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Analysis of European Best Practice

Solutions for Logistics of WEEE

Covered Countries:
Germany, Sweden and Scotland

Prepared by isw Institute


for Structural Policy and
Economic Development

May 2014

With the financial support of the European Commission

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Content

I. List of Figures ....................................................................................................... 3

II. List of Tables ........................................................................................................ 4

III. Appendix .............................................................................................................. 4

1. WEEE Management Models................................................................................... 5

1.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 5

1.2 Policy Framework ............................................................................................. 8

1.3 Collection, Transport and Take Back System ................................................... 9

2. WEEE Management in Germany .......................................................................... 15

2.1 Policy Framework ........................................................................................... 15

2.2 Collection, Transport and Take Back System ................................................. 16

2.3 Best-Practice .................................................................................................. 23

3. WEEE Management in Sweden ........................................................................... 34

3.1 Policy Framework ........................................................................................... 34

3.2 Collection, Transport and Tack Back System ................................................. 36

3.3 Best-Practice .................................................................................................. 37

4. WEEE Management in Scotland .......................................................................... 42

4.1 Policy Framework Scotland ............................................................................ 42

4.2 Collection and Tack Back System .................................................................. 43

4.3 Best-Practice .................................................................................................. 46

5. Statistics ............................................................................................................... 51

5.1 Germany ........................................................................................................ 54

5.2 Sweden .......................................................................................................... 59

5.3 Scotland ......................................................................................................... 64

6. Summary .............................................................................................................. 66

Appendix.................................................................................................................... III

Bibliography ............................................................................................................ XVII

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I. List of Figures
Figure 1: Life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment.......................................... 5
Figure 2: The four phase model.................................................................................. 7
Figure 3: Overview of WEEE Management Systems ............................................... 10
Figure 4: Information flow for pick up coordination ................................................... 19
Figure 5: Flow of information direct marketing .......................................................... 21
Figure 6: Overview service offer of eSchrott App ..................................................... 23
Figure 7: Search for closest collection facility for WEEE .......................................... 24
Figure 8: Collection facilities in Halle (Saale) for WEEE (TV & Monitors and Mobile
Phones) .................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 9: Information about selected collection facility ............................................. 25
Figure 10: Public waste management bodies in Saxony-Anhalt ............................... 26
Figure 11: Allocation of collection facilities in Saxony-Anhalt ................................... 27
Figure 12: Location of depot containers and three recycling yards in Halle .............. 29
Figure 13: Depot container for small household equipment...................................... 30
Figure 14: Employees of the HWS disassemble used electronic products of collection
group 5 and dispose the separated material in boxes .............................................. 32
Figure 15: Employee of the HWS disassembles old TFT Monitor (Collection group 3)
................................................................................................................................. 32
Figure 16: Disassembling of old TV Collection group 3 ............................................ 33
Figure 17: Information flow of collection system in Sweden ..................................... 36
Figure 18: Container for collection of light bulbs and small electronic equipment ..... 38
Figure 19: Ecoloop of WEEE in Sweden .................................................................. 39
Figure 20: EL-IN Container ....................................................................................... 40
Figure 21: Maps of WEEE Container and Recycling Yards in Gvle ........................ 41
Figure 22: Location of AATF - Treatment Facilities in Scotland ................................ 47
Figure 23: Locations of Collection facilites and Collection Points in Aberdeen ......... 49
Figure 24: Collected amounts of WEEE 2006-2012 ................................................. 51
Figure 25: Collected amounts of WEEE per capita 2010 .......................................... 52
Figure 26: Collected amount of WEEE per capita 2006-2012 .................................. 53
Figure 27: Share of collected used products in relation to new products put on the
market....................................................................................................................... 54
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Figure 28: Recovery rate for collected used products in Germany ........................... 56
Figure 29: Amount of collected used products in Saxony-Anhalt.............................. 57
Figure 30: Amount of collected used products in Saxony-Anhalt per year and
inhabitant .................................................................................................................. 58
Figure 31: Amount of collected used products in Halle ............................................. 58
Figure 32: Amount of collected WEEE per capita in Halle ........................................ 59
Figure 33: Collected WEEE in the region Vstra Gtalands ln in tons ................... 62
Figure 34: Collected WEEE in Vstra Gtalands ln in kg/capita ............................. 62
Figure 35: Collected WEEE in Swedish Regions ...................................................... 63
Figure 36: Collected WEEE in Swedish Regions kg/capita ...................................... 63
Figure 37: Share of WEEE collected regarding amounts put on the market in UK ... 65

II. List of Tables


Table 1: Collection Amounts and Rates of Aberdeen ............................................... 50
Table 2: Allocation of WEEE in Germany in Tons 2006-2012 .................................. 55
Table 3: Allocation of WEEE in Tons in Sweden 2006-2012 .................................... 60
Table 4: Allocation of WEEE in Tons in UK 2006-2010 ............................................ 64

III. Appendix
Appendix 1: Statistical Overview Germany 2006 ....................................................... III
Appendix 2: Statistical Overview Germany 2007 ....................................................... IV
Appendix 3: Statistical Overview Germany 2008 ........................................................ V
Appendix 4: Statistical Overview Germany 2009 ....................................................... VI
Appendix 5: Statistical Overview Germany 2010 ...................................................... VII
Appendix 6: Statistical Overview Sweden 2006 ....................................................... VIII
Appendix 7: Statistical Overview Sweden 2007 ......................................................... IX
Appendix 8: Statistical Overview Sweden 2008 .......................................................... X
Appendix 9: Statistical Overview Sweden 2009 ......................................................... XI
Appendix 10: Statistical Overview Sweden 2010 ...................................................... XII
Appendix 11: Statistical Overview UK 2007............................................................. XIII
Appendix 12: Statistical Overview UK 2008............................................................. XIV
Appendix 13: Statistical Overview UK 2009.............................................................. XV
Appendix 14: Statistical Overview UK 2010............................................................. XVI

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1. WEEE Management Models
1.1 Introduction
In order to have a better understanding of how the systems for WEEE collection are
working in Germany, Sweden and Scotland some general remarks related to the
possibilities for the modelling of WEEE Management systems are highlighted.
Besides the general political framework conditions, the financial and systematic
dimension will be described in order to summarise advantages and specific regional
differences. The WEEE trade can be separated in three different mechanisms:

1. Material flow
2. Life cycle
3. Geographic conditions

Figure 1: Life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment


Source: UNEP E-waste Volume III, WEEE/e-waste Take back system, page 12

The model of material flow is based on the unit process approach, in which a unit
process represents processes or activities. The material flow model considers all unit
processes and flows within a defined boundary. Arrows indicate the flow of material
linking the unit processes. There are two different kinds of unit processes: Type 1
receives material without any alteration and has no conversions. Therefore, the input
is equal to the output for instant use and collection of electrical and electronic
equipment. In Type 2, a conversion of materials takes place, thus creating new
materials (products, waste, etc.) e.g. treatment of WEEE/E-waste including
dismantling/ incineration/ smelting etc.

Phase I: Unit operations, processes and activities: Production and sales of electrical
and electronic equipment, including the import, export and input of equipment
for re-use and in the repair of WEEE/E-waste.
Phase II: Unit operations, processes and activities: Consumption of electrical and
electronic equipment and the use of electrical and electronic equipment in
households, offices and industries.

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Phase III: Unit operations, processes and activities: Collection of end-of-life electrical
and electronic equipment, including transfer to treatment and disposal sites as
well as the import and export of such equipment.
Phase IV: Unit operations, processes and activities: Treatment and disposal
alternatives for WEEE/E-waste, e.g. repair, decontaminating, dismantling,
shredding, landfilling and incineration. Collection and transport are thus major
aspects of each of the four phases. Therefore, collection and transport in the
course of the material flow become major factors in the input and output
functions of each phase under the four-phase model.1

1
United Nations Environment Program. E-Waste. Volume III: WEEE/E-waste "Take-back system".
Osaka . 2012, p. 12 ff.
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Figure 2: The four phase model
Source: UNEP E-waste Volume III, WEEE/e-waste Take back system, page 12

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1.2 Policy Framework
The institutional mechanism under extended producer responsibility or product
take-back for WEEE/E-waste management systems can typically be broken down
into the three elements of collection systems, a national registry and logistics. Major
factors impacting the institutional mechanism are given below.

Regulations and the role and responsibility of different stakeholders under the
regulation.
Total inventory of WEEE/E-waste to determine the economies of scale for
institutional operations
Distances involved and other aspects of the geography of the
country/area/region/city, with smaller distances reducing transport and
logistics costs
Population size and density, with higher populations enabling greater
economic efficiency and economies of scale
Cost of labour, as collection, sorting and treatment are highly labour-intensive
Length of time the mechanism has been in operation
Consumer behaviour with respect to recycling
The level of WEEE/E-waste recycling awareness in relation to specific product
Groups

Some major elements of the take-back mechanism that have emerged from
regulatory frameworks based on extended producer responsibility are given below.

1. Definition of WEEE/E-waste
2. Items covered under WEEE/E-waste
3. Cut-off date for implementation
4. WEEE/E-waste inventory
5. Definition of producer, importer, exporter, distributor, collection point,
dismantler, recycler, disport, etc.
6. Physical and financial responsibility for WEEE/E-waste collection from
7. consumers other than private households Physical responsibility for the
collection of WEEE/E-waste from private households and the points or
stakeholders from which this responsibility starts (e.g. responsibility starts
when the WEEE is dropped off at collection points)
8. Assignment of responsibility for the collection, treatment, recovery, recycling
and disposal of WEEE/E-waste from private household deposited at collection
points
9. Assignment of financial responsibility for the collection of WEEE/E-waste from
private households

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10. Type of financial mechanism (e.g. individual financial responsibility or
collective financial responsibility for both historical and new WEEE/E-waste
from private households)
11. Form of financial guarantee for managing WEEE/E-waste from private
households
12. Status of distance sellers and their registration
13. Assignment of responsibility for WEEE/E-waste generated by consumers
other than private households
14. Labelling of EEE for producer identification
15. Producer registration and reporting (e.g. reporting periods, criteria for
distinguishing between B2B and B2C EEE, definition of put on the market
and reporting formats)2

1.3 Collection, Transport and Take Back System

The majority of schemes in Europe are using municipal collection points (besides the
opportunity to use producers- or retailers-take-back-scheme). El-Kretsen in Sweden
is a typical example for using municipal collection points exclusively. The municipal
collection sites are seen as effective in their costs, because they require minimal
upgrading.

