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GA= Google analytics

Digital analytics is the analysis of qualitative(explains WHY? Eg: data collected from surveys- gives valuable
insights into users experience) and quantitative(size of ur audience, their location, performance of ur online
marketing and wat people do once they visit ur website) data from your business and the competition to drive a
continual improvement of the online experience that your customers and potential customers have which
translates to your desired outcomes (both online and offline).

Customer Purchase funnel:

Awareness>Acquisition of interest>Behaviour (Engagement)>Conversion of customer> Retention of

Session- starts when user navigates to a page including GA code. Ends after 30 mins of inactivity.

Property> View

Property: Make for different sales regions or different brands.

Views: will not include past data, only 25 views per property, 35-day recovery period by administrator.

Dimension category in audience report: acquisition, behaviour, Conversion

By default: reports are sorted by USERS

Medium, source, marekting campaign name

Medium cpc(paid campisgn), email, referral, Organic(unpaid), none(direct traffic)

Source- direct, url, name of search engine (For organic)

Customers can start their purchase journey at any point of their decision path- not necessarily after
completing the linear path of purchase funnel. A marketers job is to figure out how to tap into this
new dynamic and anticipate where customers might appear and what messages he needs to hear-
which can be done by analysing the customer.

With the customer controlling the speed and time of their engagement, businesses need accessible,
reliable, holistic, real-time customer analytics to understand how well the business is performing.

One of the most important steps of digital analytics is determining what your ultimate business
objectives or outcomes are and how you expect to measure those outcomes. In the online world,
there are five common business objectives:

For ecommerce sites, an obvious objective is selling products or services.

For lead generation sites, the goal is to collect user information for sales teams to connect with
potential leads.
For content publishers, the goal is to encourage engagement and awareness.
For online informational or support sites, helping users find the information they need at the right
time is of primary importance.
For branding, the main objective is to drive awareness, engagement and loyalty.
There are key actions on any website or mobile application that tie back to a business objectives. The
actions can indicate an objective, like a purchase on an ecommerce site, has been fully met. These are
macro conversions. Some of the actions on a site might also be behavioral indicators that a
customer hasnt fully reached your main objectives but is coming closer, like, in the ecommerce
example, signing up to receive an email coupon or a new product notification. These are micro
conversions. Its important to measure both micro and macro conversions so that you are equipped
with more behavioral data to understand what experiences help drive the right outcomes for your

Continual improvement steps:

1. Measurement (collecting data to answer ur business questions)

2.Report (packaging data to give to decision makers to make business decisions- done through pre-
made reports or dashboards)

3. Analyse(finding trends, complex like deep segmentation of data or competitive analysis)

4.Testing (finding solutions to the problems identified during analysis)

5. Improvement

SEGMENTATION: Allows to isolate and analyse data- whichc tells us what cause to change in our
aggregated data.
Data can be segmented based on:
1. Date and Time
2. Devices
3. On different marketing channels-email, social media, on search engines
4. Geography
5. Customer characteristics

ADDING CONTEXT TO UR DATA: Helps to understand if ur performance is good or bad?

1. Internal context- expectations r based on ur own historical performance to set key performance
2. External context- industry benchmark data- helps understand how u perform in relative to
businesses similar to urs.
A macro conversion occurs when someone completes an action thats important to your business. For
an ecommerce business, the most important macro conversion is usually a transaction. A micro
conversion is also an important action, but it does not immediately contribute to your bottom line. Its
usually an indicator that a user is moving towards a macro conversion. Its important to measure
micro conversions because it helps you better understand where people are in on the journey to

Attribution is assigning credit for a conversion. In last-click attribution, all of the value associated with
the conversion is assigned to the last marketing activity that generated the revenue. However, there
are other attribution models that can help you better understand the value of each of your channels.
For example, rather than assigning all of the value to the last channel, you might want to assign all of
the value to the first channel, the one that started the user on the customer journey. This is called
first-click attribution. Or, you might assign a little bit of value to each of the assisting channels in the
customer journey-linear attribution : These r helpful in allocating marketing budget according to the

The measurement planning cycle consists of the following:

Define your measurement plan.

