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LG THHCAT0683A OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

LEARNERS GUIDE
OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

Published by

HEART TRUST/NATIONAL TRAINING AGENCY

Produced by

Learning Management Services Department


Gordon Town Road
Kingston 7
Jamaica W.I.

This material is protected by copyright. Copying this material or any part of it by any means,
including digital or in any form is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from
the HEART Trust/NTA

*** 2003***

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03


LG THHCAT0683A OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Introduction....................................................................................................................................1

Welcome ..............................................................................................................................1
This Competency Unit .........................................................................................................1
Before you start....................................................................................................................2
Planning your learning programme .....................................................................................2
Self-Assessment Checklist...................................................................................................3
How to use this Learners Guide .........................................................................................6
Using the Computer and Other Resources...........................................................................8
Method of Assessment.........................................................................................................8
Quality Assurance................................................................................................................8

Element 1: Prepare food for service............................................................................................9

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................17

Element 2: Serve customers .......................................................................................................18

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................23

Element 3: Cook and prepare food ...........................................................................................25

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................34

Element 4: Present food..............................................................................................................35

Self-Assement Checklist....................................................................................................38

Element 5: Store food .................................................................................................................39

Self-Assesement Checklist.................................................................................................43

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LG THHCAT0683A OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

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LG THHCAT0683A OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

Element 6: Clean and maintain equipment ..............................................................................44


element 7: Comply with occupational health and safety regulations ....................................44

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................49

Element 8: Observe principles and practices of hygiene.........................................................50

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................54

Element 9: Handle cash ..............................................................................................................55

Self-Assessment Checklist.................................................................................................60

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LG THHCAT0683A
OPERATE A FAST FOOD OUTLET

INTRODUCTION

Welcome

Welcome to the Learners Guide for Unit of Competency Operate a Fast Food
Outlet. This is just one of a number of Learners Guides produced for the Commercial
Food Preparation Skills stream of the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, and it is designed
to guide you, the learner, through a series of learning processes and activities that will
enable you to achieve the specified learning outcomes for the competency unit.

The content of this guide was developed from the Competency Standard
THHFCAT0683A, which is one of the basic building blocks for the National Vocational
Qualification of Jamaica (NVQ-J) certification within the industry. Please refer to your
Learners Handbook for a thorough explanation of standards and competencies, and how
these relate to the NVQ-J certification.

You are also advised to consult the Competency Standard and Assessment for a better
understanding of what is required to master the competency.

This Competency Unit

Operate a fast food outlet addresses the knowledge and skills required for effectively
operating a fast food outlet. The competency unit is comprised of the following elements:

Element 1: Prepare for service

Element 2: Serve customers

Element 3: Cook, and prepare food

Element 4: Present food

Element 5: Store Food

Element 6: Clean and maintain equipment

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Element 7: Comply with occupational health and safety regulations

Element 8: Observe principles and practices of hygiene

Element 9: Handle cash

As you go through each element, you will find critical information relating to each one.
You are advised to study them carefully so that you will be able to develop the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes for operating a fast food outlet.

Before you start

Before you start this Learners Guide, you need to:

a. Obtain a Learners Logbook that will be used to record evidence of your new
skills/competence. As you demonstrate your new skills, record your activities and
have your learning facilitator sign off on them. This will allow you provide evidence
of your competence when you are being assessed against the competency standard.

b. Ensure that you have access to the facilities and equipment necessary for learning.

c. Ensure that your learning resources are available.

d. Know and observe the occupational health and safety standards/practices for the
industry. For example, ensure that you are wearing suitable clothing, that tools and
equipment are safe, and that the correct safety equipment is used.

e. Plan your learning programme (see below)

f. Understand how to use this Learners Guide (see below)

Planning your learning programme

The following self-assessment checklist will assist you in planning your learning
programme as it will help you to think about the knowledge and skills needed to
demonstrate competency in this unit. As you go through the checklist will be able to find
out what elements you have already mastered which ones you will need to pay more
attention to as you go through the learning process.

To complete the checklists simply read the statements and tick the Yes or No box.

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Self-Assessment Checklist
- Operate a fast food outlet

Element 1 Plan and prepare work Yes No

1. I can check and restock products and food items where


necessary ( ) ( )

2. I can carry out mise en place to ensure sufficient and


appropriate food items are prepare in order to commence
service ( ) ( )

3. I can complete mise en place before service commences ( ) ( )

4. I can meet on going requirements for additional food items at


an appropriate time ( ) ( )

5. I can display service area and food items in a clean, hygienic


and attractive manner ( ) ( )

Element 2 Serve customers Yes No

1. I can determine and meet customers requirement in terms of


speed of service, quality, additions and modifications to
standard recipes, special requirement ( ) ( )

2. I can use customer relations skills to provide polite, efficient


and effective service ( ) ( )

3. I can provide assistance to customers in selection of food


items where required ( ) ( )

4. I can employ selling skills appropriately according to


enterprise practices ( ) ( )

5. I can acquire and up-date thorough product knowledge


( ) ( )

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Element 3 Cook, and prepare food Yes No

1. I can select and use appropriate equipment correctly for


particular cooking methods ( ) ( )

2. I can select and assemble correct ingredients according to


enterprise practices ( ) ( )

3. I can employ appropriate cooking methods according to


enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

4. I can heat food requiring re-heating at the correct


temperature for the require length of time, according to
enterprise practices and the principles of food safety ( ) ( )

5. I can organize work in consultation with other team members


where appropriate, to ensure that food is prepared or cooked
in a timely manner and on going customer service provided ( ) ( )

6. I can use portion control in order to minimize waste ( ) ( )

Element 4 Present food Yes No

1. I can present food items attractively without drips or spills


and according to enterprise requirements ( ) ( )

2. I can portion food according to enterprise standards ( ) ( )

3. I can present food in the appropriate hot or cold


storage/presentation equipment ( ) ( )

Element 5 Store food Yes No

1. I can store food in the correct manner according to principles


and practices of hygiene and food safety ( ) ( )

2. I can monitor, account for and re-order stock when require ( ) ( )

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Element 6 Clean and maintain equipment Yes No

1. I can maintain equipment according to manufacturers


instruction ( ) ( )

2. I can clean equipment where required before, during and


after completion of service ( ) ( )

Element 7 Comply with occupational health and safety


regulations Yes No

1. I can use health and safety work practices according to


State/Territory legislation ( ) ( )

2. I can carry out mise en place and cooking with regard to safe
work practices ( ) ( )

3. I can operate equipment in a safe manner according to


manufacturers instructions and principles of occupational
health and safety ( ) ( )

Element 8 Observe principles and practices of hygiene Yes No

1. I can maintain personal hygiene at all times ( ) ( )

2. I can maintain food hygiene according to the principles and


practices of hygiene and food safety ( ) ( )

Element 9 Handle cash Yes No

1. I can receive and check cash float accurately using correct


documentation ( ) ( )

2. I can operate cash registers using manufacturers


specifications and enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

3. I can carry out cash transactions promptly, correctly and


accurately according to enterprise practices ( ) ( )

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Element 9 Contd Yes No

4. I can carry out non-cash transactions correctly according to


enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

5. I can ensure safety of cash, according to enterprise practices ( ) ( )

6. I can carry out reconciliation of takings accurately using


specify documentation ( ) ( )

If you ticked all or most of the Yes boxes then you might not need to go through the
entire guide. Ask your learning facilitator to assist you in determining the most
appropriate action you should take.

If you ticked a few of the Yes boxes or none at all then you should work through all of
the guide, even though some of the material may be familiar to you.

Plan your learning based on your answers. Be sure to involve your learning facilitator
in the planning process.

How to use this Learners Guide

This Learners Guide is designed to assist you in working and learning at your own pace.

We suggest that you:

Go through the sections/elements as they are presented (starting at Section 1)

Check your progress at each checkpoint to ensure that you have understood the
material

Observe the icons and special graphics used throughout this guide to remind you of
what you have to do to enhance your learning. The icons and their meanings are as
follows:

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Complete Assessment Exercise
This exercise requires you to think about the knowledge
and skills that you have or will develop in this
competency unit.

