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DR.R.K.JAIN

M. Tech (Thermal), Ph.D (Equiv.) Ph.D (Mech) MIIFM, MWFO

Professor & Head

Department of Mechanical Engineering

ITM University

GWALIOR

MEL 0304 BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

B.TECH III SEMESTERMECH, AUTOMOBILE, PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

THEORY COMPONENT-

Continuous Evaluation

PRACTICAL COMPONENT

TOTAL=100

OBJECTIVE

The Course is basic core requirement of all Engineering Science curriculums. It is a prerequisite

of courses such as heat transfer, energy conversion, Refrigeration & air conditioning, and I.C.

Engines. The knowledge of this course is essential for understanding the processes that occur in

surroundings and equipments such as refrigerators, air conditioners, heat pumps, etc and

generation of electricity

SYLLABUS

Unit- I

Process, Cycle, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, statement and significance, concept of an Ideal

gas, Gas laws, Avogadro's hypothesis, Real gas, Deviation with ideal gas, Vander-walls

equation, evaluation of its constants, limitations of the equation. The law of corresponding states,

Compressibility factor, generalized compressibility chart, P-V-T surface of a Real gas,

Thermodynamics relations, Maxwell relations and their applications.

2

Unit- II

surface, HS,TS, PV, PH, TV diagram, measurement of dryness fraction of vapor, Use of steam

table and Mollier chart.

Unit- III

Heat And Work Transfer: First law of thermodynamics, Statement of first law of

thermodynamics, first law applied to closed system, first law applied to a closed system

undergoing a cycle, processes analysis of closed system, flow process, flow energy, steady flow

process, Relations for flow processes, limitations of first law of thermodynamics.

Unit- IV

Second law of thermodynamics, heat engine, heat reservoir, Refrigerator, heat pump, COP,

EPR, Available energy, Carnot's theorem, Carnot's cycle, efficiency of Carnot's cycle, statement

of second law, Reversible and irreversible processes, consequence of second law, Entropy,

Entropy change for ideal gas, T-S diagrams, Availability and Irreversibility. Gibbs and

Helmholtz functions.

Unit -V

Air standard cycles, Vapour power cycles Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Dual cycles and their

comparison, two stroke and four stroke engines, Brayton cycle, Power generation by steam,

Rankine cycle, effects of pressure & temperature, reheat & regenerative cycles.

LEARNING OUTCOME

This subject gives the basic knowledge of all processes involving heat, work, energy, and is a

basis for all other subjects like heat and mass transfer, refrigeration and air conditioning, I/C

engines etc.

Text Books and References:

1.Engineering Thermodynamics; P. K. Nag TMH

2.Thermal Science & Engineering , D. S. Kumar S. K. Katarina & Sons

3. Thermodynamics; Arora C P; TMH

4. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, R.E. Sonntag, C. Borgnakke, and G.J. Van Wylen;,

John Wiley &Sons, Inc.

5. Thermodynamics, by J.P. Holman--- MC Graw Hill book Co. NY.

6. Thermodynamics by Moran & Shapiro - John Willey & Sons.

7. Thermodynamics by Yunus Ceingel MC Graw Hill book Co. NY

3

List of Experiments:

1. To find mechanical equivalent of heat using Joules apparatus

2. To evaluate working of impulse and reaction steam turbine by models.

3. To evaluate working of Gas turbines by models and to identify various processes of

Brayton Cycle.

4. To calculate COP of vapor compression refrigeration system and to plot on T-s, p-H

diagrams.

5. To calculate COP of vapor absorption refrigeration system and to plot on T-s, p-H

diagrams.

6. Study of 2 stroke and 4 stroke petrol Engines

7. Study of 2 stroke and 4 stroke diesel Engines

8. Study of steam engine

9. To plot specific fuel consumption versus rpm diagrams for diesel and petrol engines

LESSON PLAN

ASSIGNMENTS

ASSIGNMENT NO 1

Potential energy, Kinetic energy, Internal energy, Chemical energy, Heat, Mechanical work,

Flow work

Q2Explain different types of Properties with examples and difference between extensive and

intensive properties

Q3--Explain different types of Equilibrium with examples. Differentiate between reversible and

irreversible process,

Q4- State and prove Zeroth law of thermodynamics, what is its significance.

Q5- Explains differences between Real gas, and ideal gas. Derive Vander-walls equation.

Evaluate its constants

Q6 define the following

4

(1)The law of corresponding states, (2) Compressibility factor, (3) Generalized compressibility

chart,

Q7 Explain Gibbs equations for Thermodynamics relations. Derive Maxwell relations and state

their applications

Q8. Explain different types of systems with examples .Describe macroscopic and microscopic

method of approach.