1. Document your business objectives.
2. Identify the strategies and tactics to support the objectives.
3. Choose the metrics that will be the key performance indicators.
4. Decide how youll need to segment your data.
5. Choose what your targets will be for your key performance indicators.
Create an implementation plan.
After defining your business needs and documenting the technical environment of your business,
create an implementation plan that is specific to the analytics tool that youre using. For Google
Analytics, this means defining the code snippets and specific product features that youll need in order
to track the data defined in your measurement plan.
Implement your plan.
The next step is to have the web development team, or the mobile team, actually implement the
tracking recommendations that youve made. Some website technologies will require additional
planning, such as:
1. Query string parameters
2. Server redirects
3. Flash and AJAX events
4. Multiple domains and subdomains
5. Responsive web design
The most common features used in a Google Analytics implementation plan for a website:
Implement the standard Google Analytics tracking snippet. This gives you the bulk of the data you
Determine how to track your KPIs. You can do this using goal tracking and the ecommerce module if
you are an ecommerce business.
Use filters to normalize your data so that your reports are accurate and useful.
Use campaign tracking and AdWords linking to properly track marketing campaigns.
Use custom dashboards and custom reports to simplify the reporting process.

Maintain and refine.

The final step of the measurement planning cycle is to maintain and refine your plan. Your business
requirements and your technical environment can change over time. Without a team to maintain your
measurement plan, your data wont keep pace with your reporting needs.

There are four main components to the Google Analytics system: data collection, configuration, data
processing and reporting.

Collection: You can use Google Analytics to collect user interaction data from websites, mobile apps,
and digitally connected environments like kiosks or point of sale systems. For websites, Google
Analytics uses JavaScript code to collect information. One package of information is referred to as a
hit or an interaction. A hit is sent every time a user views a page tagged with Google Analytics.
For mobile apps, you must add extra code to each "activity" you want to track. Note that since mobile
devices are not always connected to the internet, data can not always be sent to the collection server
in real time. To handle this situation, Google Analytics can store the hits and dispatch them to the
server when the device reconnects to the internet.
Processing: Once the hits from a user have been collected on Googles servers, the next step is data
processing. This is the transformation step that turns your raw data to something useful.
Configuration: In this step, Google Analytics applies your configuration settings, such as filters, to
the raw data. Once your data is processed, the data is stored in a database. Once the data has been
processed and inserted into the database, it cant be changed.
Reporting: Typically, you will use the web interface at to access your
data. However, it is also possibly to systematically retrieve data from your Google Analytics account
using your own application code and the Core Reporting API.

Key metrics and dimensions defined

Reports in Google Analytics contain dimensions and metrics. Most commonly, youll see dimensions
and metrics reported in a table, with the first column containing a list of the values for one particular
dimension, and the rest of the columns displaying the corresponding metrics.

Dimensions describe characteristics of your users, their sessions and actions.

Metrics are the quantitative measurements of users, sessions and actions. Metrics are numerical
Unit 4:
When you first set up your Google Analytics account, youll be asked to choose whether you want to
track a website or a mobile application. Depending on your choice, Google Analytics will display
instructions to add the correct code to collect your data.
If youre tracking a website, then you will receive a piece of JavaScript code that you must add to
every page of the site you want to track. Its best to add this code to the top of the page, before the
closing head tag. If your website uses a template, then you can add the code directly to that site

If youre tracking a mobile application you will download a mobile software development kit, or SDK,
and share it with your development team. Theres an SDK for the Android platform as well as iOS.

Once you add the code to your site, you should start to see data immediately in the Real-Time

