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Summer Internship Project Report on

A Study of Plastic Manufacturing via


Injection Moulding & Process of
Rejection Handling

By

SAURABH SHARMA
STEP-049

Under the Supervision of


Mrs. Suchita Shukla
Assistant professor

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Post Graduate Diploma In Management
2016-2018
at

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ENTREPRENEURS PARK

HARCOURT BUTLER TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE,

NAWABGANJ
KANPUR 208002

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the summer project on Plastic manufacturing via injection moulding is
submitted by me under the guidance of Mrs. Suchita Shukla, Assistant Professor, Science and
Technology Entrepreneurs Park, Harcourt Butler Technological institute, Nawabganj, Kanpur
is partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of Second Semester of Post
Graduate Diploma in management.

The results and learnings of this report are not copied and are true and best of my knowledge.

Place: Kanpur
Date:

SAURABH SHARMA
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A summer project is a golden opportunity for learning and self-development. I consider


myself very lucky and honoured to have so many wonderful people lead me through in
completion of this project.

I express my deepest thanks to K-Three Electronics Pvt. Ltd. for providing me with this
wonderful opportunity and giving necessary advices and guidance to make my internship
easier and fulfilling. I also am deeply grateful to entire management team of STEP HBTI
Kanpur for letting me dirty my hands on a practical aspect of corporate life.

I wish to express my indebted gratitude to Mr. Ramphal Singh (Production Head) K-Three
Electronics Pvt. Ltd. for providing me with an opportunity to work with their organization.

I would like to express a special thanks to Mr. Neeraj Verma who despite being
extraordinarily busy with his duties, took time out to hear, guide and keep me on the correct
path. His judicious and precious guidance were extremely valuable for my study both
theoretically and practically.

I express my deepest thanks to Mrs. Suchita Shukla for his guidance and support. She
supported me by showing different method of information collection about the company. He
helped all time when I needed and gave right direction toward completion of project.

Saurabh Sharma
PREFACE

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of
plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which
vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process requires
the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The plastic is
melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it cools and
solidifies into the final part. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the
next section.

This study was conducted to analyze various factors of defects in injection moulding process
of the production line of manufacturing organization. Based on some reading material such
as, journal, book and some study states that some factors such as machine, man, mould,
method, technology and material caused defects in injection moulding process. The objective
of this study is to determine the factors that caused defect in injection moulidng process in
production line. Interview secession will be conducting with production line and several
departments manager to have some discussion and observation about the study. In the nut
shell, I wish that this study will be one of the references to be use in future and may be can
have some improvement for this study.

I am privileged to be one of the students who got an opportunity to do my training with K-


Three Electronics. My involvement in the project has been very challenging and has provided
me a platform to leverage my potential in the most constructive way. This project however is
an attempt to share as best as possible my experience in corporate world with all my
colleagues and my faculty. I would be delighted to receive readers comments which maybe
valuable lessons for my future projects.

CERTIFICATE

I Mrs. Suchita Shukla hereby certify that Saurabh Sharma student of PGDM at Science
Technology Entrepreneurs Park Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur, Uttar
Pradesh has completed the Project Report on Manufacturing Of Plastic Via Injection
Moulding, K-Three Electronics Pvt Ltd, under my guidance.

Mrs. Suchita Shukla


Assistant Professor
Department of Finance
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract
Executive Summary

Chapter 1 Industry Profile



Introduction
History
Market size
Industry Insight
Raw Material Insight
Application Insight
Regional Insight
Competitive Insight
Industry Information
Government Initiatives
Major Company

Chapter 2 Company Profile


Introduction
Vision & Mission
Values
Community Involvement
Testimonials
Carrers
Product Profile
Quality Assurance
Team and management
SWOT Analysis
Chapter 3 Study Of Plastic Manufacturing Via Injection Moulding and
Rejection Handling

Introduction
Injection Moulding Overview
Process Characterstics
Process Cycle
Machine And Equipment
Injection Unit
Clamping Unit
Machine Specification
Moulding Defect
Rejection Analysis
Costing and Estimation
Application

Chapter 4 Research Methodology

Project Objectives
Scope
Research Methodology
Research Design and Collection Of Data
Tools For Analysis
Sampling Method
Sample Size

Chapter 5 Data Interpretation and Analysis


Data Interpretation
Implementation Of Data
Finding
Conclusion
Recommendation
Limitation Of Study
Questionnaire
Bibliography
ABSTRACT

Injection Moulding (IM) is considered to be one of the most prominent processes for mass
production of plastic products. One of the biggest challenges, facing injection molders today,
is to determine the proper settings for the IM process variables. Selecting the proper settings
for an IM process is crucial because the behavior of the polymeric material during shaping is
highly influenced by the process variables. Consequently, the process variables govern the
quality of the parts produced. The difficulty of optimizing an IM process is that the
performance measures usually show conflicting behavior. Therefore, a compromise must be
found between all of the performance measures of interest. This thesis demonstrates a method
of achieving six sigma standards in small and medium plastic injection moulding enterprises.

In recent couple of decades, it has been seen that the ratio of the required commodity changes
and brings forth the requirement and necessity of quality improvement to be practiced more.
Total quality for continuous improvement for reliable products is used by many industries for
improvement of service and quality of product. In the previous decade, a novel based
philosophy known as Six Sigma has been incorporated and very well established in many
companies The goal of Six Sigma in any regime or technical aspect i.e. designing,
manufacturing, processing, marketing or testing , improves effort to obtain a durable or long
term defect rate of only 3.4 defective parts per million manufactured
This study mainly focused on six sigma quality philosophy and other related philosophy that
is implemented in these studies in order to identify the Current problem or rejection criteria
facing by a manufacturing company. The root cause in this study for the black dot defect had
been successfully determined. Corrective action to overcome this quality problem has been
suggested. The Six Sigma Philosophy provides a step-by-step quality improvement
Methodology that uses statistical methods to quantify variation
CHAPTER 1
INDUSTRY PROFILE
INTRODUCTION

Injection moulding is used to create many things such as wire spools, packaging, bottle caps,
automotive parts and components, Gameboys, pocket combs, some musical instruments (and
parts of them), one-piece chairs and small tables, storage containers, mechanical parts
(including gears), and most other plastic products available today. Injection moulding is the
most common modern method of manufacturing plastic parts; it is ideal for producing high
volumes of the same object

HISTORY

American inventor John Wesley Hyatt together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the
first injection moulding machine in 1872 This machine was relatively simple compared to
machines in use today: it worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject
plastic through a heated cylinder into a mould. The industry progressed slowly over the years,
producing products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs.

The German chemists Arthur Eichengrn and Theodore Becker invented the first soluble
forms of cellulose acetate in 1903, which was much less flammable than cellulose nitrate. It
was eventually made available in a powder form from which it was readily injection
moulded. Arthur Eichengrn developed the first injection moulding press in 1919. In
1939, Arthur Eichengrn patented the injection moulding of plasticised cellulose acetate.
The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for
inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson
Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control
over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced This machine also allowed
material to be mixed before injection, so that coloured or recycled plastic could be added to
virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines
account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to
develop the first gas-assisted injection moulding process, which permitted the production of
complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well
as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight
and waste.

The plastic injection moulding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs
and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive,
medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction

In 1847 Jns Jacob Berzelius produced the first condensation polymer, polyester, from
glycerin (propanetriol) and tartaric acid. Berzelius is also credited with originating the
chemical terms catalysis, polymer, isomer, and allotrope, although his original definitions
differ dramatically from modern usage. He coined the term "polymer" in 1833 to describe
organic compounds which shared identical empirical formulas but which differed in overall
molecular weight, the larger of the compounds being described as "polymers" of the smallest.
The first man-made commercial plastic was invented in Britain in 1861 by Alexander Parkes.
He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, calling the
material "Parkesine". Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, then retain
its shape when cooled. It was, however, highly flammable, prone to cracking, and very
expensive to product.
In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he
named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into a finished
form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first plastic injection molding
machine in 1872. This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today: it
worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated
cylinder into a mold. The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing small
products such as collar stays, buttons, and combs.
The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940's because World War II created a huge demand for
inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson
Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more control over the
speed and quality of the plastics injection. This machine also allowed material to be mixed
before injection, so that coloured or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and
mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines account for the vast
majority of all injection machines.
In the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process,
which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly
improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while
reducing production time, cost, weight and waste.

1. A Brief Hisory of Injection Molding Plastic injection molding has an interesting story
2. 1. 1861-1868 Alexander Parkes invented the first man-made commercial plastic in 1861.
In 1868, an American inventor named John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material called
Celluloid made by combining cellulose nitrate and camphor.
3. 2. 1872-1909 John Wesley Hyatt and his brother Isaiah patented the first injection
molding machine in 1872. It basically worked like a large hypodermic needle. In 1909, Leo
Hendrik of Belgium discovered phenolformaldehyde plastic and was the first to control it and
make it usable on a large scale.
4. 3. 1930-1939 During the 1930s, major vinyl thermoplastics still used today like
polystyrene, PVC, and the polyolefins were in the initial development stage. In 1938,
polystyrene (a plastic still used widely today) was officially invented. The following year,
WWII brought a huge demand for cheap, mass-produced materials. Polystyrene plastic
5. 4. 1941-1946 Developed by Du Pont as a fiber in the 1930s, nylon was first used as a
molding material in 1941. In 1946, an American inventor named James Watson Hendry built
the first extrusion screw injection machine. The rotating screw made the injection speed
easier to control and it helped produce higher quality results.
6. 5. 1946-1955 During these particular years, polyethylene, polystyrene, and other materials
that had been more expensive in the past, were starting to be produced more cheaply. They
also started to replace not only other plastics, but also more traditional materials like wood,
metal, leather, and glass. Made from polyethylene plastic
7. 6. 1956-1965 In 1956, W.H. Willert developed the reciprocating injection molding
machine. In this machine, the screw moves backwards and forwards during the mold cycle.
After mixing, the screw stops turning and the whole screw pushes forward, plunging the
material into a mold. This time period also brought forth many useful new thermoplastics
like high-density polyethylenes and polypropylene.
8. 7. 1960-1980 In the 1960s, polysulphones, aromatic polyesters, and polyamides were
introduced. In the 1970s, James Watson Hendry went on to build the first gas-assisted
injection molding process. This made producing complex, hollow products that cooled
quickly possible. His new design improved the strength and finish of manufactured parts and
reduced production time, cost, weight, and waste.
9. 8. Today Now (in 2015) there are plastic injection molding companies whose sole purpose
is to make virtually anything (car parts, tools, toys, dcor) by using electric injection molding
machines. Most anything can be made out of plastic these days, and businesses are taking
advantage of this by outsourcing their large scale injection molding projects to injection
molding companies.
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Leading home-grown injection moulding machinery makers are increasingly becoming
techno-savvy as they aim to raise their capacity to meet the rising demand for made-in-India
machines

From being a mere mechanical pile of churning out moulded plastic products, the injection
moulding machinery industry today has become a major contributor in the process of
converting plastics to complex and complicated parts and assemblies. This move up the value
chain has become possible as customers have begun to voice more demands in terms of
changes in cost, quality and service. The shift in the Indian injection moulding industry where
plastic processors have gone from quality is secondary to quality is everything has been
possible due to social, economic, regulator and technological factors. .

It is important to understand megatrends to match or predict technological trends in any


industry. Economic factors such as disposable incomes, imports of products and
technological factors like stringent standards, cost reduction and weight reduction
requirements are playing an important role in the injection moulding industry. For a country
like India, the exposure to the western counterparts have made the customers more
demanding in terms of safer niche plastics moulded products.

At this juncture, it would be safe to say that injection moulded products in India have attained
the omnipresent status. Segments that use injection moulding technology include fast-
moving consumer goods (FMCG), household products, engineering, automotive,
electrical/electronic and many other sectors. In fact, it touches nearly all facets of life. For
instance, from a toothbrush to a razor to all caps on all bottles and also nearly all housings on
electronics, are injection moulded. By and large all these sectors are growing in consumption
and the trend is towards better quality and sustainability. Moreover, additional opportunities
are abound in multi-colour and multi-component injection moulding. This implies that a lot
of opportunities are set to come to the injection moulding machinery sector in the coming
years, says Vagish Dixit, Managing Director, ALPLA India Pvt Ltd, a leading global
company in the business of plastic bottles and caps for the FMCG segment.
From a rigid packaging perspective, Dixit highlights trend in the arena of bi-injection caps
with turn-table, core-back and cube platforms. He believes that Indian machine manufactures
can support the first two as of now. But thin walled containers (with and without in-mould
decoration) are also an area of opportunity for manufacturers, since currently the machines
for this application come mostly from Europe.

For injection moulding machinery manufacturers, right now is the golden era as optimistic
images of growth are being painted by all. Around 35% of all polymers are converted
using injection moulding. The injection moulding industry is driven by speed, productivity,
reliability, energy conservation and automation. The machines are expected to provide faster
production with lesser rejections, opines Shirish V Divgi, Managing Director, Ferromatik
Milacron India Ltd, one of the leading manufacturers of plastics injection moulding machines
in the country.

Talking Tech
Elaborating further on the trends in this industry, Anil George, Co-Founder &
Director, AutoDynamic Engineering Pvt Ltd, says, Injection moulding along with extrusion
has now captured the industry because of elimination of a complete step in manufacturing of
a plastic part. The process involves an extrusion process which directly feeds the material to
the injection moulding machine for manufacturing the part. This is called the injection
molding compounder.

George, who in his 23 years of experience has conceived and developed, specialised and
customised plastics products for the automotive sector, adds, Another recent trend involves
technologies that optimise material cost. This can be in terms of optimised product design
using the latest Computer-Aided Design (CAD) technologies, material advancements like use
of light-weighting fillers, processes like foaming, gas, etc to reduce the material
consumption.

MARKET SIZE

The market size of injection molding machine was USD 4.28 billion in 2015 and is projected
to reach USD 4.86 billion by 2021, registering a CAGR of 2.2% between 2016 and 2021.
There is an increasing demand of automobiles in the emerging economies such as China,
India, and Japan because injection molding machines are majorly used for manufacturing
automotive parts. This is fueling the growth of the injection molding machine market in these
regions. Properties such as low energy consumption, low maintenance cost, short production
cycle time, and high accuracy of all-electric injection molding machines contribute to the
growth of the injection molding machine market.

