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Asia Tourism Forum 2016 The 12th Biennial Conference of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Asia (ATF-16)

Tourism Management in Cikondang


Ancestral Hamlet
Adrian Agoes, S.Sos, MM.Par
STIEPAR YAPARI-AKTRIPA
Jl.Dr. Ir. Sutami No. 81-83, Bandung
adrian.tea@gmail.com

Abstract In accordance with the Bandung Regency


I. INTRODUCTION
Governments policy to initiate tourism as a way in elevating the
living standard of the people, there are some villages declared as There is an urge to the local government in Indonesia
tourism village by the government. One of the villages is to focusing its development to the area of the villages.
Lamajang Village, which has various potential for tourism. One Thus it is hoped that there will be a social change from
of the attractions is the presence of a small hamlet called urbanization to ruralization. The people from the city
Cikondang known for its traditional house compound. will be attracted to visit the village. According to that
Cikondang Ancestral Hamlet as a part of Lamajang Tourism policy, the government of West Java has started to
Village in Bandung Regency, Indonesia, has very strong develop some area to become a tourism village (desa
potentials in heritage tourism. However, this noble purpose of
wisata). On that account tourism development should be
tourism has not reached any significant achievement. This
projected systematically from the national level through
condition clearly needs to be followed through by the society as
well as the governments and tourism industry players. The effort
the regency level.
that can be taken is to strengthen the traditional values and The regency of Bandung, West Java, has also taken
manage it to become attractive tourism activities that can be part in reflecting this policy by proclaiming some
offered to the visitors. A very strong challenge faced in managing villages to become a tourism village. Besides its village
tour-ism activities in this hamlet is the local wisdom itself known activities, Bandung Regency also has strong potentials in
as pamali (taboo). As much interested as the visitors to cultural activities as well as cultural heritage. One of the
experience the local tradition, the Cikondang people still strongly
potential villages is Lamajang Village, especially in
hold to the restrictions inherited from their ancestors.
Cikondang Ancestral Hamlet. The attraction offered in
Restrictions such as the visitors cannot enter the traditional
house and the forbidden forest, visitors are not allowed to have
Cikondang is involving two dimensions, that is cultural
noisy activities, will hold back visitors in enjoying the tourism heritage and village activities.
activities that can be offered by this hamlet. At this moment the Cikondang also has a strong evident of the ancestors
people of Cikondang has not seen tourism to be their main way of living in a form of traditional house. The
activities and their main income. Some visitors do come by and traditional house is said to be hundreds years of age, and
the people are already familiar to become a host for them. Most had survived a big combustion shattering the village
of the visitors are domestic visitors such as students, college
back then. The existence of Cikondang has its
students, and researchers. The community leader is already
importance that is to become the living example of how
aware that tourism can somehow be a way to elevate their
standard of living, or at least be a significant additional income the ancestors of Sundanese people (especially in that
for some seasons. The main challenge is that the facts there are particular area) had lived. Cikondang can be a
still no established market for this potential heritage tourism representative of Sundanese way of life of long ago.
attraction. In this case, the development of tourism activities is Visitors coming to this village can learn about the
confronted with preserving of the values that the people hold on cultural value and the way of living of the Sundanese
to. The method used in this research is qualitative descriptive. people in the past time.
This research is aimed to identify the heritage tourism potentials
in Cikondang Ancestral Hamlet, then find a model of tourism
management that can preserve the Sundanese culture of
Cikondang, yet allow the people to benefit in increasing welfare
through tourism activities.
Keywords Tourism Management, Village Tourism, Cultural
Heritage, Tourist Attraction

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Nonetheless, there is a challenge in developing B. Cultural Heritage Tourism


