentionedbydr.sachin.
Buteveninthatcase,itispossibletopreventsuchcomplicationsandthepregnancyispossible.Thisisbecauseofthedevelopmentsinthefieldof
Science.

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