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Areporton

Study on Turning Machines and


ToolingSystems
MechanicalWorkshop


Acknowledgement

We express our sincere gratitude to the Birla Institute of Technology and Science,
Pilani for introducing the Practice School I as part of the curriculum and thereby
givingusanexposuretoaprofessionalworkingEnvironment.

We also express our sincere thanks to ROURKELA STEEL PLANT, ROURKELA for
providing us the opportunity to gain invaluable training, guidance, support and
facilities.

We are grateful to our Mentor, Mr.ShekharNarayanforhisvaluabletime.He


went above and beyond his required duties to help us in completing this
project. The knowledge he shared with us in the innumerable meetings will
helpusnotonlyforourprojectbutalsointhefutureinourstudies.

Wewouldalsoliketoexpressourgratitudetothefollowingpeopleforhelpingus.
1.DrAmritaPriyadarshini(Instructorin-charge)
2.DrRumaGhosh(Instructorin-charge)
3.MrTirtharajDash(Instructorin-charge)
4.MrLaxman(PSFaculty)
5.MrGanesh(PSFaculty)


BirlaInstituteofTechnology&Science,Pilani
PracticeSchoolDivision

Station:RourkelaSteelPlant Centre:Rourkela

Durationfrom:23/05/17To:15/07/17

DateofSubmission:11/07/17

Title of Project: STUDY OF TURNING MACHINES AND TOOLING


SYSTEMS

NAMEIDNO
KRISHNAMOHANSAHAY 2015ABPS545H
VISHESHSHARMA 2015ABPS785H
ONKARESHWARMISHRA 2015A4PS410H
JAYESHSANWAL 2015A4PS440H
SAMARJEETKUMAR 2015ABPS569H

Nameofexpert:SHEKHARNARAYAN Designation:DGM

NameofPSFaculty:Dr.AMRITAPRIYADARSHINI

ProjectArea:MechanicalWorkshop

Abstract

This project report explores different aspects of turning andtoolingmachines.Like


their use, functionality and versatility. We have also tried to work on the
management side of the mechanical shop, as to how and what processes are
involvedinordertomakeafinishedproductfromarawmaterial.

Also the Mechanical Shop which makes and produces all the parts required by the
different departments of the plant. In the management part of the project, we
covered the different ways in which a product is manufactured, all the way from
gettingaorderfromtherequireddepartmenttothedeliveryoftheproduct.

Signature(s)ofStudent(s) SignatureofPSFaculty
Date Date

Contents

1.Acknowledgement
2.AboutRourkelaSteelPlant
3.MechanicalShop
4.CuttingTools
5.TurningMachines
6.ProcessManagement
7.CMMS
8.FrameworkofProcedure
9.Conclusion



IntroductionToRourkelaSteelPlant

Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP), the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in
India, was set up with German collaboration with an installed capacity of 1
million tonnes. Subsequently, its capacity was enhanced to 2 million tonnes
of hot metal, 1.9 million tonnes of crude steel and 1.67 million tonnes of
saleable steel. After implementing a massive modernisation and expansion,
Rourkela Steel Plant has enhanced its capacity to 4.5 million tonnes of Hot
Metaland4.2MillionTonnesofCrudeSteel.



RSP was the first plant in India to incorporate LD technologyofsteelmaking.It
is also the first steel plant in SAIL and the only one presently where100%of
slabs are produced through the cost-effective and quality-centriccontinuous
casting route. It is SAILs only plant that produce silicon steels for the power
sector and high quality pipes for the oil & gas sector.. Its wide and
sophisticated product range includes various flat, tubular and coated
products.

ModernisationandExpansionofRourkelaSteelPlant
Rourkela Steel Plant has completed a massive modernization and expansion
programme that is truly historic. With this the Steel Plant has doubled its capacity
and augmented it to the level of 4.5 MTPA (Million Tonne per Annum)ofHotMetal
from the previous level of 2 MTPA. The Crude Steelmaking capacity has
simultaneously increased fromthelevelof1.9MTPAto4.2MTPAandproductionof
SaleableSteelisallsettozoomfromthelevelof1.671MTPAto3.99MTPA.
It is worth mentioning here that, apart from increasing the volume the other
benefits envisaged from this phase of modernisation and expansion are increased
economy of scale, enlarged customer base, enhanced quality, reduced cost of
production, better market compatibility, improved labour productivity, stricter
adherencetoenvironmentnormsandsuperiorTechno-economics.

Somekeynewunitsare:

RAWMATERIALHANDLINGFACILITIES:
Post expansion, the new raw material requirement of RSPhastogouptoabout12
MTPA from the previous requirement of 5 MTPA. The augmentation facilities that
havebeenaddedinclude:

Receiving, unloading, reclaiming and finally transporting of raw materials


requiredforBlastFurnace-5
BasemixpreparationfortheNewSinteringComplex
TransportationofFluedust,Millscaleetc.
Transportation of crushed fuel and flux for trimming addition to the new
SinterUnit
Conveyor line for transportation of Calcining Plant grade limestone and
dolomitetoconsumingunits
Automaticsamplingsystem

Facilities/EquipmentinNewOBBP:

Unloading:
WagonTippler:1No.

Trackhopper:1No.
Stacking&Reclaiming:
4NoofBedstostacktheincomingrawmaterials
2No.ofBedsforBase-mix
EquipmentsintheBeds
TwinBoomStacker:2No.
StackercumReclaimer:1No.
BarrelReclaimer:4Nos.
BucketwheelReclaimer:1No.
Otherequipments:
FluxCrushers:8Nos.
Cokecrushers:12Nos

COKEOVENBATTERY#6:
The battery is top charged, compound twin flue, under jet, regenerative heating
with partial recirculation of waste gases. The 7 metre tall battery of 67 ovens has
been installed to produce run of oven Coke (Dry) of 0.768 MT/Year. The
Computerized Heating Control System (COHC) has been installed for the battery
operation for the process management system to improve reduction in
environmental emission, improved coke quality & productivity. A coal tower of
4000-ton useful capacity for storing coal, Leak Proof Doors, Water Sealed AP
Covers, HPLC(HighPressureAmmoniacalLiquorAspiration),Door&Framecleaner,
High Pressure Water Jet door cleaner, Land based Pushing Emission Control (PEC)
System and Effluent Disposal and Coke Dry Cooling Plant (CDCP) have been
providedforefficientenvironmentmanagement.

Someimportantcomponentsofthepackageare:

NewCokeDryCoolingPlant
The principle of coke dry quenching is based on cooling of hot coke with inert gas
circulating in close loop between the chamber of hot coke and the waste heat
Boiler. Apart from ensuring environment friendly operation, the CDCP is also
designedtoenhancethecokequality.

TechnologicalParameters/FeaturesofCDCP

Temperatureofcokechargedinthechamber :1050C

Temperatureofcokeaftercooling :<200C

Timeofcokecoolinginchamber :2.0-2.5Hr.

Temp.ofcirculatinggasbeforecoolingchamber :170-180C

Temp.ofcirculatinggasbeforewasteheatboiler :750-800C

Pressureofsteamgenerated :66ata

Temperatureofsteamgenerated :500C

Generationofsteam/boiler :25ton/Hr

NewCoalHandlingPlant
The new Coal Handling Plant can hold 15 days stock of Coking Coal for COB #6 (@
3500 T/day) and CDI Coal of 10 days stock @ 1500T/day).Thereare24Nos.ofRCC
silos for stocking of Coking Coal and for CDI Coal, 6 Nos of RCC silos, each of
capacity2500Tons.

NewCoalChemicalDepartment
The new CCD has been installed to process coke oven gasgeneratedfromthenew
Coke Oven Battery # 6. This cleans the raw coke oven gas by removing Tar,
Ammonia, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Sulphide and Naphthalene. The coke oven gas is
being cooled finally to 3000 C at the outlet of final gas cooler. There are

Naphthalene Washer and Benzol Scrubber to have clean coke oven gas for use of
thePlant.

SINTERINGUNIT#3
The new single strand Sinter Unit has an effective suction area of 360 m and an
annual production capacity of 3.70 MT ofgrosssinterwithsinterproductivityof1.3
T/m /hr. The output stack emission is less than 50 mg/Nm, by making theunitan
environment friendly unit. The sintering Unit is being provided with Eirich type
mixer and nodulizer instead of the conventional mixing & balling drum. A circular
cooler has been installed for sinter cooling. Another new feature is pneumatic
conveying of ESP dust, as a part of which the ESP dust will bechargedtothesinter
raw mix bed after passing through an Eirich typeGranulator.TheEirichtypeMixer,
Nodulizer&GranulatorhavebeeninstalledforthefirsttimeinSAILPlants.

TechnicalDetailsofSP-3

Sinteringarea :360Sqmeter

Spec.Productivity :1.3T/m/hr

Undergratesuction :1650mmWC

Circular annular dip rail deep bed type sinter


:396Sqmeter
cooler

TumblerIndex :+6.3mm75%Min.

RDI :30%max

RatedCapacityofincomingrawmaterial :1500tph

RatedCapacityofoutgoingsinter :550tph

BLASTFURNACE#5
One of the biggest Blast Furnaces of the country, the new Blast Furnace # 5 witha
useful volume of 4060 Cubic metres is designed for a production capacity of 2.8
MTPA with a daily hot metal production of 7924 T (avg.). The Furnace operates at
high intensification level andforacampaignlifeof20years.Equippedwithmodern
features such as pulverized coal injection system, cast house fume extraction
system, cast house slag granulation system, top gas recovery turbines of 14 MW
capacity, Twin material bin BLT system, Waste Heat Recovery System, Plate/Stave
Coolers and Conveyor Belt Charging System, this Blast Furnace has Level II
Automation.