Injection molding machine for plastic products to account for the major
share of the market till 2021

The injection molding machine market is segmented by product type, namely, plastic, rubber,
metal ceramic, and others (includes micro-injection molding, gas injection molding, and
liquid silicone rubber injection molding). Plastic is the most preferred product type of
injection molding machine and accounts for a major share in the global injection molding
machine market. The dominance of the plastic segment is expected to continue between 2016
and 2021 due to its increasing demand from the end-use industries such as automotive,
consumer goods, and packaging.

Automotive industry to be the largest industry for the injection molding


machine market between 2016 and 2021

The automotive industry accounted for the largest share in the injection molding machine
market. This is due to the growing automotive industry and improving standard of living in
the developing nations. Moreover, the increasing number of passengers and commercial
vehicles in the region is fueling the growth of the market. Injection molding machines are
predominantly used in manufacturing automotive components, interior wrapping, and
numerous assembly parts.

Asia-Pacific to be the largest market during the forecast period

The injection molding machine market is broadly segmented into five regions, namely, Asia-
Pacific, North America, Europe, the Middle East & Africa, and Latin America. Asia-Pacific is
the largest market, followed by Europe, and projected to be the fastest-growing market during
the forecast period. Growing industrialization and increasing number of passenger and
commercial vehicles have offered enormous opportunities for various automotive industries
to use injection molding machines in the Asia-Pacific region.

Currently, the global injection molding machine market is dominated by various market
players, such as Haitian International Holdings Limited (China), Chen Hsong Holdings
Limited (China), Sumitomo Heavy Industries (Japan), Milacron Holdings Corp. (U.S.), Engel
Austria GmbH (Austria), Nissei Plastic Industrial Co., Ltd, (Japan), Arburg GmbH & Co. KG
(Germany), Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. (Canada), Dongshin Hydraulic Co., Ltd.
(Korea), The Japan Steel Works Ltd. (Japan), KraussMaffei Group GmbH (Germany), Negri
Bossi S.P.A. (Italy), and others.

Study Coverage:

The research study aims at identifying emerging trends and opportunities in the global
injection molding machine market along with a detailed classification of the market, in terms
of value and volume. It identifies the key players in the global market and provides a
comprehensive competitive landscape. The research study also includes a detailed
segmentation of the global injection molding machine market on the basis of end-use
industry, type, and region.

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Industry Insights

The global injection molded plastic market size was valued at USD 199.86 billion 2014. The
industry is anticipated to witness significant growth in near future on account of increasing
plastics component demand across various end-use industries including packaging,
automotive, electrical & electronics, home appliances, and medical devices.

Injection molding process involves manufacturing of molded products by injecting molten


plastic materials using heat into a mold and then solidifying them. Recent innovations to
minimize the rate of faulty production have enhanced the significance of injection molded
technology in the mass production of complicated plastic shapes.

Increasing construction spending, particularly in emerging markets of Brazil, China, India,


Mexico, Russia, and South Africa is expected to drive demand. This is further supported by
versatile properties of finished products including better heat and pressure resistance, making
them more applicable to various industries.

Low crude oil prices coupled with Chinas economic situation have had a significant impact
on petrochemicals industry. China plays an important role in the bulk production and trading
of petrochemical derivatives. Various companies have adopted strategies to sustain annual
growth and minimize the impact of lowered oil prices on profit margins.

Volatile prices of major raw materials including benzene, ethylene, propylene and styrene
coupled with growing environmental concerns regarding their disposal is expected to hinder
market growth over the forecast period. To overcome such challenges, the industry has
shifted its focus towards developing injection molded plastics using bio-based counterparts.
Major plastic manufacturers have been forming joint ventures and have been collaborating
with biotechnology companies to synergize their functions to manufacture bio-based plastics
and finished products.

Raw Material Insights

Polypropylene emerged as the largest raw material segment and accounted for over 35% of
total demand in 2014. High demand for injection molded polypropylene in household goods,
automotive components, and packaging applications is a major factor driving its
consumption. Increasing polypropylene finished products penetration in food packaging,
protective caps in electrical contacts and battery housings is expected to further drive its
demand over the forecast period.

Polypropylene components are being widely used in food packaging and electrical contacts
on account of corrosion resistance and electrical insulation properties respectively. On
account of aforementioned, the segment is expected to witness the highest growth over the
forecast period.

ABS emerged as the second major raw material for injection molded plastics and accounted
for over 25% of the total revenue in 2014. High ABS component demand in medical devices,
automotive components, electronic housings and consumer appliances manufacturing is
expected to drive its growth over the forecast period.

Application Insights

Packaging was the leading injection molded plastics application segment with a net demand
of over 30,000 kilo tons in 2014. The finished products used in packaging undergo various
development phases to cope up with regulatory guidelines and end-user requirements.
Increased shelf life of foodstuffs, better performance towards wear & tear, durability are a
few requirements that plastics need to meet for packaging applications.

Injection molded plastics hold immense potential particularly in the medical and automotive
industry. The industry is expected to witness the highest growth in the medical devices &
components sector. Biocompatibility, optical clarity, and cost efficient method of production
is projected to drive demand in the medical industry. The segment is anticipated to grow at a
CAGR exceeding in terms of value to reach a net worth of USD 24.59 billion by 2022.

Stringent regulatory scenario regarding medical grade polymer use in healthcare sectors is
anticipated to positively impact growth in the industry over the forecast period. Growing
preference towards bio-degradable polymers among medical device manufacturers is also
expected to create lucrative opportunities in medical industry over the forecast period.

A strong shift in trend towards replacing steel with plastics in automotive industry is expected
to spur market growth over the forecast period. Government regulations in the recent past
have forced automotive manufacturers to use plastics instead of other materials such as iron
and steel.

Automobile manufacturers have been focusing on reducing the overall weight of the vehicle
to improve fuel efficiency. Increasing use of plastics to replace metals & alloys in automotive
components is expected to drive product demand in automobile end-use segment, thereby
providing immense opportunity to injection molded plastics to penetrate the industry

Regional Insights

Asia Pacific injection molded plastic market dominated the global demand and accounted for
over 35% of total volume in 2014. Increasing infrastructure spending coupled with growing
automobile demand in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia are expected
to drive market penetration in the region.

Major end-use industries such as electronics and automobile are shifting their manufacturing
base Asia Pacific countries such as China, India, Thailand and Indonesia owing to low labor
costs. Government incentives in the firm of tax benefits are offered to manufacturers in these
regions. This factor increases the requirement for manufacturing various automotive and
electrical parts which in turn is expected to increase injection molded plastics demand over
the forecast period.

Europe was another major injection molded plastic market with a total demand estimated to
reach USD 75.10 billion by 2022. Europes Non-food & beverages packaging applications
include cosmetics & toiletries, pharmaceutical and household chemicals. Increasing
electronic appliances demand such as laptops and cellular phones particularly in UK,
Germany and France is expected to drive their demand for consumables & electronics
application.

Europes automobile industry growth is projected to drive this regions demand over the
forecast period. A majority of future demand is expected to come from economies including
China, India, Brazil, Germany, Thailand, and the U.S.

Competitive Insights

The global injection molded plastic market is highly fragmented with the presence of large
unorganized sector particularly in the Asia Pacific and Latin America. Companies,
particularly hailing from Asia Pacific have constantly been looking for significant capacity
additions over past few years to take advantage of operational excellence and achieve
economies of scale. Diverse product portfolio and differentiation make the market
competitive regarding price and distribution channels.

Major companies operating in the global injection molded plastics industry including BASF,
Dow Chemical Company, DuPont and HTI Plastics have integrated their operations across
the value chain to enhance their market presence. Other players having a significant stake in
the industry include SABIC, LyondellBasell, Eastman Chemical Company, Huntsman, Ineos
Group and Magna International Inc.

Global injection molded plastics market is estimated to reach $162.1 billion by 2020,
growing at a CAGR of 4.9% during 2015-2020. Injection molding is a manufacturing process
for producing plastic products by injecting molten material into a mold where it is melted,
cooled and subsequently solidified as the final part or product. Both thermoplastic and
thermosetting injection molded plastics are used for manufacturing of various parts and
components across industries. The major thermoplastic polymers used in injection molding
are polypropylene, low-density polyethylene, high-density polyethylene, polycarbonate,
polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, polysulfone etc. Epoxy resin, polyester and
melamine formaldehyde are some of the thermosetting polymers used for injection molding
purpose.

Injection molded plastics are used in production of complex and intricate shaped parts for
precision with least waste. Owing to these advantages, injection molded plastic are used in
automotive components, interior wrapping, and miscellaneous assembly parts manufacturing
process. It is also used in packaging applications to produce packaging parts & components
to increase the aesthetics and consumer friendliness of the packaging products. Injection
molded plastics are widely preferred in building and construction purposes owing to the
strength, durability, and appearance of the injection molded plastic parts. In building and
construction, these plastic parts or components are majorly employed for piping systems,
insulation, wall board, and roofing purposes. Healthcare industry is the fastest growing
application segment for injection molded plastic industry during the forecast period. Blood
sample analysis cuvettes, pregnancy test devices, housings for needles, parts of medical
devices are few of the preferred segments, owing to the lightweight, cost-effectiveness and
easy serializable properties of injection molded plastic.

Injection molded plastics are used with automated process thereby reducing manufacturing
cost. It also reduces the waste production in production process. Low production waste and
faster production process would augment the growth of injection molded plastics market.
Along with this, the process has ability to use different types of plastics simultaneously to
manufacture plastic parts. Furthermore, technological advancement in injection molding
process where robots are used to perform different operations such as finishing and
assembling injection molded parts and loading components into the injection molding would
foster the growth of the market. However, high initial tooling cost and volatile petroleum
prices may hamper the growth of the market.

Segment Review
World injection molded plastics market is segmented based on the types of raw materials,
end-user industry and geography. On the basis of raw materials, world injection molded
plastics market is segmented into polypropylene, high density polyethylene (HDPE),
polystyrene and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene including others. Amongst them,
polypropylene is the leading raw material used in injection molded plastic owing to its easy
to mold nature, electrical insulating properties, heat resistance and low cost. In 2014,
Polypropylene accounted for around 39% of the world injection molded plastics market.

Further, on the basis of end-user, the market is segmented into packaging, automotive,
consumer goods & electronics, building & construction and medical disposal. Packaging is
the leading application segment for injection molding which accounts for around 37% of the
world demand in 2014. Rigid packaging used in industrial and consumer packaging industry
are estimated to fuel demand for injection molded plastics in packaging industry.

Geographically, world injection molded plastics market is segmented into North America,
Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA. North America is the leading market for injection molded
plastics which accounted for around 35.0% of the total market share in 2014. Asia-Pacific and
LAMEA exhibited a large scale demand for injection molded plastic due to the growing
application in building & construction, consumer appliances, and automotive industries. Asia-
Pacific is expected to grow at CAGR of 5.7% during 2015-2020.

India Review

It was with polystyrene that the Indian plastics industry made a favorable beginning in the
year 1957. Among the developing countries, India maintains its major stand as one of the
most promising exporters of plastics. The plastic industry has excellent potential in terms of
infrastructure, availability of cheap labor and capacity. Hence, this industry is supported by a
large number of polymer producers and manufacturers of plastic process machinery and mold
manufacturers. Besides this, increasing use of plastic parts, owing to increasing
industrialization is expected to boost the Indian injection molded plastics market.

Industry Information

Injection Molded Plastic is resin that has been heated until molten and then forced into a pre-
made mold or cavity in the shape of the intended plastic product or object. When the melted
plastic has cooled and hardened, the mold is removed to reveal a hard, plastic part in the
shape of the mold cavity. Products made from plastic injection molding, or custom injection
molding, include a wide range of everyday household items such as mop buckets, plastic
containers, screw driver handles and even video game cartridges.

Injection molding can use a wide variety of starting materials, including most polymers.
Plastic injection molding gives the injection moulders the freedom to choose exactly what the
best material for the final molded plastic part would be and requires a lot of calculation as to
composition of the resin as well as temperature and pressure in the mold. All these variables
can affect the final quality of the plastic. Injection molding uses thermoplastics, called
thermoplastics injection molding, thermoset materials or elastomers, depending upon the
intended use of the final product. Thermoplastics and thermosets harden completely after
cooling in the plastic injection mould; elastomers however, retain a sense of elasticity and so
are used to produce items such as rubber bouncing balls. Other variations of plastic molding,
or insert molding, include gas assist injection molding which uses an inert gas, such as
nitrogen, to create a hollow portion in the mold, and to force the molten plastic into the mold
cavities. Another is reaction injection molding; reaction injection molding machines require
one further step which is the addition of a curing agent in the mold. This is required for the
specific product material to maintain shape and strength once removed from the mold.

The basic machinery used in the process of injection molding consists of a hopper - where the
plastic pellets are placed prior to being heated. The plastic material is then fed into a heating
unit where it is heated and mixed until molten, at which point dyes or other chemical agents
can be added to change the final appearance and feel of the product. Next, an injector, or
screw, forces the molten plastic into the mold cavity under hydraulic or mechanical pressure,
to ensure that there are no air pockets. Most molds will allow air bubbles to escape to avoid
damaging the final product. Cooling liquids are sometimes used around the mold chamber of
the machine to extract heat from the plastic and speed up the cooling process, thus saving
time in overall manufacturing. The two halves of the plastic injection mold are then pulled
apart to release the plastic part. Ejecting pins or rods may have to be used to remove the
plastic part from the mold. The entire process can take a matter of seconds or as many as a
few minutes to get one complete plastic part. Injection molders are not limited by
manufacturing capabilities when it comes to material choice, and are able to fabricate a wide
range of product shapes and sizes. If a mold can be made for an object, plastic molding can
be used to produce a product. Everything from car bumpers to intricate medical equipment
can be made using the techniques of melting the appropriate material, forcing it into a pre-
made cavity and allowing it to cool.