In sum the WEEE management system could be considered in three parts:

1. A collection system, under which the mass of E-waste to be collected, the costs
of operating collection sites and the costs and environmental impacts of
transporting E-waste are a function of the geo-economic context and the chosen
number of available collection and processing points;
2. A processing system, which calculates the amount of various materials
recovered from the recycling process and the associated revenues and costs to
the system;
3. A management and financing system, which accounts for the overhead costs
of operating an E-waste system.

2
Ibid. p. 33 ff.
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Figure 3: Overview of WEEE Management Systems
Source: Fredholm 2008, page 32

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It is important to consider several aspects with regard for the collection and transport
infrastructure. For determining a proper collection point it is advantageously:
to analyze consumption behaviour, to explore the scope of collection system
(retailer-take-back-scheme, municipal collection points, etc.)
to calculate the haulage capacity of WEEE
to calculate the number of vessels with varying capacities for transporting WEEE
optimizing the routes and frequency of collection based on the accessibility to
collection points

Collection Systems
Basically the collection systems for WEEE can be grouped into bring systems and
collect systems.

Bring Systems

If the consumer brings used electrical and electronic equipment to the collection
facilities, this approach is considered as bring system. In principle this method is well
suited for old equipment, which can be transported also in the case that no car is
available. Furthermore the transport distance to the collection facility should be short
and the quantities of old equipment should be low. If the distance is too long or
quantities are too high the bring system can become unattractive for the end
consumer. This is due to the fact that the last owner has to take over the logistic
efforts himself. This could cause a decreasing rate of return in comparison with a
collection system. If the collection facility is organized to allow the disposal of
different kind of waste this could have a positive impact on the motivation of people to
return their waste.

Recycling Centre3

A recycling centre as collection point is very popular, because at this point there are
relatively low costs for the collection of old equipment. For example small equipment
is collected in box pallets and large equipment in transport containers. Another
advantage of a recycling yard is the possibility to control the disposal of old
equipment. Furthermore professional pre-sorting can be organized, as trained staff is
available. Furthermore the old equipment can be bundled to larger packages for the
further transport.

The disadvantage of a recycling yard is the high demand for land, which is required
to provide larger quantities of waste. Furthermore last owners tend to dispose small
electronic equipment in the normal household waste instead of driving to the
3
In Germany Collection Facilities are called Wertstoffhof which directly translates into
resource farm and stresses the value of waste as recyclable materials.

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recycling yard. Additionally there is a low acceptance in relation to the bring system
for large household equipment due to the high efforts for the transport of this kind of
equipment.

Depot Container Collection

Small electronic equipment could be collected with the help of depot containers. In
this way old equipment could be collected similar to glass and paper especially in
densely populated areas. The advantage is the easy access to the container for the
people. Furthermore this collection system is very cost-efficient, which has already
proven its value for other waste streams.

On the other side the unsorted collection in a container could create problems.
Another disadvantage is the possible damage of equipment and the disposal of
dissimilar materials. Furthermore the container could be damaged, plundered or
catch fire as it stands in public area without surveillance.

Delivery (collection) in the shop

Shops already have installed collection systems for batteries and light packaging in
most of the areas. At these collection points it could be possible to place suitable
boxes, which ensure the continuous collection of small electronic equipment in high
quality. This method brings high acceptance and offers good control possibility for the
collection of old equipment. The cost-efficiency would be another advantage.
A disadvantage would be that now large equipment could be collected in this way.
Furthermore the old equipment could be damaged and a the mixing of different
equipments could result in high efforts for sorting.

Collection truck for old electronic equipment (on-street collection)

Another method for the collection of old equipment is the use of a special collection
truck, which is running alongside fix routes to dedicated collection points and picks up
old equipment from the last owners.

The advantage of this collection method is the professional pre-sorting from the staff
of the truck. Furthermore the transport distance is reduced for the last owner and
there are good control possibilities for the collection of old equipment. A
disadvantage would be that the last owner has to store the old equipment until the fix
dates of collection, which could cause lower return rates. Also the high costs caused
by the technical, personal and time effort could have negative impact. 4

4
VDI-Guideline 2343, recycling of electrical and electronic equipment, Part 2 Logistics, 2010. p. 26 ff.
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Pick-up Systems

A pick-up system is characterised by collection of old equipment from collection


trucks at the place where the waste is generated. These places are served for
instance on demand or in a determined frequency. The disposal of the old equipment
takes place practically at the front door of the end user. The pick-up system can be
grouped into the special collection alongside bulky waste collection, take back by the
seller in the course of delivery of the new equipment, collection on demand or jointly
with light packaging.

Bulky waste accompanying collection

During the normal bulky waste collection it is possible to collect also old electronic
equipment. This pick up system can be with or without call from the inhabitants. For
efficiency reasons the collection on demand should only be used for large equipment.
The WEEE collection alongside the bulky waste collection can lead to higher return
rates as the collection at the front door of the last owner means less effort. The effort
of this collection method is depending on the staff, the time, the collection path and
the used technology. During the collection of old equipment the staff must ensure
safe loading and transporting of equipment up to 120 kg. Therefore the use of a
special truck for old electrical equipment is advisable.

The advantage of this collection method is that it has already proven its value in real
practice and the old equipment can be collected and pre-sorted without damage.
Additionally larger transport units could be established for the efficient further
transport to the take-over points. Regular or on-demand collection also allows
flexibility. The disadvantage is the danger of plundering or damage caused by
human interventions or weather conditions. Besides the already existing high effort
on time, technology and staff, the collection on demand would create additional
organizational effort. Otherwise the on-demand collection can prevent empty
transports, which could occur in case of regular collection.

Take-back from distributer (Collection when delivering new equipment)

If a private person buys new equipment the take back of the old equipment is also
possible directly after the delivery of the new equipment. In this case the last owner
has less effort and this method is suitable for all kind of equipment but especially for
large equipment. Furthermore the old equipment could be tested in order to assess if
a repair makes sense and / or how the equipment can be reused. The selling
companies could use this method as marketing instrument. A negative factor could
be the related costs for the take-back of old equipment for the last owner as the seller
is not obliged to it.

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Collection along with lightweight packaging (small products)

Used electrical and electronic products of binnable size could be collected along with
the region-wide collection of lightweight packaging. This would be a convenient tool
for the last owner for the disposal. The additional collection costs remain relatively
low, since the system is already in place and the collection and sorting costs have a
minor impact. However, lightweight packaging is collected in compactor vehicles,
which to some extend destroys and soils the electrical and electronic products.
Mixing with dry batteries and rechargeable batteries cannot be ruled out. This
involves a latent hazard of fire being started by mechanically damaged battery packs.
After removing major parts and batteries, used products collected in this way are only
suitable for mechanical reconditioning.

The advantages are: convenient for the last owner, low additional collection costs,
high collection quotas for equipment of binnable size. The disadvantages are: only
suitable for smaller products, soiling and damage to collected products, risk of self-
ignition in the event of mechanical damage. It has to be noted that the legal
permissibility of this method is debatable; currently it could only be tested in pilot
scale.

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2. WEEE Management in Germany
The general political and legal framework in Germany is given by the law for recyling
economy Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz (KrWG). It requires the establishment of waste
reduction programs under participation of the German Lnder. The general objective
is the decoupling of use of resources and economic growth. For the WEEE the Law
on placing on the market, take back and environmental disposal of electronic and
electrical equipment (Elektro- und Elektronikgertegesetz ElektroG) has been
created.5

2.1 Policy Framework

The ElektroG implements the WEEE directive (2002/96/EG) and the RoHs directive
(2002/95/EG) restriction of (the use of certain) hazardous substances in German
law. The updated RoHs directive (2011/95/EU) has been taken out of the ElektroG
and a new law ElektroStoffV has been created.

The WEEE2 directive (2012/19/EU) has so far not been implemented into German
legislation. A first legal proposal for a revised ElektroG is currently debated in the
legislative process after election in autumn 2013.

The ElektroG obliges the municipalities to take back old equipment from private
households and to make it available for further disposal by the producers. The
collection and treatment of old electronic equipment creates interesting possibilities
for municipal waste disposal companies. The KrWG and the revised WEEE directive
strengthen the obligation to improve the capacity of the collection systems especially
for small equipment in relation to recycling efficiency.

The article 5 of the WEEE Directive describes the separate collection of old
equipment in order to reduce the unsorted household waste and to ensure the proper
treatment of all used electrical and electronic products by the member states. The
owner should not dispose their old equipment together with the normal household
waste. In order to control that no old equipment has been falsely disposed or
exported, the registration for producer of electrical and electronic products must be
ensured by a responsible national Authority.

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Cf. Bundesministerium fr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU).
Abfallvermeidungsprogramm des Bundes unter Beteiligung der Lnder. 2013
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The ElektroG 6 Absatz 2 i.V.m. 3 Absatz 11 und 12 obliges producers and
distributors to a register their products before they put them on the market. The
registration is necessary for private and business products (b2c and b2b)

B2c-products (business-to-consumer) are products, which can be used in private


households. If the producer can prove that these products are only used in a
business environment they are considered as B2b-products (business-to-business-
products 6 Absatz 3 Satz 2 ElektroG).

