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DR.R.K.JAIN
M. Tech (Thermal), Ph.D (Equiv.) Ph.D (Mech) MIIFM, MWFO
Department of Mechanical Engineering
ITM University
GWALIOR
MEL 0304 BASIC THERMODYNAMICS
B.TECH III SEMESTERMECH, AUTOMOBILE, PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

## Teaching Load/week (LTP) Credits= (3-1-2)5

THEORY COMPONENT-

Continuous Evaluation

## End semester evaluation= 40 TOTAL=100

PRACTICAL COMPONENT

## End Semester Evaluation (Practical Examination) =40

TOTAL=100

OBJECTIVE

The Course is basic core requirement of all Engineering Science curriculums. It is a prerequisite
of courses such as heat transfer, energy conversion, Refrigeration & air conditioning, and I.C.
Engines. The knowledge of this course is essential for understanding the processes that occur in
surroundings and equipments such as refrigerators, air conditioners, heat pumps, etc and
generation of electricity

SYLLABUS
Unit- I

## Basic Concepts and definitions: Thermodynamics, Systems, Property, Equilibrium, State,

Process, Cycle, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, statement and significance, concept of an Ideal
gas, Gas laws, Avogadro's hypothesis, Real gas, Deviation with ideal gas, Vander-walls
equation, evaluation of its constants, limitations of the equation. The law of corresponding states,
Compressibility factor, generalized compressibility chart, P-V-T surface of a Real gas,
Thermodynamics relations, Maxwell relations and their applications.
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Unit- II

## Pure Substance, Phase, Phase-transformations, formation of steam, properties of steam, PVT

surface, HS,TS, PV, PH, TV diagram, measurement of dryness fraction of vapor, Use of steam
table and Mollier chart.

Unit- III

Heat And Work Transfer: First law of thermodynamics, Statement of first law of
thermodynamics, first law applied to closed system, first law applied to a closed system
undergoing a cycle, processes analysis of closed system, flow process, flow energy, steady flow
process, Relations for flow processes, limitations of first law of thermodynamics.

Unit- IV

Second law of thermodynamics, heat engine, heat reservoir, Refrigerator, heat pump, COP,
EPR, Available energy, Carnot's theorem, Carnot's cycle, efficiency of Carnot's cycle, statement
of second law, Reversible and irreversible processes, consequence of second law, Entropy,
Entropy change for ideal gas, T-S diagrams, Availability and Irreversibility. Gibbs and
Helmholtz functions.

Unit -V

Air standard cycles, Vapour power cycles Carnot, Otto, Diesel, Dual cycles and their
comparison, two stroke and four stroke engines, Brayton cycle, Power generation by steam,
Rankine cycle, effects of pressure & temperature, reheat & regenerative cycles.

LEARNING OUTCOME

This subject gives the basic knowledge of all processes involving heat, work, energy, and is a
basis for all other subjects like heat and mass transfer, refrigeration and air conditioning, I/C
engines etc.
Text Books and References:
1.Engineering Thermodynamics; P. K. Nag TMH
2.Thermal Science & Engineering , D. S. Kumar S. K. Katarina & Sons
3. Thermodynamics; Arora C P; TMH
4. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics, R.E. Sonntag, C. Borgnakke, and G.J. Van Wylen;,
John Wiley &Sons, Inc.
5. Thermodynamics, by J.P. Holman--- MC Graw Hill book Co. NY.
6. Thermodynamics by Moran & Shapiro - John Willey & Sons.
7. Thermodynamics by Yunus Ceingel MC Graw Hill book Co. NY
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List of Experiments:
1. To find mechanical equivalent of heat using Joules apparatus
2. To evaluate working of impulse and reaction steam turbine by models.
3. To evaluate working of Gas turbines by models and to identify various processes of
Brayton Cycle.
4. To calculate COP of vapor compression refrigeration system and to plot on T-s, p-H
diagrams.
5. To calculate COP of vapor absorption refrigeration system and to plot on T-s, p-H
diagrams.
6. Study of 2 stroke and 4 stroke petrol Engines
7. Study of 2 stroke and 4 stroke diesel Engines
8. Study of steam engine
9. To plot specific fuel consumption versus rpm diagrams for diesel and petrol engines