tourism activities in Cikondang, which is the In regard to the character of the site being observed,
continuation of the ancestors local wisdom known as beside tourism village, the concept used in this research
pamali (or taboo). The taboo is not in favors of is related with cultural heritage.
augmenting the tourism activities. Even though the
people of Cikondang have plenty of traditional activities,
but they would not allow visitors to take part of those 1) UNESCO definitions of heritage
local customs activities, especially in the site of the The working definition for heritage tourism
ancestral traditional house and in the area of forbidden constituted by UNESCO Convention for the Safe-
forest. For that matter, in the effort of preserving the guarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2003
traditional values of ancestral hamlet of Cikondang, (ED/GE Tourism Solutions, 2010) is as follows:
some thoughts from certain aspects are needed. The practices, representations, expressions,
knowledge, skills and traditions as well as the
II. METHOD instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural
Considering the nature of the subject in regard of spaces associated therewith that communities,
tourism management and the availability of the groups and, in some cases, individuals recognize
respondent, the methodology used in this research is as part of their cultural heritage as may be
descriptive qualitative by selecting certain informer. In expressed in, but not limited to, the following
this case we have one informer who is the leader of the
domains: oral traditions, local histories as well
native people managing the site. The data collecting
as language; rituals, performances and social
technique was using interview, observation, as well as
practices; indigenous and local knowledge
literature study. The observation tools used were
checklist and photography. The interview used video concerning nature, the universe and human
recording technique. The research explored the environment, and traditional craftsmanship
information from the informer and develop conclusion
from the data collected. While in the UNESCO Convention Concerning the
Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in
III. LITERATURE REVIEW 1972 (ED/GE Tourism Solutions, 2010) some of the
A. Tourism Village form of heritage is listed as sites. It is defined as
Tourism Village is a rural area that offers the follows:
whole atmosphere of village authenticity including its Sites: works of man or the combined works of
social-economy life, socio-cultural life, daily life nature and man, and areas including
activities, having specific architecture and village archaeological sites, which are of outstanding
organization, having unique economic life, and having universal value from the historical, aesthetic,
local potentials to be developed as tourism component ethno-logical or anthropological point of view.
such as attraction, culinary, accommodation and other
tourism needs. The requirement to be a tourism village 2) ASEAN Cultural Heritage Requirements
should imply the following conditions: (1) Good From the ASEAN Declaration on Cultural Heritage
accessibility, (2) Having interesting objects of tourism, declared in Thailand by the ministers of foreign affair of
(3) Acceptance from host society and government, (4) ASEAN countries in the year 2000, it is noted some
Guaranteed security, (5) Availability of accommodation, conditions on ASEAN level to manage a Cultural
telecommunication facilities, and human re-sources, (6) Heritage site. This includes six points that is: 1.)
Having a good climate, (7) Interconnected with other Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage, 2.) Site
tourist objects and already well known by the people protection and conservation, 3.) Tourism and site
(Priasukmana & Mulyadin, 2001). management, 4.) Environ-mental management, 5.)
Accessibility, 6.) Support facilities.
3) The Importance of Tourism for Heritage Sites
Even though in some heritage sites, the protection
principles are more important, nevertheless tour-ism also
plays an important role in managing a heritage

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Asia Tourism Forum 2016 The 12th Biennial Conference of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Asia (ATF-16)

site. The Australian Heritage Commission (AHC) stated motivated wholly or in part by interest in the
that tourism is important as it helps to provide public historical, artistic, scientific or lifestyle /
access, the option for recreation, and most importantly, heritage offerings of a community, region, group
tourism will help to raise awareness of the value of the or institutions (Silberberg, 1995). Such travel is
heritage sites. It is also said that well-informed tourists focused upon experiencing cultural
will be more willing to take action in protecting the environments, including landscapes, the visual
place and also will support and respect the program in and performing arts and special lifestyles,
managing the heritage site. Thus, tourism is hoped to values, traditions and events. There is broad
contribute to the conservation effort. As for the local agreement that cultural resources generate
community, AHC explains that tourism would provide economic vitality by leveraging human capital
employment opportunities as well as additional income and culture to generate economic vitality
to the local people and also to strengthen the local through tourism, crafts, and cultural attractions.
identity so the local will much more aware of the value Also cultural resources may contribute to an
of their place there-fore encourage them to maintain and areas innovative habitat by making
protect the sites. communities more attractive to highly desirable
C. Tourism Management knowledge-based employees and permitting new
forms of knowledge intensive production to
In order to view the research from the tourism flourish. This may be effective not only in large
management perspective, here are the conceptual central cities, but in smaller com-munities and
literatures used in this research: rural areas as well. Cultural and heritage
1) Cultural Heritage Tourism Management Principle tourists stay longer and spend more money than
In setting a sustainability stage for heritage tourism, it other kinds of travelers thus making such tourism
is said that a sustainability principles should be adopted an important economic development tool
(Chabra, 2010). It is defined as follows: (Advisory Council on Historic Preservation,
Having the potential to consistently advocate 2002).
long-term economic, social, cultural / heritage IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
viability, and local welfare and education while
striving to become a locally inclusive, A. Overview of Cikondang Ancestral Hamlet
collaborative, and ecologically balanced The term ancestral hamlet is used to describe the site
industry. of traditional house and forbidden forest within the area
of Lamajang tourism village. Cikondang is a hamlet
While Boyd (2002 in Chabra, 2010) identified five included in Lamajang village.
themes for sustainable development in heritage industry
in Canada, as follows: 1.) Mutually beneficial
partnership; 2.) A national strategy with local linkage;
3.) Integration of public and private sectors; 4.)
Knowledge-based local communities; 5.) Greater
attention to culture and heritage within the context of a
wider view of tourism in general.
In acknowledging the value of cultural heritage
tourism, the following excerpt from Rosenfeld paper
(2002) has a comprehensive meaning:
Cultural and Heritage Tourism is a tool of
economic development that achieves economic
growth through attracting visitors from outside a
host community, who are

