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2.

0 CELL STRUCTURE AND


FUNCTIONS
9 HOURS

Retold by,
Amran Md Said
2.0 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

Prokaryotic
and eukaryotic Microscopic
2.1
cells structures of
2.2
plant and
animal cells
2.3 Structures and
functions: cell
membrane and
2.4 Cells transport
organelles
Cells are
2.5 grouped into
tissues
1st Hour Lecture
Learning Outcomes :
2.1 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells :
a. state the cell theory
b. Describe and compare the structures of prokaryotic
and eukaryortic cells

2.2 Microscopic structures of plant


and animal cells :
a. Illustrate the detailed structures of typical plant and
animal cells.
b. Compare plant and animal cells
Introduction
1665 Robert
Hooke using an
improved
compound
microscope,
examine cork and
used the term cell
to describe its
basic units
Observation by Robert Hooke

Cork tissue
Cork

microscope
Cell Theory
1838 & 1839 Matthias Schleiden
(a botanist) and Theodor Schwann
(a zoologist) proposed the cell theory
Stating that the basic unit structure and
function in living organism is the cell
Other important discovery

1855 Rudolf Virchow


postulate that all cells arise
from pre-existing cells by
cell division
Cell as the smallest independent unit of life
and form the basis of living organism

All living organism are made of one or more cells

A cell is always surrounded by a cell surface


membrane

Contains a solution of protein and other


substances in water. This solution is called
cytoplasm

Within the cytoplasm there are many structure


called organelles
Four ideas of cell theory
1. The cell is the basic units of structure in
living things
2. The cell is derived from other cell by cell
division
3. The cell contains heredity material
4. The cell is the functioning unit of life
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Means before Means true nucleus
nucleus
Cells without nucleus Cells with nucleus
Unicellular Unicellular and
multicellular
All bacteria and E g. plants, algae,
cyanobacteria fungi and animals
Cell size
Prokaryotic cell

a) Bacteria b) Cyanobacteria
What is Prokaryotic cell?
Definition :
A prokaryotic cell is a type of cell without a
membrane-bound nucleus and other
membrane-bound organelles

An organism composed of a prokaryotic


cell is called a prokaryote
Structure of Prokaryotic cell
e g. bacteria

Capsule

mesosome
Structure of bacteria
Structures always present
1) Cell wall Rigid; strengthening
material is
peptidoglycan

2) Plasma A partially permeable,


membrane contain proteins and
phospholipids

3) Cytoplasm An aqueous substance,


contain ribosome, DNA
and stored granules of
various substances
Structure of bacteria
Structures always present
4) DNA Circular molecule,
not associated with
protein, forming an
area called the
nucleoid
5) Ribosome 70S ribosomes,
smaller than 80S
eukaryote
ribosomes, site of
protein synthesis
Structure of bacteria
Structures sometimes present

1) Flagellum For locomotion, very


simple structure ( not
in 9+2 ), one or more
may be present

2) Pili One to several


hundred for
attachment to other
cells or surfaces, pili
involved in sexual
reproduction
Structures sometimes present
3) Mesosome Infolding of the
cell surface
membrane,
there are
enzymes
engaged in the
synthesis of ATP
molecules
4) Capsule For additional
protection plasmid

5) Plasmid Small circle of


DNA
Eukaryotic cell
What is Eukaryotic cell?
Definition :
A type of cell that has a membrane-bound
nucleus, membrane-bound organelles and
DNA is associated with histone protein

An organism composed of a eukaryotic


cell is called eukaryote.
Structure of eukaryotic cell
1) Plasma A partially permeable, contains
membrane proteins and phospholipids
2) Cell wall Rigid; strengthening material is
cellulose (in plant) and chitin (in
fungi)
3) Cytoplasm An aqueous substance, contains
a variety of organelles and
stored granules of various
substances
Cont. Structure of eukaryotic
4) DNA Inside the
nucleus ,linear
strand
molecule and
combined with
histone protein

