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The Comana Natural Park (Romanian: Parcul Natural Comana) is a protected area (natural park category V IUCN)

situated in Romania, in the administrative territory of Giurgiu County.[2]

Nearest city Giurgiu

Coordinates 440824N 260643E / 44.140N 26.112E / 44.140; 26.112[1]Coordinates: 440824N 260643E /


44.140N 26.112E / 44.140; 26.112[1]
Area 24.963 hectares (61.68 acres)
Bucharest, situated in Giurgiu county, at approximately 30 km. Comana Natural Park is well-known for its Delta of the Neajlov
River, home for waters, birds, trees and abundant vegetation.

In the month of May there are lots of peonies blooming in the Comana forest, an occasion for the locals to celebrate spring, during
Peony Fest (Sarbatoarea Bujorului).

Aventura Park Comana is situated in Comana village, 30 km south of Bucharest, in the proximity of Comana Natural Park. The
adventure park offers multiple tracks with different difficulty levels (for children and also adults), archery, climbing walls, boating
and carriage riding.

Casa Comana resort, in the vicinity, provides accommodation and additional leisure services and facilities.

The natural park is located 35 kilometers away from Bucharest and its the largest protected area in southern Romania, developing
approximately 25.000 hectares surface. Comana Natural Park was declared a natural reserve on November 30, 2004 and ranks second
as biodiversity, after Danube Delta.

The reservation hosts tens of species of plants and animals protected by international laws: 140 species of birds, more than 200 plant
categories and subcategories, 70 of which are endangered. Also, numerous protected trees are present here such as wild pear trees
with great dimensions and ages, oaks, elms, ashes, birch trees.

Here you can also visit the Comana Monastery, erected during ruler Radu Serbans reign, in 1588. The monastery was revamped by
Serban Cantacuzino in 1700. Todays monastery was first built by Vlad the Impaler in 1461. In one of the cellars of the monastery
was built a small museum, with some elements of history and handicraft or old clothing items, kept or found in Comana.

Archaeological researches between 1970 and 1975 showed the remains of a decapitated male without any royal symbols. People say
that could be Vlad the Impaler.

The legends say that when Vlad was decapitated thousands of springs poured out like tears and the ground, reddened by the blood
filled with thorns. After his burial in the monastery, priests dug a well with clear and blessed water known today as The cures
fountain or The Fountain with a Walnut Tree. The butchers broom (Ruscus aculeatus) which is rare in this area, because these
thorns are specific only to the Mediterranean Sea, is protected as part of scientific researches in Comana.

While in the area, you can go tree climbing or rope walking with different degrees of difficulty along with a zip line over the lake.
As a tourist you can also rent kayaks, bikes, boats or tents if you want to camp here.

Escapades on the lake are made only with guide, because he is the only one who knows the channels.

The Romans exploited the rich ore deposits of Dacia. Gold and silver were especially plentiful, [13] and were found in great
quantities in the Western Carpathians. After Trajan's conquest, he brought back to Rome over 165 tons of gold and 330 tons of silver.
The Romans heavily colonized the province,[14] and thus started a period of intense romanization, the Vulgar Latin giving
birth to the Proto-Romanian language.[15][16]
The ample influence of the military environment in Dacia is due to the dispersion of the military units (two legiones, 12 alae, 41
cohortes and 13 numeri), in this bridgehead of the Roman Empire defence, contrary (for ex.) to the Rhenish army, which
concentrated at the Germanic lines was not in position to influence the spoken Latin in whole Gallia. The disclosure of numerous
words which belong to the military (Dacian-)Roman environment 52 semantic specific changes and inherited military Latin words
with their classic sense grounds the thesis that the Romanian language is the continuer of the military Latin spoken in the north-
eastern frontier region of the Roman Empire. These military vestiges particularise the Romanian language in the neolatin area. Thus,
the Romanian language becomes scientifically very interesting, from a linguistic and historical view-point, because the other frontier
regions of the Roman Empire in Europe, Asia and Africa are not today Romances. Also, the conservation in Romanian language of
these numerous vestiges of Latin military slang (sermo castrensis) and their absence/forgetfulness in Aromanian (Balkan Romanian
dialect spoken in peaceful area) such as a (se)aine (to waylay), coif (helmet), mprat (emperor), a mpresura (encircle with
pressure), a (se) (n)cumeta (to venture), a nina (to make thin a tree for its collapse on the invaders), ainat (made thin a
tree), mire fianc (< Lat. miles soldiers, metonymy), a purcede (to advance), a rpune (to kill), rost sense a.s.o. (< Lat.
rostrum beak at prow of Roman warship), (n)sat village (< Lat. fossatum trench for defence, metonymy), es plain (< Lat.
sessus plane place for camping, metonymy), a supune (to subject), tind veranda (< Lat. tenda sub vallo tent out of
agglomerated fortress, metonymy), ar homeland (< Lat. earth Arom. ar earth) a.s.o. proves the continuity of the
latinophones in the northern Danubian region by terrible and heroic battles, in order to safeguard their lands, existence, ethnicity
(language and culture) and (military) honour, against the secular attacks of the barbarian ( Germanic, Turanian, and Slav)
tribes after, states. This linguistic evidence challenges the Roeslerian theory.[clarification needed] The vestiges from sermo
castrensis particularize the Romanian language in the neolatin area, together with its isolated history. [17] According to Cristian
Mihail, the Roslerian theory is annihilated because of the fact that the Romanian words in common with the Albanian words not
preserve the sound l between vowels in accordance, i.e. with Rom. "mgur" and Alb. "magul" etc. likewise with Romanian
words from Latin linguistic stratum (Rom. "scara" < Lat. "scala" etc.) unlike the words from Slavic later stratum, which preserve the
sound l intervowels (cf. Rom. "mila", no "*mira" < Sl. "mila") would prove that the Romanian words in common with the Albanian
words proceed of a latter stratum in Balkan region, near the Albanians, as supporting also by linguistics the continuity of the
Latinophons (Romanians) in the Nordic-Danubian region. [18][verification needed] The geographical position of Dacia Felix
(another name for the Roman province of Dacia) made it difficult to defend against the barbarians, and during 240 AD -
256 AD, under the attacks of the Carpi and the Goths, Dacia was lost. The Roman Empire withdrew from Dacia Romana
around 271 AD, thus making it the first province to be abandoned. [19][20] Roman conquest of Dacia stands at the base of the
origin of Romanians. Several competing theories have been introduced to explain the origin of modern Romanians. Linguistic
and geo-historical analyses tend to indicate that Romanians have coalesced as a major ethnic group both South and North of the
Danube.[21] For further discussion, see Origin of Romanians and Vlachs.