Compared to other forms of plastic parts production, injection molding is a cost effective
manufacturing method. It can be used for high production runs, and in fact the more parts that
are made from a mold, the more cost-effective it is. Once a mold has been made for a certain
product, it can be used again and again to produce the same object with close tolerances. In
injection molding, there is little or no change in the manufacturing process between cycles,
and so often the plastic part extricated from the mold will need little finishing. Furthermore,
because the molten plastic is forced only into the space of the cavity, there is very little
material waste apart from joining lines and negligible other amounts. The production of
minimal scrap saves further money and is a responsible manufacturing practice. Furthermore,
what plastic is wasted and considered scrap can often be melted and recycled. Labor costs for
the injection molding process are minimal as there is little need for human interference in the
injection process.
There are important considerations to be made when discussing plastic injection molding
however. Firstly, all the plastic material that is forced into the mold needs to be removed at
some point, therefore mold design needs to be carefully considered. A complex rigid, square
design might result in cracks or stress marks on the final product when trying to extricate it
from the cavity. There also needs to be rods or pins in place to help remove the plastic part
from the mold. Plastic injection molds are costly and so it is imperative to ensure that the
plastic part can be removed from it once cooled. Another consideration concerning removal is
the existence of joining lines, or imperfections in the final products that may require finishing
services before being used. The finishing required will usually be minimal, but it is dependant
on the quality of the starting material and mold. Finally, while injection molding plastic is a
cost effective method of producing plastic goods, custom injection molding will be more
costly due to the necessary production of a specific plastic injection mold for the custom
product. If however, the quantity of product manufacturing is high, the cost of the plastic
injection mold will balance out over time. With so much variance in injection molded
plastics, it is helpful to consider the industries which make use of it such as automotive,
medical, consumer and household goods.

Injection Moulded Products

Injection Molded Plastics - Britech Injection Molded Plastics


Injection Molded Plastics - GSH Industries, Inc.

Injection Molded Plastics ICOMold


Injection Molded Plastics - Penguin, LLC

Injection Moulded Refrigerator Part


Injection Molded Plastic Types

Custom injection molding is an injection molding process in which the mold is not
pre-made, but is formed specifically for the consumer's application.
Double-shot molding is a two-step process in which either the color or the material is
injected first. Upon the hardening of the material, a second color or material is
injected into or around the first shape.
Gas-assist injection molding is a process in which inert gas, such as nitrogen, is
forced into the melt while it is entering the mold, packing the plastic into the cavities.
Gas-assisted injection molding reduces cycle time, part weight, warpage and stress to
the cooled parts, as well as minimizing other problems.
Injection blow molding is the process in which plastic is injected into a mold to form
a plastic tube. The tube is then blown into a cavity mold to form a hollow part.
Injection molding is a process by which plastics parts and products are formed.
Injection moulders are the tools and die machines used to mold molten plastic.
Insert molding is an injection molding process in which plastic gets injected into a
cavity surrounding an insert piece just prior to molding. Plastic insert molding results
in a single piece encapsulated by the plastic.
Molded plastic pieces are parts that are formed by pouring heated plastic into molds.
Plastic injection molding is a process by which plastic is heated into a malleable form
and pressed into molds.
Plastic injection mold processes are used to fabricate parts with a range of
complexities, from simple shapes to precision parts of geometric complexity
Plastic manufacturers fabricate plastic products by injecting molten plastic into
molds or dies.
Plastic molding is one of the most common methods of part manufacturing.
Push-pull molding is a process that involves multiple layers with different
orientations, providing more uniform properties to the parts than if they were molded
from a single direction
Rapid injection molding is primarily used in prototyping and the low-volume
production of plastic parts since the production time is drastically shorter than
conventional molding process.
Reaction injection molding is an economical option commonly used for larger, more
complex polyurethane plastic and rigid foam parts produced in small quantity.
Thermoplastics injection molding is the most common method used to process
thermoplastics, due to its ability to fabricate parts with a range of design variances,
from simple shapes to high precision parts of geometric complexity.

Injection Molded Plastic Terms

Backing Plate - A plate that provides support for the mold cavity block, guide pins, bushings
and so forth.

Cavity - The space inside a mold into which the materialis injected.

Charge The amount of material needed to fill a mold during a single cycle.

Cooling Channels - Channel through which a cooling medium flows to control the
temperature of the surface of the mold. Cooling channels are located within the body of the
mold.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - Plastic used to package products with short shelf
lives, such as bottles for milk, juice, water and laundry products. Unpigmented HDPE bottles
are translucent and have good stiffness.

Hydraulic Units - Devices that use the force of fluids to move the mold in the injection
molding process.

Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) - A plastic that is used predominantly in film
applications due to its toughness and flexibility. LLDPE is the preferred resin for injection
molding because of its superior toughness and is used in items such as grocery bags, garbage
bags and landfill liners.

Mold - A series of steel plates, which contain cavities into which plastic resin is injected to
form a parts

Monomer - A relatively simple compound that can react to form a polymer.

Melt Index - A test that measures the ability of molten plastic to flow.
Melting Point (Tm) - The temperature at which crystalline portions of polymers melt. A
material becomes soft and completely amorphous once it reaches the Tm.

Melt Viscosity - A term that refers to the measure of resistance to flow. For all materials, the
viscosity decrease as the temperature increases.

Polymer - A term that means many units. These units are linked together to form chain-like
structures that give polymers unique properties.

Polypropylene (PP) - A very strong substance that has the lowest density of the plastics used
in packaging. PP has a high melting point, making it ideal for hot-fill liquids.

Polystyrene (PS) - A very versatile plastic that can be rigid or foamed and has a relatively
low melting point.General purpose polystyrene is clear,hard and brittle .

Resin - Any of a class of solid or semi-solid organic products of natural or synthetic origin,
generally of high molecular weight with no definite melting point. Most resins are polymers.

Thermoplastics - Materials that can be melted by heating and then re-solidified by cooling.
Blends of thermoplascs can be prepared by melt-mixing.

Thermosets - Materials that "cure" to form solids when heated. Unlike thermoplastics, solid
thermosets do not melt when heated, so they are very useful for high heat applications.

Toggle Unit - Device that uses mechanical links to move the mold during the formation of
injection molded plastics.

Raw material consumption

The plastics industry in Pakistan has taken great strides in quest for its success. Today
plastics material constitutes as the fourth largest item of imports and this sector alone
contributes significantly to the national exchequer in different heads. The industry is
growing at an annual average of 15% and in the process of development it has surpassed all
other industrial sectors. The per capita consumption in the country has also shown an
upward trend during the last 15 years [except post 9/11 events and standoff with India].
Today the domestic consumption of plastics stands at 2.7 kgs, far less than the international
average, yet Pakistan is the second largest domestic market in South East Asia after India.
With the 175 million strong population of Pakistan growing at an annual rate of 2.2%,
coupled with new foreign and local investment and the government policy advocating use
of PP woven bags for industrial packaging, it is expected that the per capita consumption of
plastics is like to increase to 4.0 kgs by 2007. Till the early years of 1990s, the customs
duty on plastics raw material was on unrealistically higher side of about 110 % which has
been gradually brought down to the current level of 20%.

There is a tremendous scope for expansion in the plastics sector. As mentioned above the
per capita consumption of plastics as compared with the neighboring and other regional
countries, is still low, but again this low consumption level indicates that there is a lot of
potential for this industry. For instance, the usage of plastics in auto industry has reversed
the consumption trend. With due attention to enhance the productivity and improving
quality through innovative technique, the exports of plastics auto parts, which was virtually
unheard of in recent years, has become an export industry in Pakistan.
Undeniably, had it not been for the import of second hand machinery and cheap labour, the
plastics industry in Pakistan would have long vanished. Ironically, the second biggest
factor that hampered the development of local plastics industry was a ban on import of
brand new plastic machines. The government imposed the ban on plastics machinery for
the reason that all of the raw material used for manufacturing of plastics goods was
imported and the machinery may be misused. After long year, the plastics manufacturers
succeeded in convincing the government that the plastics machines can manufacture
plastics goods and nothing else, and hence the possibility of their being misused for
purpose other than the plastics manufacturing is minimal. Other reason for the slow growth
of this industry was the NRI (Non Refundable Item) policy (imposed by the government)
on plastics machinery, at a time when no injection molding plastics machine was being
produce domestically. The ban on new plastics machines was lifted in 1984, but very few
new machines of modern technology made their way into Pakistan by way of imports
during the next 10 years. However, since then, the industry has taken giant steps in
bringing the quality of local products at par with the international standards.

Presently there are 6000 plastics processors in Pakistan. The entire industry is self-financed
and SME. The industry contributes around Rupees 8 billion annually to the national
exchequer by way of custom duty, sales tax and income tax. Major concentration of
plastics processors whether they are injection, blow, extrusion, woven or tubular films
manufacturers, is in and around the industrial hubs of Karachi, Lahore, Gujranwala,
Peshawar, Faisalabad, Hyderabad , Rawalpindi, Gadoon and Hattar.
The industry can be divided into two sector i.e organized and unorganized. Organized
sector, with about 600-700 units, is capable of producing quality products. The unorganized
sector produces low quality and cheap products. Despite this, the unorganized sector has
grown faster than the organized sector in the past15 years.

Currently there are four plants in Pakistan producing international quality plastics raw
material. Surplus production of these plants in being exported. All of them are located
within the limits of Karachi.
Concept of international plastics exhibitions in Pakistan is relatively new. The first plastics
exhibition was held last year May. With more exhibitors coming to Pakistan in a second
plastics exhibition within a year, the plastics industry in Pakistan surely has a lot to show
and gain from the international plastics players.

Vital Signs

Major Raw Material Producers (operating) 4


Processing Units 6,000
Employment Direct / Indirect 470,000
Investments (domestic) Rs. 23.671 Bn
Investment (foreign) 49%
Capacity Utilization 95.4%
Raw Material Produced (approx) 253,000
(metric tons)
Raw Material Consumed 450,000
(metric tons)
Export value (approx) Rs.56,369,000
Export Growth 35% average
Revenue to Government (approx) Rs.800 crores
(Rs.8 bln)
Contribution to Total Exports 0.277%

Demand Estimates For Machinery


Injection Molding 250-500
Blow Molding 350-500
Extrusion 1000

Demystifying Energy Saving Devices on Injection Molding Machines

Injection molding machine makers at the upcoming Kunststoff Show in Dusseldorf,


Germany, in October are touting energy efficient presses that will save 30%, 50%, even 70%
of energy use. But is anything really new? Energy efficient all-electric and hybrid injection
molding machines have been available for nearly 30 years, and energy saving devices like
servo pumps and barrel insulation have been retrofitted onto injection molding machines for
almost as long.

A cynical explanation for the K Show fuss is that after years of slower business conditions,
processors are newly aware of the importance of energy saving. There is also a perceived
opportunity for all-electric presses in Europe, where all-electric still accounts for only 15%-
20% of injection molding machine sales (see chart), while hydraulic and hybrid account for
80%-85%, based on a 2011 study for Euromap, Frankfurt-Main, Germany
(www.euromap.org). In Japan roughly 80% of injection molding machine sales are all-
electric vs. 20% hydraulic or hybrid, and in the U.S. sales are roughly 50/50, industry sources
say.

Roughly 15%-20% of injection molding machine sales in Europe are all-electric vs. 80%-
85% hydraulic or hybrid, according to data from Euromap, the European machinery
association. All electric presses in the total European machine population are still only 4.5%.
Source: Euromap

How do original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) calculate their energy savings


percentages? Typically by comparing energy use for a new efficient machine function with
old-fashioned hydraulics for the same function. An injection molding machine has seven
main functions that use energy plastification, barrel heating, platen movement, injection,
clamping pressure, ejection, and barrel retraction. All seven can be made more energy
efficient than conventional old-fashioned hydraulics, where a standard induction electric
motor runs at constant RPM powering 1-2 hydraulic pumps, which runs even when idling.
Energy efficiency, however, isnt just a machine function. Efficiency, which is typically
measured in kilowatt-hours per kilogram (kWh/kg), is different for each molded part and
depends on part weight, cycle time, machine size, and machine efficiency. The SKZ Plastic
Institute in Wurzburg, Germany (www.skz.de), which researches energy saving potentials for
OEMs and performs energy audits, published a study in 2011 that gives a rough idea of how
much energy each machine function uses (see pie chart).

Energy consumption on an electric 100-ton injection molding machine with hydraulic


injection makes 83-gram ABS storage trays with 2-mm thick walls in 16.9 second cycles and
specific energy use of 0.384 kWh/kg. Source: SKZ
The SKZ tested a 100-ton mostly electric press with hydraulic injection, molding an 83-gram
ABS storage tray in 16.9 second cycles and found that plastification consumed by far the
most energy at 48%. Next came barrel heating at 17%, followed by clamp force at 12%, and
injection force at 11%. Linear movements to open and close molds and retract the barrel for
cooling used only minor amounts of energy 4% each. So plastification and barrel heating
are the big opportunities to save energy.

MAJOR COMPANY IN THE IDUSTRY


1. GSH Industries, Inc.

GSH Industries has been manufacturing plastic products since 1986 and we are continuously
developing the best solutions in our industry. We are committed to developing high quality
custom plastics. GSH Industries has several different divisions including: plastic extrusions,
aluminum extrusions, injection molding, rotomolding and rubber extrusions. Our company is
recognized for our ability to adhere to customer requests and GSH Industries works hard to
separate ourselves as a distinguished supplier of extruded plastics. Located in a 45,000 sq. ft.
facility in Strongsville, Ohio, we will quickly deliver all of your plastic solutions.

Our company offers solutions for a wide range of markets including: aerospace, appliance,
agricultural, drainage, recreational vehicles, OEM automotive, construction, windows &
doors, geothermal, solar, packaging, medical, point of purchase, durable goods, signage and
much more. Our long lasting products can be customized with a number of attributes to
match customers' exact specifications. Our engineers at GSH Industries can design our
solutions from a variety of hollow, solid and dual durometer profiles. We are dedicated to
customer satisfaction which is why we will assist customers with designing a profile that is
most beneficial for their applications and our engineers can formulate sophisticated profiles
for even the most demanding projects.

2. ICOMold

ICOMold is a world-wide leading plastic injection molding manufacturer. We produce low-


volume custom injection molding and plastic parts for our customers worldwide at the
highest quality. Our two facilities located in Ohio and China give us the capability to provide
a full range of services to our customers.

3. MSI Mold

MSI Mold offers custom injection molding and machining services. We specialize in small to
medium sized plastic and machined parts. We`re located in Shelby Township, Michigan and
we back up the quality of your products with 30 years of injection molding and tooling
experience. We pride ourselves in offering the highest quality made in the USA injection
molded parts at your specifications without drama or delay.

4. Britech Injection Molded Plastics


Here at Britech Injection Molded Plastics, we have provided our customers with custom
injection molded plastics since 1984. We started as a small company in Florida, but today, we
are much larger and offer our products to companies around the world. We can supply our
products to you at affordable prices in record time. We use rapid injection molding to help
you succeed. Our company has a reputation for putting the customer first. We even use the
latest state-of-the-art technology to ensure we always offer the best. Contact us today to find
out how we can help you!