5) Cilia and For locomotion,


flagella complex
structure with
9+2
arrangement of
microtubules
DNA wound around
a cluster of histone
molecules

Linker DNA

Nucleosome
(11nm diameter)
Flagellum Cilia
The differences between prokaryotes and
eukaryotes

Prokaryote Eukaryote
Cell size is small Cell size is bigger
(diameter 0.5-10 m) (diameter 10-100 m)
Cell division is not by Cell division is by mitosis,
mitosis, mostly binary meiosis or both
fission
DNA is circular, freely in DNA is linear and contain
cytoplasm, naked DNA in nucleus
without histone protein DNA is associates with
histone protein
Prokaryote Eukaryote

Organelles present Organelles present are


are few , none with many , with envelope
envelope except ribosome

Cell wall is Cell wall is composed of


composed of murein cellulose in plant cell walls
or peptidoglycan and chitin in fungal walls
Prokaryote Eukaryote

Type of flagella is fine, Type of flagella is


simple and only consists complex, with 9+2
of one microtubule arrangement of
microtubules
Respiration is occurs in Respiration is occurs in
mesosomes of bacteria mitochondria
or cytoplasmic
membranes of
cyanobacteria
Prokaryote Eukaryote

Photosynthesis is occur not Photosynthesis is occur


in chloroplasts, but takes in chloroplast containing
place on membranes which membranes which are
show no stacking usually stack into
lamellae or grana

Few prokaryote can fix No eukaryote can fix


nitrogen nitrogen
Prokaryote Eukaryote
Centrioles absent Centrioles present in
animal cells
Ribosomes 70s Ribosomes 80s

Capsule present in Capsule absent


some prokaryotic cells
Example
Prokaryotes
Bacteria and cyanobacteria

Eukaryotes
Algae, fungi, protozoa, plants and animals
2.2 Microscopic structure of
plant and animal cells
Learning Outcomes :

a) Illustrate the detailed structure


of typical plant and animal
cells
b) Compare plant and animal
cells
Microscopes
Light Electron
microscope microscope
Plant cell under light microscope

E g. Onion cell
Animal cell under light
microscope

E g . Cheek cells
Plant cell under electron
microscope
Animal cell under electron
microscope
STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL PLANT CELL
Structure of typical plant cell
1) Cell wall Composed of
cellulose, provides
structural support,
fully permeable

2) Cell Surrounds the


membrane cytoplasm,
controls the entry
and exit of
dissolved
substance
Structure of typical plant cell
3) Cytoplasm Cytoplasm
pressed firmly
against the cell wall
by a large fluid-filled
vacuole

Contain water,
dissolved substance
such as amino acid
and sugars, support
the various
organelles
Structure of typical plant cell
4) Vacuole Large, contain sap
cell, water
necessary to
provide turgor
pressure

Bounded by a
specialized
membrane called
tonoplast
5) Nucleus Contains the genetic
material and
controlling the
activities
Structure of typical plant cell

6) Chloroplast Contain the


pigment
chlorophyll and
enzyme for
photosynthesis

7) Starch Storage form of


granules carbohydrate
Structure of typical plant cell
8) Plasmodesmata Cytoplasmic
connections
between cells
STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL
STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL
1) Cell Surrounds the
membrane cytoplasm,
responsible for
separating the
cell contents
from its
surroundings

2) Cytoplasm Often denser,


with many more
organelles and
dissolved
substances
STRUCTURE OF TYPICAL ANIMAL CELL

3) Vesicle Small , can be


involved with
digestion (e.g. in
phagocytosis) or
with excretion
4) Nucleus Controlling the
activities and
characteristics of
the cell

5) Glycogen Storage form of


granules carbohydrates
Difference between plant and animal cells

Animal Cells Plant Cells


Have only cell The cell surface membrane is
surface membrane surrounded by rigid cellulose
cell wall
No plasmodesmata Plasmodesmata and pits
and pits present in cell wall
No chloroplast Chloroplast present in
photosynthetic cells
Have small, Large, permanent central
temporary vesicles vacuole filled with cell sap
No tonoplast Tonoplast envelopes the
vacuole
Difference between plant and animal cells