TechnicaldetailsandoperatingparametersofBF#5:
Thefurnacehastwinflatcasthousewithfourtapholes.AuxiliariesofBF#5:

TurboBlowerStation
The 3 Turbo Blowersalongwithitsallauxiliariesprovidescoldblasttothestovesof
newBF#5.

Boiler,STG,BPTG&BlowingStation
The unit comprising 3 Boiler arrangements, 2 Steam Turbo Generators and 1 Back
Pressure Turbo Generator generates power as well as cold blast to feed the Blast
Furnaceandthestoves.

TorpedoLadles&RepairShop
The 10 Torpedo Ladles with features like higher capacity and lesser scope of hot
metal temperature loss are being used for transferring hot metal from the new
BlastFurnace#5toSteelMeltingShoporPigCastingMachine.Itisnoteworthythat,
these torpedoes are being used for the first timeinSAIL.TheTorpedoLadleRepair
Shophandlesjobslikerefractorylining,ladleinspection,ladleheatingandcooling.

PigCastingMachine
The twin strand 1500 TPD capacityPigCastingMachinehasaveragestrandspeed9
m/min.

AUGMENTATIONOFSMS-II

3rdBOFConverter(1X150T)
ThenewtopblownBasicOxygenFurnace(3rdconverterofSMS-II)ofcapacity1.584
MT Liquid steel per year is designed with provision for adoption of combined
Oxygen blowing from top and inert gas stirring (with Argon and Nitrogen) from
bottom.

The new RHOB is also a first time feature of RSP that helps in producing higher
strengthandhighqualityspecialgradesteel

Majordesignfeaturesof3rdBOFConverter

Nominalheatsize :150t

Maximumheatsize :165t

Workingvolumewithnewlining :165m3

TaptoTaptime :45Min.

OxygenFlowRate :500NM3/Min.(avg.)

TiltingAngle :3600

Tiltingspeed :0.11.0rpm

NumberofHeatsperday :32(avg.)

SlabCaster#3-Conventional(1x1Strand)
With a capacity to produce slabs with width upto 2500 mm which makes it one of
the widest in the country, the main objective of the New Slab Caster-3 is to make
slabs for the 4.3 metre wide New Plate Mill. It can handle slab tonnage up to 30
tonnes, while the old casters have the capacity of 16 to17 tonnes. Built with latest
design andstate-of-the-arttechnologytheCasterisequippedwithmodernfeatures
such as ladle to tundish slag detection system, vertical high speed mould with

automatic width adjustment, hydraulic mould oscillator, automatic mould level


controller, break-out prediction system, air mist spray cooling system, dynamic
spray cooling system, continuous straightening, automatic torch cutting machine,
slab pusher compiler arrangement, transverse torch cutting machines and
computerizedprocesscontrolsystem(LevelII)tonameafew.

NewPlateMill
The new 4.3 metre wide Plate Mill has been installed having initial capacity of 1.0
MT (0.92 MT saleable), which can be augmented to a capacity of 1.8 MT (1.674 MT
saleable). The Plate Mill equippedwithstate-of-arttechnologyproduceswiderange
of plates with close tolerances to meet stringent international standards. The 4-Hi
reversing millisdesignedforrollforceupto90MN,withhydraulicautomaticgauge
control, roll bending and shifting facilitiesandprovisionofon-linethickness,profile
andwidthmeasurement.
and an automated accelerated cooling system to produce high strength TMCP
rolled plates including for pipe grades upto API XL 100 with lower cost. The mill is
designed with High capacity levelers with hydraulic control and under load
positioning system, high capacity double side Trimming and Crosscut-shears up
50mm capacity to produce distortion free plates. For operation with a lean
manpower and to avoid loss of material identity throughout the production
process, the Plate Mill will be equipped with online ultrasonic testing facility and
advancedcontrolsystemsandmaterialtrackingfacilities.

InputSlab Output

Width = 1200 to
AsRolledPlateLength=42mtrmaximum
2400mm

Length = 2200 to
FinishedPlateThickness=6to100mm
4100mm

Width=1500to4100mm
Length=6000to15000mm
Thickness = 210 to Shearedplatethickness=6mm-50mm
300mm
Coldlevellingofplates=40mmMax.
Special quality plates: API upto X-100, HSLA,
MicroalloyStructural

QualityManagement

Total Quality Management(TQM)thatwasadoptedinRSPsinceJanuary1992today


forms the coreofallourbusinessstrategies.Todaytheentireworkszoneaswellas
Personnel and Steel Township have been certified to ISO 9001: 2008 QMS. Silicon
Steel Mill and Environmental Engineering Department were the first departments
to be certified with ISO 14001 Environment Management System (EMS) in the year
2000. Subsequently, SP-II, HSM, PM, SWPP, ERWPP, SPP and Steel Township were
certified to ISO 14001:2004 EMS. RSPs Steel Township is the first Township of SAIL
to be certified for both ISO 9001 QMS and ISO 14001 EMS. Entire RSP has been
certified to internationally acclaimed Occupational Health & Safety Assessment
Series (OHSAS 18001: 2007). n order to have synergy and synchronization in
implementation of various management systems, concept of Integrated
Management System(IMS)hasbeeninitiatedinRSP.AnIMSPolicycoveringQuality,

Environment, Occupational Health & Safety and Social Accountability of RSP has
beenintroduced.RSPisthefirstunitinSAILtoadoptIMSpolicy.

Environmentmanagement

As a responsible corporate citizen, RSP has taken effective measures in theareaof


pollution control in by-product coke oven batteries, Battery No: 4 and 7m tall
Battery No: 6. RSP has taken adequate steps to check emissions from coke ovens
and has installed air-cooled self-sealing doors resulting in significant reduction in
door emissions; doors were designed, manufactured and supplied by Simpex
CastingsLtd,BhilaiIndia.

Almost all major units of the plant, including its Personnel Department and Steel
Township, are certified to ISO:9001 standards. RSPs Silicon Steel Mill, Sintering
Plant II, Environment Engineering Department, Plate Mill, Hot Strip Mill, ERW and
SW Pipe Plants, Special Plate Plant as well as Steel Township have been awarded
ISO:14001certificationforEnvironmentManagement.

Awards

SrishtiGoodGreenGovernanceAwardfor2010

GlobalCSRLeadership&ExcellenceAwardsin2013

CII-ITCSustainabilityAward2013

GreentechEnvironmentGoldAward

NationalEnergyConservationAward(2ndPrize)

Location
Rourkela Steel Plant is located in the north-western tip of Odisha and at the heart
of arichmineralbelt.BeingsituatedontheHowrah-Mumbairailmainline,Rourkela
is very well connected with most of the important cities of India. The nearby
airports are Ranchi (173 km), Bhubaneswar (378 km) and Kolkata (413 km).

RourkelaalsohasanairstripmaintainedbyRSP.


MechanicalShop

Mechanical Shop is a manufacturing Shop engaged in manufacturing/


reconditioning of spares for units of plant on regular basis. Mechanical Shopisthe
most modern ShopofRSP.ThisShopisequippedwithCNCMachineTools&Higher
capacity Horizontal Borer Machine SKODA, CNC Vertical Boring Machine HOMMA,
Fully automated CNC Plano Miller Machine and CNC Lathe Machine. Mechanical
Shop is a machine shop consisting of more than 60 numbers of small & big
machine tools. The entire complex is divided into three bays. AB Bay consists of
Heavy Machine tools, BC Bay consists of Light Machine tools & the material yard
Bay consisting forge rounds and Saw Cutting & Centring Machine. With the recent
inclusion of Band saw machine in the material yard, Mechanical Shop is now
equipped to cut forge round up to 650mm. Depending on the type of operations,
different machines as listed below are used to carry out manufacture/ repair/
reconditioningofspares/equipmentinMechanicalShop:(Giveninthenextpage).

CUTTINGTOOLS

Acuttingtoolisanytoolthatisusedtoremovematerialfromtheworkpiece
bymeansofsheardeformation.Itisprimarilycategorisedintotwo
categories:-
1. SinglePointCuttingTool-Single-pointtoolsareusedinturning,shaping,
planningandsimilaroperations,andremovematerialbymeansofone
cuttingedge.
2. MultiPointCuttingToolMilling,drillingandgrindingtoolsareoften
multipointtools.Multipointcuttingtoolsarecomprisedofaseriesof
single-pointcuttingtoolsmountedinorintegralwithaholderorbody.They
areoperatedinsuchamannerthatalltheteethorcuttingedgesfollow
essentiallythesamepathacrosstheworkpiece.