5. K- Three Electronics Private Limited

K- Three Electronics Private Limited? was established in the year 1970. We provide the best
quality of our products. We have made a continuous improvement in the manufacturing of
various genuine and trusted quality goods to meet the ever increasing market requirements.
CHAPTER 2
Company profile
INTRODUCTION

K Three Electronics Private Limited is a Private incorporated on 30 March 1999. It is


classified as Non-govt company and is registered at Registrar of Companies, Delhi. Its
authorized share capital is Rs. 30,000,000 and its paid up capital is Rs. 29,750,000.It is
inolved in Manufacture of electronic valves and tubes and othe relectronic components.

K Three Electronics Private Limited's Annual General Meeting (AGM) was last held on 30
September 2016 and as per records from Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA), its balance
sheet was last filed on 31March 2016.

Directors of K Three Electronics Private Limited are Kanish Khanna, Kapil Khanna and
Priyanka sharma.

K Three Electronics Private Limited's Corporate Identification Number is (CIN)


U32107DL1999PTC099043 and its registration number is 99043.Its Email address is
sapra.kalra@gmail.com and its registered address is B-78, OKHLA INDUSTRIAL AREA
PHASE-2 NEW DELHI DL110020 IN , - , .

Current status of K Three Electronics Private Limited is - Active.


*Industry classification is derived from National Industrial Classification. If the company has
changed line of business without intimating the Registrar or is a diversified business,
classification may be different. We make no warranties about accuracy of industrial
classification.

Vision

Through the extensive achievements of our highly-committed team, we strive to remain the
premier choice for rapid plastics solutions. We will continue to work towards making a
difference in the lives and future of our employees and our communities while advancing the
success of our customers.

Mission

Our mission is to exceed the expectations of our customers by delivering fast, reliable and
superior solutions that are unsurpassed by our competition.

Values

K-THREE ELECTRONICS recognizes the importance of the putting the following values
into practice. These principles guide our decisions, our actions and ultimately lead to our
success:

We ensure a safe work environment. We maintain a physically safe facility, and provide a
workplace where employees can freely express their professional opinions, beliefs and ideas.

We uphold a culture of respect and dignity. We take pride in the contributions and diversity of
ideas of our team members, and endeavor to understand each other by putting ourselves in
one anothers shoes.

We inspire empowerment. We encourage problem-solving, communication and employee


involvement at every level of the company. We strive to continually learn, adapt and move
forward.
We act in stewardship. Employees carefully manage company resources as if they were their
own, and respect our customers time, financial investments, and the work they entrust to us.

We appreciate the importance of a work-life balance, and we recognize that the best balance
between work, family, self, friends, and community is different for each individual. We know
that a positive work-life balance drives each individual in attaining achievement and
enjoyment in their daily pursuits.

Community Involvement

K-Three Electronics has been a member of the Lakewood, Townsend, Mountain Chamber of
Commerce since 1988 and a member of the Wausau/Marathon County Chamber of
Commerce since 1995.

In addition, K-Three Electronics employees have donated their time and service to area
organizations that rely on community contributions. Beneficiaries of their generosity include
the Townsend Fire Department, Lakewood Fire Department, Mountain Fire Department,
Riverview Fire Department, Doty Fire Department, Community Ambulance and Mountain
Ambulance Services, the Wabeno and Lakewood Lions Clubs, as well as the Wabeno, Suring
and White Lake school systems.

K-Three Electronics frequently donates and sponsors several community events throughout
the year. We are a supporter of Scouting, local religious organizations and a major sponsor in
a local golf tournament that benefits the Nicolet Medical/Dental Clinic.

K-Three Electronics hosts an Annual Walk/Run Challenge for Life that is co-sponsored by
the Lakewood Area Chamber of Commerce. The scenic route wraps around the 4.37-mile
perimeter of Maiden Lake. Proceeds from the event will go to area Fire/Ambulance Services
and the K-Three Electronics Search & Rescue Team who protect and serve the people of the
Lakewood, Townsend, and Mountain areas.
Testimonials

At K-Three Electronics, we manufacture TIME! In fact, everything we do is about time! We


deliver Total Product Solutions for many of the nations largest and most successful
companies. If someone gave you a week of Time, what would you do with it? Thats just
what weve done for a majority of our customers, and we are on track to do it again! Weve
accomplished this with our commitment to being Fast, Fluid and Flexible with our
implementation of Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM). If you need an injection molder
who values your time, then Nicolet Plastics should be your first choice.

Careers

K-Three Electronics is seeking hardworking individuals who possess the right combination
of interpersonal skill and technical ability to join our innovative team. A career at K-Three
Electronics offers:

Employee empowerment/engagement
Career path planning
A drive for personal and professional destiny
Experience in cross functional teams
Skill identification and cross training
Opportunity to build multiple skills that impact critical production operations

Our generous benefit program includes medical, dental, life insurance, STD, LTD, AD&D,
FSA (flexible spending accounts), and a 401(k). In addition, we offer paid time off, flex-time
and paid holidays. Qualified employees can also benefit from our tuition reimbursement
program.
Domain Expertise

Leveraging upon our technological expertise and streamlined facilities, we have been able to
meet with all the demands of the clients. Our sophisticated facilities have enabled us keeping
pace with the ever-changing demands of the market. With our consistent service & on-time
delivery, we strive to maintain our goodwill that we have achieved so far. With more than
fifteen years of experience in the industry, we carved a niche for ourselves. Today, we are
more focused on:

Client satisfaction
Following ethical business standards
Technological up gradation of our processes
Healthy Competitiveness

Product Profile

We are a leading name in manufacturing a diverse range of plastic molded components and
plastic molded automotive parts. Our vast range includes plastic molded Refrigerator parts,
washing machine parts, television parts, Ac parts. These products are at par with
durability, reliability, highly rated functionality, accuracy, flawless design and other
user-friendly features.
All the products are manufactured using premium quality raw materials, which are sourced
from most trusted suppliers. Some of our suppliers are:
Bayer India Limited
GE Industrial (India) Limited
Du Pont (India) Limited
Indian Petrochemical Corp. Limited
SRF Polymers Limited
DSM EP (India Pvt. Limited)
Korea Engg. Plastic Company Limited
Laxness ABS Limited
Aalekh Polymers Pvt. Limited
LG company limited
Reliance industry

In the course of production, we consistently receive guidance and directions from Mr. Rajiv
Ratra. His vision coupled with technological enhancements and dedicated workforce has
enabled us to keep ourselves at par with the industry demands. Optimizing on all our
advanced production unit, we assure that every product that rolls out of our manufacturing
unit has attributes of modern technology, simplicity and in-built toughness. Adding to our
expertise, we have our own sister concern 'Consult Techniques' which holds respectable
product volumes (WHAT KIND OF PRODUCT) and serve in the best manner to its clients.

Facilities We Possess

We boast of a modern infrastructure, which is well equipped with sophisticated machines, so


we continuously upgrade our machines to maintain their efficiency. Following are some of
the facilities we have:
Machine Shop:
Our machine shop is equipped with a battery of
injection molding machines and other modern
machines. These machines are continually updated to
the best technology to maintain their efficiency.
Tool Room:
The tool room is used to make molds, which offers
higher level of accuracy to our components. Our tool
room has modern machines and vertical machining
centers.
Design:
Lot of attention is given to the design of our products,
as we understand the level of performance depends
largely on the design of the products. For better
product development, we pursue extensive research
and use the most advanced machines for our designing
requirements. We are well equipped with softwares
like Autocard, Unigraphic etc.

Quality Assurance

Quality Policy: "To achieve customer delight by manufacturing products as per


customer specification and on - time delivery of good quality products at competitive
price through continuous improvement at all levels
At our unit, we have a separate division for quality inspection wherein we have all the
facilities, which are required for successful quality assessment. All the products like plastic
moulded components and plastic moulded electrical parts that we manufacture undergo
stringent test and checks in order determine their quality. While testing, various parameters
like design, size, performance and others are taken into consideration.

Each test takes place under the strict vigilance of our supervisors and quality checking
inspectors. All the tests are conducted using advanced testing equipment and modern testing
measures that help in testing the products. We assure every component is thoroughly
inspected in order to make us achieve our goal of total product management (TPM).

Our Strengths
Goodwill in the international market
Cost effective
On-time delivery
Safe packing
Customized solutions
Team And Management

Supported by a team of expert personnel and their quality awareness, we are able to meet
with all the specific demands of the client. Toiling hard in our unit, our team members are
focused regarding their job and have made breakthroughs in efficient product design and
development. Our pool of engineers and technocrats work in close co-ordination with our
clients & offer products that meet the specific requirement. .
Other than these personnel, production managers, supervisors and quality checking inspectors
and specialized professionals for designing assist us. For other processes, we have logistics
and transportation personnel, sales and marketing managers, warehouse managers and skilled
workmen. Our team members enable us to manufacture products not only as per industry
standards but also at the same time as per what our client's specifications.

Meeting With The Client's Requirements

Client satisfaction is our priority and we give our best efforts in maintaining our priority at all
fronts. All the products that we manufacture are custom made. These are made as per the
specifications and requirements we receive from clients.

RESOURCES

The entire shopfloor of 70,000+ sq ft is dedicated towards providing world class solutions to
our customers. Our well equipped in-house machine shop and in-house inspection facility
helps in achieving highest standards of quality in manufacturing and provide world class
products to our customer. Our pan India presence with offices at strategic locations helps in
providing timely and efficient service to customers. A dedicated research and development
team enables us to keep up with latest development in technology and meet market demands.
INNOVATIONS

K-Three Electronics is a company that can be best described as an innovative, vibrant and
energetic organization that is dedicated towards providing new technologies at affordable
costs. The company in India to manufacture Plastic Component By Injection Moulding
Machine with 5-point toggle type clamping mechanism, K-Three Electronics use also the
foremost plastic injection moulding machine manufacturer to plastic refrigerator parts for
Indian market. The journey from Moulds to Moulding has been exciting, full of challenges
and rewards.

BELIEF

Our ethos as an organization is based on the simple yet effective ideals of Quality, Ethics and
Efficiency. We take immense pride in the patronage of our customers, support of an excellent
staff and the faithful association of our strategic partners.

Our strength lies in:

POWERFUL LEADERSHIP

Company headed by a graduate mechanical engineer with


gold medals.

The owner is having a long practical experience with SLM-


Maneklal Industries, a giant in its own time. This company
was having technical collaboration with Toshiba-Japan for
plastic injection moulding machines, Kautex-Germany for
Blow Moulding Machines, Pinette Emidecau-France for
hydraulic presses, SLM-Switzerland for Blowers, vacuum
pumps and many more. The owner worked as production,
design and service engineer gaining vast knowledge over a
period of 9 years.

At K-Three Electronics, manufacturing is a hobby and in built


with personal interests of every one in organization.

R & D CAPABILITY:

Analytical capability for design enabling R & D capability


keeping pace with latest technologies.

Knowledge gained over years of experience is put into our


products to give user friendly operations with long service life
and minimum down time. There are no short cuts in
manufacturing processes. The right material and right
treatment to components.
CHAPTER 3
PLASTIC
MANUFACTURING VIA
INJECTION MOULDING
PROCESS

A BRIEF STUDY ON PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING

PROCESS

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of plastic parts. A wide
variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and
application. The injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic
material, and a mold. The plastic is melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold,
where it cools and solidifies into the final part. The steps in this process are described in greater detail in the
next section.
Fig. 1.1 Injection molding overview

Injection molding is used to produce thin-walled plastic parts for a wide variety of
applications, one of the most common being plastic housings. Plastic housing is a thin-walled
enclosure, often requiring many ribs and bosses on the interior. These housings are used in a
variety of products including household appliances, consumer electronics, power tools, and as
automotive dashboards. Other common thin-walled products include different types of open
containers, such as buckets. Injection molding is also used to produce several everyday items
such as toothbrushes or small plastic toys. Many medical devices, including valves and
syringes, are manufactured using injection molding as well.

3.1 INJECTION MOLDING-OVERVIEW

Injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from both


thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated barrel,
mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the
mold cavity. After a product is designed, usually by an industrial designer or an engineer,
molds are made by a mold maker (or toolmaker) from metal, usually either steel or
aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection molding
is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest component to entire
body panels of cars.
Fig. 1.2 Schematic Diagram of Plastic Injection molding

3.2. PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS

Utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold
cavity
Produces a solid or open-ended shape which has conformed to the contour of the mold
Uses thermoplastic or thermo set materials
Produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks
Ejector pin marks are usually present

3.3 HISTORY& DEVELOPMENT

The first man-made plastic was invented in Britain in 1851 by Alexander Parkes. He
publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London; calling the material
he produced "Parkesine." Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and
retain its shape when cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and
highly flammable.

In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyat developed a plastic material he named
Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into finished form.
Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872.
This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large
hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold.
The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing products such as collar stays,
butons, and hair combs.

The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge
demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson
Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control
over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed
material to be mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to
virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines
account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to
develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process, which permitted the production of
complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well
as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight
and waste.

The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and
buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive,
medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction.

3.4 PROCESS CYCLE


The process cycle for injection molding is very short, typically between 2 seconds and 2
minutes, and consists of the following four stages:

1. Clamping - Prior to the injection of the material into the mold, the two halves of the mold
must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. Each half of the mold is attached to the
injection molding machine and one half is allowed to slide. The hydraulically powered
clamping unit pushes the mold halves together and exerts sufficient force to keep the mold
securely closed while the material is injected. The time required to close and clamp the mold
is dependent upon the machine - larger machines (those with greater clamping forces) will
require more time. This time can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine.

2. Injection - The raw plastic material, usually in the form of pellets, is fed into the injection
molding machine, and advanced towards the mold by the injection unit. During this process,
the material is melted by heat and pressure. The molten plastic is then injected into the mold
very quickly and the buildup of pressure packs and holds the material. The amount of
material that is injected is referred to as the shot. The injection time is difficult to calculate
accurately due to the complex and changing flow of the molten plastic into the mold.
However, the injection time can be estimated by the shot volume, injection pressure, and
injection power.