Animal Cells Plant Cells

Centrioles present No centrioles

Contain glycogen Contain starch granules


granules
Some cells are Flagellated cells are
flagellated or ciliated found only in lower level
plants (male gamete cells)
Lysosomes present No lysosome
2.3 Stucture and functions :
cell membrane and organelles
2nd and 3rd Hour Lecture
Learning Outcomes :
2.3 Stucture and funtions : cell
membrane and organelles
a. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane and
the functions of each of its components.
b. Describe the functions of the plasma membrane
c. Describe the structure and functions of the following
organelles:
Nucleus, mitocondria, rough and smooth
endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, ribosome,
lysosome,chloroplast, centriole
Structure & function

Organelles Not organelles

Nucleus
Cell wall (plant) Cell membrane
ER- smooth, rough
Cytoplasm
Golgi body
Mitochondrion

Vacuole Lysosome

Centriole Ribosome

Cytoskeleton Chloroplast
Membrance Plasma
Structure of the plasma
membrane
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
The plasma membrane separates the
living cell from its nonliving
surroundings. This membrane :
Is about 8 nm thick
Surround the cell and controls traffic into
and out of the cell
Is selectively permeable, allowing
some substances to cross more easily
than others.
The phospholipids and proteins in
membranes create a unique physical
environment, described by the fluid
mosaic model.

A MEMBRANE is a fluid structure with


proteins embedded or attached to a
double layer of phospholipids.
Singer and Nicolson
Fluid Mosaic Model

1972 S.Jonathan Singer and Garth


Nicolson proposed the Fluid Mosaic Model
The model envisions a membrance as a
mosaic of protein discontinuously
embedded in, or at least attached to, a
fluid phospholipids bilayer
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Phospholipids and most other
membrane constituents are
amphipathic molecules.

Amphipathic molecules have


both hydrophobic regions and
hydrophilic regions.
Hydrophobic
tails

Hydrophilic heads
Protein
Envision the
membrance as a
mosaic of protein
floating in and fluid
phospholipids bilayer.
They have 2 type of
protein
a) integral protein
b) peripheral protein
Continue..
Protein are individually embedded in the
phospholipid bilayer, rather than forming a
solid coat spread upon the surface.
Integral proteins (Intrinsic proteins), pass
straight through the membrane and have
both an intracellular and extracellular portion.
Peripheral proteins (Extrinsic proteins),
are fixed in one half of the bilayer or
appendages loosely bound to the surface of
membrane.
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE
Continue..

Hydrophilic portion of both


proteins and phospholipids are
maximally exposed to water
resulting in a stable membrane
structure.
Hydrophobic portion of proteins
and phospholipids are in
nonaqueous environment inside
the bilayer.
The functions of proteins on plasma
membrane

1.Transport
2.Enzymatic activity
3.Signal transduction
4.Cell-cell recognition
5.Intercellular joining
6.Attachment to the cytoskeleton and
extracellular matrix (ECM)
1. TRANSPORT
(a) A protein that
spans the
membrane may
provide a
hydrophilic
channel across the
membrane that is
selective for a
particular solute.
1. TRANSPORT (cont..)
(b) Some transport
proteins hydrolyze
ATP as an energy
source to actively
pump substances
across the
membrane.
2. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY
A protein built into
the membrane may
be an enzyme with
its active site
exposed to
substances in the
adjacent solution.
2. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY (cont..)