LESSON PLAN

ASSIGNMENTS

ASSIGNMENT NO 1

## Q1--Define the following with respect to thermodynamics:

Potential energy, Kinetic energy, Internal energy, Chemical energy, Heat, Mechanical work,
Flow work
Q2Explain different types of Properties with examples and difference between extensive and
intensive properties
Q3--Explain different types of Equilibrium with examples. Differentiate between reversible and
irreversible process,
Q4- State and prove Zeroth law of thermodynamics, what is its significance.
Q5- Explains differences between Real gas, and ideal gas. Derive Vander-walls equation.
Evaluate its constants
Q6 define the following
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(1)The law of corresponding states, (2) Compressibility factor, (3) Generalized compressibility
chart,
Q7 Explain Gibbs equations for Thermodynamics relations. Derive Maxwell relations and state
their applications
Q8. Explain different types of systems with examples .Describe macroscopic and microscopic
method of approach.
Q9.The specific heat capacity of the system during a process is given by C n= (0.4+0.004 T)
kJ/kg0C. If the mass of the gas is 6 kg and temperature changes from 25 0C 1250C find---(1)
heat transferred (ii) mean specific heat of the gas.
Q10.A temperature scale of a certain barometer is given by [t= a lnp + b] where a and b are
constants and p is thermometric fluid property. At ice point and steam point the thermometric
properties are 1.5 and 7.5 respectively. Find temperature corresponding to thermometric property
of 3.5 on Celsius scale

ASSIGNMENT NO 2

## Q1 Define the following with respect to Pure Substance-

Sensible heat, latent heat, dryness fraction, enthalpy of wet steam, superheated steam, entropy of
water, internal energy of steam, entropy of evaporation
Q2. Explain the critical point and triple point. Draw the phase transformation diagram.
Q3. Draw following phase diagrams--- P-V diagram, h-S diagram, T-S diagram, P-h diagram.
Q4. What volume is occupied by 1 kg of steam at 176 bar and 90% quality, 1 kg of steam at 10
bar and 90% quality. Explain the reasons for difference in volume.
Q5.Find enthalpy, entropy, internal energy of 5 kg of steam at pressure of 10 bar when (1) it is
dry saturated (2) it is 0.75 dry (3) superheated to 2500C. use steam tables.
Q6 Describe with neat sketch the experimental method to determine the dryness fraction of
steam using barrel calorimeter. Derive the expression.
Q7. One kg of steam at 1.8 Mpa and 2800C undergoes a non flow constant pressure process until
its quality becomes 50%. Find (1) work done (2) change in enthalpy (3) heat transferred.
Q8. Three kg of steam at 18 bars occupies volume of 0.2550 m3 in a constant volume process.
The heat rejected is 1320 KJ. Determine (1) final internal energy (2) dryness fraction (3) pressure
(4) change in entropy (5) work done

ASSIGNMENT NO 3

Q1 Explain similarities and dissimilarities between heat and work. Prove that heat is a path
function and not a property.

## Q2 Explain joules experiment. How it defines the first law of thermodynamics.

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Q3 Explain all corollaries of first law of thermodynamics. Define internal energy and prove that
it is a property.

Q4.Derive expressions for first law of thermodynamics as applied to different processes for a
closed system.

Q5.Define control volume and control system. Derive expressions for first law of
thermodynamics as applied to an open system.

Q6. Derive expressions for flow work and non flow work processes.

Q7. A piston cylinder arrangement contains a gas which expands reversibly according to the law
PV 1.4 = Constant. Before expansion the pressure, volume and temperatures are 6 bar, 0.06 m3,
and 2250k. After expansion the pressure is 3 bars. Calculate the work done during the process.

Q8.in a steam power station a 0.9m diameter pipe line connects boiler to steam turbine. Steam
flows steadily. At boiler end the pressure is 6 Mpa, temperature 480 0c, specific enthalpy 3415.8
kj/kg, and volume 0.09 m3/kg. At turbine end the conditions are 4.5 Mpa, 4150C, 3394.6 kj/kg
and 0.11m3/kg respectively. The heat loss from pipe line is 10.5kJ/kg. Determine steam flow rate
in kg/sec.