Definition Box
Words/phrases are defined or explained in this box. The
words/phrases being explained are in bold print.

Checkpoint
This denotes a brain teaser and is used to check your
understanding of the materials presented. No answers are
provided for the questions asked.

Activity
This denotes something for you to do either alone or with
the assistance of your learning facilitator.

Reference
Points you to the reference materials and other support
documents

Ask your learning facilitator for help if you have any problems with the interpretation
of the contents, the procedures, or the availability of resources

Stop and complete each activity as you come to it. If the activity requires you to
perform an actual task, be sure to tell your learning facilitator when you get to that
activity so that he/she can make any arrangements

Get your learning facilitator to sign and date the Learner Logbook when you have
completed an activity

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Read the summary and complete the self-assessment checklist at the end of each
section or element.

When you have worked through all sections of the guide, complete the assessment
exercise at the end of the document. When you can tick every Yes box, you are ready
for assessment and should ask your learning facilitator to assist you in making the
arrangements to have your performance assessed.

Using the Computer and Other Resources

Where your activities refer you to the library, computer and Internet resources, ask your
learning facilitator to assist you with locating these resources. If you are getting your
training in an institution, there may be a library and computer laboratory. If this is not
the case, visit the local library and find out what resources are available.

If you are new to the computer and the Internet, someone should be able to show you
how to use these resources.

Please note that in many of your activities you have been referred to information on the
Internet. This is because the Internet has a vast amount of information that can help you
in acquiring the particular competencies. We would like to advise you, however, that we
cannot guarantee that all the sites will be available when you need them. If this happens,
ask your learning facilitator to assist you with locating other sites that have the
information you require.

Method of Assessment

Competency will be assessed while you are actually performing the tasks related to this
competency, this may be in a real workplace or a simulated situation that accurately
relates to the work situation. You are advised to consult the associated competency
standard and assessment instrument for further details relating to the assessment
strategies.

Quality Assurance

A feedback form is included at the back of each learner guide, so all users are given the
opportunity to document any concerns which they may have in regard to any aspect of
the guide. Such feedback will assist in the review of the guide. Users are encouraged to
complete the form and send it to the address given.

You may now start your learning. Have fun while you work!

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ELEMENT 1: PREPARE FOOD FOR SERVICE

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitude to prepare food for service in fast-food establishments.
Your instructor is there to assist you through the different activities so on completion you
should be able to:

1. Check and restock products and food items according to specification.


2. Estimate food needs to ensure that sufficient and appropriate food items are
prepared in order to commence service.
3. Mise-en-place is completed before service commences.
4. Maintain an ongoing supply of food item to satisfy production needs at an
appropriate time.
5. Ensure that food when prepared are served and displayed in a clean, hygienic and
attractive manner.

Fast food enterprises are characterized by food that is supplied quickly after ordering,
although it may not be eaten immediately, and needs minimal service. Examples of these
enterprises are attractions, events, sporting venues, fast-food restaurants. The food outlet
also include- mobiles, tray services, stands and carts. Fast food is also known as take-
away or take-out food. Examples of fast food enterprise based on food preparation are:

food cooked in bulk in advance and kept hot food which has been prepared off site
and requires rethermalising
simple food items which require basic cooking techniques and prepared when
ordered.

Examples of fast-food are; hot dogs, pizza, fish and chips, hamburgers, fried chicken,
patties, pop-corn, sandwiches, pre-prepared soup, ice-cream, shakes, cakes and pies.

Refer to: http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast-food_restaurant

CHECK AND RESTOCK ITEMS ACCORDING TO SPECIFICATIONS

Food should be purchased for the establishment using a standard purchasing


specification. The establishment should have standard purchasing specification for every
commodity that will be used to prepare the menu.

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These standard specifications will assist with the development of standardized recipe for
each dish. It is a statement of various criteria related to
A purchase specification - quality, grade, weight, size and method of preparation
is a precise written e.g. wash potatoes.
statement of the products A copy of the product specification is often given to the
characteristics required by a supplier and storekeeper.
user.
Specifications have two functions:

They communicate to the supplier


They provide criteria against which the goods when supplied can be compared.

Many fast-food enterprises are part of a chain of restaurants or franchise operations that
provide these enterprise with standardized foodstuffs prepared in a centralized kitchen.

CHECKPOINT:

Define standards purchasing specifications and give two reasons why


they are used.

ACTIVITY:

You will be working along with your facilitator to write product


specification of menu items that are suitable to be served in a fast-
food operation.

Refer to: Wallace R., (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), 1998, Educational Institute, AHMA
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast-food_restaurant

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Estimation of Food Needs For The Menu Items

The menu is a tool that informs the customer of the days offering. It also influences the
customers in their purchasing decision. To ensure that sufficient items are in stock to
satisfy daily demands, food needs should be estimated based on operational (production)
needs, and the frequency of delivery by the purveyor.

The production team must inform the purchasing department about the products needed.
They should also establish the quality they require and inspect the goods on arrival.
Standard recipes that are developed should be consistently followed. It ensures that there is consistency in
satisfying guest needs and satisfying organization goals. When they are used the product
will always look, cost and taste the same. Properly developed standardized recipes help
to:
Specify ingredients and quantities
State required procedure time
Select equipment needed
State cooking time of the menu item
Identify Critical Control Points

Production needs can be estimated based on forecasting

Forecasting Production: Quantities of products required for expected production


should be estimated e.g. for next week activity. There are different ways of
estimating production requirements:

- Sales history uses past sales sheets for each day of the week. The sales of
menu items can be tracked over an extended period of time.
- Time series analysis weighs the historic data with respect to current times. It
places more importance to recent occurrences.

CHECKPOINT:

State one method of estimating production need?

ACTIVITY:

You will visit a fast-food operation and discuss with the restaurant
manager or supervisor, how they estimate daily production needs.
You will record the information and discuss your findings with your
facilitator.

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Information should be clearly communicated to the staff
Remember to inspect goods on arrival
Goods should be stored immediately after receiving

Refer to: Wallace R., (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

PREPARATION FOR SERVICE (MISE-EN-PLACE)

The term mise-en-place is used for all duties that have to be carried out before food
preparation and service:

A daily duty rota should be set up for all staff by the supervisor.
Housekeeping duties would include the reception area, rest rooms and dining areas.
Selection of the correct equipment/ tool for the task.
Maintain clean food production areas, equipment and utensils.
Other mise-en-place activities include: preparation of menus, handling paper items,
preparation of production stations and food handling areas, counter for counter
service.
Basic preparation of vegetables and fruit, garnishes, coatings and batters.
Thawing, reconstituting, regenerating and rethermalising of portion controlled and
convenience foods
Place goods for preparation in appropriate storage facility.

CHECKPOINT:

Define the term mise-en-place

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ACTIVITY:

You will be working in the kitchen to do some basic pre-preparation


of vegetables that are suitable for fast-food operations example:
menu items suitable for cole slaw and french fries.

Your learning facilitator will demonstrate the skills needed to


prepare these menu items. You will then show your skills in
preparing similar activity. You will be evaluated on this activity.

Follow safe work practices when preparing for service


Sanitize work area before you start to work
Follow safe hygienic procedures

Refer to: Wallace R., (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), 1998, Educational Institute, AHMA

MAINTAINING AN ONGOING SUPPLY OF FOOD

Before the establishment is opened for business, adequate preparation should be made for
the volume of business expected which was based on forecasting. Over and under-
production of food items will cause the operation to lose revenue.

The goal of production is to serve the customer the highest quality product, prepared in
the shortest time. Therefore to achieve this, each area of the operation must work
together.

The recipe should be separated into various steps so that some level of pre-preparation is
done ahead of time as discussed in Objective 2 (Estimation of food needs). Final cooking
of the food product should be done close to the service time. Food items that are cooked
ahead of time and held hot should be prepared by staggered cooking method to maintain
quality e.g. vegetables and meats. However, some items are best held frozen e.g. french
fries and hamburger meat.

Coordination and communication should be maintained between the kitchen and counter/
foodservice staff to ensure that an on-going supply of food is maintained.

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Refer to: Wallace R. (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John
Wiley and Sons

CHECKPOINT:

What is the result if you operation over produce or under produce


food?