In Germany the registration is organised by the Stiftung EAR (Elektro-Altgerte


Register) Association Electronic Old Equipment Register. The Registration ensures
that the producer take over responsibility for their products related to treatment and
disposal following the ElektroG.

Additionally the producers are responsible to establish a collection point for old
equipment. If they are not providing it, the public waste management (ffentlich-
rechtliche Entsorgungstrger rE) bodies take over this function in their region and
the producer take over the costs for collection, sorting and disposal. The rE are also
registered at the association EAR.

2.2 Collection, Transport and Take Back System

General Collection Process in Germany:

The public waste management bodies are obliged to provide collection points for
used equipment from private households in their area. The used products are
collected in five separate groups.

1. Large household equipment,


2. Refrigerators
3. Information and telecommunication products, entertainment electronic
4. Gas discharge lamp
5. Small household equipment, lights, electrical and electronic tools, toys, sport
and leisure equipment, medical products, surveillance and control
instruments.6

6
Gesetz ber das Inverkehrbringen, die Rcknahme und die umweltvertrgliche Entsorgung von
Elektro- und Elektronikgerten
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The producer have to provide dedicated containers to the public waste management
companies for free which are required for the proper collection of old products. End
user and distributors can bring their used products (bring systems). The rE can also
pick up old products at the private households (pick up system). If the container is
full, the rE informs the Association EAR. Then the association decides which
producer of electronic and electrical products is responsible for the pick up of this
container and the provision of a new empty container. The Association issues an
official pick up and provision order. On this basis the producer knows, when and
where to pick up a full container and to provide an empty container. If the producer
fulfils its obligation, the rE sends a confirmation to the Association. The producer
has now the obligation to inform the Association about the real quantity of picked up
used products. This process is called pick up coordination. The take back logistic is
another process, which is under responsibility of the producer and the contracted
waste disposal company.

Transport System:

The provisions of the ElektroG in relation to disposal and collection logistic requires
an infrastructure for the implementation. Efficient logistics systems for collection,
storage and transport are necessary as this process is responsible for a considerable
share of the total costs. Hence high optimization potential can be found in the
organization and implementation of this process. The objectives of this infrastructure
have to be measured against the collection quota. Also the recycling quota for
collected used products is important. Transport distance should be kept short.
Furthermore a bundling of transports and suitable transport means has to be
considered. During the transport, damages of the old products should be kept as low
as possible and the material streams should be traceable. The shaping of the logistic
system should consider the different hazardous potential of the toxis substances or
the high number of possible collection points.

Collection points and hand over sites:

The rE have to set up collection points, at which used equipment from private
households in their region can be handed back by end-users and distributers free of
charge. The number of collection points or their combination with pick-up systems is
determined by population density in the relevant region and the geographical
conditions. The collection points can be operated simultaneously as hand-over sites.
In relation to the spatial conditions collection points could be combined with pick up
systems.

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The hand-over sites serve at the same time as interface between the rE and the
producer / distributor, where the five collection groups are already separated. The
adapted collection and transport containers have to be adopted to the location and
the transport capacity. For instance there are skip containers with a volume of 10 m 3
or roll-off containers with 30 m3 to 50 m3 for group one, two, three and five. The last
container has the advantage that the required minimum pick up quantity of the
groups is reached with it is fully filled.

Take back systems:

The ElektroG fixes the obligations of the producers for the take back of used
electronic and electrical equipment and the respective take-back and logistics
systems. The ElektroG foresees four possible ways of disposal (scenarios), to
implement the collection and take back of used products.

Take-back of used equipment from private households by the public collection sites (
Pick up coordination)

The rE is obliged to separately collect used electronic and electrical equipment and
to make it available for the pick-up by the producer. The producer have to provide
containers for the collection free of charge. Producers and rE are registered at the
association EAR, who coordinators the ordering and pick-up of containers. The
association calculates take-back obligations for the individual producer as basis for
the single orders for containers. Afterwards the producers are obliged to pick-up and
dispose the used products, which could be done by a contracted disposal company.
Following 12 ElektroG the proper recycling of used products has to be documented.
13 ElektroG describes the information obligations of the producers towards the
association EAR.

Flow of information:
If the rE is the only collection point for used products, the information flow for the
pick-up coordination is organised as follows.

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Figure 4: Information flow for pick up coordination
Source: isw according to VDI-Guideline 2343, recycling of electrical and electronic equipment,
Part 2 Logistics, page 11

The rE notifies EAR about a quantity (a) of used equipment ready for pick-up, in
accordance with the statutory minimum pick-up quantities per aggregate group. The
rE has to state a pick-up site to EAR, such that full notifications (notification of
containers ready for pick up) can be accepted by this pick up site. The producer
responsible for this pick-up is identified by EAR, which then generates a pick-up
order (b). This pick-up order is sent to the relevant producer, and also optionally to
this producers commissioned waste management organization or operator of a take-
back system for used electrical and electronic products (system operator), provided
that the latter has been made known to the EAR. The pick-up order should be
forwarded immediately by the system operator to the logistics service provider
commissioned with this pick-up, in order to ensure speedy pick-up. The collected
amount should be notified by the producer to EAR. The producer will normally
receive these details through the commissioned disposal service provider or system
operator (f). Material-accompanying information flow (c) is defined as all the required
data in the form of documents, prescribed under the applicable regulations for the
transport of the relevant waste fraction, plus all the information that serves for
unambiguous allocation of the transported quantity to the appropriate pick-up at the
pick-up site, all contained in the EAR pick-up code. All the information concerning the
recycling or removal of the fractions that arise during the course of the waste disposal

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process, should be documented in accordance with the provision of the certification
of recycling quotas as per & 12, ElektroG. This information must be recorded by the
first treatment plant to which the used equipment is brought from the pick-up site. To
this end, all information concerning the recycling of materials or energy and the
removal of fractions by second or third treatment plants must be reported back to this
first plant (d). Based on this reporting back, the operator of the first plant in the waste
disposal chain can perform a calculation of the recovered quantities for all the used
equipment that has passed this plant. Where the operator of this plant is not also the
operator of the take-back system, details of these plant-based recycling quantities
must be forwarded to the producer or to its system of operator (e). In the latter case,
the system operator reports back to the commissioning producer (g). This report
contains details of the quantities disposed of. The reported quantities form the basis
for the calculation of recycling quotas. Details of the recovered and removed
quantities are forwarded by the producer to EAR (h). EAR for its part reports to the
Federal Environmental Agency on the collected and recycled quantities achieved in
Germany (i). 7

Take-back of used products from private households by public waste companies


(rE) with direct disposal (Retention direct marketing by the rE under 9 (6),
ElektroG

The rE can remove the entire used equipment belonging to one or several
aggregate groups from allocation to the producers (retention) and market it itself
(direct marketing). The direct marketing has to be chosen for at least one year.
In this case the same certification and recycling duties apply to the rE for the
revered quantities as they do to a producer. Full notification to EAR need not be
made in this case. Equipment disposed of in accordance with 9 (6) ElektroG is not
part of the producers liability as regards its disposal. The rE can now decide
independently about contracts with logistic and disposal companies, which take over
disposal of WEEE.

The information flow in this case is shown in the following figure:

7
Cf. VDI-Guideline 2343. op. cit. (4) p. 10 ff.
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Figure 5: Flow of information direct marketing
Source: isw according to VDI-Guideline 2343, recycling electrical and electronic equipment,
Part 2 Logistics, page 18.

Flow of information:

If the rE has opted for a collection group, the producer has no longer the product
responsibility for collection and disposal. Therefore, also the flow of information
changes. The full announcement to the EAR is no longer necessary, as the RE has
asked for an exception. In this case the EAR is not integrated since the very
beginning. The RE informs about the full container and gives the order for the pick-
up. The waste disposal service provider transports the container to the first treatment
plant. The accompanying information about quantities and explicit classification have
to be carried with the transport. The treatment plant will forward reports about the
treated fractions and processes to the pre-treatment plant. They send the data about
quantities in relation to the collection group to the waste disposal service provider,
who then forwards the information to the rE. As the rE now has the product
responsibility, it is obliged to inform the EAR about the disposed quantities, who
forwards this information to the Federal Environmental Agency.8

8
Ibid. p. 16 ff.
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Proprietary take-back systems for private households

Distributers or producers can voluntary establish their own take-back system. Private
households have the possibility to bring their used products here free of charge.
These take back systems could be collection points at the disposal or logistic
companies or take-back offers in shops.

Flow of information:
Under 9 (8), ElektroG, the producers have the option of voluntarily setting up and
operating individual or collective take-back systems for the free return of used
equipment from private households. Any take-back system that operates outside the
collection system operated by the RE can be defined as proprietary take-back
system. These systems do not exempt producers from registration with EAR.

Proprietary take-back systems can be divided into centralized and decentralized


systems. In a centralized system, take-back and disposal are regulated nationally
from one site (normally the companys head-office). In a decentralized system, in
contrast, responsibility for these processes is assigned to regionally active units (e.g.
sales offices). The used equipment taken back under $9 (8), ElektroG is imputed by
EAR to a producer when calculating its pick-up obligations from the public waste
management representatives, provided that the equipment taken back belongs to a
type sold by this producer. This comprises also equipment of the same type from
other producers. Equipment types are defined in the regulations laid down by EAR.

