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Home > How to Use the Readiness Guide

How to Use the Readiness Guide


Mon, 2015-10-26 13:58 -- Jon DeKeles

The role of the Readiness Guide is to help you transition to a smart city, at your own pace and on
your own terms. This chapter explains the Smart Cities Framework that supports that mission. We
think you will find it a useful mechanism to understand the totality of a smart city and how the pieces
work together.

This chapter gives you what you need to construct a target list or wish list for your city. When you
are ready to turn that list into an actual plan, youll find guidance in the Chapter titled: Ideas to
Action.

Our introduction defined the smart city as one that uses information and communications technology
(ICT) to enhance livability, workability and sustainability. The Smart Cities Framework captures this
relationship between a citys responsibilities (what it needs to accomplish for citizens) and its
enablers (the smart technologies that can make those tasks easier).

CITY RESPONSIBILITIES

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Health and Human Service

Payments and Finance


Water and Wastewater
Telecommunications

Waste Management
Universal Aspects
The Smart Cities

Built Environment

Transportation
Framework

Public Safety
Energy
TECHNOLOGY
ENABLERS

Instrumentation and
Control

Connectivity

Interoperability

Security and Privacy

Data Management

Computing Resources

Analytics

The Smart Cities Framework aligning responsibilities and enablers. The vertical responsibilities
denote essential services that cities require. The horizontal enablers are technology capabilities that
improve those responsibilities.

Smart city responsibilities


Cities have essential functions and services that must be available every day. Homes must have
water, businesses must have power, waste must be collected, children must be educated and so on.
In the Readiness Guide, we refer to these vertical city functions as responsibilities. Although not all
of them fall under a citys direct control, all of them are essential to everyday life and commerce. The
nine city responsibilities are:

Built environment. In the Readiness Guide, built environment refers to all of a citys buildings,
parks and public spaces. Certain components of the built environment including streets and
utility infrastructure are not emphasized here because they are treated in other

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responsibilities (transportation and energy).
Energy. The infrastructure to produce and deliver energy, primarily electricity and gas for
powering virtually all services and needs, processes and comfort.
Telecommunications. This term can have several different meanings. The Readiness Guide
uses the telecommunications responsibility to refer to communications for people and
businesses. We use connectivity to refer to communications for devices.
Transportation. A citys roads, streets, bike paths, trail systems, vehicles, railways, subways,
buses, bicycles, streetcars, ferries, air and maritime ports any and every system that relates
to citizen mobility.

Health and human services. The essential human services for the provision of health care,
education and social services.
Water and wastewater. The infrastructure responsible for water from collection to
distribution, to use and finally reuse and recycling. Pipes, distribution centers, catchment
areas, treatment facilities, pump stations, plants and even the water meters at private homes
are all essential components of this responsibility. Water purity and cleanliness are also
addressed here.
Waste management. The infrastructure responsible for the collection, distribution, reuse and
recycling of waste materials.
Public safety. The infrastructure, agencies and personnel to keep citizens safe. Examples
include police and fire departments, emergency and disaster prevention and management
agencies, courts and corrections facilities.
Payments and finance. Payments link a payer and a payee and refer to all the key
contributors involved: government services, merchants, consumers, businesses, banks,
payment instruments providers, payment schemes. Payments sit at the heart of the economic
activity in cities and form the core component of every economic flow including salaries,
consumer spending, business procurement and taxes. They have become so systematic that
they often go unnoticed.

Smart city enablers


Smart cities can radically improve all of the responsibilities through the power of ICT
(information and communications technology). ICT can make buildings more efficient, water and
energy more affordable, transportation quicker and neighborhoods safer. In the Readiness Guide,
we refer to these transformative technologies and capabilities as enablers.
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They put the smart in smart cities. The seven technology enablers are listed below.

Instrumentation and control is how a smart city monitors and controls conditions.
Instrumentation provides the eyes and ears of a smart city. Examples include smart meters for
electricity, water and gas; air quality sensors; closed circuit TV and video monitors and
roadway sensors. Control systems provide remote management capabilities. Examples
include switches, breakers and other devices that let operators measure, monitor and control
from afar.
Connectivity is how the smart citys devices communicate with each other and with the
control center. Connectivity ensures that data gets from where it is collected to where it is
analyzed and used. Examples include citywide WiFi networks, RF mesh networks and cellular
networks. (Note: When a cellular network communicates with devices, the Readiness Guide
refers to it as connectivity. When it lets people communicate, the Guide uses the term
telecommunications. These are arbitrary distinctions used only in the Guide to make it easier
to distinguish between the two sides of communications devices and people.)
Interoperability ensures that products and services from disparate providers can exchange
information and work together seamlessly. Interoperability has many benefits. For one, it
prevents the city from being locked in to just one proprietary supplier. For another, it gives the
city more choice, since it can buy from any company that supports the citys chosen standards.
For another, it lets the city build projects over time in phases, with confidence that all the
pieces will work together in the end. Open standards are the key to interoperability.
Security and privacy are technologies, policies and practices that safeguard data, privacy
and physical assets. Examples include the publishing of clear privacy rules and the
implementation of a cybersecurity system. Security and privacy play a critical role in enabling
smart cities because they build trust with people. Without trust, a city may have difficulty
adopting new technologies and practices.
Data management is the process of storing, protecting and processing data while
guaranteeing its accuracy, accessibility, reliability and timeliness. Data is king in a smart city.
Proper management is essential to maintain data integrity and value. A citywide data
management, transparency and sharing policy including proper policies around access,
authentication and authorization is one step toward proper data management, as explained
below.
Computing resources include 1) billions of computer brains of all sizes, from wrist watch
components to server farms, 2) in those computers, a similar range of simple to very complex
software, and 3) data, which has little value until it is communicated. Open standard software
interfaces and data encodings enable digital communication. Most city data refers to things
and phenomena where locations are important, so spatial standards are among the essential
open standards that enable smart cities.
Analytics create value from the data that instrumentation provides. Examples include:
forecasting crime the way we already forecast weather; analyzing electric power usage to
know when and where to expand or adjust to accommodate demand; analyzing conditions to
predict which equipment needs repair; automatically plotting the best route for a mass transit
user, and creating personalized portals for every citizen by analyzing what they value most.
And analytics that utilize data from across departments have tremendous potential to identify
new insights and unique solutions to delivering services, thereby improving outcomes.