ACTIVIT:

Discuss with a restaurant manager or supervisor of a fast-food


operation how the service area communicates with the kitchen to
ensure that there is ongoing supply of food.
You will discuss your findings in class.

Kitchen and service staff should be in constant communication.


Prepared food should not be held for a long portion of time.

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Hygiene of Service Area and Food Presentation

Before opening, the service area and equipment should be cleaned and sanitized.

Cleaning - Physical removal of


visible soil and food from the surface.

Sanitizing - A process that reduces


the number of microorganisms to safe
levels on food contact surfaces.

Food deteriorates when kept over long period of time after cooking. To keep them in an
edible condition in the holding area for service, the correct temperature should be
maintained to avoid temperature abuse. Hot foods must be kept hot above 140f/ 60C
and cold food must be kept cold below 40f / -5C until served.

Excessive holding times will reduce product quality and render the food unfit for human
consumption. Correct holding equipment should be used to ensure maintenance of food
quality. Examples of holding equipment will discussed in Element 3 - Objective 1

Refer to: Wallace R. (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA
Payne-Palacio, J and Theis, (2001). Monica, West and Woods Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Ed., 2001

CHECKPOINT:

What happens to food when they are held for a long time after
cooking?

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ACTIVITY:

You will research a textbook to obtain a diagram of a temperature


chart highlighting the critical temperature for bacterial growth. You
are going to review these temperatures and discuss your findings with
your facilitator.

Avoid keeping food in the temperature danger zone


Maintain correct temperature to avoid temperature abuse
Follow safe hygienic procedures

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READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand the procedure for checking and restocking


products and food items according to specifications ( ) ( )

2. I understand how to estimate food needs to ensure that


sufficient and appropriate food items are ordered ( ) ( )

3. I understand the importance of mise-en-place for the


commencement of service ( ) ( )

4. I understand that food should be prepared, served and


displayed in a clean, hygienic and attractive manner ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Food items are checked and restocked according to


specification ( ) ( )

2. Food needs are estimated to ensure that sufficient and


appropriate food items are prepared for service ( ) ( )

3. Mise-en-place is completed before service commence ( ) ( )

4. Ongoing supply of food items are maintained to satisfy


production needs ( ) ( )

5. Food are prepared, served and displayed in a clean,


hygienic and attractive manner ( ) ( )

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ELEMENT 2: SERVE CUSTOMERS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitude to serve customers. Your instructor is there to assist you
through the different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Satisfy customers requirements


2. Develop customer relation skills that will ensure polite efficient and
effective service
3. Acquire a thorough knowledge of the product to assist the customers in the
selection of food items
4. Develop selling skills that can be used in different types of operation

SATISFY CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENTS

The aim of any foodservice establishment should be to meet and exceed a customers
expectation. A customers expectation can be classified as customers needs e.g.
physiological, psychological, economic, social and convenience.

The specific reasons behind a customers choice will determine the customers
satisfaction or dissatisfaction and not only the food and beverage service. The customer
who cannot satisfy his or her need will be totally dissatisfied and will not return.

The staff should be aware of action that indicates how customers feel as they do not at
time express their satisfaction; e.g. they did not eat the meal they purchased. Customers
suggestions should be encouraged, therefore a suggestion box should be placed at
strategic point in the operation. Information obtained from the customers should be
communicated to management and all other staff who are involved so that the problem
can be taken care of immediately.

The actual food or drink (goods) and services (preparing, cooking, and delivery of the
goods) are inseparable. The customers are actually buying an experience.

Quality - Although the quality of the good is important, it is the level and quality of
service that leaves a lasting impression on the customer. An average meal, of low
quality, but presented with superb, attentive service, will result in a satisfied guest. On
the other hand, a well-prepared meal, made from expensive material, but poor service,
will result in a dissatisfied guest.

Value - Service is important, as it will also determine the customers perception of the
value of the meal. The higher the level of service provided with the food the more the
customer is willing to pay.

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Expectation of the operation - The expectation of customer service in an upscale
operation selling hamburgers would be different from that of a restaurant selling
hamburgers in a mall. In an upscale operation the customer would expect more quality
service from the upscale restaurant.
Customers also expects - timely service and a friendly staff as a component of good
customer service.
Customers use all four senses to survey and evaluate an operation:

- eyes observe the cleanliness of the dining, kitchen and restroom


- the scent and odour of the environment and the aroma of the food
- the temperature of the service area can create discomfort to the customer
- the taste of the food, which should tickle the customer palate
- the actual delivery of service which should be prompt and courteous.

Refer to: Wallace R (1996), Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

CHECKPOINT:

What is the main aim of any foodservice establishment


Who is considered a satisfied customer?

ACTIVITY:

After the class discussion and interaction about satisfying customer,


you will be assigned a role play.

You will be working in small groups of four to do a role-play in class


of a dissatisfied customer and how as a food server you can correct
the problem.

Remember to be courteous and attentive to the customer


Remember to give quality service.

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Develop Customer Relation Skills to Ensure Polite, Efficient and Effective Service

The servers must be trained to give accurate and effective service and also the basics of
menu. There should be good relationship between the kitchen staff and the dining room
(internal customer). To ensure efficient and effective service the following points should
be borne in mind:

Service must be properly timed, e.g. breakfast and lunch service would be faster than
dinner service.
The service staff should know the menu, daily specials, brand of beverages in stock,
and the production methods for the food an beverage products offered.
The server should know how to take an order, match guest with orders,
Use the house procedures for serving and removing the food and beverages.
The customer should be dealt with in a tactful courteous manner:

- Customers should be greeted promptly or acknowledged


- Guests with reservation should be seated promptly at their reserved time

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack,(1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

CHECKPOINT:

Give two points to ensure efficient and effective service?

ACTIVITY:

Your facilitator will demonstrate to the group the skills that are
needed to greet a customer?

Following the presentation, you will work in-groups of two to


practice these skills until you master them.

If you are in any difficulty, your facilitator will assist you.

Remember to be courteous and attentive to the customer


Greet your customer with a pleasant smile

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Acquire a Thorough Knowledge of the Product to Assist the Customer in the
Selection of Food Items

The servers to do their job properly should have knowledge of the menu e.g. how the dish
is prepared, how it can be adjusted, and the items that are included in the menu. They
should know the daily special, the brand of beverages, the ingredients and production
method for the menu offered. The service staff should be given a daily briefing of the
menu items that will be sold and the quantities.

The server should be able to help the customer to select the items on the menu.
Although the menu is a silent salesperson for the operation, the server has an
opportunity to do much more effective and personal selling.

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1988).Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

CHECKPOINT:

Why is it important that the servers must have a thorough


knowledge of the menu?

ACTIVITY:

You will be working along with your facilitator to discuss different


types of restaurants menu that has brief explanation below each dish.
Familiarize yourself with them.

You will now work along with another trainee and practice selling
these menu items to each other.

Listen carefully and repeat customer order


Always establish eye contact with the customer

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Develop Selling Skills

The server is the operation sales person using the menu to increase income for the
business. Some guests will come to the operation without having made a decision of
what they want to purchase.

The server who knows the menu should have no problem in assisting the customer.
Suggestive selling also encourages the customer to order other items on the menu that
they would have skipped. The server can also describe the benefits of the choices so that
the guest can get a verbal picture of the items. The items to recommend are those with
high contribution margin, that will make money (profit) for the operation.
The benefits of suggestive selling are:

- The customer would have bought a product that he/she would have ordered.
- The server has increased the check size
- The operation has generated a profit

The types of selling techniques used by the server are dependent on the stage of decision
of the customer:

- Some already have their mind made up


- Some make a decision after reviewing the menu
- Some cannot decide and need some assistance

Also the types of technique used is also based on the type of establishment.

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,


John Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage Operations
(4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

CHECKPOINT:

Two key reasons to practice suggestive selling are?

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 22


ACTIVITY:

Your learning will demonstrate to you and your peers how to take a
food order.

Following the demonstration, you and a peer member will practice


taking each other order using suggestive selling. Your learning
facilitator will assess this activity.