CuttingToolDesign

Cuttingtoolsmustbemadeofamaterialharderthanthematerialwhichisto
becut,andthetoolmustbeabletowithstandtheheatgeneratedinthe
metal-cuttingprocess.Also,thetoolmusthaveaspecificgeometry,with
clearanceanglesdesignedsothatthecuttingedgecancontacttheworkpiece
withouttherestofthetooldraggingontheworkpiecesurface.Theangleof
thecuttingfaceisalsoimportant,asistheflutewidth,numberofflutesor
teeth,andmarginsize.Inordertohavealongworkinglife,alloftheabove
mustbeoptimized,plusthespeedsandfeedsatwhichthetoolisrun.
Cuttingtooldesignrequiresanunderstandingoftheapplicationdifficulties
thatcanbeencounteredduringthemachiningprocess,including:
Setuprigiditycriticaltodimensionalaccuracyandfinishqualityofthepart.
Cuttingtoolstrengthmustbesufficienttopreventbreakageand/or
deformationduetoanticipatedmachiningforces.
Weaklinksconsistingofwearandbreakawaymembersincludedinthetool
design,whichlimit damagetotoolholdersandothermachinecomponents.

Machinespeedandfeed-theseparametersalongwithtooladaptercapacity
andworkingclearancesallestablishrestrictionsontooldesignand
productionrates.

Totalcuttingforceusuallyresolvesintothreemutuallyperpendicular
components:
Feedforce
Radialforce
Tangentialforce,whichisthemostsignificant,actsuponthetopofthecutting
tool,tangenttotherotarydirectionofthepartortool.

CuttingEdge-Thecuttingedgeofacuttingtoolisaveryimportantforthe
performanceofthecuttingprocess.Themainfeaturesofthecuttingedge
are:
Formofthecuttingedge:radiusorwaterfallortrumpete.
Cuttingedgeangles(freeangleandrakeangle).
Form andsizeofthechamfers.
Themeasurementofthecuttingedgeisperformedusingatactileinstrument
oraninstrumentusingfocusvariation.

ChipdisposalSingle-pointcuttingtoolsusuallyhaveapressed-in,
chip-breakerdesigntocurlandbreakthematerialremovedintomanageable
chips.Millingcuttersmustincludeamplechipspacetoholdthechipuntilit
canbethrownorwashedoutbetweensuccessivecutpasses.
Chatterresultsfromthemomentaryseparationofthecuttingtoolandthe
workpiece.Itcancausetoolbreakageaswellasimpairsurfacefinish,and
canbepreventedbyeliminatingunevenmotionsandloosefits.

Single-PointCuttingToolDesign

Most turning operations use single-pointcuttingtools.Thenomenclaturefor
a single-point tool is a sequence of alpha and numeric characters, also
referred to as the tool signature. This signature represents the following
toolaspects:

Various angles such as the back rake, side rake, end relief, side relief, end
cuttingandleadangles
Significantdimensions
Specialfeatures
Noseradiussize
This method of tool identification has been standardized by ANSI (American
National Standards Institute), for carbide and high-speed-steel tools.
However, the ANSI classification does not characterize all tool aspects such
asthevarietyofchip-breakergeometries.
The cutting tools nose radius connects the side and end cutting edges. By
function, it must be equal to or less than the smallest radius on thefinished
part.Otherfactorsinfluencingtoolnoseradiusselectioninclude:
Surfacefinishrequirements
T ool strength, with the largest tool nose radius permissible giving the highest
strength.
While a larger nose radius can absorb more of the generated heat and
produceasmoothercut,itcanalsogenerategreaterradialcuttingforcesand
increase the chance of chatter. In general, the quality of thefinishedsurface
resultsfromthepropercombinationofnoseradiusandfeedperrevolution.

Chip-breaking Geometries - Chip-breaking geometriesaredesignedtoprovide
chip control and force reductions at specified feed rates and depth of cut.
These geometries can be ground into the cutting surface of the tool or
pressed-inusingmechanicalpressing.


MultipointCuttingToolDesign

Most multipoint tools create discontinuous chips that must be carried for
some distance over the work before they can be ejected. The designofsuch
toolsmustincludesufficientchipspacewithoutcompromisingtoolrigidity.

Cutting edges may be straight or contoured and may be designed for either
linear or rotary travel. The most common, among many types of multipoint
cuttingtools,arethebroach,thetwistdrill,andthefacemill.

The Broach - The broach is the most common multipoint, linear-travel cutting
tool. Both external and internal surfacescanbeproducedinvariousprofiles.
Broach teeth (the cutting edges) can be of several angles and geometries. In
operation, each tooth on the broach is generally higherthantheonebefore.
Thus, the depth of cut or chip load progressively increases.Toothshapeand
chip space depend on workpiece length,chipthicknesspertoothandtypeof
chipmade.Broachteetharetypicallygroupedintothreedistinctregions:
Roughing teeth,whichmakethefirstandgenerallyheaviercutsinabroaching
operation.
Semi-finishingteeth,whichtakesmaller,semi-finishingcuts.
Finishingteeth,whicharearrangedataconstantsizeforfinishing.

The Twist Drill - The twist drill is the most common axially fed rotarytoolused
in hole making operations. Either the drill itself may be rotated or it can be
held stationary while being fed into arotatingworkpiece.Thethreeessential
partsofthetwistdrillare:
1. Theshank,whichisthemeansbywhichthedrillisheldanddriven.Shanks
areeitherstraightortapered.
2. Theflutes,whichletcoolantintoandcarrychipsoutoftheholebeing
produced.Flutesmaybe ofvarioushelixanglesdependingonthematerial
beingdrilled.
3. Thedrillpoint,whichdoestheworkofmetalcutting.Thedrillpointisformed
bytwocuttinglipsandachiseledge.Thestandarddrill-pointangleis118,
andhasaclearanceangletypicallybetween10and20.

The Face Mill - Face mill cutters generate flat surfaces. The cutter body has
multiple pockets to accept a variety of indexable insert cutting tools.Atleast

one of the cutter teeth is always in contact with the work, thus keeping the
milling cutter and the work under constant load. This avoids vibration and
shock and enhances the finish surface of each cut. The designs of all face
millsincorporatecertainvariablessuchas:
Effectivediameter,whichismeasuredbetweenthehighestcutterinsert
pointsdirectlyoppositeeachother.
Cutterhand,whichisdeterminedbyexaminingthecuttersfacewhile
runningonamachinetool.Arighthandcutterrotatescounterclockwise,
whilealeft-handcutterrotatesclockwise.
Cuttergeometry,whichdescribesvariousradialandaxialrakeangles.
Leadangle,whichinfluencescuttingforcesandchipthicknessgeneratedby
thecuttingtool.
Insertpocketdesign,whichcanbeeitherfixedormodular.Themodular
typesacceptavarietyofinterchangeableinsertcartridgesthatholdvarious
insertdesignsandseattheinsertsatdifferentangles.
Cutterpitch,whichdeterminesthenumberofinsertsrelativetothecutter
diameterandcanbedefinedasthedistancefromapointononeedgetothe
correspondingpointonthenextedge.


CuttingToolMaterials

Many types oftoolmaterials,rangingfromhighcarbonsteeltoceramicsand
diamonds, are used as cutting tools in todays metalworking industry. It is
important to be aware that differences do exist among tool materials, what
thesedifferencesare,andthecorrectapplicationforeachtypeofmaterial.
The various tool manufacturers assign many names and numbers to their
products. While many of these names and numbers may appear to be
similar, the applications of these tool materials may be entirely different. In
most cases, the tool manufacturers will provide tools made of the proper
material for each given application. In some particular applications, a
premiumorhigherpricedmaterialwillbejustified.

This does not mean that the most expensive tool is always the best tool.
Cutting tool users cant afford to ignore the constant changes and
advancements that are being made in the field of tool material technology.
When a tool change is needed or anticipated, a performance comparison
should bemadebeforeselectingthetoolforthejob.Theoptimumtoolisnot
necessarily the least expensive or the most expensive, and it is not always
the same tool that was used for the job last time. The best tool is the one
that has been carefully chosen to get the job done quickly, efficiently, and
economically.

A cutting tool must have the following characteristics in order to produce
goodqualityandeconomicalparts:

1. The material should be harder than the workpiece so that it is able to
penetrate into the workpiece and it should have hot hardness i.e. the ability
ofmaterialtoretainhardnessatelevatedtemperatures.

2. The coefficient of friction at the tool chip interface should be low for better
surfacefinishandlesswear.

3. The material should have wear resistance to prevent wear and tear of the
cuttingtoolsurface.

4. It should be chemically stable so that it does not react with the workpiece
and chemically inert so that there is no oxidation and hence no scales and
pitsareformedonthesurface.
5. The material must have sufficient strength and toughness to withstand
shocksandvibrations.
6. The thermal conductivity should be high so that there is heat dissipation
which is generated during the machining process thereby increasing the life
ofthecuttingtool.

No single cutting tool material incorporates all these qualities. Instead,
trade-offs occur among the various tool materials. For example, ceramic
cutting tool material has high heat resistance, but has a low resistance to
shock and impact. Every new and evolving tool development has an
application where it will provide superior performance over others. Many
newer cutting tool materials tend to reduce, but not eliminate the
applicationsofoldercuttingtoolmaterials.

Cutting tool materials can be divided into two main categories: stable and
unstable.

Unstablematerials(usuallysteels)aresubstancesthatstartatarelativelylow
hardness point and are then heat treated to promote the growth of hard
particles (usually carbides) inside the original matrix, which increases the
overall hardness of the material at the expense of some its original
toughness. Since heat is the mechanism to alter the structure of the
substance and at the same time the cutting action produces a lot of heat,
suchsubstancesareinherentlyunstableundermachiningconditions.