Another way to add the Google Analytics tracking code to a site is by using a tag management tool,
such as Google Tag Manager.
A Google Analytics account is simply a logical way for a business to group data from all of
its digital assets together. There are also certain configuration settings that you apply to your
entire account, like managing the users who have access.
Within each account, you can have one or more properties that independently collect data.
Each property is assigned a unique tracking ID that tells Google Analytics exactly which data
should be collected, stored and reported together. Typically you create separate accounts for
unique businesses or distinct business units. Then you can create unique properties within
that account for the different websites, mobile applications, or other digital assets that belong
to the business.
For each property, you have the option to create different views of your data. A view lets you
define a unique perspective of the data from a parent property. You use the configuration
settings in your account to define each view. You should have at least three views for each
By default, you have one unfiltered view that is automatically generated when you create a
property. Dont apply any settings or configurations to this view since it is the backup for
your data. Once you delete a view its gone forever. So having a backup view, like the
unfiltered data view, is very useful.
You should have a master view. This view should have all of the settings needed to transform
your data into useful information.
You should have a test view. If you need to make changes to your configuration test them
using this view first. Once you know the impact to the data you can then apply the same
change to your master view.
When you create a new view, Google Analytics does not automatically copy any of the
historical data in the original view to the new view. Youll only have data starting from the
date you created the view.
You can use filters to:
exclude data
include data
change how the data looks in your reports
Filters help you transform the data so its better aligned with your business needs.
During processing, Google Analytics applies your filters to the raw data collected from your
website or app. This transformed data is what you see in the reports for each view.
For example, you can use a filter to exclude traffic from your internal employees. The easiest
way to do this is to create a filter that excludes all of the data from the IP address for your
business. As Google Analytics processes your data it will ignore any data coming from that
IP address.
You can also use a filter to clean up your data. For example, sometimes a website will show
the same page regardless of the case of the URL uppercase, lowercase or mixed case. Since
Google Analytics treats data as case sensitive, this can result in the same page showing up
multiple times, based on case, in your reports. To prevent this separation and see the page
data in aggregate, you can set up a lowercase filter to force all of the URLs to a single case.
Setting up Goals in Google Analytics is one of the most important parts of implementation.
Once you enable Goals, you get metrics like the number of conversions and the conversion
rate. Goals are the way that we map the data in Google Analytics to the key performance
indicators that you defined in your measurement plan. These metrics are always available in
the Conversion section of your standard reports. But you can also find these metrics in almost
every other report in Google Analytics. This is useful because the reports allow you to
segment your conversion data.
Anytime you think of conversions, you should think about macro conversions and micro
conversions. Macro conversions are your primary business objectives. Micro conversions
are the relationship building activities that lead up to a macro conversion.
Goals are configured at the view level. That means you can create different Goals for each
view. There are four types of Goals.
A Destination Goal is a page on your website that users see when they complete an activity.
For an account signup, this might be the thank you for signing up page. For a purchase this
might be the receipt page. A destination Goal triggers a conversion when a user views the
page youve specified. If youre setting up a Goal for an app, youd set up a screen view Goal
rather than a destination Goal.
An Event Goal is triggered when a user does something specific like downloading a PDF or
starting a video. You need to have Event Tracking implemented on your website in order to
use this type of Goal.
A Pages per Visit Goal is triggered when a user sees more or fewer pages than a threshold
that you specify.
A Duration Goal is triggered when a users visit exceeds or falls below a threshold that you
There is an important difference between Goal conversions and ecommerce transactions. A
Goal conversion can only be counted once during a visit, but an ecommerce transaction can
be counted multiple times during a visit. Heres an example. Lets say that you set one of
your Goals to be a PDF download and you define it such that any PDF download is a valid
Goal conversion. And lets also say that the Goal is worth $5. In this case, if a user comes to
your site and downloads five PDF files during a single session, youll only get one
conversion worth $5. However, if you were to track each of these downloads as a $5
ecommerce transaction, you would see five transactions and $25 in ecommerce revenue.
As a best practice, you should only add a Goal value for nonecommerce Goals. The reason is
that Goal value is cumulative. If you add a Goal value and you track transactions with the
ecommerce tracking code, Google Analytics will add the value of the transaction to the value
of the Goal.


GA detects 3 mediums without any customization: 2.referral 3.none

Which campaign tracking variables should you always use when manually tagging a URL?

utm_source, utm_medium, utm_campaign

Which is the recommended parameter for identifying different versions of an ad?


Which of the following should you manually tag with campaign tracking variables?
Check all that apply.

Banner ads
AdWords campaigns
Organic search traffic
Non-AdWords CPC campaigns
Email campaigns


Which of the following reporting tools would you use to show the dimension "city" next to the
dimension "source" in a report?

5.2- audience reports

1.characteristics of users 2. What devices they use 3. Engagement n loyalty

Which of the following Audience reports would you use to see how your site performance differs
between desktop, smartphone and tablet users?
Mobile Reports
5.3. acquisition reports
-helps the business understand their investment in digital marketing
-helps to make decisions about where to focus ur marketing/advertising efforts by seeing the traffic
generator reports and comparing marketing channels
-how to find and analyse ur marketing campaigns
5.4.- adwords report
-make use of COST DATA imported directly from adwords.
-GA uses this cost data along with revenue data to calculate metrics like ROI and revenue per
-gives post click performance data: so we can see what happens after users click on our ads.
-you can view site usage metrics, goal conversion metrics, e-commerce activity and revenue
metrics like ROI & Revenue per click.
-visits>than or equal to clicks- if it is less then, GA code is not properly installed.
-javascript and cookies must be enabled by user to be tracked by GA(Even though no of clicks
can still be tracked even if it is disabled)

roi= revenue from adwords - adwords cost

adwords cost

5.5 behaviour reports

-helps understand intent of users and helps discover new opportunities for marketing
-identify popular content on ur site
-identity how visitors move from page to page
-analyse site search data