Listen carefully and repeat customer order


Always establish eye contact with the customer

READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand how to create an atmosphere to satisfy


customer requirements ( ) ( )

2. I understand the importance of developing customer


relation skills to ensure polite efficient and effective
service ( ) ( )

3. I understand how to acquire a thorough knowledge of


the menu to assist customers in the selection of food
items ( ) ( )

4. I understand the importance of developing selling skills ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 23


Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Skills are developed to satisfy customer requirements ( ) ( )

2. Customer relation skills are developed that will ensure


polite efficient and effective customer service ( ) ( )

3. Thorough knowledge of the product are acquired to


assist customers in the selection of food items ( ) ( )

4. Different types of selling skills are developed ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 24


ELEMENT 3: COOK AND PREPARE FOOD

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitude to cook and prepare food. Your instructor is there to assist
you through the different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Select and correctly use appropriate equipment for particular cooking methods of
menu items.
2. Select and assemble ingredients correctly, according to enterprise practices.
3. Select appropriate cooking methods according to enterprise procedures.
4. Re-heat food at correct temperature and length of time.
5. Conduct pre- and post-food preparation foodservice briefings of staff.
6. Portion food correctly to minimize waste

SELECT AND CORRECTLY USE APPROPRIATE EQUIPMENT FOR COOKING

Foodservice establishments require a variety of equipment in order to operate. Most


commercial equipment is large in capacity and built to withstand heavy workload.
Factors to be considered before purchasing a piece of equipment:

The needs of the operation:


The meal pattern of the operation
Labour availability and cost
Utilities
Design and function
Size and capacity
Materials

Types of main foodservice equipment used in the fast-food industry by area

Receiving

receiving scales- used to weigh items when they are received.


hand truck- used to move food and equipment

Storage

Dry - main equipment is the rack used to store food


chilled - walk-in refrigerators and freezers; reach-in refrigerator and freezers. In-counter
refrigerator

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 25


Preparation

Food slicer - accurately and uniformly cut slices of food


Buffalo chopper - chop or dice large volumes of food quickly

Cooking

- conventional oven for baking


- microwave oven for re-heating and minimal cooking
- counter model grill-for grilling meats
- griddle top or fry top-for cooking short order meat
- deep-fat fryer-for frying
- charbroiler used to grill meats
- deck ovens for baking
- pizza oven specifically used for making pizza

Holding

- hot holding cabinets- to hold pans and baking sheets


- roll in carts for holding hot pans and sheets
- hot carving shelves for roast meats
- rotisserie
- hot and cold food buffet table with and without sneeze guards
- self service display system
- rotating hot mechandizer
- coffee and brewing urns

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Alto Sham, The Halo Heat Story, Catalogue, www.alto-shaam.com

CHECKPOINT:

Write four factors that must be considered before purchasing


foodservice equipment?
Give three types of cooking equipment often used in the fast-food
industry

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 26


ACTIVITY:

You will be visiting a fast-food operation for this activity. Identify


the pieces of equipment that are used and state the menu item that
they are use to produce.

This activity will be discussed in class with your learning facilitator.

Care should be taken when purchasing equipment


Follow manufacturer instructions when for assembling and care of equipment.

SELECT AND ASSEMBLE INGREDIENTS CORRECTLY ACCORDING TO


ENTERPRISE PROCEDURES

The standardized recipe that is prepared for the operation should be used to assemble the
ingredients correctly. The ingredients to be used should be obtained from the storeroom,
using a requisition sheet. The correct food ingredients are chosen based on the product
specification stated in the standardized recipe.

In some operation the ingredients are assembled in a central ingredient area or room.
They should be weighed or measured and labeled with the name of the menu item.
Additional pre-preparation can also be done in this area such as: peeling, dicing, and
chopping of vegetables; breading and panning of meats; opening of canned foods; and
thawing of frozen foods.

The amount of work to be done in this area is dependent on the availability of space,
equipment and personnel.

Refer to: Payne-Palacio, J. & Theis, Monica, (2001).West and Woods


Introduction to Foodservice, 9th Ed. Prentice Hall Inc.

CHECKPOINT:

What form should be used when obtaining food ingredients from the
storeroom?

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 27


ACTIVITY:

You will be working in-groups of two for this activity. You will be
given a standardized recipe to select and assemble the food
ingredients for a menu item from the storeroom.

As soon as you have completed your assigned activity, inform the


facilitator who will evaluate and discuss the assignment with you.

Food should be measured accurately to obtain desired result.


When selecting food item observe product specification carefully

SELECT APPROPRIATE COOKING METHODS ACCORDING TO ENTERPRISE


PROCEDURES

Food is cooked to:

- enhance its flavor, colour, form, and texture


- destroy harmful organism
- ensure that food is safe for human consumption
- improve digestibility

The particular cooking methods selected should depend on the desired end result of the
product and cuts of meat, poultry and fish. There are two methods of cooking food. The
dry heat method and the moist heat method.

The dry heat method do not have a tenderizing effect therefore meats prepared by this
method, must be naturally tender and should be prepared in a way that will introduce
additional moisture. Examples of dry heat method of cooking are grilling, broiling,
barbecuing, roasting, baking, sauting, pan-frying and deep-frying.

Moist heat methods of cooking will result in menu items that have a distinct flavour,
texture and appearance from those prepared with dry-heat methods. The foods prepared
by this method are subtly flavoured. Naturally tender meats, poultry, fish, vegetables and
fruits are usually prepared by this method. Time and temperature should be carefully
monitored when using this method. Examples of moist heat method of cooking are:
steaming, poaching, simmering boiling and braising.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 28


Refer to: Gisslen, Wayne, Professional Cooking, (2nd Ed.), John Wiley and
Sons
(1997). Cooking Essentials for The New Professional Chef, The Food and
Beverage Institute, John Wiley and Sons
Payne-Palacio, J. & Theis Monica, (2001). West and Woods Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Ed. 2001. Prentice Hall Inc.

CHECKPOINT:

What are the two main types of cooking methods?


Give two examples of dry heat methods?
Give two examples of moist heat methods?

ACTIVITY:

Your facilitator will be discussing the different methods of cooking


that fast-food use.

After the presentation, you will visit two fast food operation of your
choice. Observe their menu carefully and list the different methods
that their operations use. Your findings will be discussed in class.

Temperature and time should be carefully monitored


Select the correct cooking method for best results

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 29


Re-heat Food at Correct Temperature and Time

Proper food handling procedures should be practiced when reheating food. Failure to do
so will cause the customer to become ill. Some important principles are:

Food should be cooled rapidly before storage and store at the correct temperature 41f
or less
Frozen foods to be thawed should be removed from the freezer and placed in the
refrigerator. This will ensure that the temperature of the food does fall within the
danger zone.
Prepared food should be kept chilled at 41f or less until they are ready to be
reheated.
Food should be reheated as quickly as possible to a safe temperature - 165f.
Liquid or semi-liquid foods should be placed in clean pots and reheated over direct
heat.
Small batches or portions can be reheated in the microwave.
Solid food such as meats can be reheated in an oven.

CHECKPOINT:

What is the best method of thawing frozen food?


What is the safe temperature for reheating food?

ACTIVITY:

Fast food operation uses frozen or refrigerated foods, more than


conventional restaurants.

Discuss with a fastfood restaurant manager or supervisor how they


control the reheating process to ensure that the quality of the finished
product is maintained.

Refer to: The Food and Beverage Institute (1997). Cooking Essentials for
The New Professional Chef, (1997), John Wiley and Sons
Payne-Palacio, J. & Theis, Monica, (2001). West and Woods Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Ed. Prentice Hall Inc.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 30


Avoid thawing food at room temperature, as this will lower the temperature of the food.
Care should be taken to reheat food to 165f. and above.

CONDUCTING PRE-AND POST- FOOD PREPARATION FOODSERVICE BRIEFING

Pre -foodservice briefing is essential to ensure that there are adequate personnel and
equipment available to satisfy the menu requirement and that the staff has a brief
knowledge of the menu. A supervisor usually conducts this briefing. Standard operating
control procedures are usually reinforced areas of concerns that would be discussed in
these meeting are:

Quality requirement - use of standardize recipe, portion size, standard control tool
Maintaining standards information for work is available to the staff, the correct
equipment and tool are available for work
Servers responsibility general dining room procedures, how to greet and seat the guest.
Timing of service timing system for presenting orders to the kitchen as it relates to
guest needs.
Staff communication - team members should be encouraged to work together to ensure
that food is prepared or cooked in a timely manner
Food appearance and presentation - a sample plating and portion presentation would be
done.