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The role of dependencies in smart city planning
In the previous chapter we explored the dangers and pitfalls of siloed cities. Cities that dont
coordinate their various departments at the technology planning level often end up with redundant
investments in technologies, training and even personnel.

But theres an even deeper connection between smart city responsibilities that cant be overlooked.
Thats the matter of dependences. Since so many city systems, services and infrastructures are
connected in one way or another, becoming smart in one area is often dependent on progress being
made in another.

As cities develop long-term goals and plans, it is important to consider how desired improvements to
the performance of a single responsibility may require improvements in a responsibility on which
there is a dependency. For example, cities cannot expect to foster a healthy population if water
systems cannot ensure water quality. Yet water systems rely heavily on energy systems to pump
and move water through city infrastructure. So, as you plan projects to improve water infrastructure,
be sure to examine any requirements that need to be addressed by electrical systems and the
distribution grid. Think holistically to avoid having to make major system changes or unanticipated
course corrections further into your smart city planning.

As you move through the chapters in this Guide, we will highlight dependencies that merit
consideration. Youll come to realize that understanding dependencies is another reason to bring
cross-departmental teams together early in your smart city planning process.

The role of dependencies.


A healthy population is dependent in part on quality drinking water which, in turn, is dependent on
energy systems that pump the water. Thinking holistically early in the smart city planning process
will help avoid unexpected roadblocks later.

The Readiness Guide structure


The Readiness Guide is comprised of multiple chapters. One chapter examines universal
principles enablers common to all responsibilities. The chapters that follow detail how individual
city responsibilities power, transportation, public safety, payments, etc. should use the
technology enablers. Two final chapters cover how to translate the Guides theories into a roadmap.

Each chapter has three sections. The first section envisions what each responsibility could look like
by the year 2030. The second section examines the benefits that arise from each target. Targets are

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goals end points or outcomes a city should work toward. A third section provides a checklist of the
relevant targets for that responsibility. You can use these checklists (and the summary checklist in
the final chapter) to create a wish list that can inform and improve your smart city roadmap.

Scattered throughout are brief examples to show how cities are applying these theories in real life.

What this guide does NOT do. Weve talked about what the Guide wants to do, but its also
important to acknowledge the things that are outside its scope.

The Guide does NOT suggest what your citys overall goals
should be. Smart city technologies are a means to an end. Every city should decide for itself what
ends it hopes to achieve. But whatever youre after, the targets described in this guide represent the
best technical foundation for pursuing those goals.

The Guide does NOT propose which responsibilities should be prioritized. Every city has its
own unique strengths and weaknesses, its own unique history and resources, its own unique
preferences and aspirations. Some cities may choose to tackle transportation first, for instance,
while others may feel that energy is more urgent.

The Guide does NOT pretend that its targets are set in stone. Change is continuous, and
technology advances are famously unpredictable. The targets shown here are the best
recommendations we can make today, as informed by a large contingent of the worlds top experts.
They will put cities on the right path, but cities will still need to make periodic evaluations and course
corrections as technology evolves.

Conclusion
As you review the chapters that follow, you can use the checklists at the end of each one to note
where your city is currently weak or strong. Once youve completed those assessments, you can
transfer them to the summary checklist in the final chapter, Ideas to Action. With that summary in
place, youll be ready to build your smart city roadmap, using the tips and techniques provided in
that last chapter.

The mission of the Smart Cities Council Readiness Guide is to set you on the path to becoming a
city of the future a smart city with enhanced livability, workability and sustainability. It will take
patience to march through each chapter to compile your own wish list of essential features. And it
will take leadership to build those features into a comprehensive smart city plan that has the support
of the public.

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But amazing advantages await those cities that make the effort. Their citizens will have a healthier,
happier place to live along with better, higher-paying jobs. And all of that in a sustainable fashion
that doesnt rob from the next generation.

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