Q9.The specific heat capacity of the system during a process is given by C n= (0.4+0.004 T)

kJ/kg0C. If the mass of the gas is 6 kg and temperature changes from 25 0C 1250C find---(1)

heat transferred (ii) mean specific heat of the gas.

Q10.A temperature scale of a certain barometer is given by [t= a lnp + b] where a and b are

constants and p is thermometric fluid property. At ice point and steam point the thermometric

properties are 1.5 and 7.5 respectively. Find temperature corresponding to thermometric property

of 3.5 on Celsius scale

ASSIGNMENT NO 2

Sensible heat, latent heat, dryness fraction, enthalpy of wet steam, superheated steam, entropy of

water, internal energy of steam, entropy of evaporation

Q2. Explain the critical point and triple point. Draw the phase transformation diagram.

Q3. Draw following phase diagrams--- P-V diagram, h-S diagram, T-S diagram, P-h diagram.

Q4. What volume is occupied by 1 kg of steam at 176 bar and 90% quality, 1 kg of steam at 10

bar and 90% quality. Explain the reasons for difference in volume.

Q5.Find enthalpy, entropy, internal energy of 5 kg of steam at pressure of 10 bar when (1) it is

dry saturated (2) it is 0.75 dry (3) superheated to 2500C. use steam tables.

Q6 Describe with neat sketch the experimental method to determine the dryness fraction of

steam using barrel calorimeter. Derive the expression.

Q7. One kg of steam at 1.8 Mpa and 2800C undergoes a non flow constant pressure process until

its quality becomes 50%. Find (1) work done (2) change in enthalpy (3) heat transferred.

Q8. Three kg of steam at 18 bars occupies volume of 0.2550 m3 in a constant volume process.

The heat rejected is 1320 KJ. Determine (1) final internal energy (2) dryness fraction (3) pressure

(4) change in entropy (5) work done

ASSIGNMENT NO 3

Q1 Explain similarities and dissimilarities between heat and work. Prove that heat is a path

function and not a property.

5

Q3 Explain all corollaries of first law of thermodynamics. Define internal energy and prove that

it is a property.

Q4.Derive expressions for first law of thermodynamics as applied to different processes for a

closed system.

Q5.Define control volume and control system. Derive expressions for first law of

thermodynamics as applied to an open system.

Q6. Derive expressions for flow work and non flow work processes.

Q7. A piston cylinder arrangement contains a gas which expands reversibly according to the law

PV 1.4 = Constant. Before expansion the pressure, volume and temperatures are 6 bar, 0.06 m3,

and 2250k. After expansion the pressure is 3 bars. Calculate the work done during the process.

Q8.in a steam power station a 0.9m diameter pipe line connects boiler to steam turbine. Steam

flows steadily. At boiler end the pressure is 6 Mpa, temperature 480 0c, specific enthalpy 3415.8

kj/kg, and volume 0.09 m3/kg. At turbine end the conditions are 4.5 Mpa, 4150C, 3394.6 kj/kg

and 0.11m3/kg respectively. The heat loss from pipe line is 10.5kJ/kg. Determine steam flow rate

in kg/sec.

Q9. Explain the limitations of first law of thermodynamics which lead to second law of

thermodynamics

DR.R.K.JAIN

16

the relationship between pressure and volume is given by pvn = constant. The

initial pressure is 3 bar, the initial volume is 0.1 m3, and the final volume is 0.2

m3. Determine the work for the process, in kJ, if (a) n=1.5,(b) n= 1.0, and (c) n= 0.

assembly. The gas undergoes a process for which the pressurevolume relationship

is pv 1.5 =constant The initial pressure is 3 bar, the initial volume is 0.1 m3, and the

final volume is 0.2 m3. The change in specific internal energy of the gas in the

process is U2-U1= -4.6 kJ/kg. There are no significant changes in kinetic or

potential energy. Determine the net heat transfer for the process, in kJ.

Q3 Two power cycles each receive the same energy input Qin and discharge

energy Q out to the same lake. If the cycles have different thermal efficiencies,

which discharges the greater amount Qout? Does this have any implications for the

environment?

a constant-pressure process at 5 bar beginning at v1 =0.20 m3/kg. For the gas as the

system, the work is -15 kJ. Determine the final volume of the gas, in m3.