3. Cooling - The molten plastic that is inside the mold begins to cool as soon as it makes
contact with the interior mold surfaces. As the plastic cools, it will solidify into the shape of
the desired part. However, during cooling some shrinkage of the part may occur. The packing
of material in the injection stage allows additional material to flow into the mold and reduce
the amount of visible shrinkage. The mold can not be opened until the required cooling time
has elapsed. The cooling time can be estimated from several thermodynamic properties of the
plastic and the maximum wall thickness of the part.
4. Ejection - After sufficient time has passed, the cooled part may be ejected from the mold
by the ejection system, which is attached to the rear half of the mold. When the mold is
opened, a mechanism is used to push the part out of the mold. Force must be applied to eject
the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the mold. In order to facilitate
the ejection of the part, a mold release agent can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the mold
cavity prior to injection of the material. The time that is required to open the mold and eject
the part can be estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine and should include time for
the part to fall free of the mold. Once the part is ejected, the mold can be clamped shut for the
next shot to be injected.

Fig.2.1 Injection molded part.

After the injection molding cycle, some post processing is typically required. During cooling,
the material in the channels of the mold will solidify attached to the part. This excess
material, along with any flash that has occurred, must be trimmed from the part, typically by
using cutters. For some types of material, such as thermoplastics, the scrap material that
results from this trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic grinder, also called
regrind machines or granulators, which regrinds the scrap material into pellets. Due to some
degradation of the material properties, the regrind must be mixed with raw material in the
proper regrind ratio to be reused in the injection molding process.

3.5 MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT


Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper, an injection ram or screw-
type plunger, and a heating unit. They are also known as presses, they hold the molds in
which the components are shaped. Presses are rated by tonnage, which expresses the amount
of clamping force that the machine can exert. This force keeps the mold closed during the
injection process. Tonnage can vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons, with the higher
figures used in comparatively few manufacturing operations.

The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the part being
molded. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each square
inch of the projected areas. As a rule of thumb, 4 or 5 tons/in2 can be used for most products.
If the plastic material is very stiff, it will require more injection pressure to fill the mold, thus
more clamp tonnage to hold the mold closed. The required force can also be determined by
the material used and the size of the part, larger parts require higher clamping force.

Fig.2.2 Injection Molding Machine.

Injection molding machines have many components and are available in different
configurations, including a horizontal configuration and a vertical configuration. However,
regardless of their design, all injection molding machines utilize a power source, injection
unit, mold assembly, and clamping unit to perform the four stages of the process cycle.

3.6 POWER REQUIREMENTS


The power required for this process of injection molding depends on many things and
varies between materials used. Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide states that the power
requirements depend on "a material's specific gravity, melting point, thermal conductivity, part size, and
molding rate." Below is a table from page 243 of the same reference as previously mentioned which best
illustrates the characteristics relevant to the power required for the most commonly used materials.

Specific Melting Point


Material
Gravity (F)
Epoxy 1.12 to 1.24 248
Phenolic 1.34 to 1.95 248
Nylon 1.01 to 1.15 381 to 509
Polyethylene 0.91 to 0.965 230 to 243
Polystyrene 1.04 to 1.07 338

Table 1 Power Requirements.

3.7 INJECTION UNIT

The injection unit is responsible for both heating and injecting the material into the
mold. The first part of this unit is the hopper, a large container into which the raw plastic is
poured. The hopper has an open bottom, which allows the material to feed into the barrel. The
barrel contains the mechanism for heating and injecting the material into the mold. This
mechanism is usually a ram injector or a reciprocating screw. A ram injector forces the
material forward through a heated section with a ram or plunger that is usually hydraulically
powered. Today, the more common technique is the use of a reciprocating screw. A
reciprocating screw moves the material forward by both rotating and sliding axially, being
powered by either a hydraulic or electric motor.

The material enters the grooves of the screw from the hopper and is advanced towards
the mold as the screw rotates. While it is advanced, the material is melted by pressure,
friction, and additional heaters that surround the reciprocating screw. The molten plastic is
then injected very quickly into the mold through the nozzle at the end of the barrel by the
buildup of pressure and the forward action of the screw. This increasing pressure allows the
material to be packed and forcibly held in the mold. Once the material has solidified inside
the mold, the screw can retract and fill with more material for the next shot.
Fig.2.3 Injection molding machine - Injection unit.

3.8 CLAMPING UNIT

Prior to the injection of the molten plastic into the mold, the two halves of the mold
must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. When the mold is attached to the injection
molding machine, each half is fixed to a large plate, called a platen. The front half of the
mold, called the mold cavity, is mounted to a stationary platen and aligns with the nozzle of
the injection unit. The rear half of the mold, called the mold core, is mounted to a movable
platen, which slides along the tie bars. The hydraulically powered clamping motor actuates
clamping bars that push the moveable platen towards the stationary platen and exert sufficient
force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected and subsequently cools.
After the required cooling time, the mold is then opened by the clamping motor. An ejection
system, which is attached to the rear half of the mold, is actuated by the ejector bar and
pushes the solidified part out of the open cavity.
Fig.2.4 Injection molding machine - Clamping unit.

3.9 LUBRICATION AND COOLING

Obviously, the mold must be cooled in order for the production to take place. Because
of the heat capacity, inexpensiveness, and availability of water, water is used as the primary
cooling agent. To cool the mold, water can be channeled through the mold to account for
quick cooling times. Usually a colder mold is more efficient because this allows for faster
cycle times. However, this is not always true because crystalline materials require the
opposite: a warmer mold and lengthier cycle time.

3.2.0 MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

Injection molding machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp
force they provide. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the parts
in the mold and the pressure with which the material is injected. Therefore, a larger part will
require a larger clamping force. Also, certain materials that require high injection pressures
may require higher tonnage machines. The size of the part must also comply with other
machine specifications, such as shot capacity, clamp stroke, minimum mold thickness, and
platen size.

Injection molded parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to cover
a very large range. As a result, injection molding machines are designed to each
accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values. Sample specifications are
shown below for three different models (Babyplast, Powerline, and Maxima) of injection
molding machine that are manufactured by Cincinnati Milacron.

Babyplast Powerline Maxima


Clamp force (ton) 6.6 330 4400
Shot capacity (oz.) 0.13 - 0.50 8 - 34 413 - 1054
Clamp stroke (in.) 4.33 23.6 133.8
Min. mold thickness (in.) 1.18 7.9 31.5
2.95 x
Platen size (in.) 40.55 x 40.55 122.0 x 106.3
2.95

Table 2 Machine Specifications.

Fig.2.5 Injection molding machine.

3.2.1 TOOLING
The injection molding process uses molds, typically made of steel or aluminum, as the
custom tooling. The mold has many components, but can be split into two halves. Each half
is attached inside the injection molding machine and the rear half is allowed to slide so that
the mold can be opened and closed along the mold's parting line. The two main components
of the mold are the mold core and the mold cavity. When the mold is closed, the space
between the mold core and the mold cavity forms the part cavity, that will be filled with
molten plastic to create the desired part. Multiple-cavity molds are sometimes used, in which
the two mold halves form several identical part cavities.

Fig.2.6 Mold overview.

3.2.2 MOLD BASE

The mold core and mold cavity are each mounted to the mold base, which is then
fixed to the platens inside the injection molding machine. The front half of the mold base
includes a support plate, to which the mold cavity is attached, the sprue bushing, into which
the material will flow from the nozzle, and a locating ring, in order to align the mold base
with the nozzle. The rear half of the mold base includes the ejection system, to which the
mold core is attached, and a support plate. When the clamping unit separates the mold halves,
the ejector bar actuates the ejection system. The ejector bar pushes the ejector plate forward
inside the ejector box, which in turn pushes the ejector pins into the molded part. The ejector
pins push the solidified part out of the open mold cavity.

Fig.2.7 Mold base.

3.2.3 MOLD CHANNELS

In order for the molten plastic to flow into the mold cavities, several channels are
integrated into the mold design. First, the molten plastic enters the mold through the sprue.
Additional channels, called runners, carry the molten plastic from the sprue to all of the
cavities that must be filled. At the end of each runner, the molten plastic enters the cavity
through a gate which directs the flow. The molten plastic that solidifies inside these runners is
attached to the part and must be separated after the part has been ejected from the mold.
However, sometimes hot runner systems are used which independently heat the channels,
allowing the contained material to be melted and detached from the part. Another type of
channel that is built into the mold is cooling channels. These channels allow water to flow
through the mold walls, adjacent to the cavity, and cool the molten plastic.
Fig.2.8 Mold channels.

3.2.4 MOLD DESIGN

In addition to runners and gates, there are many other design issues that must be
considered in the design of the molds. Firstly, the mold must allow the molten plastic to flow
easily into all of the cavities. Equally important is the removal of the solidified part from the
mold, so a draft angle must be applied to the mold walls. The design of the mold must also
accommodate any complex features on the part, such as undercuts or threads, which will
require additional mold pieces. Most of these devices slide into the part cavity through the
side of the mold, and are therefore known as slides, or side-actions. The most common type
of side-action is a side-core which enables an external undercut to be molded. Other devices
enter through the end of the mold along the parting direction, such as internal core lifters,
which can form an internal undercut. To mold threads into the part, an unscrewing device is
needed, which can rotate out of the mold after the threads have been formed.

Fig.3.1 Mold Closed.


Fig.3.2 Mold - Exploded view.

Fig.3.3 Standard two plates tooling core and cavity are inserts in a mold base "Family mold" of 5 different
parts.

The mold consists of two primary components, the injection mold (A plate) and the
ejector mold (B plate). Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold, the
sprue bushing is to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding
machine and to allow molten plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold, also known as
cavity. The sprue bushing directs the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels
that are machined into the faces of the A and B plates. These channels allow plastic to run
along them, so they are referred to as runners. The molten plastic flows through the runner
and enters one or more specialized gates and into the cavity geometry to form the desired
part.

The amount of resin required to fill the sprue, runner and cavities of a mold is a shot.
Trapped air in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of
the mold. If the trapped air is not allowed to escape, it is compressed by the pressure of the
incoming material and is squeezed into the corners of the cavity, where it prevents filling and
causes other defects as well. The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the
surrounding plastic material. To allow for removal of the molded part from the mold, the
mold features must not overhang one another in the direction that the mold opens, unless
parts of the mold are designed to move from between such overhangs when the mold opens
(utilizing components called Lifters).

Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored
position (hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and
closes) are typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold.
Insufficient draft can cause deformation or damage. The draft required for mold release is
primarily dependent on the depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity, the more draft
necessary. Shrinkage must also be taken into account when determining the draft required. If
the skin is too thin, then the molded part will tend to shrink onto the cores that form them
while cooling, and cling to those cores or part may warp, twist, blister or crack when the
cavity is pulled away.

The mold is usually designed so that the molded part reliably remains on the ejector
(B) side of the mold when it opens, and draws the runner and the sprue out of the (A) side
along with the parts. The part then falls freely when ejected from the (B) side. Tunnel gates,
also known as submarine or mold gate, is located below the parting line or mold surface. The
opening is machined into the surface of the mold on the parting line. The molded part is cut
(by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the mold. Ejector pins, also known as
knockout pin, is a circular pin placed in either half of the mold (usually the ejector half)
which pushes the finished molded product, or runner system out of a mold.
The standard method of cooling is passing a coolant (usually water) through a series of holes
drilled through the mold plates and connected by hoses to form a continuous pathway. The
coolant absorbs heat from the mold (which has absorbed heat from the hot plastic) and keeps
the mold at a proper temperature to solidify the plastic at the most efficient rate.

To ease maintenance and venting, cavities and cores are divided into pieces, called inserts,
and sub-assemblies, also called inserts, blocks, or chase blocks. By substituting
interchangeable inserts, one mold may make several variations of the same part.

More complex parts are formed using more complex molds. These may have sections called
slides that move into a cavity perpendicular to the draw direction, to form overhanging part
features. When the mold is opened, the slides are pulled away from the plastic part by using
stationary angle pins on the stationary mold half. These pins enter a slot in the slides and
cause the slides to move backward when the moving half of the mold opens. The part is then
ejected and the mold closes. The closing action of the mold causes the slides to move forward
along the angle pins.

Some molds allow previously molded parts to be reinserted to allow a new plastic
layer to form around the first part. This is often referred to as over molding. This system can
allow for production of one-piece tires and wheels. 2-shot or multi-shot molds are designed to
"over mold" within a single molding cycle and must be processed on specialized injection
molding machines with two or more injection units. This process is actually an injection
molding process performed twice. In the first step, the base color material is molded into a
basic shape. Then the second material is injection-molded into the remaining open spaces.
That space is then filled during the second injection step with a material of a different color.

A mold can produce several copies of the same parts in a single "shot". The number of
"impressions" in the mold of that part is often incorrectly referred to as cavitations. A tool
with one impression will often be called a single impression (cavity) mold. A mold with 2 or
more cavities of the same parts will likely be referred to as multiple impression (cavity) mold.
Some extremely high production volume molds (like those for bottle caps) can have over 128
cavities. In some cases multiple cavity tooling will mold a series of different parts in the same
tool. Some toolmakers call these molds family molds as all the parts are related.
3.2.5 DESIGN RULES

MAXIMUM WALL THICKNESS:

Decrease the maximum wall thickness of a part to shorten the cycle time (injection time
and cooling time specifically) and reduce the part volume

INCORRECT CORRECT

Part with thick walls Part redesigned with thin walls

Uniform wall thickness will ensure uniform cooling and reduce defects

INCORRECT CORRECT

Non-uniform wall thickness (t1 t2) Uniform wall thickness (t1 = t2)

CORNERS:
Round corners to reduce stress concentrations and fracture
Inner radius should be at least the thickness of the walls

INCORRECT CORRECT

Sharp corner Rounded corner

DRAFT:

Apply a draft angle of 1 - 2 to all walls parallel to the parting direction to facilitate
removing the part from the mold.

INCORRECT CORRECT

No draft angle Draft angle ()

RIBS:
Add ribs for structural support, rather than increasing the wall thickness

INCORRECT CORRECT
Thick wall of thickness t Thin wall of thickness t with ribs

Orient ribs perpendicular to the axis about which bending may occur

INCORRECT CORRECT

Incorrect rib direction under load F Correct rib direction under load F
Thickness of ribs should be 50-60% of the walls to which they are attached
Height of ribs should be less than three times the wall thickness
Round the corners at the point of attachment
Apply a draft angle of at least 0.25

INCORRECT CORRECT

Thick rib of thickness t Thin rib of thickness t


Close up of ribs

BOSSES:
Wall thickness of bosses should be no more than 60% of the main wall thickness
Radius at the base should be at least 25% of the main wall thickness
Should be supported by ribs that connect to adjacent walls or by gussets at the base.