Q9. Explain the limitations of first law of thermodynamics which lead to second law of
thermodynamics

DR.R.K.JAIN
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## Q1. A gas in a pistoncylinder assembly undergoes an expansion process for which

the relationship between pressure and volume is given by pvn = constant. The
initial pressure is 3 bar, the initial volume is 0.1 m3, and the final volume is 0.2
m3. Determine the work for the process, in kJ, if (a) n=1.5,(b) n= 1.0, and (c) n= 0.

## Q2. Four kilograms of a certain gas is contained within a pistoncylinder

assembly. The gas undergoes a process for which the pressurevolume relationship
is pv 1.5 =constant The initial pressure is 3 bar, the initial volume is 0.1 m3, and the
final volume is 0.2 m3. The change in specific internal energy of the gas in the
process is U2-U1= -4.6 kJ/kg. There are no significant changes in kinetic or
potential energy. Determine the net heat transfer for the process, in kJ.

Q3 Two power cycles each receive the same energy input Qin and discharge
energy Q out to the same lake. If the cycles have different thermal efficiencies,
which discharges the greater amount Qout? Does this have any implications for the
environment?

## Q4. One-fourth kg of a gas contained within a pistoncylinder assembly undergoes

a constant-pressure process at 5 bar beginning at v1 =0.20 m3/kg. For the gas as the
system, the work is -15 kJ. Determine the final volume of the gas, in m3.

Q5. A gas expands from an initial state where p1 = 500 kPa and V1 = 0.1 m3 to a
final state where p2 = 100 kPa. The relationship between pressure and volume
during the process is PV = constant. Sketch the process on a pV diagram and
determine the work, in kJ.

## Q6. A closed system of mass 5 kg undergoes a process in which there is work of

magnitude 9 kJ to the system from the surroundings. The elevation of the system
increases by 700 m during the process. The specific internal energy of the system
Decreases by 6 kJ/kg and there is no change in kinetic energy of the system. The
acceleration of gravity is constant at g _ 9.6m/s2. Determine the heat transfer, in
kJ.
Q7 A closed system of mass 20 kg undergoes a process in which there is a heat
transfer of 1000 kJ from the system to the surroundings. The work done on the
system is 200 kJ. If the initial specific internal energy of the system is 300 kJ/kg,
what is the final specific internal energy, in kJ/kg? Neglect changes in kinetic and
potential energy.
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## Q8. A gas expands in a pistoncylinder assembly from p1 = 8bar, v1 = 0.02 m3 to

p2 bar in a process during which the relation between pressure and volume is pV 1.2
=constant. The mass of the gas is 0.25 kg. If the specific internal energy of the gas
decreases by 55 kJ/kg during the process, determine the heat transfer, in kJ. Kinetic
and potential energy effects are

Q9. A power cycle receives energy by heat transfer from the combustion of fuel at
a rate of 300 MW. The thermal efficiency of the cycle is 33.3%. (a) Determine the
net rate power is developed, in MW. (b) For 8000 hours of operation annually,
determine the network output, in per year. (c) Evaluating the net work output at
rs.6.00 per kw-h. Determine the value of the net work, in re. /year kW.

Q10. A quantity of water is at 15 MPa and 100_C. Evaluate the specific volume, in
m3/kg, and the specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg, using steam tables.

Q11. (a)Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg,
of water at 200C and 1.0 MPa. (b)Evaluate the specific volume, in m3/kg, and the
specific enthalpy, in kJ/kg, of superheated vapour at 800 kPa and 300 0 C. use
steam tables

Q12 A tank contains 0.05 m3 of nitrogen (N2) at 31 0C and 10 MPa. Determine the
mass of nitrogen, in kg, using (a) the ideal gas model (b) data from the
compressibility chart.

## Q13 Determine the temperature, in K, of 5 kg of air at a pressure of 0.3 MPa and a

volume of 2.2 m3. Verify that ideal gas behavior can be assumed for air under
these conditions.