The service staff also needs to know how the dishes were prepared. The supervisor
would also brief them on the days production target. Changes to be made to staff
assignment would also be done.

Post- foodservice briefing would involve the staff evaluating the total service of the
operation on a particular shift. They would also analyze if the production target were
achieved. Customers comment and dissatisfaction would also be discussed.

CHECKPOINT:

Why is it important to have pre and post briefing session.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 31


ACTIVITY:

Your group will be visiting an operation to observe how a staff


briefing is conducted. Take notes of the activity and make a report of
your findings.

You will be expected to report your findings in class for discussion.

Refer to: Ninemeier J (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations, (4th Ed.), Educational Institute, AHMA

Communication should be encouraged between production and service staff.


Staff should be encouraged to participate in the briefing sessions.

Portion Food Correctly To Minimize Waste

The standardized recipe for each food items will indicate the standard portion size.
Standard portion size will ensure consistency both in quality and quantity. It helps to
maintain customers satisfaction, as they will get the same size each time a purchase is
made.

Food items can be portioned in several ways:

by count e.g. shrimp, eggs


by weight e.g. pound, ounces
by volume e.g. ladles, scoop
even division e.g. lasagne, cakes
standard fill e.g. standard size dishes, cups, glasses

Portion control tools should be used every time when portioning food items for service.
Examples of such tools are different sizes ladles cups, spoons and scoops; different shape
cutters and molds; and automated beverage- dispensing equipment. Photographs of
plated menu items or chart will show how and what type/ size portion tools should be
used for presentation of the dish.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 32


CHECKPOINT:

Give one reason why food is portioned?


What are the three ways that food can be portioned?

ACTIVITY:

You will be working along with your instructor to practice portioning


food items from prepared standardized recipes using different
standard portioning tools.

Do you receive the same portions as stated in the recipes? Discuss


outcome with facilitator.

Portion control tools should be used every time


Information about acceptable standard portion sizes should be communicated to all
who are involved in preparing the menu item

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 33


READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand the procedure for selecting and use the


appropriate equipment for cooking ( ) ( )

2. I understand how to develop standard operating


procedures for the preparation, cooking and holding
menu items ( ) ( )

3. I can select and assemble ingredients accordance


according to enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

4. I can employ appropriate cooking methods according to


enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

5. I understand the importance of practicing the principles


of food safety and reheating procedures set out by the
establishment ( ) ( )

6. I can organize and conduct pre and post food


preparation foodservice briefings of staff ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. The appropriate equipment are selected for the


particular cooking method ( ) ( )

2. Correct ingredients are selected and assemble according


to enterprise practices ( ) ( )

3. Appropriate cooking methods are employed according


to enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

4. Foods were reheated at the correct temperature for the


required length of time according to enterprise practice
and safety ( ) ( )

5. Work is organized in consultation with other team


members ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 34


ELEMENT 4: PRESENT FOOD

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes to present food for service. Your instructor is there to
assist you through the different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Portion food correctly for presentation


2. Present food items in an attractive manner
3. Present food in the appropriate storage/ presentation equipment

Service is the process of delivering food to the customer in the correct way. The service
activity may enhance or detract from the quality of the food and beverage products.

It is important that the quality of the food is maintained throughout the production
process and into service. Hot foods should be served very hot in hot containers and cold
foods should be served cold in chilled containers.

Portion Food Correctly for Presentation

The standardized recipe for each food items will indicate the standard portion size.
Standard portion size will ensure consistency. It will ensure that the customer will get the
same size each time a purchase is made.

Food items can be portioned in several ways:

- by count e.g. shrimp, eggs


- by weight e.g. pound
- by volume e.g. number of ounces

Portion control tools should be used every time when portioning food items for service.
Examples of such tools are ladles, scoops and automated beverage- dispensing
equipment.

CHECKPOINT:

Give one reason why food is portioned?


What are the three ways that food can be portioned?

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 35


ACTIVITY:

You will be working along with your instructor to practice


portioning food items from prepared standardized recipes using
different standard portioning tools. Do you receive the same
portions as stated in the recipes?

Presentation of Food Items

Menu items should be presented to the customers in a way that it is visually pleasing.
Customers eat with their eyes first and then with their mouths. Using color, textures
shapes and arrangements, all menu items must work together to form a pleasing
composition. Garnishes and decoration should be carefully thought out and enhance the
product.

Food containers should be neat and clean, and inspected before they leave the kitchen. A
clean towel or napkin should be used to clean spills or mess from the containers.
To present food attractively must be appropriately coloured, properly prepared, molded
or cut into various shapes. Preparing food properly will enhance the texture, shape and
colour.

Cutting food will increase their visual appeal, although it will require skill and practice.
Vegetables can be cut into uniformed shapes and sizes, while meats and poultry can be
sliced evenly.

Molding foods are grains or vegetables held by sauces. They are mold into attractive,
hard-edged shapes using metal rings and circular cutters. Molds create height and keep
the plate neat and clean.

Presenting Food in Appropriate Container/ Equipment for Storage

Choose the appropriate container or plate that is most suitable for the presentation of
the menu items.
Containers should be one that will enhance the menu items and support composition
of the arrangement of the food.
Decoration and garnish will make the plate attractive and add flavour and texture to
the finish dish.
The colour, shape and pattern should blend well and harmonized with the food. The
more common colours are white and cream. Remember the food should be the focal
point.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 36


In arranging the food, the composition should be well balanced.

Colour should provide balance and contrast.


Food with similar texture look boring, food with different textures looks exciting.
Foods with different shapes create a more dramatic presentation.
Foods should be arranged to achieve a balanced and unified composition.
Foods should not touch the plate rim, but should not necessarily be confined to the
center.
A focal point should be chosen that is the point to which the eye is drawn.
The plate arrangement should flow naturally.
Decorating can be done with herbs, spices and other garnish.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 37


READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand how to portion food correctly for service ( ) ( )

2. I understand the importance of developing customer


service skills to ensure efficient and effective service ( ) ( )

3. I know how to assist customers in the selection of menu


items ( ) ( )

4. I understand the importance of developing different


types of up-selling techniques that can be used in
different types of operation ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Skills are developed to satisfy the total guest experience ( ) ( )

2. Customer service skills are developed that will ensure


efficient and effective customer service ( ) ( )

3. Skills are developed to assist customers in the selection


of menu items ( ) ( )

4. Different types of upselling techniques are developed to


be used in different types of operation ( ) ( )

5. Menu items are prepared and served according to the


establishment procedures ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 38


ELEMENT 5: STORE FOOD

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitude to store food in the correct manner. Your instructor is
there to assist you through the different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Store food in the correct manner according to principles and practice of food
hygiene and safety.
2. Monitor, account for, and reorder stock when required

SAFE FOOD STORAGE

Food received should be in keeping with food safety. Product costs and quality are
affected by storing. Food when received should be stored immediately to avoid the
quality of the product deteriorating. Care and concerns should go into procedures for
controlling stored food and beverages. Critical information on food labels and
manufacturer instructions should be carefully observed e.g. expiry dates; used by;
best used. The principles of effective storage systems focus on three concerns:
keeping product secure from theft:

- retaining product quality


- providing information necessary for the financial accounting system

Maintain proper control of temperature, humidity and ventilation. An accurate


thermometer should be used routinely to check for correct temperature. Proper storage
temperatures are:

Dry storage 50F - 70F (10C- 21C)


Refrigerated storage 40F (4C) or lower
Freezer storage 0F (-18F) or lower

Spoilt food items should not be discarded unless management permission is given.
Proper procedures of recording spoilt items should be in place.