Q5. A gas expands from an initial state where p1 = 500 kPa and V1 = 0.1 m3 to a

final state where p2 = 100 kPa. The relationship between pressure and volume

during the process is PV = constant. Sketch the process on a pV diagram and

determine the work, in kJ.

magnitude 9 kJ to the system from the surroundings. The elevation of the system

increases by 700 m during the process. The specific internal energy of the system

Decreases by 6 kJ/kg and there is no change in kinetic energy of the system. The

acceleration of gravity is constant at g _ 9.6m/s2. Determine the heat transfer, in

kJ.

Q7 A closed system of mass 20 kg undergoes a process in which there is a heat

transfer of 1000 kJ from the system to the surroundings. The work done on the

system is 200 kJ. If the initial specific internal energy of the system is 300 kJ/kg,

what is the final specific internal energy, in kJ/kg? Neglect changes in kinetic and

potential energy.

7

p2 bar in a process during which the relation between pressure and volume is pV 1.2

=constant. The mass of the gas is 0.25 kg. If the specific internal energy of the gas

decreases by 55 kJ/kg during the process, determine the heat transfer, in kJ. Kinetic

and potential energy effects are

Q9. A power cycle receives energy by heat transfer from the combustion of fuel at

a rate of 300 MW. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is 33.3%. (a) Determine the

net rate power is developed, in MW. (b) For 8000 hours of operation annually,

determine the network output, in per year. (c) Evaluating the net work output at

rs.6.00 per kw-h. Determine the value of the net work, in re. /year kW.

Q10. A quantity of water is at 15 MPa and 100_C. Evaluate the specific volume, in

m3/kg, and the specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg, using steam tables.

Q11. (a)Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg,

of water at 200C and 1.0 MPa. (b)Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the

specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg, of superheated vapour at 800 kPa and 300 0 C. use

steam tables

Q12 A tank contains 0.05 m3 of nitrogen (N2) at 31 0C and 10 MPa. Determine the

mass of nitrogen, in kg, using (a) the ideal gas model (b) data from the

compressibility chart.

volume of 2.2 m3. Verify that ideal gas behavior can be assumed for air under

these conditions.

Q14 A closed system consists of an ideal gas with mass m and constant specific

heat ratio k. If kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,(a) show that for

any adiabatic process the work is W =mR (T2 T1)/K

Q15 Air enters a control volume operating at steady state at 1.05 bar, 300 K, with a

volumetric flow rate of 12 m3/min and exits at 12 bar, 400 K. Heat transfer occurs

at a rate of 20 Kw from the control volume to the surroundings. Neglecting kinetic

and potential energy effects, determine the power, in kW.

Q16 Steam enters a nozzle operating at steady state at 30 bar, 320C, with a

velocity of 100 m/s. The exit pressure and temperature are 10 bar and 200C,

respectively. The mass flow rate is 2 kg/s. Neglecting heat transfer and potential

8

energy, determine (a) the exit velocity, in m/s. (b)the inlet and exit flow areas, in

cm2.

Q17.Air expands through a turbine from 10 bar, 900 K to 1 bar, 500 K. The inlet

velocity is small compared to the exit velocity of 100 m/s. The turbine operates at

steady state and develops a power output of 3200 kW. Heat transfer between the

turbine and its surroundings and potential energy effects are negligible. Calculate

the mass flow rate of air, in kg/s, and the exit area, in m2.

Q18 Air is compressed at steady state from 1 bar, 300 K, to 6 bar with a mass flow

rate of 4 kg/s. Each unit of mass passing from inlet to exit undergoes a process

described by pv 1.27=constant. Heat transfer occurs at a rate of 46.95 kJ per kg of

air flowing to cooling water circulating in a water jacket enclosing the compressor.

If kinetic and potential energy changes of the air from inlet to exit are negligible,

calculate the work done.

Q19 A rigid tank of volume 0.75 m3 is initially evacuated. A hole develops in the

wall, and air from the surroundings at1 bar, 25_C flows in until the pressure in the

tank reaches 1 bar. Heat transfer between the contents of the tank and the

surroundings is negligible. Determine the final temperature in the tank, in 0C.

Q20 A heat pump receives energy by heat transfer from the outside air at 0 0C and

discharges energy by heat transfer to a dwelling at 200C. Is this in violation of the

0Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics? Explain

Q21 The data listed below are claimed for a power cycle operating between

reservoirs at 5270C and 270C. For each case, determine if any principles of

thermodynamics would be violated.

(a) QH = 700 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 300 kJ.

(b) QH = 640 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 240 kJ.

(c) QH = 640 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 200 kJ..

from a cold reservoir at TC _ 280 K and rejects energy QH to a hot reservoir at TH

_ 320 K. For each of the following cases determine whether the cycle operates

reversibly, irreversibly, or is impossible:

(a) QC = 1500 kJ, W cycle = 150 kJ.