Q14 A closed system consists of an ideal gas with mass m and constant specific
heat ratio k. If kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible,(a) show that for
any adiabatic process the work is W =mR (T2 T1)/K

Q15 Air enters a control volume operating at steady state at 1.05 bar, 300 K, with a
volumetric flow rate of 12 m3/min and exits at 12 bar, 400 K. Heat transfer occurs
at a rate of 20 Kw from the control volume to the surroundings. Neglecting kinetic
and potential energy effects, determine the power, in kW.

Q16 Steam enters a nozzle operating at steady state at 30 bar, 320C, with a
velocity of 100 m/s. The exit pressure and temperature are 10 bar and 200C,
respectively. The mass flow rate is 2 kg/s. Neglecting heat transfer and potential
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energy, determine (a) the exit velocity, in m/s. (b)the inlet and exit flow areas, in
cm2.

Q17.Air expands through a turbine from 10 bar, 900 K to 1 bar, 500 K. The inlet
velocity is small compared to the exit velocity of 100 m/s. The turbine operates at
steady state and develops a power output of 3200 kW. Heat transfer between the
turbine and its surroundings and potential energy effects are negligible. Calculate
the mass flow rate of air, in kg/s, and the exit area, in m2.

Q18 Air is compressed at steady state from 1 bar, 300 K, to 6 bar with a mass flow
rate of 4 kg/s. Each unit of mass passing from inlet to exit undergoes a process
described by pv 1.27=constant. Heat transfer occurs at a rate of 46.95 kJ per kg of
air flowing to cooling water circulating in a water jacket enclosing the compressor.
If kinetic and potential energy changes of the air from inlet to exit are negligible,
calculate the work done.

Q19 A rigid tank of volume 0.75 m3 is initially evacuated. A hole develops in the
wall, and air from the surroundings at1 bar, 25_C flows in until the pressure in the
tank reaches 1 bar. Heat transfer between the contents of the tank and the
surroundings is negligible. Determine the final temperature in the tank, in 0C.

Q20 A heat pump receives energy by heat transfer from the outside air at 0 0C and
discharges energy by heat transfer to a dwelling at 200C. Is this in violation of the
0Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics? Explain

Q21 The data listed below are claimed for a power cycle operating between
reservoirs at 5270C and 270C. For each case, determine if any principles of
thermodynamics would be violated.
(a) QH = 700 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 300 kJ.
(b) QH = 640 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 240 kJ.
(c) QH = 640 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ, QC _ 200 kJ..

## Q22 A refrigeration cycle operating between two reservoirs receives energy QC

from a cold reservoir at TC _ 280 K and rejects energy QH to a hot reservoir at TH
_ 320 K. For each of the following cases determine whether the cycle operates
reversibly, irreversibly, or is impossible:
(a) QC = 1500 kJ, W cycle = 150 kJ.
(b) QC = 1400 kJ, QH = 1600 kJ.
(c) QH = 1600 kJ, W cycle = 400 kJ.
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Q23 A heat pump maintains a dwelling at 20_C when the outside temperature is
0=C. The heat transfer rate through the walls and roof is 3000 kJ/h per degree
temperature difference between the inside and outside. Determine the minimum
theoretical power required to drive the heat pump, in kW.

Q25 A quantity of air is shown in Fig. 6.8. Consider a process in which the
temperature of the air increases by some combination of stirring and heating.
Assuming the ideal gas model for the air, suggest how this might be done with
(i) Minimum entropy production.(ii) maximum entropy production.

Q26 Using the steam tables for water, determine the specific entropy at the
indicated states, in kJ/kg K. In each case, show it on the Ts diagram. (i) p = 5.0
MPa, T = 400_C(ii) p = 5.0 MPa, T = 100C (iii) p = 5.0 MPa, u = 1872.5 kJ/kg
(iv)p = 5.0 MPa, saturated vapor

## Q27 A pistoncylinder assembly initially contains 0.04 m3 of water at 1.0 MPa,

320_C. The water expands adiabatically to a final pressure of 0.1 MPa. Develop a
plot of the work done by the water, in kJ, versus the amount of entropy produced,
in kJ/K.