Fig. 1. Tourism Map of Lamajang Village

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Asia Tourism Forum 2016 The 12th Biennial Conference of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Asia (ATF-16)

The locals believed that the hamlet has been around C. Cikondang Assessment Using ASEAN Tourism
since the year 1703 or in Islamic year 1126 Hijriah. The Heritage Standard
origin of the people in Cikondang is said to come from a
nomadic farmer from the northern hill arrived at the foot According to the standard used in ASEAN Tourism
of Gunung Tilu (Mount Tilu). At the time of the Heritage Requirements, following is the result of the
research, there were 250 families lived in the area of 300 assessment:
hectare. In the beginning, this site in Cikondang was a TABLE I. ASSESSMENT USING ASEAN TOURISM HERITAGE
compound of houses using the architectural style similar STANDARD
to the one seen in Bumi Adat (the main house in the Criteria Requirements Observation Result
site). Approximately in 1940s there were still more or A. Uniqueness Natural Heritage
less sixty houses in the hamlet. At 1942 there were and 1. Significance of 1. Village atmosphere such as
characteristics ecological rice fields, natural stream,
immense combustion burnt almost all of the houses of heritage systems and natural forest, are still well
except the ones existed today. natural habitats. maintained and significantly
2. Undisturbed seen.
The hamlet is located in the village of Lamajang at environments or 2. Forest is still protected and
Pangalengan District, in Bandung Regency, 38 environments remains untouched as a result
demonstrating of local cultural value.
kilometers south of Bandung City. It sits by the edge of natural process at 3. There are some rare animals
Gunung Tilu base, bordering with the wood, which is work i.e. especially birds can be seen.
wetlands, Traditional names such as
part of a preserved forest. In the preserved area, various wilderness areas, manintin, ancuing, sarieup,
or coastal areas. canitnit, momono bids can still
animals can still be found such as owl, squirrel, 3. Existence of rare be found.
monkeys, and also forest vegetation. and unique
species present at
B. Traditional House of Cikondang the site.
Cultural Heritage
1. Significance of 1. Ancestors house sites is well
The ancestral house of Ki Sunda is the only heritage the existing preserved and maintained with
of Uyat Murtaki a.k.a. Ma Empuh, the first key holder cultural and its natural yard since its
historical establishment in the past.
from the 16 - 17 century in Cikondang. This house is resources. 2. The architecture of the
built on the land of the ancestral (tanah ulayat) belongs 2. Authenticity and ancestors house is still
to the community. This traditional elevated house has integrity. keeping the original style even
3. Degree of though has gone through minor
the size of 8 X 12 meters with a terrace-like deck on the survival of the renovation to replace worn out
front of the house using traditional dried coconut leaf as archaeological materials.
remains, human The people still hold the
its rooftop. The kitchen area has a unique interlocking values, ways of ancestors belief and
half-cut bamboo pipe as the rooftop. The house only has life, customs, Sundanese values and culture.
land use, events 3. The originality of the
one main door with five windows. It is said that the and living ancestors house is still well
architectural character was built based on certain social traditions. maintained, as well as the
peoples way of life in village
and religious values. A few meters away at the side of life such as farming, traditional
the house, there is a bamboo building that is used for ceremony, are still performed
small hall where the village leaders held meetings. At in the way as their ancestors
did.
the back of the house, there is a small entrance to the B. Site 1. Existence of 1. There has not been any
forbidden forest. When entering the forest, one must take protection and management professional management to
conservation control/measures run the activities around the
off their footwear to honor the purity of the forest. The conservation to ancestral hamlet. The
site area is said to be officially open for tourist visit. For ensure that the preservation is done
site capacity (in individually by the inheritance
cultural visit, it is open everyday. But for religious visit terms of of the house.
to the sacred tomb, it only opens on Monday, resources and 2. There is no preventive
Wednesday, Thursday and Sunday. facilities) can management mechanism to
absorb tourism minimize degradation of
activities. resources, people only rely on
2. Implementation the ancestors belief (taboo).
of preventive
measures/manag
ement
mechanisms to
minimize
degradation of
resources.