Nvaigation flow can be adjusted to show just:page(green) interaction or event interaction(blue

box) or both
5.6. Custom reports and dashboards

-simplifies and improves analytics workflow

custom report allows to customise metrics and dimensions.
dashboards give high level view of critical metrics and segments. Gives overview of how ur
properties r performing by displaying summaries of diff reports as widgets on a single page.-u
can find correlations between diff reports n check their health.
6.1. Goal flow report
- shows n visualise the path that users take to reach the goal.

6.2. ecommerce reports

-used to track sales activity and performance.
3 types of reports are there:
Product performance(which products sell best-quantity, unique purchases, revenue earned),
Sales performance(shows breakdown of dates when u brought in the most revenue),
Transactions report (list of transaction ids- which show the items user purchased together)
-enable ecommerce in view settings
-add ecommerce code to site

Which of the following questions could you answer with the Ecommerce reports?
Check all that apply.

Which product category brings in the most revenue for my business?

What are the ten most frequently purchased products on my site?
What products did a visitor purchase together in the same transaction?
What is the average order value of the transactions placed on my site?
6.3. Multi-Channel Funnels reports
-Tells how ur marketing channels work together to drive sales n conversions.
In order to see data in the multi-channel funnel reports, u need to setup goals, ecomomerce
tracking or both.

The Multi-Channel Funnels reports are generated from conversion paths, which contain the
sequences of visits that lead up to each conversion and transaction. By default, only
interactions within the last 30 days are included in conversion paths, but you can adjust this
time period from 1 to 90 days using the Lookback Window selector at the top of each
Multi-Channel Funnels report.
The Assisted Conversions report summarizes the roles and contributions of your channels.
The Assist metrics summarize the number and monetary value of sales and conversions that a
channel assisted.
The Last Click metrics show conversions and revenue that the channel closed or completed.
The First Click metrics show the number and value of sales and conversions a channel
In the Assisted Conversions report, youll see a ratio of assisted conversions to last click or
direct conversions for each channel. This ratio summarizes a channels overall role in the
conversion process.
A value close to 0 indicates that a channel completed more sales and conversions than it
assisted or initiated.
A value close to 1 indicates that the channel equally assisted and completed sales and
The more this value exceeds 1, the more the channel assisted sales and conversions.
The Top Conversion Paths report shows all of the unique sequences of channel interactions
that led to conversions, as well as the number of conversions from each path, and the value of
those conversions. The Time Lag report shows how many days pass between the first
interaction and last interaction for your users conversion paths. This can give you insight
into the length of your online sales cycle.
The Path Length report breaks out your conversions by the number of channel interactions
contained in your users conversion paths. This can tell you how many times a user typically
returns to your site before converting.

6.4. Attribution reports

The Attribution reports allow you to compare different attribution models to understand the return on
your advertising investment. Over time, this enables better budget allocation across your marketing

An attribution model is a rule, or set of rules, that determines how credit for sales and conversions is
assigned to a channel within a conversion path. The attribution model that Google Analytics uses in
most reports, is the lastclick attribution model, but there are many other types of models available in
Google Analytics through the Model Comparison tool.

With Google Analytics, you can collect and analyze data across a variety of devices and digital
environments. Most organizations use Google Analytics to get a better understanding of how their
customers find and interact with websites and mobile apps, but Analytics can be used to measure
behavior on other devices like game consoles, ticket kiosks, and even appliances. You can even use
Google Analytics in really creative ways to collect offline business data, like purchases that happen in
your retail stores, as long as you have an accurate way of collecting and sending that data to your
Analytics account.
In this lesson, were going to give you an overview of how Google Analytics works to collect data from
various environments. Well define the different parts of the Analytics platform, and talk about how the
data gets from the tracking code into your reports. This lesson will provide the foundation you need to
understand the tools youll eventually use to set up Google Analytics.
The four components of the Google Analytics platform
When we talk about the platform, were referring to the technology that makes Google Analytics work,
and not just the data and tools you see in your account.
There are four main parts of the Google Analytics platform:


All four parts work together to help you gather, customize and analyze your data.
Lets take a look at collection first. Collection is all about getting data into your Google Analytics account.
To collect data, you need to add Google Analytics code to your website, mobile app or other digital
environment you want to measure. This tracking code provides a set of instructions to Google Analytics,
telling it which user interactions it should pay attention to and which data it should collect. The way the
data is collected depends on the environment you want to track.
For example, youll use the JavaScript tracking code to collect data from a website, but a Software
Development Kit, called an SDK, to collect data from a mobile app.
Each time the tracking code is triggered by a users behavior, like when the user loads a page on a
website or a screen in a mobile app, Google Analytics records that activity. First, the tracking code
collects information about each activity, like the title of the page viewed. Then this data is packaged up
in what we call a hit. Once the hit has been created it is sent to Googles servers for the next step --
data processing.
Processing & Configuration
During data processing, Google Analytics transforms the raw data from collection using the settings in
your Google Analytics account. These settings, also known as the configuration, help you align the data
more closely with your measurement plan and business objectives.
For example, you could set up something called a Filter that tells Google Analytics to remove any data
from your own employees. During processing Google Analytics would then filter out all of the hits from
your employees, so that this data wouldnt be used for your report calculations.
You can also configure Google Analytics to import data directly into your reports from other Google
products, like Google AdWords, Google AdSense and Google Webmaster Tools. You can even
configure Google Analytics to import data from non-Google sources, like your own internal data. Its
during the processing stage that Google Analytics then merges all of these data sources to create the
reports you eventually see in your account.
Its important to note that once your data has been processed, it can not be changed. For example, if
you set a filter to exclude data from your employees, that data will be permanently removed from your
reports and cant be recovered at a later date.
After Google Analytics has finished processing, you can access and analyze your data using the
reporting interface, which includes easy-to-use reporting tools and data visualizations. Its also possible
to systematically access your data using the Google Analytics Core Reporting API. Using the API you
can build your own reporting tools or extract your data directly into third-party reporting tools.
Throughout the rest of this course, we will dive deeper into key topics about collection, configuration,
processing and reporting. Having a comprehensive understanding of each of these platform
components will help you better understand the data you see in Google Analytics. It will also prepare
you for more advanced topics about how you can customize your data.

Most digital analytics tools, including Google Analytics, use a simple model to organize the data you
collect. There are three components to this data model -- users, sessions and interactions. A user is a
visitor to your website or app, a session is the time they spend there, and an interaction is what they do
while theyre there. You can think of users, sessions and interactions as a hierarchy. Lets talk through
the details of this hierarchy using the analogy of a restaurant.
Users (visitors) and sessions (visits) in Google Analytics
Restaurants have many customers, some that visit for just one meal, and some that visit regularly.
During each visit, a person can have one or more interactions with the restaurant staff. A customer that
checks in with the host and leaves right away because no tables are available has just one interaction
during that visit. In another visit, they may check in, get seated, order dinner, and pay the bill. This visit
has four interactions.
Like a restaurant, your website or mobile app also has visitors, or users. Some users visit just one time,
and some visit multiple times. In Google Analytics, we refer to each visit as a session. Later in this
course, well talk in greater detail about how Google Analytics identifies the same user across multiple
sessions. But for now, its important to remember two things:

First, there is a relationship between users and sessions, like the relationship between
restaurant customers and their visits.
Second, Google Analytics can recognize returning users from multiple sessions over time - just
like a restaurant staff recognizes its regular customers.

Sessions (visits) and interactions in Google Analytics

A visit to a restaurant is made up of interactions, like ordering a meal and paying the bill. Similarly, a
website or app session is made up of individual interactions.
For example, a user might visit your homepage and then leave right away. This session would have
one interaction -- a page view. In another session, a user might visit your homepage, watch a video,
and make a purchase. That session includes three interactions.
In Google Analytics, we call each individual interaction within a session a hit. There are different types
of hits -- for example, pageviews, events and transactions. Each one is designed to collect a different
type of data.
You can now see that each interaction that Google Analytics tracks belongs to a session, and each
session is associated with a user. Well revisit the three components of the data model -- users,
sessions, and interactions -- as we discuss the Google Analytics platform throughout this course.