Stable materials (usually tungsten carbide) are substances that remain
relatively stable under the heat produced by most machining conditions, as
they don't attain their hardness through heat. They wear down due to
abrasion,butgenerallydon'tchangetheirpropertiesmuchduringuse.

Most stable materials are hard enough to break before flexing, which makes
them very fragile. To avoid chipping at the cutting edge, some toolsmadeof
such materials are finished with a slightly blunt edge, whichresultsinhigher
cutting forces duetoanincreasedsheararea,however,tungstencarbidehas
the ability to attain a significantly sharper cutting edge than tooling steel for

uses such as ultrasonic machining of composites. Fragility combined with


high cutting forces results in most stable materials being unsuitable for use
inanythingbutlarge,heavyandrigidmachineryandfixtures.

Unstable materials, being generally softer and thus tougher, generally can
stand a bit of flexing without breaking, which makes them much more
suitable for unfavourable machining conditions, such as those encountered
inhandtoolsandlightmachinery.

Thematerialsfromwhichcuttingtoolsaremadeareallcharacteristicallyhard
and strong. There is a wide range of tool materials available for machining
operations, and the general classification and use of these materials are of
interesthere.Someofthecommoncuttingtoolmaterialsusedare:

1. CarbonToolSteels-Plaincarbontoolsteelistheoldestofthetool
materialsdatingbackhundredsofyears.Insimpleterms,itisahigh-carbon
steel, whichcontainsabout1.05%carbon.Thishighcarboncontentallows
thesteeltobehardened,offeringgreaterresistancetoabrasivewear.Plain
highcarbonsteelserveditspurposewellformanyyears.However,because
itisquicklyovertempered(softened)atrelativelylowcuttingtemperatures
(300to500F),itisnow rarelyusedascuttingtoolmaterialexceptinfiles,
sawblades,chisels,etc.Theuseofplainhighcarbonsteelislimitedtolow
heatapplications.Plain carbonsteeltools,containingabout0.9%carbon
andabout1%manganese,hardenedtoabout62Rc,arewidelyusedfor
woodworkingandtheycanbeusedinaroutertomachinealuminiumsheet
upto about3mmthick.

2. HighSpeedSteel(HSS)-Theneedfortoolmaterialsthatcould
withstandincreasedcuttingspeedsandtemperaturesledtothe
developmentofhigh-speedtoolsteels(HSS).Themajordifferencebetween
HSSandplainhighcarbonsteelistheadditionofalloyingelementsto
hardenandstrengthenthesteelandmakeitmoreresistanttoheat(hot
hardness).
Some of the most commonly used alloying elements are manganese,
chromium, tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt, and niobium. While
each of these elements will add certain specific desirable characteristics, it
can be generally state that they add deep hardening capability, high hot

hardness, resistance to abrasive wear, and strength, to HSS. These


characteristics allow relatively higher machining speeds and improved
performanceoverplainhighcarbonsteel.

The most common HSS usedprimarilyascuttingtoolsaredividedintotheM
and T series. The M series represents tool steels of molybdenum type and
the T series represents Tungsten. Although thereseemstobeagreatdealof
similarly among these HSS, each one serves a specific purpose and offers
significantbenefitsinitsspecialapplication.
An important point to remember is that none of the alloying elements for
either series of HSS is in abundant supply and the cost of these elements is
skyrocketing. In addition, U.S. manufacturers must rely on foreign countries
forsupplyoftheseveryimportantelements.
Some of the HSS are now available in powdered metal (PM) form. The
difference between powdered and conventional metals is in the method by
which they are made. The majority of conventional HSS is poured into an
ingot, and then, either hot or cold, worked to the desired shape. Powdered
metal is exactly as its name indicates. Basically, the same elements that are
used in conventional high-speed steel are prepared in a very fine powdered
form. These powdered elementsarecarefullyblendedtogether,pressedinto
a dieunderextremelyhighpressure,andthensinteredinanatmospherically
controlledfurnace.

3.HSSSurfaceTreatment-Manysurfacetreatmentshavebeendeveloped
in an attempt to extend tool life, reduce power consumption, and to control
other factors that affect operating conditions and costs. Some of these
treatments have been used for many years and have proven to have some
value. For example, the black oxide coatings that commonly appear ondrills
and taps are of value as a deterrent to build-up on the tool. The black oxide
isbasicallydirtysurfacethatdiscouragesthebuild-upofworkmaterial.
One of the more recent developments in coatings for HSS is titanium nitride
by the physical vapor deposition (PVD)method.Titaniumnitrideisdeposited
on the tool surface in one of several different types of furnace at relatively
low temperature, which does not significantly affect the heat treatment
(hardness) of the tool being coated. This coating is known to extend the life
of a cutting tool significantly or to allow the tool to be used at higher
operating speeds. Tool life can be extended by as much as three times, or
operatingspeedscanbeincreasedupto50%.


4. HSS Cobalt - This isalsoreferredtoassuperhigh-speedsteel.Cobaltisadded
215%.Themostcommoncompositionistungsten20%,4%chromium,2%
vanadium and 12% cobalt. Itisunstableandmoderatelyexpensive.Thehighcobalt
versions of high speed steel are very resistant to heat and thus are excellent for
machining and/or work hardening materials such as titanium and stainless steel.It
is used extensively on milling cutters and drill bits and has a hardness of up to
aboutHRC70.

5.CastAlloys-ThealloyingelementsinHSS-principallycobalt,chromium,and
tungsten -improvethecuttingpropertiessufficiently,thatmetallurgicalresearchers
developedthecastalloys,afamilyof materialswithoutiron.
A typical composition for this class was 45% cobalt, 32% chromium, 21% tungsten,
and 2% carbon. The purpose was to obtain a cutting tool with hot hardness
superiortoHSS.

When applying cast alloy tools, their brittleness should be kept in mind and
sufficient support should be providedatalltimes.Castalloysprovidehighabrasion
resistance and are thus useful for cutting scaly materials or those with hard
inclusions.

6. Cemented Carbide - Henri Moissan discovered tungsten carbide in 1893


during a search for method of making artificial diamonds. Charging sugar and
tungsten oxide, he melted tungsten sub-carbide in an arc furnace. The carbonized
sugar reduced the oxide and carburized the tungsten Moissan recorded that the
tungsten carbide was extremely hard, approaching the hardness of diamond and
exceeding that of sapphire. It was more than 16x as heavy as water. The material
provedtobeextremelybrittleandseriouslylimiteditsindustrialuse.
Commercial tungsten carbide with 6% cobalt binder was first produced and
marketed in Germany in 1926. Production of the same carbide began intheU.S.in
1928andinCanadain1930.

At this time, hard carbides consisted of the basic tungsten carbide system with
cobalt binders. These carbides exhibited superior performance inthemachiningof
cast iron, nonferrous, andnonmetallicmaterials,butweredisappointedwhenused
forthemachiningofsteel.

Most of the subsequent developments in the hard carbides have been


modifications of the original patents, principallyinvolvingreplacementofpartorall
of the tungsten carbide with other carbides, especially titanium carbide and/or
tantalum carbide. This led to the development of the modernmulti-carbidecutting
toolmaterialspermittingthehigh-speedmachiningofsteel.

A new phenomenon was introduced with the development of the cemented


carbides, again making higher speeds possible. Previous cutting tool materials,
products of molten metallurgy, depended largely upon heat treatment for their
properties and these properties could, in turn, be destroyed by further heat
temperatures,theseproductsofmoltenmetallurgyfailed.

A different set of conditions exist with the cemented carbides. Thehardnessofthe
carbide is greater than the ofmostothertoolmaterialsatroomtemperatureandit
has the ability to retain its hardness at elevated temperatures to a greater degree,
sothatgreaterspeedscanbeadequatelysupported.
7. Ceramics - It mainly consists of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and silicon nitride
(Si3N4). Ceramic cutting tools are hard with high hot hardness and do not react
withtheworkpiece.Theycanbeusedatelevatedtemperature and cutting speed
4timesthatofcementedcarbide.Thesehavelow heatconductivity.

Alumina - Introduced in the early 1950s, two classes are used for cutting tools:
fine grained high purity aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) are
pressed into insert tip shapes and sintered at high temperatures. Additions of
titanium carbide and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) may be made to improve properties.
But while ZrO2 improves the fracture toughness, it reduces the hardness and
thermal conductivity. Silicon carbide (SiC) whiskers may be added to give better
toughnessandimprovedthermalshockresistance.

The tips have high abrasion resistance and hot hardness and their superior
chemical stability compared to HSS and carbides means they are less likely to
adhere to the metals during cutting and consequently have a lower tendency to
form a built-up edge. Their main weakness is low toughness and negative rake
angles are often used to avoid chipping due to their low tensile strengths. Stiff

machine tools and work set ups should be used when machining withceramictips
as otherwise vibration islikelytoleadtoprematurefailureofthetip.Typicalcutting
speeds:150-650m/min.

Silicon Nitride - In the 1970s a tool material based on silicon nitride was
developed, these may also contain aluminium oxide, yttrium oxide and titanium
carbide. SiN has an affinity for iron and is not suitable for machining steels. A
specific type is 'Sialon', containing the elements: silicon, aluminium, oxygen and
nitrogen. This has higher thermal shock resistance than silicon nitride and is
recommended for machining cast irons and nickel based super alloys at
intermediatecuttingspeeds.