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Criteria Requirements Observation Result Criteria Requirements Observation Result


C. Tourism 1. Appropriate 1. The community leader and the site.
and site tourism activities Kompepar (local tourism 2. Adequate and 2. Very simple signage available.
management compatible with activist group) are in effort to clear directional
local heritage, handle the visitors. There is a signage to the
values and procedure to handle the site.
character. visitors but is still very simple. F. Support 1. Adequacy of 1. No supporting facilities are
2. Involvement of 2. The local people are only facilities facilities such as available. The nearest medical
local active in the cultural activity medical care, care is in Pangalengan district.
communities in when there is time for F&B outlets, Restrooms are only available
the development ceremony, which is done elec-tricity, using local peoples house.
and the yearly. Also when there is a water supply, 2. No skilled staff available.
management of group of visitors who stay at restrooms, There is Kompepar (local
the cultural and their houses. communication tourism activist group) but still
the natural 3. There hasnt been significant tools. not in function.
heritage site number of people who depend 2. Availability of
3. Creation of jobs their living on tourism. Local skilled staff,
that encourage handicrafts are yet to have officials/ local
the use of local significant consumers. guards and other
knowledge, skills 4. There is a signage at the measures to take
and traditions. entrance on the main road, and care of safety
4. The use of one at the alley as the access to and security for
appropriate off- the ancestral hamlet. visitors.
site and on-site There is no brochure,
interpretive interpretive media, nor any
media to educate guidebook available.
visitors such as: 5. There is no well trained D. Village Life
Signage /panel, localguide. Visitors are mainly
Brochure, handled by the community
Visual/ audio leader. In general Lamajang Village has gone through some
presentation, 6. Simple introduction is
Guide book, available through the developments especially in economic aspect. The
Special events community leader explanation. economic life which is mainly as farmers already lifted
5. Availability of 7. Monitoring program is not
well-trained available. to the higher standard. Though, the atmosphere of their
local village life such as rice fields, fishponds in the yard,
guides/interprete
rs to serve fresh air, still significantly presents. Visitors also still
visitors. can see the typical villagers house, livestock, and other
6. Introduction of
codes of conduct typical Sundanese villages attributes. Even though the
to educate new way of planting rice is now dominant, but they still
visitors on what
should or should practice the ancestors way that is planting the rice in a
not do when dry land. This way of planting rice known as rebon in
visiting the site.
7. Monitoring their language. It stands for Pare di Kebon or rice in
program in place the farm. Some of the local customs are still in practice,
to assess tourism
impacts on the such as Wuku Taun, held every Muharram month
site. between 1 - 5 Muharram (Islamic Calendar), in the site
D. 1. Provision of 1. Waste management is done by
Environment- appropriate and local government of ancestral hamlet. Normally the local governments are
al sufficient waste 2. Traditional wastewater system invited during this ceremony. There is also a yearly
management management 3. No parking zone. Only
system. roadside parking. The road is event maintaining the Rebon that is called Ruwat
2. Put in place too small for parking. Selokan maintaining the traditional irrigation for the
wastewater 4. No control and rgulation for
treatment. entry to the objects. rice in the farm. Besides the above ceremony, local
3. Zoning parking values are also still in practice. One of them is the
area for the site.
4. Control and pamali or taboo as stated previously panjang ulah
regulate the entry diteukteuk, pondok ulah disambung (whatever grows
of objects,
materials and one must not cut, whatever short one must not extend).
vehicles to the As for the art, they also still are practicing some local art
site.
E. 1. Sufficient 1. Only village road is available. especially in music, for instance the Beluk, and also
Accessibility infrastructure There is a road sign at the Pupuh which are the forms of traditional singing. In
and facilities to main road of Banjaran-
enable easy and Pangalengan general, the architectural in Cikondang is no longer
safe access to supporting traditional style.