The motivation for setting up a proprietary take-back system can include the cost-
effectiveness of the collection and disposal options and/or producer interest such as
image enhancement and customer loyalty. In the case of high value products used
predominantly or exclusively commercially and which continue to have a residual
value at the end of their useful life, a logistic structure created only for the return of
the used equipment may be a suitable solution. In the case of low-value products
made in large numbers, one should normally assume that the joint use of existing
logistic structure for the return of used equipment is the more favourable alternative.
The information flow in such take-back systems depends on the individual
configuration of the system and cannot be discussed in general terms.9

Disposal of used equipment from other sources than private households


Used equipment for business pursuant is differently depending on the date of
placement on the market. Used equipment which has been sold before 24 March
2006 has to be disposed under responsibility of the last owner. He has to pay the
costs and the burden of proof. Equipment which has been sold after 24 March in
Germany can be disposed either by the last owner or the producer.

9
Ibid. p. 17 ff.
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2.3 Best-Practice

Germany

In order to dispose WEEE in Germany the most common way is to use the public
collection facilities. The company Hellmann Process Management GmbH & Co. KG
has developed a smart phone application in order to find the closest collection facility.
This App eschrott provides the possibility for private and business user to search for
public recycling yards all over Germany. Furthermore new collection facilities can be
added to the data base. The area News informs about updated changes and press
releases. Further function under Mehr (More) is for instance a Stop! Function
(eSchrott melden), which can be used to give information about illegally disposed
waste. Additionally it is possible to directly contact the association EAR and the
battery law register. If the WEEE still has a value after the end of the life cycle, the
owner has the possibility to get an offer for the reuse of the old product. The used
equipment is reconditioned in order to reuse them afterwards. The following
illustrations give a visualization of the App functions.

Figure 6: Overview service offer of eSchrott App


Source: eSchrott App Hellmann Process Management GmbH & Co. KG

If a private person wants to dispose a used product, he can click under recycling
search on Privat. Afterwards a new page opens, where the closest collection facility
related to the actual location of the person is shown. The user can mark the specific
type of WEEE for disposal, which is shown in the following chart.

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Figure 7: Search for closest collection facility for WEEE
Source: eSchrott App der Firma Hellmann Process Management GmbH & Co. KG

For example a private person wants to dispose an old TV and a mobile phone in
Halle. He uses the search function Halle (Saale). Afterwards a map is displayed with
the local collection facilities. The following picture shows the marked categories, the
search function and the map with possible facilities. The user can choose the
collection facility and click on the map to get the information about address. In the
picture the example the recycling yard uere Hordorfer Strae in Halle has been
chosen.

Figure 8: Collection facilities in Halle (Saale) for WEEE (TV & Monitors and Mobile Phones)
Source: eSchrott App der Firma Hellmann Process Management GmbH & Co. KG

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If the user clicks on the address field another window opens, which shows further
important information about the collection facility. The new window shows the WEEE
categories, which can be disposed, contact information and opening hours.

Figure 9: Information about selected collection facility


Source: eSchrott App der Firma Hellmann Process Management GmbH & Co. KG

With the help of this App every person can find the closest collection facility on the
basis of the product he wants to dispose. The App is available free of charge for
smart phones and tablets under http://www.umweltmanager.net/recyclingsuche-app.
.

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Saxony-Anhalt Halle (Saale)

Saxony-Anhalt is a Region in the Eastern Part of Germany. There are 14


administrative areas, where one public waste disposal company (rE) is responsible
for the organization of waste management. The following map shows the allocation of
RE.

Figure 10: Public waste management bodies in Saxony-Anhalt


Source: Abfallbilanz des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt 2012

The chart 11 shows the geographic allocation of collection facilities for WEEE in
Saxony-Anhalt. There are in total 57 collection facilities in region with a surface of
20,446 km2 and a population of 2.246 million.

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Figure 11: Allocation of collection facilities in Saxony-Anhalt
Source: isw, Google Maps

As an example for Saxony-Anhalt the process of collection of WEEE in Halle will be


described (population 220.000, surface: 135 km3). The public waste management
company in Halle is the HWS Hallesche Wasser- und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH. 800
employees take care of supply of drinking water and disposal of waste water. The
HWS also provides waste disposal services for the municipality.10

Being RE, the HWS is obliged to establish collection facility for WEEE free of
charge. The number of collection facilities has been adopted in relation to the
population, regional conditions and waste policy objectives. The HWS operates three
recycling yards, where used equipment of all five categories can be disposed.

10
Cf. Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH. URL: www.hws-halle.de/HWS/Ueber-Uns/
(08.03.2013)
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It is also possible to dispose other waste at the recycling yards, in order to increase
motivation for the last owner to dispose its WEEE and to decrease logistic efforts.
Every recycling yard is also a take-over site for used electronic equipment and opens
from Monday to Friday from 6.00 to 21.00 and Sunday from 7.00 to 12.00.

Recycling yard 1: uere Hordorfer Strae 12, 06114 Halle (Saale),


Recycling yard 2: Schieferstrae 2, 06126 Halle (Saale),
Recycling yard 3: uere Radeweller Strae 15; 06132 Halle (Saale),

The HWS communicates the pick-up quantities for a collection group to the EAR,
which gives the pick-up order to a particular producer. This producer is obliged to
pick up the container and to provide an empty container free of charge.

The HWS has also the possibility to choose the direct marketing for specific collection
groups. This is currently implemented for group one, two, three and five, which gives
the product responsibility directly to the HWS. See scenario of direct marketing the
previous chapter.

In order to sell the old equipment a call for bids is published, where disposal
companies can make an offer to take-over the used products. The HWS chooses the
highest offer for a period of one year. On this basis the company becomes a
contracted partner and gets the particular collection group for further processing.
After pick-up the used products are transported to the pre-treatment plant. Here they
are prepared for further treatment. Afterwards they are disposed or reconditioned in
the treatment plant. The HWS has the obligation to inform the association EAR about
the collected, reconditioned and disposed quantities.

The direct marketing becomes a more important business activity of the HWS and it
aims at increasing the collection quota. This should be realized by additional
combinations of bring and pick-up system. The HWS organizes such a combination
of bulky waste accompanying collection and collection on demand. First one has the
advantage to dispose used products at the front door together with the bulky waste.
This is specially focused on large equipment and TV, which can only be transported
to the collection points with high logistic effort. The pick-up of these products is
organized with a special truck, which brings the collected waste to the nearby
recycling yards. It makes sense to collect the old products with a special truck in
order to have a presorting during the process of collection. The collection on demand
is only available for large household equipment.

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Depot Container for small household equipment
Especially in view of changes of the WEEE directive and also following the
discussions inside the LIFE+ project WEEENMODELS a new pilot project for the
increasing of the collection quota has been initiated. During this project new
containers for small electronic equipment will be placed in the town as additional
collection points.

The map shows the location of depot containers and recycling yards of the HWS in
Halle.

Figure 12: Location of depot containers and three recycling yards in Halle
Source: isw, Google Maps

In February 2014 six new containers have been placed close to the location of
already existing containers for glass and clothing. The HWS hopes to achieve higher
collection quota for binnable equipment with the help of the depot container. During
the pilot the HWS will analyse if the container are accepted by the inhabitants and
how the composition of the collected waste is. Due to this reason the first rounds of
collections will be examined to identify unsuitable waste. Furthermore it must be
analysed if there are damages to the used equipment if there is the container is
protected against plundering. The container will be emptied every four weeks.

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Figure 13: Depot container for small household equipment
Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH

The volume of collected waste is an important criterion for deciding about the
economic viability. If for instance the statistical analysis shows that the total collection
rate is not increasing despite good acceptance of the container collection, this
method is not economic viable and will not be continued. The break-even point for
the collection of six depot container is 800 kg WEEE every four weeks. During the
first test period almost 2 tons of waste could be collected. The second period has
resulted in 1.3 tons of collected WEEE. The composition of the waste was
satisfactory, as no unsuitable waste was thrown into the container. Due to the big
success of collection the HWS decided in April to place 9 additional containers just
before Eastern. From February to March 9166 kg of used electric equipment has
been collected in six rounds. This equals to 7629 products. Especially mobile phones
have been thrown into the container.11 The HWS will continue to monitor the
development for the first six months. After this period it is possible to compare the
impact of container collection with the disposed WEEE in the collection yards. At this
time HWS will decide about further development of container collection and
possibility to provide more containers in the city. But the extension in April shows
already the acceptance of the new system.

11
Cf. Hallespektrum. Sammel-Container in Halle kommen an: mehr als 7.600 Elektro-Gerte
abgegeben. 2014. URL: http://hallespektrum.de/nachrichten/vermischtes/sammel-container-in-
halle-kommen-an-mehr-als-7-600-elektro-geraete-abgegeben/92937/ (14.04.2014)
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Treatment Plant for WEEE
Another extension of business activities of the HWS is the treatment of used
electronic products in a special plant at the location uere Hordorfer Strae. For
this purpose the HWS as created a public private partnership with the company IGE
Hennemann GmbH for the construction of the plant for the treatment of dangerous
waste. 350.000 Euros have been invested in the infrastructure and the machines. At
the moment 7 employees are working in the plant. In the future up to 19 work places
are possible.

For the new established presorting and pretreatment process two existing halls have
been used. The WEEE from the groups three such as printer, mouse, keyboard,
radio, TV, cameras and similar as well as equipment from group five such as vacuum
cleaner, toaster, coffee machines, electric irons or toys with engines are feed into this
treatment plant.

For the group five the cables with the power plugs are cut off, the tube from the
vacuum cleaner is separated and the batteries are taken off the small electronic
products and collected in small boxes with a volume of 1m3.

The collection group 3 foresees the separation of plastics, which are divided into light
and dark. For this purpose TVs are disassembled, the dangerous gases are
extracted and power plug in and cable are separated. The time consuming
disassembling and screwing of equipment and the separation of valuable conductor
boards, plastics, glass and cable is economically viable with a throughput of 1.5 tons
per hour.