8.Cermet -Cermetisthecombinationofceramicsandmetalsandproducedby
Powder Metallurgy process. When they combine ceramics will give high
refractoriness and metals will give high toughness and thermal shock resistance.
Developedinthe1960s,thesetypicallycontain70%aluminiumoxideand30%
titanium carbide. Some formulation contains molybdenum carbide, niobium
carbide and tantalum carbide. Their performance isbetweenthoseofcarbidesand
ceramics and coatings seem to offer few benefits. Increase in metal percentage
reduces brittleness to some extent and also reduces wear resistance. Typical
cuttingspeeds:150-350m/min.

9.CubicBoronNitride(CBN)-It is the second hardest material after
diamond and an economical alternative to the later. It is manufactured through
high temperatureandpressuretobondboroncrystalsincubicformwitha
ceramic or metal binder to form polycrystalline structure with nitride particles
present. It is an excellent cutting tool material because it combines extreme high
hothardnessuptohightemperaturesof2000C.

10. Diamond - The hardest known substance isdiamond.Althoughsinglecrystal
diamondhasbeenusedasatool,theyarebrittleandneedtobemountedat
the correct crystal orientation to obtain optimal tool life. Single crystal diamond
toolshavebeenmainlyreplacedbypolycrystalline diamond (PCD). This consists of
very small synthetic crystals fused by a high temperature high pressure process to

a thicknessofbetween0.5and1mmandbondedtoacarbidesubstrate.Theresult
issimilartocBNtools.Therandomorientationofthediamondcrystals
preventsthepropagationofcracks,improvingtoughness.
1. Becauseofitsreactivity,PCDisnotsuitableformachiningplaincarbon
steelsornickel,titaniumandcobaltbasedalloys.
2. PCDismostsuitedtolightuninterruptedfinishingcutsatalmostany speed
andismainlyusedforveryhigh-speedmachiningofaluminium -silicon
alloys, composites and other non - metallic materials.Typicalcuttingspeeds:
200-2000m/min.

11.UCON ItisdevelopedbyunioncarbideinUSA.Itconsistsof
Columbium50%,Titanium30%andTungsten20%.Thisisrefractorymetalalloy
whichiscast,rolledintosheetsandslitintoblanks.Thoughitshardnessisonly200
BHN,itishardenedbydiffusingnitrogenintosurfaceproducingveryhard
surfacewithsoftcore.Itisnotusedbecauseofits highercosts.

12. Sialon (Si-Al-O-N) Sialon is made by powder metallurgywithmilled
powdersof Silicon,Aluminium,NitrogenandOxygenbysinteringat1800C.
This is tougher than ceramicsandsoitcanbesuccessfullyusedininterruptedcuts.
Cutting speeds are two to three times compared to ceramics. At present, this is
used for machining of aerospace alloys, nickel based gas turbine blades with a
cuttingspeedof3to5m/sec.


CuttingToolLife

All cutting tools are perishable, meaning they haveafiniteworkinglife.Itis
not a good practice to use worn, dull tools until they break. This is a safety
hazard which creates scrap, impacts tool and part costs, and reduces
productivity. Aside from breakage, cutting toolswearinmanydifferentways,
including:

Edgewearandflankwear
Crateringortopwear
Chipping
Built-upedge
Deformation
Thermalcracking




Edge and flank wear are both normal, slow types of tool wear. If the work
material is highly abrasive, as with certain cast-irons, this type of wear will
accelerate.

Cratering occurs behind the cutting edge, and happens often in machining
long-chipping steels. If the crater grows large enough and contacts the
cutting edge, the tool fails immediately. Cratering can be overcome by using
titaniumortantalumcarbidetools.

Chipping on a tool edge is an unpredictable form of tool failure. It is
sometimes started when a high point on an edge breaks away. A stronger
carbide grade, different edge preparation, or lead angle change may
eliminatechipping.

Built-up edge is a deposit of workpiece material adhering to therakefaceof
an insert.Thesedepositscanbreakoff,pullingoutpiecesofcarbidefromthe
tool. Ductile materials, such as softer steels, aluminium, and copper cause
this problem. The use of higher rake angles, faster cutting speeds, and high
pressurecuttingfluidallhelpeliminatebuilt-upedge.

Deformation of a tool or insert is due to heat build-up. Although very
detrimental to the machining process, deformation is difficult to detect
without the use of a microscope. Using a heat-resistant tool, orreducingthe
cuttingspeedoftenhelptopreventdeformation.

Thermal cracking occurs when inserts go through rapid heating and cooling
cycles. Causes include interrupted cutting and poor application of cutting
fluids.

ToolLifeCurves
n
TheTaylortoollifeequationcanbewrittenas:v(T) =C,where
v is the cutting speed, m/min, T is the toollife,inminutes,Cisthecuttingspeed
foratoollifeof1minuteandnistheTaylorexponent.







Toolholder

TouseacuttingtoolwithinaCNCmachinethereisabasicholderrequiredto
mount it on the machine's spindle or turret. A toolholder is a shortsteelbar
having a shank at one end by which it is clamped to a machine and a clamp
at the other end to hold small interchangeable cutting tools. ForCNCmilling
machines,therearetwotypesofholder.Thereisshanktaper(SK)andhollow
shank taper (HSK). Insert-type toolholders consist of a shank, head, pocket
andclampingdevice.Theymaybeleftorrighthandedorneutral.Commonly,
much of the required geometry is built into the toolholder rather than the
cutting-toolinsertitself.

The ANSI numbering system for turning toolholders has assigned letters to
specific geometries in terms of lead angle and end cutting edge angle. The
primary lathe machining operations of turning, facing, grooving, threading
and cut-off are covered by one of the seven basic tool styles outlined by the

ANSI system.ThedesignationsforthesevenprimarytoolstylesareA,B,C,D,
E,FandG.

AStyle:Straightshankwith0side-cuttingedgeangle,forturningoperations.
BStyle:Straightshankwith15side-cuttingedgeangle,forturningoperations.
C Style: Straight shank with 0 end-cutting edge angle, for cut-off and grooving
operations.
DStyle:Straightshankwith45side-cuttingedgeangle,forturningoperations.
E Style: Straight shank with 30 side-cutting edge angle, for threading
operations.
FStyle:Offsetshankwith0end-cuttingedgeangle,forfacingoperations.
G Style: Offset shank with 0 side-cutting edge angle; thistoolisan'A'styletool
with additional clearance built in for turning operations close to the lathe
chuck

.



ToolsinRSP

By confining the expensive hard cutting tip to the part doing the actual cutting, the cost of tooling is
reduced. The supporting tool holder can then be made from a tougher steel, which besides being
cheaper is also usually better suited to the task, being less brittle than the cutting-edge materials.
The tool holders may also be designed to introduce additional properties to the cutting action, such
as

Angular approach - direction of tool travel.


Spring loading - deflection of the tool bit away from the material when excessive load is
applied.
Variable overhang - the tool bit may be extended or retracted as the job requires.
Rigidity - the tool holder can be sized according to the work to be performed.
Direct cutting fluid or coolant to the work area.

Note that since stiffness (rather than strength) is usually the design driver of a tool holder, the steel
used doesn't need to be particularly hard or strong as there is relatively little difference between the
stiffnesses of most steel alloys.

Holders used on lathes

Bit holder and toolpost

The toolpost is the part of a metalworking lathe which either holds the tool bit directly or holds a
toolholder which contains the tool bit. There are a great variety of designs for toolposts (including
basic toolposts, rocker toolposts, quick-change toolposts, and toolpost turrets) and toolholders (with
varying geometry and features).

A box tool is mounted on the turret of a turret lathe or screw machine. It is essentially a toolpost
that brings its follower rest along with it. A tool bit (or several tool bits) and a compact
follower rest (usually V-shaped or with two rollers) are mounted opposite each other in a
body which surrounds the workpiece (forms a "box" around it). As the tool bit puts a lateral
deflecting force on the workpiece, the follower rest opposes it, providing rigidity. A different
and popular type of box tool uses two rollers rather than a follower rest. One roller is called a
"sizing roller" and the other roller is called a "burnishing roller". The rollers turn with the stock
to reduce scarring on the finished turn. Opposing tool bits may be used (instead of a rest) to
cancel each other's deflecting forces (called a "balanced turning tool"), in which case the box
tool begins to overlap in form, function, and identity with a hollow mill.

Holders used on shapers, slotters, and planers[edit]

Clapper box[edit]

Shapers, slotters, and planers often employ a kind of toolholder called a clapper box that swings
freely on the return stroke of the ram or bed. On the next cutting stroke, it "claps" back into cutting
position. Its movement is analogous to that of a butterfly-style check valve.

Holders used on milling machines[edit]

Fly cutters[edit]

Fly cutters are a type of milling cutter in which one or two tool bits are mounted. The bits spin around
with the rotation of the spindle, taking facing cuts. Fly cutters are an application of tool bits where the
bits are part of a rotary unit (whereas most other tool bit use is linear).