INCORRECT CORRECT

Isolated boss Isolated boss with ribs (left) or gussets (right)


If a boss must be placed near a corner, it should be isolated using ribs.

INCORRECT CORRECT

Boss in corner Ribbed boss in corner


UNDERCUTS:
Minimize the number of external undercuts

o External undercuts require side-cores which add to the tooling cost


o Some simple external undercuts can be molded by relocating the parting line

New parting line allows


Simple external undercut Mold cannot separate
undercut
o Redesigning a feature can remove an external undercut

Part with hinge Hinge requires side-core

Redesigned hinge New hinge can be molded


Minimize the number of internal undercuts

o Internal undercuts often require internal core lifters which add to the tooling cost
o Designing an opening in the side of a part can allow a side-core to form an internal
undercut

Internal undercut accessible from the side


o Redesigning a part can remove an internal undercut

Part with internal undercut Mold cannot separate

Part redesigned with slot New part can be molded


Minimize number of side-action directions

o Additional side-action directions will limit the number of possible cavities in the mold

THREADS
If possible, features with external threads should be oriented perpendicular to the
parting direction.
Threaded features that are parallel to the parting direction will require an unscrewing
device, which greatly adds to the tooling cost.

3.2.6 MATERIALS

There are many types of materials that may be used in the injection molding process. Most
polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics, some thermosets, and some elastomers.
When these materials are used in the injection molding process, their raw form is usually
small pellets or a fine powder. Also, colorants may be added in the process to control the
color of the final part. The selection of a material for creating injection molded parts is not
solely based upon the desired characteristics of the final part. While each material has
different properties that will affect the strength and function of the final part, these properties
also dictate the parameters used in processing these materials. Each material requires a
different set of processing parameters in the injection molding process, including the injection
temperature, injection pressure, mold temperature, ejection temperature, and cycle time. A
comparison of some commonly used materials is shown below (Follow the links to search the
material library).

Material name Abbreviation Trade names Description Applications


Acetal POM Celcon, Delrin, Strong, rigid, Bearings,
Hostaform, excellent cams, gears,
Lucel fatigue handles,
resistance, plumbing
excellent creep components,
resistance, rollers, rotors,
chemical slide guides,
resistance, valves
moisture
resistance,
naturally
opaque white,
low/medium
cost
Acrylic PMMA Diakon, Rigid, brittle, Display stands,
Oroglas, scratch knobs, lenses,
Lucite, resistant, light housings,
Plexiglas transparent, panels,
optical clarity, reflectors,
low/medium signs, shelves,
cost trays
Acrylonitrile ABS Cycolac, Strong, Automotive
Butadiene Styrene Magnum, flexible, low (consoles,
Novodur, mold shrinkage panels, trim,
Terluran (tight vents), boxes,
tolerances), gauges,
chemical housings,
resistance, inhalors, toys
electroplating
capability,
naturally
opaque,
low/medium
cost
Cellulose Acetate CA Dexel, Tough, Handles,
Cellidor, transparent, eyeglass
Setilithe high cost frames
Polyamide 6 PA6 Akulon, High strength, Bearings,
(Nylon) Ultramid, fatigue bushings,
Grilon resistance, gears, rollers,
chemical wheels
resistance, low
creep, low
friction, almost
opaque/white,
medium/high
cost
Polyamide 6/6 PA6/6 Kopa, Zytel, High strength, Handles,
(Nylon) Radilon fatigue levers, small
resistance, housings, zip
chemical ties
resistance, low
creep, low
friction, almost
opaque/white,
medium/high
cost
Polyamide 11+12 PA11+12 Rilsan, High strength, Air filters,
(Nylon) Grilamid fatigue eyeglass
resistance, frames, safety
chemical masks
resistance, low
creep, low
friction, almost
opaque to clear,
very high cost

Polycarbonate PC Calibre, Lexan, Very tough,Automotive


Makrolon temperature (panels, lenses,
resistance, consoles),
dimensional bottles,
stability, containers,
transparent, housings, light
high cost covers,
reflectors,
safety helmets
and shields
Polyester - PBT, PET Celanex, Rigid, heat Automotive
Thermoplastic Crastin, Lupox, resistance, (filters,
Rynite, Valox chemical handles,
resistance, pumps),
medium/high bearings, cams,
cost electrical
components
(connectors,
sensors), gears,
housings,
rollers,
switches,
valves
Polyether Sulphone PES Victrex, Udel Tough, very Valves
high chemical
resistance,
clear, very high
cost
Polyetheretherketon PEEKEEK Strong, thermal Aircraft
e stability, components,
chemical electrical
resistance, connectors,
abrasion pump
resistance, low impellers, seals
moisture
absorption
Polyetherimide PEI Ultem Heat resistance, Electrical
flame components
resistance, (connectors,
transparent boards,
(amber color) switches),
covers, sheilds,
surgical tools
Polyethylene - Low LDPE Alkathene, Lightweight, Kitchenware,
Density Escorene, tough and housings,
Novex flexible, covers, and
excellent containers
chemical
resistance,
natural waxy
appearance,
low cost
Polyethylene - High HDPE Eraclene, Tough and stiff, Chair seats,
Density Hostalen, excellent housings,
Stamylan chemical covers, and
resistance, containers
natural waxy
appearance,
low cost
Polyphenylene PPO Noryl, Tough, heat Automotive
Oxide Thermocomp, resistance, (housings,
Vamporan flame panels),
resistance, electrical
dimensional components,
stability, low housings,
water plumbing
absorption, components
electroplating
capability, high
cost
Polyphenylene PPS Ryton, Fortron Very high Bearings,
Sulphide strength, heat covers, fuel
resistance, system
brown, very components,
high cost guides,
switches, and
shields
Polypropylene PP Novolen, Lightweight, Automotive
Appryl, heat resistance, (bumpers,
Escorene high chemical covers, trim),
resistance, bottles, caps,
scratch crates, handles,
resistance, housings
natural waxy
appearance,
tough and stiff,
low cost.
Polystyrene - GPPS Lacqrene, Brittle, Cosmetics
General purpose Styron, transparent, packaging,
Solarene low cost pens
Polystyrene - High HIPS Polystyrol, Impact Electronic
impact Kostil, Polystar strength, housings, food
rigidity, containers, toys
toughness,
dimensional
stability,
naturally
translucent,
low cost
Polyvinyl Chloride - PVC Welvic, Varlan Tough, Electrical
Plasticised flexible, flame insulation,
resistance, housewares,
transparent or medical tubing,
opaque, low shoe soles, toys
cost
Polyvinyl Chloride UPVC Polycol, Tough, Outdoor
Rigid Trosiplast flexible, flame applications
resistance, (drains,
transparent or fittings,
opaque, low gutters)
cost
Styrene SAN Luran, Stiff, brittle, Housewares,
Acrylonitrile Arpylene, chemical knobs, syringes
Starex resistance, heat
resistance,
hydrolytically
stable,
transparent,
low cost
Thermoplastic TPE/R Hytrel, Tough, Bushings,
Elastomer/Rubber Santoprene, flexible, high electrical
Sarlink cost components,
seals, washers
Table 3: Materials.

3.2.7 MOLDING DEFECTS

Injection molding is a complex technology with possible production problems. They can either be caused by
defects in the molds or more often by part processing (molding)

Molding Alternative Descriptions Causes


Defects Name
Blister Blistering Raised or layered Tool or material is too hot, often caused
zone on surface of by a lack of cooling around the tool or a
the part faulty heater
Burn marks Air Burn/ Black or brown Tool lacks venting, injection speed is too
Gas Burn/ burnt areas on the high
Dieseling part located at
furthest points
from gate or
where air is
trapped
Color Colour Localized change Masterbatch isn't mixing properly, or the
streaks (US) streaks of color/colour material has run out and it's starting to
(UK) come through as natural only. Previous
colored material "dragging" in nozzle or
check valve.
Delaminatio Thin mica like Contamination of the material e.g. PP
n layers formed in mixed with ABS, very dangerous if the
part wall part is being used for a safety critical
application as the material has very little
strength when delaminated as the
materials cannot bond
Flash Burrs Excess material in Mold is over packed or parting line on the
thin layer tool is damaged, too much injection
exceeding normal speed/material injected, clamping force
part geometry too low. Can also be caused by dirt and
contaminants around tooling surfaces.
Embedded Embedded Foreign particle Particles on the tool surface,
contaminate particulates (burnt material or contaminated material or foreign debris in
s other) embedded the barrel, or too much shear heat burning
in the part the material prior to injection
Flow marks Flow lines Directionally "off Injection speeds too slow (the plastic has
tone" wavy lines cooled down too much during injection,
or patterns injection speeds must be set as fast as you
can get away with at all times)
Jetting Deformed part by Poor tool design, gate position or runner.
turbulent flow of Injection speed set too high.
material
Knit Lines Weld lines Small lines on the Caused by the melt-front flowing around
backside of core an object standing proud in a plastic part
pins or windows as well as at the end of fill where the
in parts that look melt-front comes together again. Can be
like just lines. minimized or eliminated with a mold-
flow study when the mold is in design
phase. Once the mold is made and the
gate is placed one can only minimize this
flaw by changing the melt and the mold
temperature.
Polymer polymer Excess water in the granules, excessive
degradation breakdown from temperatures in barrel
hydrolysis,
oxidation etc.
Sink marks [sinks] Localized Holding time/pressure too low, cooling
depression (In time too short, with sprueless hot runners
thicker zones) this can also be caused by the gate
temperature being set too high. Excessive
material or thick wall thickness.
Short shot Non-fill / Partial part Lack of material, injection speed or
Short mold pressure too low, mold too cold
Splay marks Splash Circular pattern Moisture in the material, usually when
mark / around gate hygroscopic resins are dried improperly.
Silver caused by hot gas Trapping of gas in "rib" areas due to
streaks excessive injection velocity in these
areas. Material too hot.
Stringiness Stringing String like remain Nozzle temperature too high. Gate hasn't
from previous shot frozen off
transfer in new
shot
Voids Empty space Lack of holding pressure (holding
within part (Air pressure is used to pack out the part
pocket) during the holding time). Filling to fast,
not allowing the edges of the part to set
up. Also mold may be out of registration
(when the two halves don't center
properly and part walls are not the same
thickness).
Weld line Knit line / Discolored line Mold/material temperatures set too low
Meld line / where two flow (the material is cold when they meet, so
Transfer fronts meet they don't bond). Point between injection
line and transfer (to packing and holding) too
early.
Warping Twisting Distorted part Cooling is too short, material is too hot,
lack of cooling around the tool, incorrect
water temperatures (the parts bow
inwards towards the hot side of the tool)
Uneven shrinking between areas of the
part

Table 4: Molding Defects.

3.2.8 TOLERANCES AND SURFACES:

Molding tolerance is a specified allowance on the deviation in parameters such as


dimensions, weights, shapes, or angles, etc. To maximize control in setting tolerances there is
usually a minimum and maximum limit on thickness, based on the process used. [36] Injection
molding typically is capable of tolerances equivalent to an IT Grade of about 914. The possible
tolerance of a thermoplastic or a thermoset is 0.008 to 0.002 inches. Surface finishes of two to four micro
inches or beter are can be obtained. Rough or pebbled surfaces are also possible.

Typica
Molding Type Possible
l

Thermoplastic 0.008 0.002

Thermoset 0.008 0.002

Table 5: Tolerances.

3.2.9 COSTING & ESTIMATION:

MATERIAL COST:

The material cost is determined by the weight of material that is required and the unit price of
that material. The weight of material is clearly a result of the part volume and material
density; however, the part's maximum wall thickness can also play a role. The weight of
material that is required includes the material that fills the channels of the mold. The size of
those channels, and hence the amount of material, is largely determined by the thickness of
the part.

PRODUCTION COST:

The production cost is primarily calculated from the hourly rate and the cycle time. The
hourly rate is proportional to the size of the injection molding machine being used, so it is
important to understand how the part design affects machine selection. Injection molding
machines are typically referred to by the tonnage of the clamping force they provide. The
required clamping force is determined by the projected area of the part and the pressure with
which the material is injected. Therefore, a larger part will require a larger clamping force,
and hence a more expensive machine. Also, certain materials that require high injection
pressures may require higher tonnage machines. The size of the part must also comply with
other machine specifications, such as clamp stroke, platen size, and shot capacity.

The cycle time can be broken down into the injection time, cooling time, and resetting time.
By reducing any of these times, the production cost will be lowered. The injection time can
be decreased by reducing the maximum wall thickness of the part and the part volume. The
cooling time is also decreased for lower wall thicknesses, as they require less time to cool all
the way through. Several thermodynamic properties of the material also affect the cooling
time. Lastly, the resetting time depends on the machine size and the part size. A larger part
will require larger motions from the machine to open, close, and eject the part, and a larger
machine requires more time to perform these operations.

TOOLING COST:

The tooling cost has two main components - the mold base and the machining of the cavities.
The cost of the mold base is primarily controlled by the size of the part's envelope. A larger
part requires a larger, more expensive, mold base. The cost of machining the cavities is
affected by nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. The primary cost driver is the size of
the cavity that must be machined, measured by the projected area of the cavity (equal to the
projected area of the part and projected holes) and its depth. Any other elements that will
require additional machining time will add to the cost, including the feature count, parting
surface, side-cores, lifters, unscrewing devices, tolerance, and surface roughness.

One final consideration is the number of side-action directions, which can indirectly
affect the cost. The additional cost for side-cores is determined by how many are used.
However, the number of directions can restrict the number of cavities that can be included in
the mold. For example, the mold for a part which requires 3 side-action directions can only
contain 2 cavities. There is no direct cost added, but it is possible that the use of more cavities
could provide further savings.
3.3.0 APPLICATIONS

Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools, packaging, bottle
caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs,,refrigerators parts,washing machine
parts,television parts and most other plastic products available today. Injection molding is the
most common method of part manufacturing. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the
same object. Some advantages of injection molding are high production rates, repeatable high
tolerances, and the ability to use a wide range of materials, low labor cost, minimal scrap
losses, and little need to finish parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are
expensive equipment investment, potentially high running costs, and the need to design
moldable parts.

Most polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics, some thermo sets, and
some elastomers. In 1995 there were approximately 18,000 different materials available for
injection molding and that number was increasing at an average rate of 750 per year. The
available materials are alloys or blends of previously developed materials meaning that
product designers can choose from a vast selection of materials, one that has exactly the right
properties. Materials are chosen based on the strength and function required for the final part
but also each material has different parameters for molding that must be taken into account.[8]
Common polymers like Epoxy and phenolic are examples of thermosetting plastics while
nylon, polyethylene, and polystyrene are thermoplastic.