Regular cleaning times for all storage facilities should be implemented. Professional pest
control services should be used.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 39


Food in storage should be rotated. Improper storage practices can reduce the quality of
the products. The control procedure designed to minimize the loss of quality of the
products in storage should be followed. The most common system used for the rotation
of stocks is called First-in, First-out (FIFO). The products held in inventory the longest
should be the first to be issued to the production areas. Marking the dates of receipts on
every item is important.

Products should be stored in their original packages away from the wall, to allow for air
circulation. They should be stored in quantities to be used within a reasonable time
period:

Beverage products less than one month


Food items shorter period of time than beverage products
Perishable products purchased two or more times weekly

Refer to: Wallace R., (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and Beverage
Operations, 4th Ed., 1998, Educational Institute, AHMA
Payne-Palacio, J and Theis, Monica, (2001).West and Woods Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Ed., 2001, Prentice Hall Inc.

CHECKPOINT:

What is the correct temperature range for:


- dry
- frozen,
- refrigerated.
Explain the FIFO system and account for the use of it

ACTIVITY:

You will be taken on a field trip to visit a fast-food establishment, to


observe their receiving and storage procedures.

Following the visit you will discuss your observation with your
learning facilitator.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 40


Follow safe receiving procedures
Rotate food in storage
An accurate thermometer should be used to take temperature

MONITORING, ACCOUNT FOR AND REORDER STOCK

Food products are often separated into two groups of inventory:

Direct Inventory - relatively inexpensive, perishable products, purchased several times


per week usually for immediate use e.g. fresh produce, baked goods and dairy products.

They may be received and used immediately in the production area or held at the
workstation storage area. They are not a part of the inventory system, but are a part of
the food cost for the day on which they are received.

Stores Inventory - These items are expensive, purchased less frequently than directs, and
are produced in quantities necessary to rebuild inventory levels. Examples are meats,
seafood, frozen and canned products, and staples (flour, sugar rice).

The frequency of purchasing food items depends on the levels of inventory. A minimum/
maximum purchasing and inventory system should be in place. For control, the items
that are used are recorded in inventory and an issuing system is used to remove them
from inventory.

The following procedures will help to keep storage areas secure:

Access to stores should be limited only to authorized staff members.


The storeroom, freezer and beverage storage areas should be completely lockable.
All storeroom keys should remain at the property at all times. It is usually securely
locked in the managers office when not in use.

The control procedure for the storeroom is designed specifically for the establishment and
to ensure that cost is control. An inventory record keeping system is essential to control
cost.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 41


There are two types of inventory record keeping:

Physical Inventory - use to assess the value of food and beverage products in inventory.
It involves the actual observation and counting of stored products, usually once per
month.

Perpetual Inventory - keeps a running balance of the quality of food and beverage
products in inventory. When new products are added to the storage areas they are
recorded, and the balance increased. When the products are issued from the stores, the
balance decreased.

A physical count is necessary with a perpetual inventory system to verify the accuracy
of the inventory balance.

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Ninemeire, Jack 1998, Planning and Control for Food and Beverage Operations,
4th Ed., Educational Institute, AHMA
Payne-Palacio, J and Theis, Monica, West and Woods 92001). Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Ed., 2001, Prentice Hall Inc.

CHECKPOINT:

What are the two types of inventory recording systems.


Explain a) Direct Inventory and b) Store inventory What purpose
are they used for

ACTIVITY:

You and your learning facilitator will be working with menus from
selected foodservice establishments.

You will make a list of direct and stores inventory food items from
the menu.

Each trainee will share his or her lists with the class and discuss the
findings with your peers.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 42


Follow guidelines as set out for storing food items
Produce when received should be stored immediately

READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand how to store food in the correct manner


according to principles and practices of food hygiene
and safety ( ) ( )

2. I understand how to monitor account for and reorder


stock when required ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Food items are stored in the correct manner according


to principles and practices of food hygiene and safety ( ) ( )

2. Stock inventory are monitored to determine when to


order and reorder new products ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 43


ELEMENT 6: CLEAN AND MAINTAIN EQUIPMENT
ELEMENT 7: COMPLY WITH OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
SAFETY REGULATIONS

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through these elements you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes about occupational health and safety regulation when
operating and maintaining equipment. Your instructor is there to assist you through the
different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Practice safe work habits during mise-en-place and when cooking.


2. Operate and maintain equipment in a safe manner according to manufacturers
instructions and principles of occupational health and safety.
3. Ensure that equipment required for use is cleaned before, during an after
completion of service.

It is the responsibility of both the employers and employee in the workplace to ensure
that the premises and the equipment are safe to avoid or prevent accidents. Employers
constantly need to assess any hazards or risk and to set up procedures to deal with any
accident.

Employees should be trained to prevent accidents, report hazards and comply with
instructions intended to reduce risks.

Practice Safe Work Habits during Mise-en-Place

Safe work habits should be practiced during pre-preparation (mise en place). It is


important that you follow the standards set during your training.

Substances that are hazardous for health although used in the kitchen, should be labeled
and stored in a separate area away from the food examples, chemicals used for cleaning.

As discussed in Element 5 (Storage of Food), food should be checked and stored


immediately at the correct temperature as soon as they are received.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 44


Raw products should be stored below and away from cooked product to avoid
contamination.
Food should be cooled quickly, label, date and stored properly.
Foods should be reheated as quickly as possible to a safe temperature of 165F
(72C).
Cooked food should be held above 140F (60C), to ensure that that the food remains
wholesome and to prevent it from being in the danger zone.
Food should be thawed correctly to ensure that the quality of the food is retained and
to avoid contamination. The best way to thaw frozen food is to remove it from the
freezer to a refrigerator.
Before you start to work in the kitchen ensure that the equipment and work area are
sanitized.
The main accidents in the pre-preparation / food production area are slipping or
tripping and falling on kitchen floor. Spillage should be wipe up and clean floor
immediately.
Articles and boxes should not be placed on the floor, in the corridors or passageway.
This can obstruct persons carrying trays and containers.
Staff should practice the correct way of lifting heavy and awkward loads.
All kitchen staff should wear protective clothing and safety footwear.
During mise en place preparation, follow standard safety procedures in using the
equipment.

CHECKPOINT:

What should a worker do before they start working in the


kitchen?
What is the main cause of accident in the food preparation area?

Refer to: The Food and Beverage Institute (1997). Cooking Essentials for The
New Professional Chef, John Wiley and Sons.

Observe safety rules


Clean and sanitize work areas before starting to work.
Always check refrigerators and storage temperatures.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 45


OPERATING AND MAINTAIN EQUIPMENT IN A SAFE MANNER

Workers should be trained to use the equipment before they start operating them, as they
can cause serious injury to workers. They should not start operating them until they are
thoroughly familiar with its operation and all its features. They should know when the
equipment is not working properly and a report should be made to the supervisor.

The operating manual for each piece of equipment should be studied as the feature and
style on each manufacturers equipment will vary. Manufacturers instructions and the
principles and guidelines of occupational health and safety should be adhered to.
Machines should not be overload as this will affect its effectiveness and it may
breakdown.

All equipment must be maintained so it is safe and in good working order. A


maintenance contract should be set up with the dealer. Proper maintenance and cleaning
must be consistently followed in order to keep equipment functioning properly in order to
prevent injury or accident. Each area should keep on file the maintenance record of each
piece of equipment.

Operation guidelines:

Proper instructions must be obtained about the maintenance of the machine. This
should be obtained either from your supervisor or someone who is knowledgeable
about the equipment.
Turn off switch and unplug all electrical equipment before assembling or breaking
down.
Use all guards and safety features on the equipment. Ensure that
- lids are secure
- hand guards are used
- machine is stable
Do not touch or remove food from the equipment while it is running.
Do not touch or handle equipment while your hands are wet.
Clean and sanitize the equipment thoroughly after use.
Ensure that all pieces of equipment are properly reassembled and left unplugged after
each use.
Report problems or malfunction promptly.

CHECKPOINT:

What should you do when you realized that the equipment you are
operating is not working properly?

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 46


ACTIVITY:

Each piece of equipment in the preparation kitchen has above it


instructions of how to operate the equipment. You will be given a
copy of these instructions.

After carefully reading these instructions and observing your


instructor demonstrate the operation of each, you will be working in
groups of two to operate each equipment.