StudyonTurningMachines

ThisShopisequippedwithCNCMachineTools&Highercapacity HorizontalBorer
Machine SKODA, CNC VerticalBoringMachineHOMMA,FullyautomatedCNCPlano
Miller Machine and CNC Lathe Machine. Mechanical Shop is a machine shop
consistingofmorethan60numbersofsmall&bigmachinetools.
Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary
tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving linearly while the workpiece
rotates. The tool's axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they
may be along some set of curves or angles,buttheyareessentiallylinear,or
unidirectional. Usually the term "turning" is reserved for the generation of
external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting
action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or
another)iscalled"boring".
Turningcanbedonemanually,inatraditionalformoflathe,whichfrequently
requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using an automated
lathe which does not. Today the most common type of such automation is
computer numerical control, better known as CNC. RSP boasts offtwoLathe
machines retrofitted with Siemens CNC softwares of bed size 2m, and two
normal traditional lathe, along with Three CNC machines made and
assembledincollaborationwithJapan.
The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be
the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight
turning, taper turning, profiling or external grooving. Those types of turning
processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight, conical,
curved, or grooved workpiece. In general, turning uses simple single-point
cutting tools. Each group of workpiecematerialshasanoptimumsetoftools
angleswhichhavebeendevelopedthroughtheyears.
TheTurningProcesscontainsafewbasicoperations,whichcanbeperformed
byturningmachines.Theseinclude:

Sphericalgeneration
Theproperexpressionformakingorturningashapeistogenerateasinto
generateaformaroundafixedaxisofrevolution.
Taperedturning


Hardturning
HardturningisaturningdoneonmaterialswithaRockwellChardness
greaterthan45.Itistypicallyperformedaftertheworkpieceisheattreated.

Facing
Facinginthecontextofturningworkinvolvesmovingthecuttingtoolatright
anglestotheaxisofrotationoftherotatingworkpiece.

Parting
Thisprocess,alsocalledpartingofforcutoff,isusedtocreatedeepgrooves
whichwillremoveacompletedorpart-completecomponentfromitsparent
stock.

Grooving
Groovingislikeparting,exceptthatgroovesarecuttoaspecificdepthinstead
ofseveringacompleted/part-completecomponentfromthestock.

PartsofaLathe

Headstock
Theheadstockhousesthemainspindle,speedchangemechanism,and
changegears.Theheadstockisrequiredtobemadeasrobustaspossible
duetothecuttingforcesinvolved,whichcandistortalightlybuilthousing,
andinduceharmonicvibrationsthatwilltransferthroughtotheworkpiece,
reducingthequalityofthefinishedworkpiece.

Beds

Thebedisarobustbasethatconnectstotheheadstockandpermitsthe
carriageandtailstocktobemovedparallelwiththeaxisofthespindle.Thisis
facilitatedbyhardenedandgroundbedwayswhichrestrainthecarriageand
tailstockinasettrack.Thecarriagetravelsbymeansofarackandpinion
system.Theleadscrewofaccuratepitch,drivesthecarriageholdingthe
cuttingtoolviaagearboxdrivenfromtheheadstock.
Typesofbedsincludeinverted"V"beds,flatbeds,andcombination"V"and
flatbeds.AtRSP,"V"andcombinationbedsareusedforprecisionandlight
dutywork,whileflatbedsareusedforheavydutywork.


Feedandleadscrews

Thefeedscrewisalongdriveshaftthatallowsaseriesofgearstodrivethe
carriagemechanisms.Thesegearsarelocatedintheapronofthecarriage.
Boththefeedscrewandleadscrewaredrivenbyeitherthechangegears(on
thequadrant)oranintermediategearboxknownasaquickchangegearbox
orNortongearbox.Theseintermediategearsallowthecorrectratioand
directiontobesetforcuttingthreadsorwormgears.Tumblergearsare
providedbetweenthespindleandgeartrainalongwithaquadrantplatethat
enablesageartrainofthecorrectratioanddirectiontobeintroduced.This
providesaconstantrelationshipbetweenthenumberofturnsthespindle
makes,tothenumberofturnstheleadscrewmakes.Thisratioallowsscrew
threadstobecutontheworkpiecewithouttheaidofadie.

Carriage

Initssimplestformthecarriageholdsthetoolbitandmovesitlongitudinally
(turning)orperpendicularly(facing)underthecontroloftheoperator.The
operatormovesthecarriagemanuallyviathehandwheelorautomaticallyby
engagingthefeedshaftwiththecarriagefeedmechanismThisprovides
somerelieffortheoperatorasthemovementofthecarriagebecomes
powerassisted.Thehandwheelsonthecarriageanditsrelatedslidesare
usuallycalibrated,bothforeaseofuseandtoassistinmakingreproducible
cuts.Calibrationmarkswillmeasureeitherthedistancefromcenter(radius),
ortheworkpiece'sdiameter,soforexample,onadiametermachinewhere
calibrationmarksareinthousandthsofaninch,theradialhandwheeldial
willread.0005inchesofradiusperdivision,or.001inchesofdiameter.The
carriagetypicallycomprisesatopcasting,knownasthesaddle,andaside
casting,knownastheapron.

Cross-slide

Thecross-slideridesonthecarriageandhasafeedscrewthattravelsatright
anglestothemainspindleaxis.Thispermitsfacingoperationstobe
performed,andthedepthofcuttobeadjusted.Thisfeedscrewcanbe
engaged,throughageartrain,tothefeedshaft(mentionedpreviously)to
provideautomated'powerfeed'movementtothecross-slide.Onmost

lathes,onlyonedirectioncanbeengagedatatimeasaninterlock
mechanismwillshutoutthesecondgeartrain.

Compoundrest

Thecompoundrest(ortopslide)isusuallywherethetoolpostismounted.It
providesasmalleramountofmovement(lessthanthecross-slide)alongits
axisviaanotherfeedscrew.Thecompoundrestaxiscanbeadjusted
independentlyofthecarriageorcross-slide.Itisusedforturningtapers,to
controldepthofcutwhenscrewcuttingorprecisionfacing,ortoobtainfiner
feeds(undermanualcontrol)thanthefeedshaftpermits.Usually,the
compoundresthasaprotractormarkedinitsbase,enablingtheoperatorto
adjustitsaxistopreciseangles.

Toolpost

ThetoolbitismountedinthetoolpostwhichmaybeoftheAmericanlantern
style,traditionalfour-sidedsquarestyle,oraquick-changestylesuchasthe
multifixarrangementpictured.Theadvantageofaquickchangeset-upisto
allowanunlimitednumberoftoolstobeused(uptothenumberofholders
available)ratherthanbeinglimitedtoonetoolwiththelanternstyle,orto
fourtoolswiththefour-sidedtype.Interchangeabletoolholdersallowall
toolstobepresettoacenterheightthatdoesnotchange,eveniftheholder
isremovedfromthemachine.

Tailstock

Thetailstockisatool(drill),andcentremount,oppositetheheadstock.The
spindledoesnotrotatebutdoestravellongitudinallyundertheactionofa
leadscrewandhandwheel.Thespindleincludesatapertoholddrillbits,
centersandothertooling.Thetailstockcanbepositionedalongthebedand
clampedinpositionasdictatedbytheworkpiece.Thereisalsoprovisionto
offsetthetailstockfromthespindlesaxis,thisisusefulforturningsmall
tapers,andwhenre-aligningthetailstocktotheaxisofthebed.

Steady,followerandotherrests

Longworkpiecesoftenneedtobesupportedinthemiddle,ascuttingtools
canpush(bend)theworkpieceawayfromwherethecenterscansupport
them,becausecuttingmetalproducestremendousforcesthattendto
vibrateorevenbendtheworkpiece.Thisextrasupportcanbeprovidedbya
steadyrest(alsocalledasteady,afixedsteady,acenterrest,orsometimes,
confusingly,acenter).Itstandsstationaryfromarigidmountingonthebed,
anditsupportstheworkpieceattherest'scenter,typicallywiththreecontact
points120apart.Afollowerrest(alsocalledafolloweroratravellingsteady)
issimilar,butitismountedtothecarriageratherthanthebed,whichmeans
thatasthetoolbitmoves,thefollowerrest"followsalong"(becausetheyare
bothrigidlyconnectedtothesamemovingcarriage).


LathesatRSPMechanicalShop


FinishedgoodsinWorkshop.








ProcessManagementatRSP


Processmanagementistheensembleofactivitiesofplanningandmonitoring
the performance of a manufacturing process. Process management is the
application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define,
visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to
meet customer requirements profitably. Rourkela Steel Plant has over 70
departments and is one of the largest steel plant in India. This also means
that there is a regularneedofreplacementofdifferentmachinepartsdueto
regular wear and tear or break down, due to massive number of machines
running 24/7. When a department or indentor is in need of a specific spare
partthereisaconcreteprocedurethatisfollowed.Therearethreeroutesfor
a department to acquire the spare part namely purchase,
machining/fabricationandtender.Thedepartmentgivesawork-ordersigned
by the HOD of the respective department and follows a route that is most
convenient to meet the specifications. RSP has Planning and coordination
services department (PCS) which acts as an intermediatorinthisprocedure.
It allocates respective shops for acquiring the spare part according to need
andavailability.


OBJECTIVES:
StudyofprocedurefollowedatMechanicalShopformakingasparepart
Identificationandstudyofvariousdepartmentsinvolved
Analysisandbreakdownofthestepsinvolvedintheprocedure
Identificationofflawsintheprocedureandremedies

RoutesToEnableTheProduct
1) Purchase: Every department is annually allocated a fund. The department
sends a purchase order to purchase department which buys the product
from the market from the fund allocated to the specific department. Funds

vary from department to department. Generally purchase takes from 4-6


monthstime.
2) Machining and Fabrication: Departments contact Planning andcoordination
services department which in turn assigns respective shops for the
fabrication or the machining of the part.Thisisutilisedwhenthespareparts
aresmallorareneededurgently.
3)Tender:RSPalsogivestendertolocalindustriestoprovidethemvariousparts
accordingtoanagreementwithgovernmenttosupportthelocalindustries.The
rawmaterialisprovidedbyRSPandindustriesarepaidonanhourlybasis.