In the first year 2500 tons should be processed by the treatment plant. In the future
7000 tons of WEEE should be treated yearly in this plant. In this case the waste is
not only coming from Halle but from all over Germany. The treatment plant is not
focused on the exploitation of precious materials but more on the reduction of waste
and the exploitation of raw materials. The respective mono-fraction materials will be
provided for the metal industry for instance.

The opening of the treatment plant was on the 7th of March 2014. Following pictures
show the treatment process.

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Figure 14: Employees of the HWS disassemble used electronic products of collection group 5
and dispose the separated material in boxes
Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH

Figure 15: Employee of the HWS disassembles old TFT Monitor (Collection group 3)
Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH

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Figure 16: Disassembling of old TV Collection group 3
Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH

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3. WEEE Management in Sweden
Similar to Germany the municipalities have a special importance for the waste
management in Sweden. Every municipality has to have a waste plan and they have
autonomous position towards the producers, which is guaranteed in the Swedish
constitution. The general objectives for waste management follow the objectives of
the European Union.

1. Prevention
2. Preparation for reuse
3. Recycling
4. Other use, especially energetic use
5. Disposal12

3.1 Policy Framework


The definition of the producer is laid down in the Swedish Ordinance of Statutes
2005:209:13

For the purposes of this Ordinance a producer means a person who:


1. manufactures electrical and electronic products and sells them under his own
brand,
2. sells under his own brand electrical and electronic products that do not have a
brand that can be attributed to a producer referred to in point 1, or 3. on a
professional basis either imports electrical and electronic products into Sweden or
exports such products from Sweden to another Member State of the European
Union.
The term producer does not refer to a person who only provides financing under a
loan, lease, rental or hire purchase agreement that relates to a product, irrespective
of whether the agreement means that the ownership right to the product will or may
be transferred.14

The Swedish Environmental Code DS 2000:61 formulates with chapter 15 section 6,8
the regulations for producers responsibility and municipalities' assignment for a
proper treatment of waste. In section 6 it is written that The Government or the
authority [] may issue rules concerning the duty of producers to ensure that waste
is collected, removed, recycled, reused or removed in a manner that satisfies the
requirements for acceptable waste management in terms of health and the
environment

12
Cf. Avfall Sverige. Swedish Waste Management. 2013. p. 6 ff.
13
Cf. United Nations Environment Programme. op. cit. (1.), p. 36 ff.
14
Swedish Government. Swedish Ordinance of Statutes 2005:209 . 2005, p. 1 ff.
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Section 8 constitutes the municipalities' duty for being responsible for waste
generated by private households. It should be considered for this reason that the
waste is to be transported and either recycled or disposed in a waste treatment
plant.15

The regulations regarding the treatment of WEEE and registration have been laid
down in the edict 2005:209.16 The treatment and responsibilities for batteries are laid
down edict 2008:834.17

With section 12-15 the producer treatment is explained more detailed. Under section
12 producers are assigned to deal with WEEE that was sold after the 12th August
2005. Section 13 requests producers to participate on the proper treatment of WEEE
that became waste generated by private households from products put on market
until 12th August 2005. The share should be measured market share based with
respect to the sold household products. Section 14 assigns the producers to be
responsible for all products that were put on the market until 12th August 2005 and
were not generated by private households, if they are delivered to the producers in
connection to their sale by the producer. This applies only if the product is of the
same type or if it fulfills the same functions. Section 15 assigns the producer to a free
of charge service for private households. 18

Within Section 16 producers are obliged to the waste generated in Sweden that falls
under the dispositions of section 12-13, to create at least one or more appropriate
collection systems. The disposal of waste conditioned under section 14 have to be
proceed in a simple and practical way. Waste conditioned under section 12-14 is
required to transported and treated for energetic and resource recovery or in another
environmental soundly manner. An appropriate collection system is defined as
appropriate with section 17, if:

a simple access and good service is provided,


a simplified matter of sorting for households and other users is guaranteed,
an appropriate geographic spread of collection systems for waste under section
12,
there is a collection system in every municipality for waste under section 13,
waste can be delivered to a collection system even if there is a limited producers
responsibility for those products, if they are of the same type as those appliances
for which the collection system is intended to,
it promotes reuse,
it is not unhealthy for environment,

15
Cf. Ministry of Environment. Swedish Environmental Code. DS 2000:61 . 1998, p. 83 ff.
16
Cf. Swedish Government. op. cit. (14)
17
Cf. Swedish Government. Swedish Ordinance of Statutes 2008:834. 2008.
18
Cf. Swedish Government. op. cit. (14), p. 4 ff.
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created under the condition of consultation between producer and
municipalities.19

3.2 Collection, Transport and Tack Back System


The producer responsibility for WEEE in Sweden was introduced on 1 st July 2001. In
this context a cooperation between Avfall Svergie, El-Kretsen and since 2008 EAF
has emerged, where the costs for the collection of WEEE are covered by the
municipalities and the other costs by El-Kretsen.20

Figure 17: Information flow of collection system in Sweden


Source: Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2009, page 2

The analysis of Swedish Ordinance of Statutes 2005:209 shows that the physical and
financial responsibility lies with the producers. In practice there is a the municipalities
play an important role in the collection process. There is an agreement with El-
Kretsen that municipalities are responsible for the collection infrastructure for WEEE
from private households. The producers have to finance the take back and transport
to recycling. This relieves the producer for collection in relation 1:1 (old for new),
which was foreseen in the previous directive 2000:208.21

19
Ibid. S. 5.
20
Cf. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. WEEE Directive in Sweden Evaluation with future
study. Information Facts. 2009. URL: http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Documents/publikationer/978-
91-620-8421-9.pdf (30.01.2014). p. 4
21
Cf. Sander, Knut ; Tojo, Naoko ; Vernon, Jan ; et.al. The Producer Responsibility Principle of the
WEEE Directive . 2007. p. 156 ff.
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3.3 Best-Practice

Sweden
El-Kretsen organises the nationwide collection and the recycling system for WEEE in
Sweden. The system is called Elretur and is managed in cooperation with the
Swedish authorities. This is an advantage for the private households as they can
dispose their WEEE together with other waste at the collection facilities. On the other
side the producers benefit from the system as they can use the already established
public collection infrastructure. Elretur is the only nationwide collection system in
Sweden.

The municipalities are responsible for the information of private households, why
WEEE should be separated from the normal waste, how it should be separated and
where it can be disposed. The municipalities also communicate the collection and
recycling results. Producer have to consult with the public administration in advance
before establishing new collection systems in order to coordinate the activities with
the municipal waste management. For this purpose the producer has to examine the
local conditions in every municipality to ensure that the collection system is easily
accessible for private households.

The municipalities finance information as well as the collection process and the
producers finance the transport, treatment and recycling of WEEE. This cooperation
between local authorities and producers is the main success factor for the Swedish
collection system for WEEE.

There are 630 Recycling Centres in Sweden, which are frequented 20 million times
every year. Similar to neighboring countries there is the attempt to establish so called
micro recycling centres, in order to give the people the possibility to dispose their
electronic waste and smaller bulky waste. The bring system is supported in many
cities with different kinds of pick up systems. Also the collection of WEEE in stores,
during the bulky waste collection and in companies is possible. Additionally there are
mobile recycling centres in Sweden. They drive on fix routes to dedicated collection
points.

A particularity is the recycling station in Timmersdala nearby Skvde. People can


dispose their waste here also outside the normal opening hours. For this purpose the
user only needs a valid driving license, be resident of Skvde and pass a short
training course. The driving license is registered and is used to open the recycling
centre.22

22
Cf. Avfall Sverige. op. cit. (14.), p. 11 ff.
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The collection of WEEE is mainly managed by the 630 municipal recycling centres. In
cooperation between Avfall Sverige and El-Kretsen a container for the collection of
lamps and small electronic equipment has been constructed. The following picture
shows the container. With the help of this container the collection of light bulbs could
be increased by 2.6 million from 2011 to 2012. There is also a pre-treatment of
WEEE in Sweden before the transport to further process steps (Detachment and
Dismantling)23

Figure 18: Container for collection of light bulbs and small electronic equipment
Source: Sweden - World Leader in WEEE Collection and Treatment, page 5

The dangerous substances are removed from the waste step by step in the recycling
centres. Non recyclable plastic materials are incinerated to produce electricity and
heating. Some sorts of plastics can be used as raw materials for new products. Glass
and metal are also recycled. Methods for the recycling of light pulver with quicksilver
are currently under development. The ecoloop is closed, if new products from the
recycling material are coming to the market. This recycling cycle is visualized in the
following chart.

23
Ibid. p. 14 ff.
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Figure 19: Ecoloop of WEEE in Sweden
Source: Sweden - World Leader in WEEE Collection and Treatment, page 3

Furthermore the SEPA formulates recommendations for the municipalities, to show


further potential improvements. It is recommended that the municipalities together
with SEPA organise controls of the producers and treatment plants. Especially the
control of refrigerators should be used to reduce the emissions of ozone-damaging
substances.
Furthermore SEPA is working on economic instruments to achieve decreased use of
cadmium in batteries, similar to instruments which have been used for quicksilver.
The monitoring of the proper treatment of WEEE should take place by analyses from
SEPA on the basis of provided data from producers about sales numbers, quota of
collection and the processed products.24

24
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. From waste management to resource efficiency.
Swedens Waste Plan 2012-2017 . 2012. p. 77 ff.
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Best Practice Gvele
A best-practice solution for the collection of small electronic equipment has been
identified in Gvle, which is located 200 km north of Stockholm. The municipal waste
management company Gastrikeatervinnare is responsible for the collection of WEEE
in the municipalities Gvle, Sandviken, Hofors, Ockelbo and lvkarleby. This area
has a surface of 4477 km2 and 160.000 inhabitants.
There are 13 recycling yards in this area, where the people can dispose their waste.
Five years ago the municipality has started to collect electronic waste with the help of
a special truck. This approach should also reach out to those people who dont own a
car and cannot drive to the recycling yards. This truck is driving all the year on a fixed
route through the municipalities to dedicated places, where it stands for 2 hours and
people can bring their WEEE. But regular examinations of the household waste have
shown that the amount of WEEE in the waste could be reduced.
Nevertheless this share has been considered as
too high and further measures for simplifying
collection of WEEE have been planned. For this
purpose a cooperation between the waste
management company and the retail store chain
coop has been established. Special collection
containers for small electronic equipment,
batteries and bulb lamps have been installed in
all stores of this chain. In total 28 new collection
points have been created. The cooperation with
coop should provide a simple collection method,
which reaches many people. The emptying of
these containers takes place every 4 to 6 weeks.
The store pays for every emptying a small
amount of approximately 20 Euro. From the
point of view of coop the provision of these
containers in their stores is also a marketing
instrument, in order to attract more clients.