You should seek guidance from your facilitator. This activity will be

Refer to: Ceserani, V. & Kinton, R (1995). Practical Cookery, 8th Ed.,
Hodder and Sloughton

Manufacture instruction should followed when operating equipment.


Only persons authorized to use the machine should operate it.
Machine should be turned off when not in use.

CLEANING EQUIPMENT BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER SERVICE

Cleaning is necessary to maintain a functional and healthy operation. The program must
begin with an accurate and thorough list of how equipment is to be cleaned should be
prepared. The hours of operation and the patterns of business will dictate when some of
the equipment will be cleaned. Regular cleaning should be done each time the equipment
is used.

Clear instructions/ guide (written or illustrated) of how to clean each piece of


equipment should be placed near to the area where the equipment is located.
The chemical and tools needed for the job should be included in the guide.
Some chemical suppliers and companies will provide illustrated guides intended for
the use of their products.
Each staff member is responsible for cleaning the equipment that he or she uses.
Equipment should be cleaned and sanitized before use.
Cleaning should be done at regular intervals to avoid a build up of soil and reduce the
effectiveness of the equipment.
Cleaning time should be schedule so that it does not interfere with guest service and
food contamination.
The responsibility for cleaning larger items should be shared among the staff
members who uses it.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 47


For safety purposes you will receive safety equipment to wear before work is started.
They will include gloves, goggles, long-handled brushes to prevent burn or hurt.
The manuals for different equipment should be consulted to ensure that the proper
chemicals are used.

If you are not sure which chemicals to use, your supervisor will assist you using the
manuals for different equipment. When selecting cleaning equipment care should be
taken that it does not harbour bacteria or recontaminate the surfaces that are being
cleaned.

Refer to: Wallace R (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice, John


Wiley and Sons
Ceserani, V. & Kinton, R (1995). Practical Cookery, 8th Ed., Hodder and
Sloughton

CHECKPOINT:

Give 2 reasons why cleaning should be schedule.


Name at least 2-safety equipment that is commonly used when
cleaning.

ACTIVITY:

The facilitator will demonstrate to the class how to clean the different
types of equipment in the preparation kitchen and service areas. A
copy of the instructions of how to clean each piece of equipment will
be given to you.

You will be working in-groups of two (2), to practice cleaning each


piece of equipment. You can discuss this activity with your
facilitator. This activity will be evaluated.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 48


Remember to clean equipment at regular intervals.
Wear safety equipment at all times when cleaning equipment.
Read cleaning instruction carefully before you start cleaning.

READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand the importance of practicing safe work


habits during mise en place and when cooking ( ) ( )

2. I understand how to operate and maintain equipment


according to manufacturers instructions and the
principles of occupational health and safety ( ) ( )

3. I understand the importance of cleaning equipment for


use before, during and after service ice ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Guidelines for good working habits during mise en


place and when cooking are practiced ( ) ( )

2. Equipment are operated and maintained in a safe


manner according to manufacturers instruction and
principles of occupational health and safety ( ) ( )

3. Equipment are cleaned before ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 49


ELEMENT 8: OBSERVE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF HYGIENE

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes of the principles and practices of hygiene. Your instructor
is there to assist you through the different activities so on completion you should be able
to:

1. Practice personal hygiene at all times


2. Ensure that food hygiene is maintained according to the principles and practices
of hygiene and food safety.

PERSONAL HYGIENE

High standards of personal hygiene are essential for all workers involved in food and
beverage service. Good grooming and meticulous attention to personal hygiene will
reduce the growth of microorganisms that cause food contamination through handling.

Personal hygiene will build self-confidence and reflects a positive attitude to the guests.
The waiters appearance is the first visual impression that the guest gets of the staff.

Personal cleanliness is essential to prevent germs getting onto the food through:

sneezing and coughing


not disposing of tissue properly
not washing hands frequently and properly
touching your body and then food and utensils
visiting the toilet and not properly washing your hands
being ill and is still working in the kitchen

Some basic points about personal hygiene are:

A bath or shower should be taken at least twice daily


Hands and fingernails should be washed thoroughly and frequently particularly after
using the toilet.
Hair should be washed regularly and proper hair restraint should be worn while
working in the kitchen. Moustaches and beard should be trimmed and clean
according to companys policy.
Reduce touching the body parts e.g. ears, nose, mouth, teeth, and feet while working
in the kitchen and dining room.
Keep all cuts, burns, scratches covered with waterproof dressing.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 50


Staff who has any communicable disease or infection should not be allowed to work
with food.
A clean apron and uniform should be worn for each shift.
No one should be allowed to smoke or chew while on the job.
Sitting on the worktables should not be permitted.

Refer to: Labensky, S. and Hause, A., (1995). On Cooking, A Textbook of


Culinary Fundamental, Prentice Hall Inc.
Payne-Palacio J. & Theis, Monica,(2001). West and Woods, Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Edition, Prentice Hall
Gisslen, Wayne, Professional Cooking, John Wiley and Sons

CHECKPOINT:

Why is it essential for all workers to practice personal hygiene?


What are some ways that germs can get onto foods?

ACTIVITY:

Your instructor will show you how to wash your hands before
working in the kitchen, at the hand wash sink. Following the
demonstration each of you will do this activity until you have
mastered the skills.

Practice personal hygiene principles at all times.


Hands should be washed thoroughly and frequently throughout food preparation and
service.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 51


Food Hygiene

There are three groups of hazards to food safety that are responsible for food-borne
illness outbreaks:

Biological disease causing bacteria, parasites, and viruses that are transmitted in foods.
Chemical contaminate food with toxic substances e.g. cleaning and sanitizing
chemicals.
Physical contaminating food with nonfood items, e.g. pieces of glass, staples from
carton.

The goals of food hygiene are to ensure that the operation serves safe food and to prevent
the food from becoming contaminated through safe handling practices. The eight most
often cited factors in foodborne illness outbreak are:

Failure to cool food properly.


Failure to heat or cook food thoroughly.
Employees with illnesses, infections and/ or poor personal hygiene.
Food prepared a day or more before it is served.
Contaminated raw ingredients added to ready-to-eat foods.
Foods remaining in the temperature danger zone.
Failure to reheat previously prepared foods.
Cross contamination of raw and cooked foods.

To provide safe food your operation will have guidelines that you should follow that is
developed based on the HACCP system. The HACCP approach provides a proactive
approach of ensuring safe food. HACCP means Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Point.

It follows the flow of potentially hazardous food (food that contain milk or milk products,
eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish soup, potato salad, and cole slaw) through each stage
of food production from purchasing to the final product and the customer. It also
identifies all the factors that could lead to hazards for the customer: all ingredients; stages
in the processing of foods; environmental features and human factors. Rules and
guidelines should be followed at each stage of food production to minimize food
contamination.

Time and temperature is important in reducing the growth of microorganism during food
storage, production, holding, transportation and
Critical Control Point (CCP) - service. Food items should be rapidly cooled to
Points at which control is essential 41f or less. Cold food should be held at an
to ensure that potential hazards do internal temperature of 41f or less. Hot foods
not actually become hazardous. should be held at 140f or higher. The
temperature range of 41f to 140f is called the
food danger zone. All food especially
potentially hazardous foods should be kept out of this temperature range.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 52


Key Points To Ensure Proper Food Hygiene:

Food should be inspected on delivery and before use to ensure that they are at the
correct temperature.
Food should be stored and displayed at the correct temperature e.g. refrigerated and
frozen goods.
Ingredients should be handled carefully to prevent cross-contamination.
Finished products should be held at the correct temperature or stored immediately.
Hot food should be kept and served hot and cold food should be served cold.
Standard cleaning procedures for equipment and utensils should be in place.
Personnel should be trained in proper hygiene and health practices.

Refer to: Rande, W. (1996). Introduction to Professional Foodservice,John


Wiley and Sons.
Labensky, S. and Hause, A. (1995). On Cooking, A Textbook of Culinary
Fundamental, (1995), Prentice Hall Inc.
Payne-Palacio J. & Theis, Monica, West and Woods (2001). Introduction to
Foodservice, 9th Edition, Prentice Hall

CHECKPOINT:

What are the three hazards to food safety?