MACHININGANDFABRICATION

MachiningandFabricationisdoneinthreemajorRSPshopsnamelytheMechanical
Shop,theRepairShopandtheStructuralShop.Itreceivesaroutecardfrom
Planningandcoordinationdepartmentaccordingtowhichthewholeprocessis
undertaken.Ourmainfocusherewillbethestepbystepanalysisofthewhole
procedurethatisfollowed.

PlanningandCoordinationServicesDepartment

PlanningandCoordinationServicesDepartmentisanintegralpartofRourkelaSteel
Plant. It acts as an intermediator between department and shops. The main job of
PCS is to facilitate the manufacturing of spare parts and their transportation to
various departments. It is a unit of Engineering Shops & is a staff function created
in the year 1970 as a result of the reorganization of Engineering Services wherein
thenewconceptofhavinganindependentplanningdepartmentwasintroduced.

Objectives:

Identification & approval by the competent authority of High value make jobs,
Automake
jobs & Castings (Ferrous & Non Ferrous) in consultation with internal Customers &
Shops
in the beginning of each financial year to be executed in Engineering Shops. This
exerciseis
being done to maximize the utilization of Engineering Shops capacity in line with
Purchase
policyofSAIL.
Finalization of Capital Repair jobs of different units of plant to be executed in
consultation
withInternalCustomers&EngineeringShops.
To receive requirements in the form of Indents / O5 for manufacturing/ repair of
spare parts, reconditioning of assemblies / Sub-assemblies, Gear Boxes, Hydraulic
equipments
Castings(Directdeliveryorwithmachining)ofdifferentplantunits;scrutinizethe
possibilities of timely execution and distribute the work on the basis of workload
and capacity of different shops. Coordinate with different shops for execution of
thejobs.
PlanningthedetailsoftheabovementionedtypesofjobsofdifferentPlantunits
inshopcomplexincludingFoundries.
To achieve the prerequisite for an economical and timely repair of manufactured
partandspares.
Co-ordinate the processing of Items for reconditioning through Reconditioning
Routetobeexecutedbyoutsourcing.
Processing of Indents [Buy through PC (S)] for procurement through local SSI
units.
Inspection of jobs executed in Engineering Shops, local SSI units against PC (S)
orders against Indents [Buy through PC (S)] & jobs at different plant and
requirementsof
differentInternalCustomers.
PreparationofdifferentMISReportsforreviewatdifferentlevels.

DifferentSectionsoftheDepartment:

ProductionControl
ProcessPlanning
Inspection
Off-loadingCell

ProductionControl:

Receiveworkorder(05form)fromdifferentplantunits
Scrutinyoftheworkorder(05)andRecord
Preparebi-monthlyplanfordifferentunitsofEngineeringShops
PreparemonthlyplanforFoundry.
RaiseworkorderforMAKEindentsandplanforexecution
FinalizationofCapitalRepairjobsinconsultationwithdifferent
Customers&Engg.Shops
Follow-upofCapitalRepairjobsfortimelycompletion
Receiveordersfromsisterplants&outsidepartiesandplanforexecution
PrintingofRoutecard&Costticketforplannedjobs
Creation of EDC (Engineering data control) in CMMS Database for future
reference.
PreparationofvariousMISreportsforreview&follow-up
Follow-upAUTOMAKEjobsindifferentEngineeringShopsforitscompletion

ProcessPlanning:
DetailstudyofdrawingsinlinewithscopeofworkspecifiedinWorkOrder(05).
AllocationoftheaboveWorkOrdertoPlanner.
Processplanningofjobsindicatingdetailslikeplaceofexecution,rawmaterials
required, weight of the job, sequence of operations indicating workcentre,
sequenceandprocessalongwithcataloguenumber,drawingnumberetc.
EstimationoftimeasperapprovedNormsforeachoperation

PreparationofCostTicketsaspertheestimatedtime.

Inspection:
Inspectionofjoboncompletionofdifferentstagesofoperation
Inspectionofjoboncompletioninshopcomplex/localSSIunits
Inspectionofjobatshopfloorofdifferentplantunitsasperrequirement
Preparationofqualityreportacceptanceofinspectedjobsinshops.

Off-loadingCell:
Placement of orders on local SSI units against indented quantities cleared for
"BUY
throughPCS"
Co-ordination with Engineering Shops & Indenting Customers for issue of raw
materialto
localSSIunitsagainstthePC(S)orders
Follow-upwithlocalSSIunitsfordeliveryofjobsasperschedule
ProcessingofBillsforpayment.

ComputerizedMaintenance
ManagementSystem(CMMS)

Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), also known as
computerized maintenance management information system (CMMIS), is a
software package that maintains a computer database of information about an
organization's maintenance operations. This information is intended to help
maintenance workers do their jobs more effectively (for example, determining

which machines require maintenance and which storerooms contain the spare
parts they need) and to help management make informed decisions (for example,
calculating the cost of machine breakdown repair versus preventive maintenance
for each machine, possibly leading to better allocation of resources). CMMS data
mayalsobeusedtoverifyregulatorycompliance.
CMMS packages may be used by any organization that mustperformmaintenance
on equipment, assets and property. Some CMMS products focus on particular
industry sectors (e.g. the maintenance of vehicle fleets or health care facilities).
Otherproductsaimtobemoregeneral.
CMMS packages can produce status reports and documents giving details or
summaries of maintenance activities. The more sophisticated the package, the
moreanalysisfacilitiesareavailable.
Many CMMS packages can be either web-based, meaning they are hosted by the
company selling the product on an outside server, or LAN based,meaningthatthe
companybuyingthesoftwarehoststheproductonitsownserver.
RSPhasthreedifferentusesforCMMS-
1).Tofindoutthedepartmentwisepercentages.
2).Tomakeamasterplanforeachmonth.
3).Formakingmaterialrequirementplans.

Thisishowdepartmentwisepercentageslooklike-

FrameworkofProcedure:

1) Work order: Work order is issued by the department/ indentertothePCS
department for the specific spare part to be manufactured in Engineering
shops.ItissignedbytheHODoftherespectivedepartment.

Givenbelowisanexampleofaworkorder:



2)PCS:InthePCSthedataisfedtoCMMSforscrutinywhichkeepsarecord
ofallthemachinesinalltheshopsandtheiravailabilityandautomatically
generatesaroutecardwhichconsistsofjobspecifications,timeforjob,
machinenoandstepstobefollowed.Itisthenforwardedtotherespective
engineeringshop.

Anexampleofaroutecardisgivenbelow.


3)Engineeringshop:Oncetheroutecardreachestheengineeringshop,itis
registered at the planning department. Rawmaterialsareallocatedforspare
part after the analysis by the technical team and the job is assigned to
respectivemachine.
4) Inspection: PCS has a team for inspection of finished jobs for quality
controlandsmoothrunningofthesparepart.
5) Feedback: After inspection the engineeringshopsendsafeedbackformon
thejobandalsotheprogress.
6) T
ransportation: After the inspection is completeandthejobmeetsallthe
qualitynorms,itistransportedtotherespectivedepartments.








CONCLUSION:

Rourkela Steel Plant is one of the largest integrated steel plant in Indiaestablished
in 1959. It has a variety of engineering shops to satisfy the requirements of all the
departments. An elaborate study was conducted on turning machines and tooling
systems. Identification of their specification, functionality and application at RSP
was undertaken. Mechanical shop uses different strategies for the production of
different jobs and manually overrides when required. A brief study of cutting tools
wasalsoconducted.

Further a study of process management at RSP was taken up byusindependently.


Role of Planning and coordination Services department (PCS) as an intermediator
was discussed. The role of the CMMS software, used to maintain a record of
inventory, availability and running status was analysed. Italsoassignsaroutecard
for the jobtorespectiveshops.Italsoprovidesamasterplanonamonthlybasisfor
the production. It plays a key role in process management and is an efficient and
elegant software. Different departments communicate with each other for smooth
functioningofRourkelaSteelPlant.

REFERENCES:

WidiaManualonlathemachineandtoolingsystem
Panaroma
Wikipedia

Addendum-1
Tools


Rakeangleisaparameterusedinvariouscuttingandmachiningprocesses,
describingtheangleofthecuttingfacerelativetothework.Therearetworake
angles,namelythebackrakeangleandsiderakeangle,bothofwhichhelptoguide
chipflow.Therearethreetypesofrakeangles:positive,negative,andzero.
positiverakeangles:

Makethetoolmoresharpandpointed.Thisreducesthestrengthofthe
tool,asthesmallincludedangleinthetipmaycauseittochipaway.
Reducecuttingforcesandpowerrequirements.
Helpsintheformationofcontinuouschipsinductilematerials.

Negativerakeangles,bycontrast:

Makethetoolmoreblunt,increasingthestrengthofthecuttingedge.
Increasethecuttingforces.
Canincreasefriction,resultinginhighertemperatures.
Canimprovesurfacefinish.