Figure 20: EL-IN Container


Source: Gastrikeatervinnare

The waste management company has started an extensive information campaign


with the introduction of the containers, placed articles in local newspapers and has
informed with own brochures about the new collection method. By the opinion of
Gastrikeatervinnare the people have accepted the new system. The share of WEEE
in the normal household waste could be substantially reduced. In a recent customer
survey 98,6 % of the people know where to go an leave their electronic waste.
Almost 100% of the interviewed people stated that there are no problems to handle
and leave the electronic waste on the right place.
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Figure 21: Maps of WEEE Container and Recycling Yards in Gvle
Source: Gastrikeatervinnare

In 2013 1043 kg of small electronic equipment, 1018,7 kg of bulp lamps and 1614,4
kg of batteries have been collected with the help of these containers. Due to the
success of this collection method, these containers (so far 50 containers have been
placed) are now sold to other Swedish municipalities. This method is considered to
be a best-practice solution, which is simple and cost-effective in comparison to other
approaches.

Since 2009 the collection points in shopping areas in Sweden has doubled while the
number of containers in public areas has decreased. At the moment there are about
1500 collection points in about 50% of the Swedish municipalities, which have been
established in cooperation between the municipalities and the companies.25

25
Friege, Oberdrder, Gnther, Vergleich von Sammelsystemen fr Elektroaltgerte in Europa, p. 212
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4. WEEE Management in Scotland

Used electrical and electronic equipment is the fastest growing waste stream in the
United Kingdom. For this purpose guidelines have been established to organise the
collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of WEEE.

4.1 Policy Framework Scotland

The guidelines regarding WEEE in Scotland follow the legislation for the United
Kingdom. Currently the WEEE regulation No. 3113 for environmental protection from
2013 has come into force on 1st January 2014. The most important content is
described below.

The regulation No 3113 is structured into 14 parts. In Part 1 the entry into force,
general explanations and authorities are determined by regulation 1,2. Hence
regulation 2 (c) assigns for the responsibility for Scotland as a appropriate authority
the SEPA (Scottish Environmental Protection Agency). Regulation 1 dictates that
besides the 3,4,5 all regulation would come into force on the 1st January 2014.
The 3,4,5 are dictating several other regulations to enter into force according to
the EU directive 2019/12/EC at 2016 or 2019.26

Part 3 is determining the scope of the producers obligation within the United
Kingdom. Regulation 11 provides that the costs of collection, treatment, recycling and
disposal by private households, that are deposited by collection facilities or deposited
at other places referring to regulation 43 or 52, are obliged to producers or their
representatives for those put on the market in the previous compliance period. The
amount is calculated by a formula described in 6. The appropriate authority is
therefore obliged to transfer the amount of relevant WEEE that was calculated by the
formula, to the producer or their representatives. 27

To finance the collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of WEEE generated by


others than private households, every producer or their representative are obliged to
bear the costs for WEEE if they are resulted by equipment that were placed on the
market before the 13th August 2005. Additionally it applies if producers or their
representatives are supplying EEE that are supposed to replace the relevant WEEE,
are of equivalent type or that are fulfilling the same functions as the relevant WEEE.
For WEEE that are generated after the 13th August 2005 every producer or their
representative are obliged to bear the costs for those equipment that they had put on
the market. 28

26
Cf. The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Regulations 2013. p. 5 ff.
27
Ibid. p. 15 ff.
28
Ibid. p. 17.
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The regulation 14 provides that producers in the United Kingdom as well as
producers in other member states of the EU that are putting EEE on the market in UK
are obliged to join a scheme. The same applies for producers that are selling EEE in
distant. A representative have to be assigned if this is the case. Part 4 dictates the
scheme's obligation. 29

Regulations 28 determines that the operator of a scheme is responsible for the


WEEE generated by private households subject to regulation 11 1. The calculation
of the relevant WEEE obliged to the scheme is calculated as determined in regulation
11. The appropriate authority is responsible for identifying the amount of relevant
WEEE. Within regulation 29 an operator of a scheme is responsible for WEEE
generated others than private households within the same provisions formulated in
regulation 12. Regulation 35 administers die duty for reporting in the transitional
period until 2019. In 1 (a)-(d) the reporting content is determined. The reporting is
done quarterly. Regulation 36 designs the reporting as of 2019 so that the
information are required to be specified according to regulation 6 and schedule 3. 30

In Part 5 of the regulation the distributors obligations for WEEE generated by private
households is determined. A distributor that is selling new EEE is obliged to take
back the WEEE by private households if they are of the same type or are fulfilling the
same functions. The distributor may return the WEEE to a scheme free of charge if
this scheme is approved within regulation 55.31

4.2 Collection and Tack Back System

The description of the practical process of WEEE Management in Scotland is more


difficult compared to Germany. This is caused by the less accurate data material and
diverse legislation and guidelines which have different scope and are currently under
revision. The WEEE regulation 2013 fixes the main provisions for the United
Kingdom. Additionally there are further legislations, which have to be respected. The
following chart gives an overview.

29
Ibid. p. 17, 23 ff.
30
Ibid. p. 25 ff.
31
Ibid. p. 33ff.
43

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Guidance
BATRRT
and
treatment
of WEEE
Overview Legislation Scotland Environmental
+
Protection
Waste
Scotland
Framework
PPC
Directive
Waste PPC Directive on Regulation
2006/12/E
Management Regulations Industrial 2012
U
Licensing (Scotland) Emission +
Regulation SSI 2010/75/EU WEEE
SSI 1994 2000/323 Directive
1056 2012/19/EU

1990 1994 1996 2000 2002 2003 2006 2007 2010 2011 2012 2013
2222 2

WEEE
RoHS I RoHS II Regulation
2002/95/ 2011/65/ 2013
IPPC EU EU
Trans-
Integrated
frontier
Pollution
Shipment
Prevention
Regulation
Controll
2007
96/61/EG

44

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The regulation 3113 introduces the producer responsibility for the United Kingdom as
requested by the WEEE directive. A special case is the development of the IPPPC
towards a directive for industry emissions. This directive has developed the approach
for Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the treatment of WEEE. The BATs are
described and explained in so called BREFs BAT Reference Documents. Currently
the BATs for WEEE are under revision. In order to support the implementation of
recommendations of the BATs the UK government has published a guideline on
Guidance on Best Available Treatment Recovery and Recycling Techniques
(BATRRT) and treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The
Waste Management Licensing Amendment (Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment) (Scotland) Regulations 2007 describes the requirements for treatment
and storage in stores and treatment facilities. The approach of BAT and the
extensions of the BATRRT is important for treatment as well as for the collection and
transport of WEEE and will be further explained in point 4.4.

Optimat Ltd. presented 2012 a final report about priority resource streams in
Scotland. Superficial an analysis about the scope of developments in the area of
recycling was done. This analysis is done with respect to self defined attempts by
Zero Waste Scotland and the requirements by the Directive 2012/19/EU. 32

Four basic legislation are existing that are important for treating WEEE:
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Regulation 2013
Environmental Permitting (England and Wales)
RoHS Regulation
- The Waste Management Licencing Amendment (Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment) (Scotland) Regulations 2007

1.220.348 t of EEE had been put on market in the United Kingdom in 2009 (2010:
1.206.246 t). Although those values differ from those presented in Eurostat, they can
be seen as valid. The difference might result trough the classification of the
information about the statistical values of the appliances. For getting an estimate the
proportion of dwellings to the overall account of dwellings in UK were used as a proxy
(9,11% of dwellings in the UK). Therefore an estimate of 110.531 t on the average of
2009 and 2010 results for the appliances. For EEE generated by others than private
households, described as Commercial & Industrial in the report, a value of 28.800 t
is estimated. This had been estimated by the UK average of 2009 and 2010 with a
proxy of 8,8% employees on the overall rate of employees in UK.33

32
Cf. Optimat Ltd. Priority Resource Streams-Final Report. Identifyfing Opportunities to Develop the
Recycling Infrastructure in Scotland . 2012.
33
Ibid. p. 79 ff.
45

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4.3 Best-Practice

In practice the waste management is done in cooperation between producers,


municipalities and distributors. Although the responsibility for collection lies within the
distributors, the responsibility for financing the collection is part of the compliance
schemes and taken out by the producers. But for the implication the infrastructure of
the municipalities is used. This Civic Amenity sites are used at Designated Collection
Facilities. To comply with their obligation distributors are offering a take-back-service
designed as an in-store-service. A distributor or compliance scheme is contacted at
the end-of-life of an appliance and is required to collect it from the user,
independently if it is replaced.