In some cases,
several enzymes
in a membrane are
ordered as a team
that carries out
sequential steps in
a metabolic
pathway.
3. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
A membrane
protein may
have a binding Hormone
or
site with a external
specific shape message
of a chemical
messenger.
E.g. Hormone
3. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
(cont..)
The external
messenger
(signal) may Hormone
cause a or
conformational external
change in the message
protein that
relays the
message to the
inside of the cell.
4. INTERCELLULAR JOINING
Membrane
proteins of
adjacent cell may
be hooked
together in
various kind of
junction.
5. CELL-CELL RECOGNITION
Serves as
identification tags
that are
specifically
recognized by
other cells.
6. ATTACHMENT TO THE
CYTOSKELETON &
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM)

Protein adhere to
ECM can
coordinate
extracellular and
intracellular
change.
ATTACHMENT TO THE
CYTOSKELETON &
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM)

Bonded microfilaments
or other element of
cytoskeleton to the
protein membrane.
Helps to maintain cell
shape and stabilizes the
location of certain protein
membrane.
Role of membrane carbohydrates in cell-cell
recognition

Carbohydrate side chains


are found only on the
outer surface of the
plasma membrane, which
form :
-glycoprotein when it
combined with protein.
-glycolipid when it
combined with lipid.
Functions of glycolipid & glycoprotein:-
Cell recognition/ cell
marker
Eg: The four human blood
type (A,B,AB,O) reflect
variation in the
carbohydrates on the surface
of RBC.

Receptor sites for chemical


signal.
Eg: Hormones
Cell-cell recognition
A cells ability to distinguish
one type of neighboring cell
from another, is crucial to the
functioning of an organism.
Basis for rejection of foreign
cells by the immune system.
The way cells recognize other
cells is by binding to surface
molecules, often carbohydrates
on the plasma membrane.
The Fluidity of Membranes

1. Phospholipids - can move within the


bilayer either by lateral movement or flip-flop
(rare)

Lateral movement Flip-flop


(~107 times per second) (~ once per month)

(a) Movement of phospholipids


2. The type of hydrocarbon tails in
phospholipids affects the fluidity of the
plasma membrane

Fluid Viscous

Unsaturated hydrocarbon Saturated hydro-


tails with kinks Carbon tails

(b) Membrane fluidity

Figure 7.5 B
The membrane remains fluid to a lower temperature if
it is rich in phospholipids with unsaturated
hydrocarbon tails

Because of kinks in the tails where double bonds are


located, unsaturated hydrocarbons do not pack together
as closely as saturated hydrocarbons, and this makes the
membrane more fluid

Fluid Viscous

Unsaturated hydrocarbon Saturated hydro-


tails with kinks Carbon tails

(b) Membrane fluidity


3. The steroid cholesterol
Has different effects on membrane fluidity at
different temperatures

Cholesterol

Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane


At 37 C of human (relatively warm temperatures),
0

cholesterol makes the membrane less fluid by


restraining the movement of phospholipids

Cholesterol also hinders close packaging of


phospholipids where it lowers the temperature
required for the membrane to solidify

Cholesterol

Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane


Membrane must be fluid to work properly

The functions of cholesterol:

a. Cholesterol can be thought as a temperature


buffer for the membrane fluidity, resisting
changes in membrane fluidity that can be caused
by changes in temperature

b. Give mechanical stability


Functions of the plasma
membrane
Membrane define boundaries and serve
as permeability barriers
Membranes are sites of specific functions
Provide for and regulate transport
processes
Contain the receptors needed to detect
external signals
Provide mechanisms for cell to cell
contact, communication and adhesion
Membrane define boundaries and
serve as permeability barriers
Separate the contents
of cells from their
external environments.

As a selective barrier
that allows sufficient
passage of oxygen,
nutrients and wastes
products.
Membranes are sites of specific
functions
The localization of
specific functions is
exemplified by many
enzymes that are
present in or on
membranes of
organelles
To compartmentalise
the organelles within a
cell to allow specialized
metabolic process to
occur.
Provide for and regulate
transport processes
Substances into and
out of cells and their
organelles
(c Contain the receptors needed to
detect external signals
The external
messenger
(signal) may Hormone
cause a or
conformational external
change in the message
protein that
relays the
message to the
inside of the cell.
Provide mechanisms for cell to
cell contact, communication and
adhesion
Membrane mediate cell-to-cell
communication
Communication between adjacent cells