FortheTurningprocess,SpeedandMotionofthetoolisspecifiedas:

Cuttingfeed-Thedistancethatthecuttingtoolorworkpieceadvancesduringone
revolutionofthespindle,measuredininchesperrevolution(IPR).
Cuttingspeed-Thespeedoftheworkpiecesurfacerelativetotheedgeofthe
cuttingtoolduringacut,measuredinsurfacefeetperminute(SFM).
Spindlespeed-Therotationalspeedofthespindleandtheworkpiecein
revolutionsperminute(RPM).Thespindlespeedisequaltothecuttingspeed

dividedbythecircumferenceoftheworkpiecewherethecutisbeingmade.In
ordertomaintainaconstantcuttingspeed,thespindlespeedmustvarybasedon
thediameterofthecut.
Feedrate-Thespeedofthecuttingtool'smovementrelativetotheworkpieceas
thetoolmakesacut.Thefeedrateismeasuredininchesperminute(IPM)andis
theproductofthecuttingfeed(IPR)andthespindlespeed(RPM).
Axialdepthofcut-Thedepthofthetoolalongtheaxisoftheworkpieceasit
makesacut,asinafacingoperation.Alargeaxialdepthofcutwillrequirealow
feedrate,orelseitwillresultinahighloadonthetoolandreducethetoollife.
Therefore,afeatureistypicallymachinedinseveralpassesasthetoolmovestothe
specifiedaxialdepthofcutforeachpass.

Basedonthegivenparameters,welearnthowtheparametersareusedtogivea
bettersurfacefinish.Themajorpointsarediscussedbelow:

1) IncreasetheSpeed
Increasingsurfacefeetperminute(SFM)reducesbuilt-upedge(BUE).This
willprolongtoollifeandreducethechancethatcatastrophictoolfailurewill
damageafinishedpart.
2) ReducetheFeed
Reducingtheinchperrevolution(IPR)willreduceflankwearandalso
prolonginsertlife.
3) IncreasetheTopRakeAngle
Rakeangleisavariableintheinsertsdesignthatcanbetailoredtoachieve
thebestsurfacefinish.
4) UseaChipBreaker
Chipbreakerscanreducecuttingpressuresandproducechipsthatcanbe
evacuatedmoreeasily.Inmaterialsthatproducelong,stringychips,achip
breakercanhelpproducesmallerchipsthatexitthecuttingzonequicklyand
easily.
5) UseaLargeNoseRadius
Thereisadirectrelationshipbetweenthesizeoftheinsertsnoseradiusand
thesurfacefinishproduced.Whileitstruethatasmallernoseradius
decreasesthepressureonatool,italsolimitsthefeedratethatcanbeused.



SelectionofInsert

How to read an insert designation

Taking an example of a cutting tool:

( "CNMG432")

C N M G 4 3 2

Shape Clearance Tolerance Groove / Size Thickness Radius


angle Hole

Shape ("CNMG432")

Code Letter Description Diagram Nose Angle

A 85 parallelogram 85

B 82 parallelogram 82

C 80 diamond 80

D 55 diamond 55

E 75 diamond 75

H hexagon 120

K 55 parallelogram 55

L rectangle 90

M 86 diamond 86

N 55 parallelogram 55

O octagon 135

P pentagon 108

R round full radius

S square 90

T triangle 60

V 35 diamond 35

W trigon 80

X sp. parallelogram 85

Clearance or Relief Angle ("CNMG432")

Code Letter Angle Diagram

N 0

A 3

B 5

C 7

P 11

D 15

E 20

F 25

G 30

Tolerance ( "CNMG432")

Code Cornerpoint Thickness Inscribed Cornerpoint Thickness Inscribed


(inches) (inches) Circle (in) (mm) (mm) Circle (mm)
Letter

A .0002" .001" .001" .005mm .025mm .025mm

C .0005" .001" .001" .013mm .025mm .025mm

E .001" .001" .001" .025mm .025mm .025mm

F .0002" .001" .0005" .005mm .025mm .013mm

G .001" .005" .001" .025mm .13mm .025mm

H .0005" .001" .0005" .013mm .025mm .013mm

J .002" .001" .002-.005" .005mm .025mm .05-.13mm

K .0005" .001" .002-.005" .013mm .025mm .05-.13mm

L .001" .001" .002-.005" .025mm .025mm .05-.13mm

M .002-.005" .005" .002-.005" .05-.13mm .13mm .05-.15mm

U .005-.012" .005" .005-.010" .06-.25mm .13mm .08-.25mm

Hole / Chipbreaker ("CNMG432")

Code Letter Diagram Hole Hole Shape Chipbreaker


Type

Null No None

A Yes Cylindrical None

B Yes 70-90 double None


countersink

D Yes Cylindrical None

E No None

F No Double-sided

G Yes Cylindrical Double-sided

H Yes 70-90 single Single-sided


countersink

M Yes Cylindrical, or dbl Single-sided


countersink

N No None

P Yes Cylindrical Hi-double positive

Q Yes 40-60 double None


countersink

R No Single-sided

S Yes Cylindrical Hi-double positive

Size ( "CNMG432")

ANSI Inscribed Circle Size ISO Code No. (metric cutting edge length) by shape code letter
Code of insert
No.
decimal fractiona C D R S T V W
in. l in.

0.5 .0625" 1/16

1.2 (5) .15625" 5/32 S4 04 (4mm) 03 (3mm) 03 (3mm) 06 (6mm)

1.5 (6) .1875" 3/16 04 (4mm) 05 (5mm) 04 (4mm) 04 (4mm) 08 (8mm) 08 (8mm) S3

1.8 (7) .21875" 7/32 05 (5mm) 06 (6mm) 05 05 09 (9mm) 09 (9mm) 03 (3mm)


(5mm) (5mm)

2 .25" 1/4 06 (6mm) 07 (7mm) 06 (6mm) 06 (6mm) 11 11 04 (4mm)


(11mm) (11mm)

2.5 .3125" 5/16 08 (8mm) 9mm 07 (7mm) 07 (7mm) 13 13 05 (5mm)


(13mm) (13mm)

3 .375" 3/8 09 (9mm) 11 09 (9mm) 09 (9mm) 16 16 06 (6mm)


(11mm) (16mm) (16mm)

3.5 .4375" 7/16 11mm 13mm 11 11 19 19mm 7mm


(11mm) (11mm) (19mm)

Thickness ( "CNMG432")

ANSI ISO Decimal Fractional Millimeter


Code No. Code No. Value Value Value

.5 (1) - 0.03125" 1/32 0.79mm

.6 T0 0.040" 1.00mm

1 (2) 01 0.0625" 1/16 1.59mm

1.2 T1 0.078" 5/64 1.98mm

1.5 (3) 02 0.094" 3/32 2.38mm

T2 0.109" 7/64 2.78mm

2 03 0.125" 1/8 3.18mm

2.5 T3 0.156" 5/32

Radius ( "CNMG432")

ANSI ISO Decimal Fractional Millimeter


Code No. Code No. Value Value Value

Null Null Wiper flat Wiper flat Wiper flat

V M0 0 0 0

0.2 00 0.004" 0.1mm

X 0.004" 0.1mm

0 00 0.004" 0.2mm

0.5 0.008" 0.2mm

Y 0.008" 0.2mm

1 04 0.016" 1/64 0.4mm

05 0.020" 0.5mm

2 08 0.031" 1/32 0.8mm

10 0.040" 1.02mm

3 12 0.047" 3/64 1.2mm

Selection procedure for an insert

Step1:Selecttheinsertgeometry

1. Decide whether you want to use a Negative or Positive insert. A negative
insert is stronger, but also results in higher cutting forces. So you woulduse
it when taking heavy or interruptedcuts,onapartthatisheldfirmlyandcan
withstand highcuttingforces.Apositiveinsertisweaker,sharper,andresults
in lower cutting forces. So you would use it to cut a part that is not held
firmly, is likely to bend, or has thin walls. Based onNegativeorPositive,look
attheNorProwsinthefirstcolumn.


2. Decide on the application - Roughing, Medium machining, or Finishing.
Medium machining is merely roughing with a smaller depthofcut.Basedon
this, look at theF,MorRrowinthesecondcolumn.Nowdecidethedepthof
cut that you want to use, and look at the corresponding row. If you want to
useadepthofcutof3mm,forexample,youwouldlookattherow2.5to4.


Step2:Selectthegrade


Theinsertgradeisprimarilyselectedaccordingto:
Componentmaterial(ISOP,M,K,N,S,H)
Typeofmethod(Finishing,Medium,Roughing)

Machiningconditions(good,average,difficult)
Good Average Difficult



The insert geometry and insert grade complement each other when being
applied; for example, the toughness of a grade can compensate for lack of
strengthinaninsertgeometry.

material materialgroup numberofmaterial


ISOcode subgroups

steel P 16

Stainlesssteel M 1-3

Castiron K 1-3

Nonferrousmaterial N 1-8

Hightempalloys S 1-4

Hardenedmaterials H 1

Step3:Selectthecuttingspeed

Thisindicatesthesurfacespeedatdiameterandformsabasicvalueforcalculating
cuttingdata.Cuttingspeedforatoolischosenaccordingtoitslife.

Recommendedcuttingspeedsforallmaterialsandfordifferentvaluesareavailable
intheMaincatalogueoftoolsinthefollowingformat.

material grade speedm/min Starting


group Conditions -
m/min

- - - -