GENERAL PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING APPLICATIONS

Aerospace components

Automotive components

Avionics components

Cable assemblies

Computer electronics
Electronics components

Encapsulations

Engineering prototypes

Geophysics

Instrumentation

Marketing samples

Material quality testing

Medical & dental products

Medical laboratories

Model shops, toys, hobby

New product design & development

R&D labs

Test specimens

3.3.1 THE FUTURE OF INJECTION MOLDING


Some of the new tendencies and technology in injection molding are the electric
injection machines and the gas assisted injection molding. The electric machines have several
advantages over the old design of the conventional injection machine. It runs silent, its
operating cost is less, and they are more accurate and stable.
Fig.6.1 An all-electrical Injection Machine.

CHAPTER 4
RESEACH
&METHODOLOGY
PROJECT OBJECTIVES

To analyze the behaviour of Thermoplastic material during the production cycle


from the filling phase until the ejection phase

To determine the factors that cause quality defects in injection moulding


process.

To study how to achieve the minimum production cycle time by reduction of


rejections,

To study how to overcome the quality defects based on the factors that have
been discovered.

To collect the information, findings, to analyze and draw conclusion.

To explain the documentation used at the various stages of the plastic


manufacturing via injection moulding

To study and highlight the area where injection moulding process needs
improvement in the rejection phases
SCOPE

To understand the plastic manufacturing via injection moulding at K-


Three Electronics Pvt Ltd.

Find out the productivity of plastic component.

To help the company to determine how they make their production


increase and reduce rejection

To determine various parameters to collect information through


questionnaire of employer.

Injection moulding is a heat transfer process. We inject a molten liquid


into a metal mould and transfer the heat into the metal, where it is
transferred into the cooling media.Plastic injection moulding is the most
important plastic production method. It is also the most complex
processes due to the many delicate adjustments. The flow of liquid during
the process may affect the final quality of the product. So, this experiment
is to determine the initial process parameter setting for the injection
moulding process.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Definition

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. The advanced learners
dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation of
enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.

The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also
research. The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application
of scientific procedures.

Research Design

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.
- JOHN.W.BEST

Research may be defined as any organized inquiry designed and carried out to provide
information for solving a problem.
- EMORY
Research is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the
purpose of gaining knowledge.

- ROBERT ROSS
Descriptive Research Design

Descriptive research design studies are those studies, which are concerned with describing
the character of a group.

The researcher makes a plan of the study his research work. That will enable the researcher to
save and resources such a plan of study or blue print or study is called a research design.

Data Collection

The study was based on questionnaire method and also collect the data by observation
method

There are two types of data collection:


Primary data
Secondary data

Primary data

The primary data are those, which are collected a fresh and for the first time happen to be
original in character. It has been collected through a Questionnaire and personal interview.

Secondary data

Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have
already been passed through the stratified process. It has collected through the manuals,
journals & Internet.
Research design and collection of data

In this study the research methodology followed descriptive in nature Descriptive research
design studies are those studies, which are concerned with describing the character of a
group.
To study the plastic manufacturing process through injection moulding. Secondary and
primary data both have been used to study the rejection of product and analysis the factors
leading to rejections and suggest ways or method of reducing such rejection

Primary Data
Primary data has been collected through questionnaires. The factor leading to rejection are
determined through observation and questionaries are also used to client information as to
the reason for the rejection. I take 100 samples each of 5 products for my research work.

Secondary Data

Secondary data have been collected through websites of the company and also collected from
manuals, journals & Internet.

Research Instrument

Questionnaire containing both closed and open ended questions

Tools for Analysis


Along with the usual statistical tools such as tables, percentages, bar charts, I have used
observation method for analyzing the efficiency of production of plastic parts. I also used
six sigma method to find out the rejection.

Six sigma process analysis

Based on literature review, this research aims at

1. To utilize six sigma methodology in performing the study.


2. To study the Black dot rejects utilizing QC tools at the
3. Identified production lines.
4. To identify the root causes of the Black dot rejects.
5. To recommend actions to improve the Black dot rejects and
6. Sigma level.

A Case Study

The application of Six-Sigma methodology is a statistical analysis approach to quality


management. In this approch the rejection ratio of injection Moulding production
department in a company K-THREE ELECTRONICS , Greater Noida was analyzed
statistically using DMAIC methodology and suggestions for quality improvement will
be made to the department.

DMAIC Define stage

Define the process


Before the process can be investigated, all circumstances have to be defined. Such
circumstances are often described as SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs and
Customers). The circumstances around the Moulding of electronics parts are listed in
chronological order below.
Suppliers -Material supplier, Reliance
Inputs -Material, PMMA (Acrylic)
Process -Receive PMMA and load into hopper

- Dry PMMA
- Feed PMMA into Moulding machine
- Mould Jar
- Deliver Jar

Outputs -Jar
Customers - external customers
18

Identify the current reject problem

The in-line rejection based on the part produced.

Table 1. In- line rejection based on part produced

Product Model In-line reject unit In-line (k-unit) Percentage Acc.


CV- 3004 2284 2.284 33.01 33.01
TV-3004 1033 1.033 14.92 47.93
TFR- 1501 895 0.895 12.93 60.86
RC-1501 371 0.371 5.36 66.22
RJ-0801 338 0.338 4.88 71.10
FTC-100 ml 239 0.239 3.45 74.55
FTC-02 231 0.231 3.34 77.89
FTC-06 202 0.202 2.92 80.81
FTC-28 ml 186 0.186 2.69 83.50
BT-204 177 0.177 2.56 86.06
FB-101 175 0.175 2.53 88.59
FB-501 92 0.092 1.33 89.92
SB-031 84 0.084 1.21 91.13
RB-503 72 0.072 1.04 92.17
Others 543 0.543 7.85 100

Table 1 shows the rejection data for injection Moulding for the month of FEB 2017.
This data shows the highest rejection ratio compared to the previous months rejection
data ). Figure 1 shows the Pareto diagram for the particular part rejects based on the
code name. The result shows that, part named COVER TV-3004 have the highest
rejection rate for the month which is 2284 units and contributes 33.01 % of the total
rejection rate. Since the part has the highest rejection rate it has been taken as the
studying element for the research.
Six Sigma Methodology In A Plastic Injection Molding Industry 19

K - UNIT ACC - (%)

100 2.5

90
80 2

70
60 1.5
50
40 1
30
20 0.5
10
0 0

In line rejection

Figure1: In- line rejection based on part produced

DMAIC- Measure stage

Data was collected for 4 months continuously from March to June 2017 for output
line reject that occurred in the Moulding part production that focused on the
production of part named COVER TV-3004 to track down the problem encountered
by this particular part. Since there are four machines producing the same part, the
reject data were collected for each machine. These data were used to calculate defect
per million opportunities (DPMO) for each month. Table 2 shows the total output,
reject quantity, DPMO and sigma level for each month from March to June 2017.

Table 2: Total output and Sigma level

Machine(reject quantity)
Month Output E01 E03 E04 E06 TotalRej/mth DPMO SIGMA
March 149760 60 935 910 405 2310 3084.9 4.2356
April 149760 53 937 908 367 2265 3024.8 4.2420
May 149760 59 946 878 398 2281 3046.2 4.2397
June 149760 23 914 495 291 1723 2301.1 4.3301
TOTAL 599040 195 3732 3191 1461 8579
Sigma level from the above database for four months March 17 to June
17. Basic steps to Compute Sigma level
Identify the CTQ
Define defect opportunities
Collect data on defects
Compute DPMO
Use Standard formula to arrive at the Sigma level

Formula used to compute Sigma level


Total pieces manufactured=P
Total rejection =R
Total CTQ =O
Defect per unit(DPU) =R/P
DPO =DPU/CTQ
6
DPMO =DPO10
Sigma level ( Z ) =0.8406+{29.37-2.221ln(DPMO)}

Computed Sigma level for June 2009


Total pieces manufactured, P = 149760
Total rejection, R = 2310
Total CTQ, O = 5
DPU, R/P = 0.0154247
DPO, DPU/CTQ = 0.0030849
6
DPMO, DPO10 = 3084.9
Sigma level = 0.8406+{29.37-2.22ln(3084.9)}
= 4.2356

A bar graph was constructed as in Figure 2, for each month based on Reject Quantity.
Figure 2 shows that the highest rejection rate was identified in the month March 2017
meanwhile for other moths the data collected shows small variations.
Six Sigma Methodology In A Plastic Injection Molding Industry 21

2500 120
2400
2300 100
2200 80
2100
2000 60
1900 Total Rej/m
40
1800 Acc(%)
1700
20
1600
1500 0
mar Aprl May June

MONTH

Figure 2: In-line rejection from month June to September 2009

Based on the data in table 2, the sigma level for the process were calculated and
illustrated as in figure 3. The figure 3 explains that the sigma level from the month
March to June ranging from 4.2356 to 4.3301. This shows the average sigma level for
the whole process is 4.262. The lowest sigma level was recorded for the month March
and the highest sigma level was recorded on the month June. Since the sigma level for
month March has the lowest sigma level, the studies or research will be focused on
the month March. This data will used to track down the problem that contributes to
highest reject on the part.
22

SIGMA
4.34
4.33 4.3301
4.32
4.31
4.3
4.29
4.28
4.27 SIGMA
4.26
4.25
4.24 4.242 4.2397
4.2356
4.23
4.22

MAR APR MAY JUNE

MONTH

Figure 3: Sigma level from month March to June 2017

DMAIC- Analyze stage

Table 3 shows the defect types data for the month March 2017 and Figure 4 illustrate
the Pareto diagram for this particular data. As mentioned before, there are four
machines which produce the same part which known as Cover TV-3004 and the data
for defects were collected based on machines. This is to identify the machine E03
which contributes to the highest rejection rate. The defects which are recorded in
Table 3 are the comment types of defects which normally occur on plastic parts which
produced by using injection Moulding process. Figure 4 explains that black dot
defects are the major contributor for the rejection rate for the month June which
contributes almost 40% of the total rejects compared to other defects. If defect data
compared by machine, still black dot contributes the highest defects compared to
others and for the machines, machine E03 contributes to highest black dot defect
compared to other machines. As a measure to track down the problem machine E03
will be used to analyze the root cause for the black dot defects since it shows the
highest rejection rate and the analyze data will be used as references for other
machine.
Six Sigma Methodology In A Plastic Injection Molding Industry 23

Table 3:- Reject data based on the defect type for month MARCH 2017

Cover Tv-3004 Machine No


Defect E01 E03 E04 E06 SubTotal Percentage Acc.
Black Dot 38 347 273 268 926 40.09 40.09
Scratches 2 304 245 144 645 27.92 68.01
Dented 0 160 165 22 347 15.02 83.03
Burn mark 0 0 117 0 117 5.06 88.09
Oily/Dirty 14 43 50 8 115 4.98 93.07
Short Mold 2 64 10 3 79 3.42 96.49
Sink Mark 2 8 42 8 60 2.60 99.09
Parting Burr 1 8 6 0 15 0.65 99.74
White mark 0 0 0 3 3 0.13 99.87
Silver Mark 0 0 2 0 2 0.09 99.96
Others 1 0 0 0 1 0.04 100
Total = 2310

No of Defects ACC (%)

1000 120
900 100
800

700
80
600
500 60
400
40
300
200
20
100
0 0

Figure 4: Reject data based on the defect type for month March 2017
Potential causes for high defects occurred in part Cover Tv

Analyzing the rejects based on models indicates that the highest percentage of defects
occurred in model COVER TV-3004. Figure 6 shows the potential causes for high
defects. The number of defects is high when there are new models being introduced. It
may be due to the operators not given enough training or no special training for the
operator to understand the correct method to produce the part. Besides that, the high
defects might contributed by the machines. The machines Might operate by new
technicians that lack of training or experience. This will lead to misjudging in solving
the problem during the machining process. Stressful environment also can lead to
high rejects. Its a human nature, where when workers find that the working
environment stressful, this will lead to dissatisfaction in working condition and at the
same time it also leads to high defects. Besides that the method or standard operation
principles also can lead to high defects. Methods or SOP for the particular process
might be varying from the actual SOP for the process and this will contributes to
wrong machine setting or operation parameters.
Six Sigma Methodology In A Plastic Injection Molding Industry 25

High Defect

Lack of Training

Do not understand the


Procedure
No special Training

Stressful Work environment


New Model

Poor job satisfaction Machine Operation and condition

New Work

Figure 6: Potential causes for high defects

Root causes analysis

In order to determine the exact and most likely causes of major


defects, a Brainstorming section was carried out with the Quality
Engineer. Through the brainstorming section, all possible causes
including major and minor causes were listed in the cause and
effect diagram. The following section will discuss on the root
causes for black dot defects.

Root causes analysis for Black dot defect

The wrong part defect is caused by five major factors, which are
machine, environment, man (operator), method and the material.
Figure 7 shows the cause and effect diagram for the black dot
defect. Machines are one of the factors that must be given black
dot consideration. The machine contributes a lot of possibilities to
black dot rejection defect. Examples, without proper parameter
setting it will result to a carbonized screw. Aging machines also
can lead to defects. Maintenance also plays and important part
because, without maintenance the performance of machine will
be affected and the desired output could not been gained. When
an operator does not have enough experience and practice, it is
quite obvious that the operator produces more defects than the
others. Defects might occur when jobs carried out without
guidance of leader or without any instruction. Besides that,
number of defect will increase when untrained operator or new
operators are assigned to do the job.

The work method is another major cause of the problem. It was


found that the operator did not know the correct method set the
machine and the parameters but only followed the instructions
without knowing the correct method. As a result the operator
can lead to black dot defect or other rejection. Working environment was another
cause for the defect. It is based on company policy where, there are two shift with 12-
hours working period each in the production department. This can cause the operator
to loose concentration, become tired and bored doing the job. As a result the
organizations will hire new operator who do not have any knowledge or experience in
the production line. Besides that, a material as an important medium in injection
molding process also contributes to some major defects. Examples, when material are
contaminated with other foreign particles it will effects the properties of the part and
at the same time it lead to major defects.