(b) QC = 1400 kJ, QH = 1600 kJ.

(c) QH = 1600 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ.

9

Q23 A heat pump maintains a dwelling at 20_C when the outside temperature is

0=C. The heat transfer rate through the walls and roof is 3000 kJ/h per degree

temperature difference between the inside and outside. Determine the minimum

theoretical power required to drive the heat pump, in kW.

Q25 A quantity of air is shown in Fig. 6.8. Consider a process in which the

temperature of the air increases by some combination of stirring and heating.

Assuming the ideal gas model for the air, suggest how this might be done with

(i) Minimum entropy production.(ii) maximum entropy production.

Q26 Using the steam tables for water, determine the specific entropy at the

indicated states, in kJ/kg K. In each case, show it on the Ts diagram. (i) p = 5.0

MPa, T = 400_C(ii) p = 5.0 MPa, T = 100C (iii) p = 5.0 MPa, u = 1872.5 kJ/kg

(iv)p = 5.0 MPa, saturated vapor

320_C. The water expands adiabatically to a final pressure of 0.1 MPa. Develop a

plot of the work done by the water, in kJ, versus the amount of entropy produced,

in kJ/K.

270C, 1 bar to a pressure of 2.1 bar. The work input required is 94.6 kJ per kg of air

flowing through the compressor. Heat transfer from the compressor occurs at

the rate of 14 kJ per kg at a location on the compressors surface where the

temperature is 400C. Kinetic and potential energy changes can be ignored.

Determine (a) the temperature of the air at the exit, in 0C. (b) the rate at which

entropy is produced within the compressor, in kJ/K per kg of air flowing.

Q29. Water is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle. Superheated vapor

enters the turbine at 8 MPa, 4800_C. The condenser pressure is 8 kPa. The net

power output of the cycle is 100 MW. Determine for the cycle (a) the rate of heat

transfer to the working fluid passing through the steam generator, in kW. (b) the

thermal efficiency. (c) The mass flow rate of condenser cooling water, in kg/h, if

the cooling water enters the condenser at 150C and exits at 350C with negligible

pressure change.

Q30 An air-standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8.5. At the beginning of

compression, p1_100 kPa and T1_300 K. The heat addition per unit mass of air is

1400 kJ/kg. Determine (a) the net work, in kJ per kg of air.(b) the thermal

efficiency of the cycle (c) the mean effective pressure, in kPa. (d) the maximum

10

compression ratio, ploteach of the quantities calculated in parts (a) through (d)

for compression ratios ranging from 1 to 12.

11

COURSE-FILE

12

INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN

SHEDULE(3-1-2)5

INSTRUCTION PLAN

No.

1 1 UNIT1- Thermodynamics, Property, Equilibrium, State, Fundamentals of

Process, Cycle Thermodynamics

2 2 Zeroth law of thermodynamics, statement and

significance, concept of an Ideal gas, Gas laws,

3 3 Avogadro's hypothesis, Real gas, Deviation with ideal gas

states,

6 6 Compressibility factor, generalized compressibility chart,

10 10 Unit- II

Pure Substance, Phase, Phase-transformations

11 11 formation of steam, properties of steam,

13

law of thermodynamics, ,

17 17 first law applied to closed system, first law applied to a

closed system undergoing a cycle

18 18 processes analysis of closed system,,

thermodynamics. Briefing of Numerical and assignment

22 22 Unit- IV - Second law of ther24modynamics, heat engine,

heat reservoir, Refri25gerator, heat pump, COP.26

23 23 EPR, Availab27le energy, Carnot's theorem, Carnot's

cycle 28

24 24 efficiency of Car29not's cycle

law

26 26 consequence of second law, Entropy

31 31 Otto cycle

32 32 Diesel cycle

14

35 35 Brayton cycle

40 40 Question bank

Text Books:

1 P. K. Nag; Engineering Thermodynamics; TMH

2 D. S. Kumar, Thermal Science & Engineering , S. K. Kataria & Sons

3 Thermodynamics Younus Ceingel, BolesMc Graw hill

4 Basic and applied thermodynamicsP.K.Nag- Mc Graw hill

5 Thermal engineering Rathore- Mc Graw hill

6 Applied thermodynamicsOnkar singh-

References:

7 Arora C P; Thermodynamics; TMH

8 R.E. Sonntag, C. Bugrake, and G.J. Van Wylen; Fundamentals of Thermodynamics,

John

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