## Q28 Air is compressed in an axial-flow compressor operating at steady state from

270C, 1 bar to a pressure of 2.1 bar. The work input required is 94.6 kJ per kg of air
flowing through the compressor. Heat transfer from the compressor occurs at
the rate of 14 kJ per kg at a location on the compressors surface where the
temperature is 400C. Kinetic and potential energy changes can be ignored.
Determine (a) the temperature of the air at the exit, in 0C. (b) the rate at which
entropy is produced within the compressor, in kJ/K per kg of air flowing.

Q29. Water is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle. Superheated vapor
enters the turbine at 8 MPa, 4800_C. The condenser pressure is 8 kPa. The net
power output of the cycle is 100 MW. Determine for the cycle (a) the rate of heat
transfer to the working fluid passing through the steam generator, in kW. (b) the
thermal efficiency. (c) The mass flow rate of condenser cooling water, in kg/h, if
the cooling water enters the condenser at 150C and exits at 350C with negligible
pressure change.

Q30 An air-standard Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8.5. At the beginning of
compression, p1_100 kPa and T1_300 K. The heat addition per unit mass of air is
1400 kJ/kg. Determine (a) the net work, in kJ per kg of air.(b) the thermal
efficiency of the cycle (c) the mean effective pressure, in kPa. (d) the maximum
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## temperature in the cycle, in K. (e) To investigate the effects of varying

compression ratio, ploteach of the quantities calculated in parts (a) through (d)
for compression ratios ranging from 1 to 12.
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COURSE-FILE

## DEPARTMENT : Mechanical Engineering

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INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN

SHEDULE(3-1-2)5

INSTRUCTION PLAN

## S.N. Lect . TOPICS TO BE COVERED REFERENCES REMARKS

No.
1 1 UNIT1- Thermodynamics, Property, Equilibrium, State, Fundamentals of
Process, Cycle Thermodynamics
2 2 Zeroth law of thermodynamics, statement and
significance, concept of an Ideal gas, Gas laws,
3 3 Avogadro's hypothesis, Real gas, Deviation with ideal gas

## 5 5 Limitations of the equation. The law of corresponding

states,
6 6 Compressibility factor, generalized compressibility chart,

## 9 9 Numerical and assignment

10 10 Unit- II
Pure Substance, Phase, Phase-transformations
11 11 formation of steam, properties of steam,
13

## 16 16 Unit III - First law of thermodynamics, Statement of first

law of thermodynamics, ,
17 17 first law applied to closed system, first law applied to a
closed system undergoing a cycle
18 18 processes analysis of closed system,,

## 21 21 Relations for flow process limitations of first law of

thermodynamics. Briefing of Numerical and assignment
22 22 Unit- IV - Second law of ther24modynamics, heat engine,
heat reservoir, Refri25gerator, heat pump, COP.26
23 23 EPR, Availab27le energy, Carnot's theorem, Carnot's
cycle 28
24 24 efficiency of Car29not's cycle

## 25 25 Reversible and irreversible processes, statement of second

law
26 26 consequence of second law, Entropy

## 30 30 Unit V - Air standard cycles, Carnot

31 31 Otto cycle

32 32 Diesel cycle
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## 34 34 two stroke and four stroke engines,

35 35 Brayton cycle

## 39 39 Briefing of Numerical and assignment Question bank

40 40 Question bank

## 42 42 Problems of Question bank

Text Books:
1 P. K. Nag; Engineering Thermodynamics; TMH
2 D. S. Kumar, Thermal Science & Engineering , S. K. Kataria & Sons
3 Thermodynamics Younus Ceingel, BolesMc Graw hill
4 Basic and applied thermodynamicsP.K.Nag- Mc Graw hill
5 Thermal engineering Rathore- Mc Graw hill
6 Applied thermodynamicsOnkar singh-
References:
7 Arora C P; Thermodynamics; TMH
8 R.E. Sonntag, C. Bugrake, and G.J. Van Wylen; Fundamentals of Thermodynamics,
John