METHOD MAN

Lack of skill of
No proper die service cleaning screw
PP material not suitable
& barrel
No schedule for pp cleaning Barrel
No proper parting line
Cleaning
BLACK DOT
Material with
dust &
Barrel was dirty
impurities
Screw was Die was
Dust around the carbonized dirty
machine &
uncomforted working
environment

MATERIAL ENVIRONMENT MACHINE

Figure 7: Root causes analysis for black dot

Summary on the analysis

As the conclusion for the analysis stage, the major defect found
were black dot and several problems were identified as the main
problems causes high defects in injection Moulding line. The
main problem identified from the analyze section is the machine.
This due to the data which colleted indicates that the major
problem for each machine is the black dot. This shows that the
major defect might cause by the machine. Although there are
other factors affecting the reject problems, the main consideration
has given to the machine factor. The next section will discuss
about suggestion for improvement.

DMAIC- Improve stage

After collecting and analyze the data, the identified defect was the
black dot defect which caused major quality problem in the
injection Moulding line. Cause and effect diagram was also
drawn to identify the causes of major defects. From here
suggestions recommended to reduce the defects was Screw and
barrel cleaning.
Screw and barrel cleaning

Screw cleaning

The injection screw was carbonized before cleaning, which was used to mould the
cover tv-3004. After a request as a suggestion to the engineering group to clean the
screw. Sand paper and some chemical solvents were used to clean the screw. Most of
the dirt was identified from the material which was carbonized because of overheated
in the barrel. The overheated material will stick on the screw and will released slowly
each time injection and caused for the black dot on the surface of the Cover Tv-3004.

Barrel cleaning

It was seen at the time of study the condition of machine which was not cleaned
properly where a lot of scrap material surround the tie bar and hydraulic unit area.
This condition will lead to a situation where the foreign materials or scrap material
will mixed original material and at the same time leads to black dot and other defects.

After carry out the cleaning activity on the machine, the machine was covered with a
plastic to make sure no dirt or dust affects the machine condition.

Figure 8 shows a run chart that represent the Black Dot trend before and after screw
cleaning process for machine E03. Based on the figure 8, the trend before cleaning
shows that the defects per day from 7th June to 23rd June is higher than the trend after
cleaning where the cleaning process perform on 24th of June. This clearly shows that
the machine factor plays an important role and it needs to maintain for time of period
in order to eliminate or reduce the black dot problem.

The chart itself concludes that one of the main causes for the black dot is the machine
condition. These results will be used by the production in charge member to perform
continues action and at the same time improve the sigma level for the process.
Table 4:- Total no. of rejection per day from 07 June13 with Screw Barrel cleaning on
24 June 13

Round Jar-3004 Machine No E03

DATE REJ/day
07-June-17 22
08- June -17 40
09- June -17 147
10- June -17 68
11- June -17 33
12- June 17 72
13- June -17 43
14- June -17 64
15- June -17 31

16- June -17 34


17 June -17 46
18- June -17 69
19- June -17 129
20- June -17 71
21- June -17 92
22- June -17 79
23- June -17 53
24- June -17 Screw barrel cleaning
25- June -17 32
26- June -17 46
27- June -17 28
28- June -17 21
29- June -17 33
30- June -17 13
01-July -17 26
02- July -17 41
03- July -17 8
04- July -17 12
05- July -17 4
06- July -17 6
07- July -17 6
08- July -17 14
Six Sigma Methodology In A Plastic Injection Molding Industry

REJ/day
160

140

120

100

80

60

40 REJ/day

20

07/Se p/0908/Se p/0 909/Se p/0 910/Sep/0911/Sep/0912/Se p/0913/Se p/0914/Se p/0 915/Se p/0 916/Sep/0917/Sep/0918/Se p/0919/Se p/0920/Se p/0 921/Se p/0 922/Sep/0923/Sep/0924/Se p/0925/Se p/0926/Se p/0 927/Se p/0 928/Sep/0929/Sep/0930/Se p/0901/Oct/0902/Oct/0903/Oct/0904/Oct/0905/Oct/0906/Oct/0907/Oct/0908/Oct/09
Days

Figure 8: black dot trend before and after screw cleaning for machine E03

From the analysis done for this project, a conclusion can be made that machine
condition is the major contributor for the black dot problem. Since the engineering
group member cannot clean the injection screw or the barrel every day, a new
cleaning material agent was proposed or suggested to solve this problem.

Summary on improve stage

Based on the suggestion given, the rejection rate can be reduced and at the same time
the sigma level can be improve.
DMAIC- Control stage

Control stage is another important stage before completing DMAIC methodologies.


This stage will describe the step taken to control. One of the comment types of quality
tool used is the control chart.

Control charts is another popular statistical process control tools which is used in this
stage because it can detect abnormal variation in the process. In this operation we can
use c-chart because c-chart can monitors the number of defects per inspection unit.
Besides that c-chart also will monitor multiple types of quality in a product.
SAMPLING METHOD

Survey is done by random sampling method.

SAMPLE SIZE DEFECTIVE PRODUCT

1. Machine Sample : E01


Product Sample : 100
Product type : Cover TV

2. Machine Sample : E02


Product Sample : 100
Product type : TFR

3. Machine Sample : E03


Product Sample : 100
Product type : Tray Veg

4. Machine Sample : E04


Product Sample : 100
Product type : pp

5. Machine Sample : E05


Product Sample : 100
Product type : TV Back Cover

SAMPLE AREA

K-Three Electronics Pvt Ltd, Greater Noida

MODE OF ANALYSIS

The instrument used for data collection was in the form of questionnaire. The questionnaire
was used as it facilitates the tabulation and analysis of the data to be collected. The data
collected was subjected to simple frequency distribution and percentage analysis.
CHAPTER 5
DATA ANALYSIS AND
INERPRETATION

QUES1: What are the prouducts manufacture by k-three electronics and each of have
what percentage of total production

Cover tv
Tray fresh room
Tray veg
Drainer
Duct
Water outlet pipe
Products Production %
Cover tv 25

Tray fresh room 20

Tray veg 25

Drainer 18

Duct 6

Water outlet pipe 6

QUES2: Which type of defect has more percentage share in cover tv.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Knob Shutter
Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

Painting

Defect Rejection %
Black Dots 42

Short Moulding 16
Knob Shutter 3

Silver Marks 8

Warpage 10

Cracks 16

Painting 5

Conclusion
Acc to this table 42% rejection comes from black dots in cover TV. If we can control this
rejection then we will increase the production rate and also increase the profit for the
company

QUES3: Which type of defect has more percentage share in Tray veg.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Knob Shutter

Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

painting
Defect Rejection %
Black Dots 25

Short Moulding 18

Knob Shutter 1

Silver Marks 15

Warpage 5

Cracks 17

Painting 8
Conclusion
According to this table we have seen that most of the rejection comes from black dots and
short moulding it as a major issue for the organization. Production department shouid take
corrective action for rejection

QUES4: which type of defect has more percentage share in TFR.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Shrinkage

Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

painting
Defect Rejection %
Black Dots 32

Short Moulding 16

Shrinkage 5

Silver Marks 15

Warpage 11

Cracks 16

Painting 5
Conclusion

Acc to the table most of the rejection come from black dots on the product it is about 32%of
the total rejection and by which production can not meet the demad.

QUES5: Which type of defect has more percentage share in washing machine parts.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Silver Marks

Cracks

Painting
Defects Rejection
Black dots 15
Short moulding 21
Silver marks 11
Cracks 11
Painting 7

QUES6: which type of defect has more percentage share in AC Parts.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Silver Marks
Cracks

painting

QUES 7: Major cause of rejection due to defective material in injection moulding


process in k-three electronics.

Unskilled labor
Method
Material
Environment
Machine
Cause of defect Percentage
Unskilled labour 28

Material 15

Environment 3

machine 44

Method 10

Conclusion

Acc to this graph machine is major cause of rejection in the organization it is about 44% of
the total cause of rejection and also 28 %comes from unskilled labour its a major problem
for company
Ques8: What are percentage of rejection in each product of total rejection?

Cover tv
Tray fresh room
Tray veg
Drainer
Duct
Water outlet pipe


Products Production %
Cover tv 24

Tray fresh room 16

Tray veg 35

Drainer 10

Duct 5

Water outlet pipe 10



Findings

K-Three Electronics has adopted a better method of plastic manufacturing via


injection moulding processs.

In this study the mostly of rejection in plastic parts due to black spot in k-three
electronics

In this study we apply a six sigma method to know about defect and we find that
when we increase the sigma level then we can reduce the defect rate.

Rejection based analysis:


37 % of rejection comes from black spot
27% of rejection come from the short moulding defect.
18 %comes from the cracks defect.
only 11% & 7% comes from silver marks and painting

Data based on questionnaire or observation

It helps to find out the defect in the moulded parts.


BY which we know to why rejection occur in the process.

To understand the percentage of defect in moulded parts


By which we can increase the production by reducing in rejection.

By using we can easily reduce the defect in the moulding process that lead production
should be increase then productivity will be increase

Top 3 manufacturing challenges are as follows :-

Quality
Reduce rejection
Conclusion

From the study of plastic injection moulding companies case study it is found that Six Sigma
as an innovative approach supports organizations to detect and remove defects and improve
their business performance considerably. It also shows that Six Sigmas expanding influence
on industry as Because of the remarkable benefits the Six Sigma approach has demonstrated
in various plastic injection moulding companies, This study also reviewed the effect of six
sigma tools in various Phases of DMAIC and its benefits achieved in form reduction in
rejection rate and increasing quality level by increasing six sigma value The result of this
study proved that the quality of product in a plastic industry can be improved by using Six
Sigma approach. Adapting Six Sigma as a part of business strategy certainly helps the
organizations to accomplish sustainable growth.

This paper studies the plastic filling defects using design of experiment approach. Then the
six sigma method was applied to find the optimal values for defect. It was concluded from
this study that injection speed affect the most the inverted label defect. The lower the
injection speed the better the results are obtained regarding the inverted label. It was also
found that the injection pressure and Baking pressure have significant effect on the
incomplete filling defect. The injection speed of 300 CCm/Sec and the injection pressure of
2000 bar, these results would enhance the quality level for the company which in turn
increases customer satisfaction. Moreover, material utilization and energy consumption are
improved, which in turn reduce the production cost for the company and increase profit.

This study focused on the inverted label and incomplete plastic filling Because Pareto chart
proved to be the most important two major defects. It can be extended to other defects and
also for improving overall quality. In future work optimum parameters for characteristics like
hardness, tensile strength and good surface finish of different materials may also obtain the
methodology adopted in this research is limited in term of finding the relationship between
multiple quality characteristics and process parameters. This is due to the limited capability
of Taguchi method. Grey relational analysis might be a good candidate to obtain the optimum
processing parameters combination for multiple quality characteristics simultaneously. The
adopted methodology can also be used in the part design process in order to minimize
variation in output.

The Present study focuses on the quality improvement of one of the major defect in Plastic
Injection Moulding of components. One of the main defect which is the causes of the
rejection is Black spot (small dark particles on the surface of the opaque parts), on the
appearance of the product. In order to study the problem a research has been carried out by
studying the literature review on TQM, Six Sigma and other references for this analysis and
research method. The objectives of this paper is to identify the problem of Black specks,
which reduces quality, due to defects in manufactured parts, and to suggest measures for the
improvement in the Injection Moulding operation using Six-Sigma DMAIC methodology.
This paper encompasses introduction and implementation of Six Sigma tools for removing
the Black specks in the Injection Moulding process.

Following suggestions are given a. clean Barrel and use cleaning agent for cleaning Screw
and Barrel c. sand paper can also be used Most of the dirt was identified from the material
which was carbonized because of overheated in the barrel. The overheated material will stick
on the screw and will release slowly each time injection and caused for the black specks on
the surface

RECOMMENDATIONS
After analyzing the collected data, the following recommendations were made to improve
the present plastic manufacturing or reduction in rejection in the organization.

First of all the management should review their manufacturing policy and look
for the areas of improvement for ensuring the best quality.

Management should structure and systematically organize the entire


manufacturing processes.
Management system should facilitate faster, unbiased, accurate and reliable
towards any employer.
Manufacturing management system should helps to reduce the time-per-piece
and cost-per-piece

Production management system should communicate every person of the


company whether it is in lower hierarchy or in upper hierarchy this lead to benefit
in production of the company.
Recruitment management system should maintain an automated active
database for the defective parts and then take a faster corrective action towards
problem t and increasing the efficiency of the manufacturing processes.
Limitations of the Study

Certain limitations were also faced during the project.

One of the biggest limitations is the Time Line. A period of 2 months is not
sufficient to fully understand how the company works.

Availability of data; there are some data which are confidential to the company
which are not shared if needed.

Candidates were reluctant to talk at the higher management level.

Intense industry competition often results in low profit margins.

Mould costs are high

Moulding machinery and auxiliary equipment costs are high.

Lack of knowledge about the fundamentals of the process causes problems.

Lack of knowledge about the long term properties of the materials may result
in long-term failures

People asked lot of counter question so convincing them was a major task

People did not disclose much about their employee details


QUESTIONAIRE BASED ON OBSERVATION

QUES1: Which type of defect has more percentage share in cover tv?

Black Dot

Short moulding

Knob Shutter

Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

Painting

QUES2: Which type of defect has more percentage share in Tray veg?

Black Dot

Short moulding

Knob Shutter

Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

painting
QUES3: which type of defect has more percentage share in TFR.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Knob Shutter

Silver Marks

Warpage

Cracks

painting

QUES4: which type of defect has more percentage share in AC Parts.

Black Dot

Short moulding

Silver Marks

Cracks

painting

QUES5: which type of defect has more percentage share in AC Parts.


Black Dot

Short moulding

Silver Marks

Cracks

painting

QUES 6: Major cause of rejection in injection moulding process of k-three


electronics.

Unskilled labor
Method
Material
Environment
Machine

QUES7: What are the prouducts manufacture by k-three electronics and each of have
what percentage of total production

Cover tv
Tray fresh room
Tray veg
Drainer
Duct
Water outlet pipe

Ques8: What are percentage of rejection in each product of total rejection?

Cover tv
Tray fresh room
Tray veg
Drainer
Duct
Water outlet pipe

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITE

www.scribd.com
https://www.slideshare.net/naumanasif1/injection-molding-process
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Injection_moulding
https://www.emis.com/php/company-
profile/IN/K_Three_Electronics_Pvt_Ltd_en_3540247.html
https://www.scribd.com/document/179911827/MOULDING-DEFECTS-1-PDF

MAGAZINES
Business India
Business World
Course Books of B.tech (ME)
Plastic Today