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The same goes for the villages spatial layout, which community leader, listen to his explanation and
is already insignificant. However, the overall see the site. Maximum experience has yet to be
atmosphere is still representing the character of a obtained by visitors.
village. Some of the houses are still using woven The fourth challenge is lack of human resources
bamboo as the wall; some of them use wooden who is trained in tourism activities. Even though
planks. Domestic plantations are also characterizing there is Kompepar (community of tourism
activists), yet there hasnt been any valuable
the village atmosphere in Cikondang. program to enhance the human resources here.
The fifth is lack of peoples understanding in what
E. The Potentials of Tourism tourism is. In term of its activities, or its benefits,
Activities in Cikondang as well as its negative impacts and how to prevent
or overcome it.
Visitors can learn the history of Sundanese The last challenge is that there hasnt been any
ancestors around the hamlet. The heritage house has ideal market developed for this destination.
valuable historic values to learn in accordance to the Current market consists of students and
existence of Sundanese people. Other than that, researchers, also pilgrims, who bring insignificant
visitors can also learn about Sundanese culture, not contribution to welfare of the people of
only in terms of art and music, but also in terms of Cikondang.
the Sundanese value of life. Some values are also
unique to Cikondang itself. Next, visitors can also
G. Suggestions in Tourism Management in
experience the villagers way of life. They can try to
live in the peoples house and do the usual activities Cikondang
of the people in Cikondang, especially as farmers.
Another thing is that visitors can learn some In spite of the challenges identified in managing
traditional workshop where they can learn how to tourism in Cikondang, this research has found some
create interesting traditional local crafts. Even they recommendation that should be act upon to improve the
can learn how to do simple daily work such as tourism management in this hamlet. There are three
peeling coconuts or making traditional delicacies. important recommendations as follows:
The last is that visitors who stayed at Cikondang can As in heritage concept preservation is more
explore further within the Lamajang Village that is important than tourism activities, the head of
home to various natural attractions. Visitors can do Cikondang hamlet has come out with unexpected
soft adventure activities such as hiking, visiting recommendation to re-create the ancestral hamlet
waterfalls, or even do river rafting that is already (especially the traditional house complex) in
organized by local operators from Bandung Regency. different zone. This re-creation of the traditional
house complex has the purpose to serve the
visitors needs to experience all kinds of the
F. Challenges in Managing Tourism in activities which is forbidden in the actual heritage
Cikondang Ancestral Hamlet house. This research suggests that the concept of
recreation should be developed under the concept
There are six main challenges identified in of re-establishment program. In which to make it
managing tourism in Cikondang. as authentic real Cikondang families will actually
inhabit the re-created house. This way, the
First is the local value. The people of
ancestral hamlet can still be visited, yet, prevented
Cikondang still hold strong to local wisdom
from being overused by the visitors, as the taboo
and taboo thus visitors, especially foreigners,
will still be in effect. In order to have the visitors
cannot enjoy visiting the traditional house site to be able to experience the local culture in
and the forbidden forest. Some of the musical authentic environment, they could come to the
potential also cannot be performed around the reestablishment complex to have the similar
site. layout, architecture, and the overall environment.
Second, the economic development has led to It is strongly suggested that this re-establishment
the modernization in the peoples lifestyle. If complex should have similar area of forbidden
this is not managed well, Cikondang might forest that visitors could enter this area.
loose the uniqueness of their village life. Another recommendation is to have consistent
Third, lack of visitors management system. coaching in tourism activities, which in this case
Visitors simply come to the house of the would be in the interest of the local government.

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Before developing the ideal market, the people Even though it is also important, but preventing
of Cikondang should be prepared modernization can be difficult. Especially when
predominantly by tourism knowledge and skill. the people of Cikondang has not place reliance on
There are two main areas that should be trained tourism activities as their source of income.
those are visitors management technique, and However, local tradition is still well maintained
also hospitality skill. Those will be very useful from generation to generation, strengthen by the
to host the visitors who want to stay at the help from the local government.
local peoples house. Training in guiding and
interpretation technique is also of importance
and can be useful for the people of Cikondang. REFERENCES
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