This regulation applies for EEE put on the market after the 13th August 2005. Other
appliances are applied for being collected by a distributor, if he has replaced the
appliance with no issuing about the prior supply. If there is a demand for treating
WEEE, the treatment has to be proceeded in an ATF (Authorised Treatment Facility).
Such an ATF is required to fulfill the standards of the WEEE Management Licensing
Regulation 1996 and to proceed within the recommendations of the BATRRT (Best
Available, Treatment Recovery and Recycling Techniques). Only AATF's (Approved
Authorised Treatment Facilities) and approved exporters are able to verify a correct
treatment within the regulations and recommendations. 34 31 AATF's are established
in Scotland.35

34
Ibid. p. 80 ff.
35
Cf. Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Approved Authorised Treatment Facilities 2014.
URL:
http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_regulation/producer_responsibility/weee/public_register.aspx
(17.03.2014)
46

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Figure 22: Location of AATF - Treatment Facilities in Scotland
Source: isw, Google Maps

In the same way as the arising of WEEE, the recycling rates were calculated. It is a
estimate based on the data of the UK. A recycling rate about 41.385 t for waste
generated by households in Scotland (UK: 454.283 t) results with this estimation. A
random sampling for the time 2009/2010 within the municipal waste stream
presented a rate of 34.169 t. Respecting the producer-take-back-systems that are
included with a proportion of 10%, a valid estimation of the above mentioned 41.385 t
results. In addition with the C&I waste recycled of about 1.306 t and a deviation with
WEEE generated by Construction & Demolition, a recycling rate about 42.691 t
WEEE results for Scotland. This equates a rate of 30,6%.36

In this Chapter the BATTRRT should be explained in more detail. BATTRRT is an


approach, to use technologies for a specific process. Similar to the VDI guidelines
from Germany, there are similar attempts at European level. The approach of BAT
Best Available Techniques has been defined under the IPPC 96/61/EG. Furthermore
the definition of BAT is also used in the PPC Regulation SSI 2012/360.37 The used
best technologies should provide high effectiveness for the protection of
environment. BATRRT have the following objectives:

36
Cf. Optimat Ltd. op. cit. (31), p. 82.
37
Cf. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Guidance on Best Available Treatment
Recovery and Recycling Techniques (BATRRT) and treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE) . 2006. p. 6 ff.
47

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Use of low waste technologies
Less use of dangerous substances
Support or recycling and reuse of substances, which have been used or produced
in the process and from waste
Comparable processes, methods for treatments, which have already been
successfully implemented
Technological advantages and scientific knowledge and understanding
Effects and extend of emissions
Transfer of data for new and already existing installations
Duration of implementation of BAT
The use of raw materials (also Water) and energy efficiency
Need to reduce and minimize the total emissions to the environment
Need to avoid accidents and minimize the environmental impact
Published information by the Commission regarding article 16.2 38

Example Aberdeen in comparison to WEEE Management in Halle (Saale)

The city Aberdeen has 220.000 inhabitants and a surface of approximately 185 km2,
which is a similar size compared to Halle (Saale). The waste collection is currently
organized by the Aberdeen Council in cooperation with SITA UK. 39 In the future this
organization might change as the contract between SITA UK and Scotland has been
canceled. Nevertheless Aberdeen has a remarkable number of recycling centres and
recycling points. A large share of these centres is located in the Centre and Eastern
part of the town. Remote areas (also populated) are almost completely neglected.

38
Ibid. p. 6 ff.
39
SITA UK. Public Private Partnership. www.sita.co.uk
48

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Figure 23: Locations of Collection facilites and Collection Points in Aberdeen
Source: isw, Aberdeen City Council

As already mentioned stores and other suppliers of electronic products offer in-shop
take back systems. Furthermore there is the possibility to leave used products in
selected shops, which have placed special containers. These shops are Morrissons
Supermarket, King Street or Sainsburys supermarket and Berryden Road. These
contaniers can be used mainly for small equipment such as mobiles, video game
consols, DVD player etc. In relation to WEEE this are used products with a lengths of
maximum 50 cm. These special containers are counted under the blue points in the
map.40

40
Cf. Aberdeen Council. Waste and Recycling. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. URL:
http://www.aberdeencity.gov.uk/waste/recycling/rub_weee.asp (27.03.14)
49

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2009/2010 2010/2011
tonnes kg/hab tonnes kg/hab
WEEE Fridges & freezers 386 1,72 507 2,26
WEEE Large Domestic
Apps. 209 0,93 271 1,21
WEEE Small Domestic
Apps. 105 0,47 297 1,33
WEEE Cathode Ray
Tubes 229 1,02 499 2,23
WEEE Fluorescent tubes 1 0 1 0
total 930 4,14 1575 7,03

Table 1: Collection Amounts and Rates of Aberdeen


Source: Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. Waste Data Digests 2009-2010, calculation
and presentation isw

The development of collected WEEE in Aberdeen shows the success of collection


systems in Aberdeen. From 4,14 kg/inhabitant in 2009/10 to 7,03 kg/inhabitant in
2010/11 is a substantial increase of collection. Especially the increase of cathode ray
tubes might be caused by introduction of new LCD and Plasma flat screens for TV
and computer and substiution of old screens. The increase of collection of small
electronic equipment is supported by the establishment of decentral collection points
and special containers.

50

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5. Statistics
This chapter describes the amounts of collected WEEE presented for Germany,
Sweden and the United Kingdom. In comparison of all three countries, Germany had
the largest quantities during the past years. The United Kingdom cold increase
collection rate in 2007 and 2008 substantially. Sweden has doubled collection rate
from 2006 to 2007 and keeps the collection amounts at constant levels. The following
chart shows the collected WEEE from 2006 to 2012 (United Kingdom only until 2010)

Collected waste
900.000

800.000
Collected waste in tonnes

700.000

600.000

500.000
Germany
400.000
Sweden
300.000 United Kingdom
200.000

100.000

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Year

Figure 24: Collected amounts of WEEE 2006-2012


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

In this chart Sweden is behind Germany and United Kingdom, due to the smaller size
of the market. If the collected waste is compared with the population, in 2010 Sweden
is in the first place and 2nd place is Norway a clear leading position in Europe. The
following map gives an overview of collected WEEE per capita for all European
countries.
.

51

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Figure 25: Collected amounts of WEEE per capita 2010
41
Source: eurostat

The development of collected WEEE per capita in Germany, Sweden and United
Kingdom is shown in the next chart.

41
Eurostat. WEEE Collection Rate 2010 (kg per capita). URL:
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/documents/weee_collection.pdf
(05.02.2014)
52

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Collected waste per inhabitant
20,00
18,00
Collected waste in kg / inh.

16,00
14,00
12,00
10,00 Germany
8,00 Sweden
6,00 United Kingdom

4,00
2,00
0,00
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Year

Figure 26: Collected amount of WEEE per capita 2006-2012


Source : eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

Chart 22 shows that all three countries fulfil the target collection amount of 4
kg/capita since 2008. The revised WEEE directive contains new targets for WEEE
collection. Every member state ensures a minimum collection rate of 45% of the
electronic equipment put into the market. This minimum rate should rise to 65% until
2019. The next chart shows the relation of new products placed in the market and
collected WEEE from 2006-2012.

53

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Rate collected waste to put on the market
90,00%

80,00%

70,00%

60,00%

50,00%
Rate

Germany
40,00%
Sweden
30,00% United Kingdom

20,00%

10,00%

0,00%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Year

Figure 27: Share of collected used products in relation to new products put on the market
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

This chart shows that Sweden and Germany have already fulfilled the targets in
2010, which the WEEE2 directive foresees for 2016. Since 2011 Germany has fallen
below the target, which shows the need to further improve WEEE collection.

5.1 Germany

In order to present the collected amounts for used products, they are allocated to the
ten categories from the EU directive. This gives a good overview about the new
products placed on the market and the collected amounts. Furthermore the amounts
in relation to treatment, recovered, re-use and recycling of used products can be
seen for the particular year. The tables in the Annex 1 to 5 show the amounts for the
years 2006-2010.

54

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This table gives an overview about the important amounts per year.

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Put on the market 1.836.912 1.612.228 1.883.546 1.660.391 1.730.794 1.669.938 1.776.493
Waste collected 753.900 586.967 693.776 832.236 777.035 634.571 608.428
Treated 722.865 573.080 678.346 814.027 755.589
Recovery 683.039 547.407 643.369 776.296 736.933
Total Recycling and Reuse 600.064 474.435 558.907 668.594 643.079

Table 2: Allocation of WEEE in Germany in Tons 2006-2012


Source: eurostat, German Federal Office of Statistics / calculation and presentation isw

55

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The recovery rate of collected used products is presented in the following chart.

Rate recovery of WEEE in Germany


96,0%

95,0%

94,0%

93,0%
Rate

92,0%

91,0%

90,0%

89,0%

88,0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Year

Figure 28: Recovery rate for collected used products in Germany


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

As described in chapter 2.3 the statistical analysis in Saxony-Anhalt is not


implemented according to the 10 categories of the WEEE directive. The collected
WEEE is allocated into five groups. The following chart shows the amounts for the
years 2006-2011 in tons for the groups (SG1 to SG5) The table in Annex 6 shows the
amounts for the year 2006-2011.

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Amounts of WEEE in Saxony-Anhalt
9.000

8.000

7.000
Amount in tonnes

6.000

5.000

4.000

3.000

2.000

1.000

0
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Year

SG 1: Large electrical and electronic equipment


SG 2: Cooling appliance
SG 3: IT- and telecommunications equipment
SG 4: Lighting equipment
SG 5: Small electrical and electronic equipment

Figure 29: Amount of collected used products in Saxony-Anhalt


Source: Statistical Office Saxony-Anhalt, calculation and presentation Saxony-Anhalt

If the amount for used products of the particular groups is added and put into relation
to the inhabitants, Saxony-Anhalt is 2.4 kg/capita below the average of Germany.
The following presentation shows the development of collected amounts of used
products per capita in Saxony-Anhalt.