What are the goals of food hygiene?
What is the temperature range for the food danger zone?

ACTIVITY:

You will be working with your instructor to identify the critical


control point of items on a menu from purchasing to service.

Following this demonstration you will be working in-groups of two


or three, using the thermometer to test the temperatures of the
refrigerators, freezer, storeroom, equipment and prepared food. Your
results will be discussed in class.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 53


Follow standard operating procedures for handling food.
Refrigerator temperatures should be checked at regular intervals.
Cooked Foods should be stored immediately when not in use at the correct
temperature.

READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I understand the importance of practicing personal


hygiene ( ) ( )

2. I understand how to ensure that food hygiene is


maintained according to the principles an practices of
hygiene and food safety ( ) ( )

Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Guidelines for personal hygiene are developed and


practiced ( ) ( )

2. Food hygiene is maintained according to the principles


and practices of hygiene and food safety ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 54


ELEMENT 9: HANDLE CASH

LEARNING OUTCOMES

As you go through this element you need to ensure that you acquire the necessary
knowledge, skills and attitude of how to handle cash. Your instructor is there to assist
you through the different activities so on completion you should be able to:

1. Check accurately cash bank that is received using correct documentation.


2. Operate cash registers using manufacturers specifications and enterprise
procedures
3. Carry out cash and non- cash transactions correctly and accurately according to
enterprise practices.
4. Ensure that cash is safety secured according to enterprise practices.
5. Reconcile cash accurately according to specified documentation.

A control system covering the sale of all food and beverages in a fast food establishment
is essential to achieve maximum returns. It should be as simple as possible, depending
on the size of the establishment, making it easier for the foodservice staff to operate and
control the control and accounts department staff to check for error and omissions.
Establishments should make sure that their staff understands how the system works.

CHECK ACCURATELY CASH BANK

The cashier at the beginning of each shift is given a cash bank that is usually a set amount
of money. Cashier should check if the bank is correct. If it is incorrect the cashier should
follow the company procedure to make necessary correction.

After receiving the cash a document should be signed stating the amount received. At the
end of the shift the cash bank should be counted out first. The remaining funds in the
cash drawer should equal the value of revenue collected to satisfy register tape. The
cashier will be responsible for any shortages.

CHECKPOINT:

What is a cash bank?


What should the cashier do when he or she receives the cash
bank?

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 55


Refer to: Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and
Beverage Operations (4th edition), 1998, Educational Institute, AHMA

Operating A Cash Register

Each cashier user should have a written copy of procedures for the use of the cash
register.
Each cashier should use separate cash register drawers.
Each sale must be rung up in the correct sequence and the in the proper amount.
Depressing the sale price or no sale key should only open the cash drawer. A noise
should be heard each time the cash drawer is opened.
Void and overrings should be reported to a supervisor as soon as they occur.
Cash register should be empty unlocked and left open when not in use.

Refer to: Ninemeire, Jack, (1998). Planning and Control for Food and
Beverage Operations (4th edition), Educational Institute, AHMA

CHECKPOINT:

How must each sale be rung up?


When not in use what should each cashier do?

Carrying Out Cash and Non-Cash Transactions Correctly and Accurately

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 56


CASH TRANSACTION

All cash transactions should be carried out efficiently, correctly and accurately according
to the standards of the particular fast food enterprise.

All cash received should be carefully and accurately checked and the correct change
given. This allows for the correct balancing of accounts and also ensures that the
customers are not over or under charged for goods produced. At the end of each day cash
takings are balanced based on the practice of the enterprise.

The cashier keys each item into the register.


The register tallies each item and imprints the total.
The customer is then told the amount and the cashier collects the cash.
The cash drawer opens and the cash is placed in the drawers and if change is to be
made it is done. The cash drawer is then closed and is ready for another transaction.
At the end of the shift the cashiers cash drawer and supporting documents are
accounted for.

CHECKPOINT:

Why is it important to carry out cash transactions in a prompt, correct


and accurate manner?

ACTIVITY:

You are a cashier in a fast food outlet which is extremely busy at


lunch time. Yesterday in an effort to speed up the processing of
transactions you over paid a customer, while underpaying another
what is the likely effect of your action in both cases. What steps
would you take to ensure that you will not loose your job or the outlet
will not loose business as a result of your actions.

Refer to: Gray Williams, (1996). Hospitality Accounting, Prentice Hall Inc,
(this reference will give more information on handling cash transaction).

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 57


Accuracy is essential when handling cash transactions
Safety of cash should be ensured, according to enterprise practices

Non-Cash Transaction

When operating fast food outlets all non-cash transactions should be carried out
accurately and correctly according to enterprise procedures. The most common type of
non-cash transactions used in fast food restaurant are debit and credit cards. The most
popular credit cards include American express, visa/master cards diners club and
discover.

Credit cards eliminate all risk of credit losses provided they are authenticated. As long as
the debit card holder spends within the limit of his account the transaction will be
approved.

There are three main methods currently used to submit credit cards slips for
reimbursement, these are mail, direct bank deposit and transmissions over the telephone
lines.

Refer to: Gray Williams, 1996, Hospitality Accounting, Prentice Hall Inc

CHECKPOINT:

Define non-cash transactions


What are the two main non-cash mediums used in fast food
outlets?

ACTIVITY:

You will be required to visit a fast food outlet that accepts credit and
debit cards, and observe the procedure, asking relevant action. You
will be required to explain the procedure for processing credit and
debit cards in accordance with enterprise and financial institution
procedures. You will also have a discussion with your trainer/
facilitator and your peers.

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 58


Ensure that Cash Is Safely Secured

Only the cashier should have access to the register.


Spot audits of tapes and currency should be conducted.
Separate cash drawers or cash register should be used.
Each cash register user should have a separate key to the register.
The cash register and its operation should be monitored on an ongoing basis by a
supervisor.
Detailed tapes should be studied on a random basis.
Only a minimum number of supervisors should have access to cash register keys.
A the change of each shift, cash register banks should be counted and exchanged

Reconcile Cash Accurately

The cash register reading are taken and summarized. The cash is then reconciled with the
cash register readings using a daily cashier report.

Each report generally contain:

a heading showing the date and day of the week


a section for cash register readings
a section for accounting of cash register funds, transactions and supporting
document.

The report may also include information about the weather or number of guests.

A designated person other than the cashier does the cash register readings. The
differences between beginning and ending readings less any void approved by a
supervisor represent food revenue and any tax collected.

In order to reconcile takings float separated from takings, register terminals have to be
read, cash and non-cash transactions have to be calculated and cash and non cash
transactions have to be balanced.

CHECKPOINT:

Explain why it is important to reconcile takings

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 59


CHECKPOINT:

Visit a fast food outlet and ask the cashier to demonstrate to you how
register terminal and cash and non cash transactions are reconciled.
During the demonstration you will be required to discuss your
findings with your trainer and peers

Refer to: Gray Williams, (1996). Hospitality Accounting, Prentice Hall Inc
LG THHGFA0042A

Work in a timely and efficient manner

READY TO PROVE YOUR COMPETENCY?

Now that you have completed this element, see if you have fully grasped all the
components by doing the following Self-Assessment:

Checklist 1 Yes No

1. I can receive and check cash float using correct


documentation ( ) ( )

2. I understand the importance of operating cash registers


using manufacturers specification ( ) ( )

3. I can carry out cash transactions promptly, correctly


and accurately ( ) ( )

4. I can carry out non-cash transactions according to


enterprise procedures ( ) ( )

5. I can ensure safety of cash according to enterprise


practices ( ) ( )

6. I can reconcile takings using specified documentation ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 60


Checklist 2 Yes No

1. Cash float is received and checked accurately using


correct documentation ( ) ( )

2. Cash registers are operated using manufacturers


specification ( ) ( )

3. Cash transactions are carried out promptly, correctly


and accurately ( ) ( )

4. Non-cash transactions are carried out correctly


according to enterprise practices ( ) ( )

5. Safety of cash is ensured, according to enterprise


practices ( ) ( )

6. Reconciliation of takings is carried out accurately using


specified documentation ( ) ( )

Version 1 LRDU JUNE. 03 61


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