57

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Collected waste per inhabitant in Saxony-
Anhalt
7,00
Collected waste in kg/Inh.

6,00

5,00

4,00

3,00

2,00

1,00

0,00
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Year

Figure 30: Amount of collected used products in Saxony-Anhalt per year and inhabitant
Source: Statistical Office Saxony-Anhalt, Calculation and presentation isw

The HWS has analysed the statistics for the collected WEEE in Halle. The following
chart shows the development in the past years.

Collected waste in Halle (Saale)


1000
Collected waste in tonnes

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

SG 1: Large electrical and electronic equipment


SG 2: Cooling appliance
SG 3: IT- and telecommunications equipment
SG 4: Lighting equipment
SG 5: Small electrical and electronic equipment

Figure 31: Amount of collected used products in Halle


Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH, presentation isw

58

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If these amounts are put into relation to the inhabitants, the following chart can be
drawn for Halle (Saale).

Collected waste per inhabitant in Halle (Saale)


8,00

7,00
Collected waste in kg/Inh.

6,00

5,00

4,00

3,00

2,00

1,00

0,00
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

Figure 32: Amount of collected WEEE per capita in Halle


Source: Hallesche Wasser und Stadtwirtschaft GmbH, calculation and presentation isw

In 2011 almost 6 kg per capita of WEEE could be collected in Halle, which is 0.5 kg
above the average of Saxony-Anhalt. The table in Annex 7 shows the amounts for
the years 2008 to 2013.

5.2 Sweden
In order to present the collected amounts for used products, they are allocated to the
ten categories from the EU directive. This gives a good overview about the new
products placed on the market and the collected amounts. Furthermore the amounts
in relation to treatment, recovered, re-use and recycling of used products can be
seen for the particular year. The table in the Annex 8 to 12 show the amounts for the
years 2006-2010.

59

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This table gives an overview about the important amounts per year.

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Put on the market 226.615 285.747 234.087 217.783 232.403 231.731 219.161
Waste collected 130.062 155.553 150.125 154.006 161.444 175.601 168.614
Treated 118.630 138.767 149.310 152.839 160.517
Recovery 121.716 139.256 135.529 141.439 148.250
Total Recycling and Reuse 122.688 127.321 123.900 129.095 135.480
Table 3: Allocation of WEEE in Tons in Sweden 2006-2012
Source: eurostat, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, calculation and presentation isw

60

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The table shows the recovery rate for WEEE in Sweden.

Rate recovery of WEEE in Sweden


96,0%
94,0%
92,0%
90,0%
88,0%
Rate

86,0%
84,0%
82,0%
80,0%
78,0%
76,0%
74,0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Year

Darstellung 1: Recovery rate of WEEE in Sweden


Source: Eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

The Swedish region Vstra Gtalands ln has been selected for the comparison with
Saxony-Anhalt as there is a similar surface and only a difference of 500.000
inhabitants. This region could realize a high collection rate (absolute and also
relative) from 2009 to 2013. On average 22.300 tons WEEE and 14.09 kg per capita
have been collected. These data only reflect the collected amounts of El-Kretsen.

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Collected waste in the region of Vstra
23500
Gtalands ln
Collected Waste in t

23000

22500

22000

21500

21000
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year
Figure 33: Collected WEEE in the region Vstra Gtalands ln in tons
Source: El-Kretsen, calculation and presentation isw

Collected waste in the region of Vstra


Gtalands ln
16,00
Collected waste in kg/inh.

14,00

12,00

10,00

8,00

6,00

4,00

2,00

0,00
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year
Figure 34: Collected WEEE in Vstra Gtalands ln in kg/capita
Source: El-Kretsen, calculation and presentation isw

In order to compare collection results in Swedish urban areas the four largest cities
have been selected Gteburg, Stockholm, Malm and Uppsala. The following chart
62

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shows thedevelopment of collected WEEE in the past years. In Annex 14 and 15 the
detailed data are described.

Collected waste in selected regions in Sweden


12.000
Collected waste in tonnes

10.000

8.000

Gteburg
6.000
Stockholm
4.000 Malm
Uppsala
2.000

0
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

Figure 35: Collected WEEE in Swedish Regions


Source: El Kretsen, Calculation and presentation isw

If these amounts are put into relation to the inhabitants the following chart is drawn.

Collected waste in selected regions in Sweden


16,00
14,00
Collected waste in kg / inh.

12,00
10,00
Gteburg
8,00
Stockholm
6,00 Malm
4,00 Uppsala

2,00
0,00
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

Figure 36: Collected WEEE in Swedish Regions kg/capita


Source: El Kretsen, calculation and presentation isw

63

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5.3 Scotland

In order to present the collected amounts for used products, they are allocated to the
ten categories from the EU directive. This gives a good overview about the new
products placed on the market and the collected amounts. Furthermore the amounts
in relation to treatment, recovered, re-use and recycling of used products can be
seen for the particular year. The table in the Annex 11 to 15 show the amounts for
the years 2007-2010.

This table gives an overview about the important amounts per year

2007 2008 2009 2010


Put on the market 803.305 1.350.720 1.546.563 1.534.578
Waste collected 193.994 448.010 471.450 479.355
Treated 0 0 445.813 440.274
Recovery 154.553 348.328 371.777 0
Total Recycling and
Reuse 150.549 340.612 366.219 0

Table 4: Allocation of WEEE in Tons in UK 2006-2010


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

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Table 37 shows the share of collected used products in relation to new products
placed on the market.

Rate of waste collected to put on the market in


United Kingdom
35,0%
30,0%
25,0%
20,0%
Rate

15,0%
10,0%
5,0%
0,0%
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Year

Figure 37: Share of WEEE collected regarding amounts put on the market in UK
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

Due to incomplete data on treatment, reuse and recycling from Eurostat, the
calculation of recycling rate is not possible More detailed statistics can be seen in
Annex 11 to 14

Aberdeen:

In 2009/2010 912 tons of WEEE have been collected in Aberdeen. Looking at the
data from WDD1242 in 2010/2012 1575 tons of WEEE have been collected. This is a
growth of 58%. The structure of WDD12 is not easy to compare with the groups
defined in the WEEE directive, which result in significant differences of statistics.

42
SEPA. Waste Data Digest 12. Online verfgbar unter:
http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_data/waste_data_digest.aspx (26.03.14)
65

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6. Summary
This study has described the implementation of the WEEE directive in Germany,
Sweden and Scotland. The general political and legal framework conditions for the
disposal of used electrical and electronic products have been presented in these
countries. A special focus was given to the collection, transport and take back
systems for WEEE. These can be grouped into bring systems and pick-up systems.
The efficiency of the collection system depends on the covered area and population
density. In relation to the spatial environment it should be considered if both systems
are offered in combination.

The analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the presented collection system


comes to the conclusion that the recycling yard is very good suited as local collection
point for WEEE. The distance to the households should not be too far, as the
motivation of the last owner is an important precondition for the disposal of used
products. In this respect it is necessary to implement intensive public relation work to
inform the nearby neighborhood about the possibilities of the recycling yard. The
option to bring also other waste is an advantage for the last user. He saves time and
traveling distance, which can increase his motivation.

In this context it might be worth to examine if an extension of opening hours or the


possibility to dispose WEEE outside the normal opening hours can be implemented
in order to increase the collection rate. A best-practice in Skvde, Sweden has been
described, which offers disposal of WEEE 24 hours on 7 days.

Furthermore there are a number of best-practices which use container collection to


increase the collection rate of binnable used products. These containers have been
successfully established in Halle (Germany) where they are located close to
container locations for glass and other kind of waste. In Gvele (Sweden) special
containers for small equipment, batteries and light bulbs have been placed in stores.
Shop collection has also proved successful in Aberdeen Scotland. In these cases
collection rate has increased and less WEEE has been disposed in the normal
household waste. The costs are relatively low.

This combination of bring and pick-up system for large equipment can further
optimize the collection system. The pick-up of used products makes sense if the
transport is an additional effort for the last owner, for instance for TVs and large
household equipment. An accompanying pick up of WEEE alongside bulky waste
collection faces the unsteady disposal of WEEE but can be useful depending on the
collection rate. This additional pick up system is connected to higher costs.

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Appendix
Statistic Germany:

Appendix 1: Statistical Overview Germany 2006


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

III

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 2: Statistical Overview Germany 2007
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

IV

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 3: Statistical Overview Germany 2008
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 4: Statistical Overview Germany 2009
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

VI

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Appendix 5: Statistical Overview Germany 2010
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

VII

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Statistic Sweden:

Appendix 6: Statistical Overview Sweden 2006


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

VIII

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 7: Statistical Overview Sweden 2007
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

IX

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 8: Statistical Overview Sweden 2008
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 9: Statistical Overview Sweden 2009
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XI

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 10: Statistical Overview Sweden 2010
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XII

www.weeenmodel.eu
Statistic United Kingdom :

Appendix 11: Statistical Overview UK 2007


Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XIII

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Appendix 12: Statistical Overview UK 2008
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XIV

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 13: Statistical Overview UK 2009
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XV

www.weeenmodel.eu
Appendix 14: Statistical Overview UK 2010
Source: eurostat, calculation and presentation isw

XVI

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Bundesministerium fr Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU).


Abfallvermeidungsprogramm des Bundes unter Beteiligung der Lnder. 2013. URL:

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. Guidance on Best Available
Treatment Recovery and Recycling Techniques (BATRRT) and treatment of Waste
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(WEEE). 2006.

Elektro- und Elektronikgesetz vom 16. Mrz 2005 (BGBI. I S.762), das zuletzt durch
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