As in other European countries, 1848


brought up the revolution upon Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania, through
Tudor Vladimirescu and his Pandurs in the Wallachian uprising of 1821. The goals of the revolutionaries - full
independence for Moldavia and Wallachia, and national emancipation in Transylvania - remained unfulfilled, but were the basis of
the subsequent revolutions. The uprising helped the population of all three principalities recognise their unity of language and
interests; all three Romanian principalities were very close, not only in language, but also geographically.
After the unsuccessful 1848 Revolution, the Great Powers rejected the Romanians' expressed desire to officially unite in a
single state, forcing the Romanians to proceed alone their struggle against the Turks. Heavily taxed and badly administered under the
Ottoman Empire, in 1859, people's representatives in both Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same " Domnitor" (ruling Prince of
the Romanians) : Alexandru Ioan Cuza.[60]
Thus, Romania was created as a personal union albeit that did not include Transylvania, where the upper class and the
aristocracy remained mainly Hungarian, although Romanian nationalist spirit inevitably ran up against the Hungarian nationalism at
the end of the 19th century. As in the previous 900 years, Austria-Hungary, especially under the Dual Monarchy of 1867, kept
the territory firmly in control, even in parts of Transylvania where Romanians constituted a vast majority.

The Romanian National Opera, Bucharest (Romanian: Opera Naional Bucureti) is one of the national opera and ballet
companies of Romania. It is situated in a historical building in Bucharest, built in 1953,[1] near the Cotroceni
neighbourhood.

The first opera performed there was Tchaikovsky's Queen of Spades on 9 January 1954; the first ballet was Copplia, the
following night.[1]
Its auditorium has 952 seats, but occasionally concerts are held in the Yellow Foyer with a maximum of 200 seats. The company
presented 182 performances in 2009 (up from 146 in 2006). At the beginning of each season, a free show is held in open air to
promote opera and the artists, "Promenada Operei". [2]

Their annual season runs SeptemberJune.

The old building of the National Theatre in 19011904, photo by Alexandru Antoniu

It was founded as the Teatrul cel Mare din Bucureti ("Grand Theatre of Bucharest") in 1852, its first director being Costache
Caragiale. It became a national institution in 1864 by a decree of Prime Minister Mihail Koglniceanu, and was
officially named as the National Theatre in 1875; it is now administered by the Romanian Ministry of Culture.

In April 1836, the Societatea Filarmonica a cultural society founded by Ion Heliade Rdulescu and Ion Cmpineanu
bought the Cmpinencii Inn to build a National Theatre on the site, and began to collect money and materials for this purpose. In
1840, Obteasca Adunare (the legislative branch established under the terms of the Imperial Russian-approved
Organic Statute) proposed to Alexandru II Ghica, the Prince of Wallachia, a project to build a National Theatre with state
support. The request was approved on June 4, 1840. Prince Gheorghe Bibescu adopted the idea of founding the theatre and
chose a new location, on the spot of the former Filaret Inn. There were several reasons to favor this locations: it was centrally located,
right in the middle of Podul Mogooaiei (today's Calea Victoriei); the earthquake of 1838 had damaged the inn beyond repair,
and it needed to be torn down.

Old building[ edit]


The August 13, 1843, report of the commission charged with building the theatre determined that construction would cost 20,300
Austrian guilder (standard gold coins, a sum worth about US$45,000 at the time[citation needed]), of which only 13,000 gold
coins were available. In 1846, a new commission engaged the Vienese architect A. Hefft, who came up with an acceptable plan.

Construction got under way in 1848, only to be interrupted in June by the Wallachian revolution. In August 1849, after Prince
Barbu Dimitrie tirbei took power, he ordered that construction be completed.

The front of the Bucharest Novotel, on Calea Victoriei in 2010, replicates the exterior of the old Romanian National Theatre
approximately in its original location

The theatre was inaugurated on December 31, 1852, with the play Zoe sau Amantul mprumutat, described in the newspapers of the
time as a "vaudeville with songs". The building was built in the baroque style, with 338 stalls on the main floor, three levels of
loges, a luxurious foyer with staircases of Carrara marble and a large gallery in which students could attend free of charge. For its
first two years, the theatre was lit with tallow lamps, but from 1854 it used rape oil lamps; still later this was replaced by
gaslights and eventually electric lights. In 1875, at the time its name was changed to Teatrul Naional, its director was the writer
Alexandru Odobescu.
The historic theatre building on Calea
Victoriei now featured on the 100-leu banknote was destroyed during the
Luftwaffe bombardment of Bucharest on August 24, 1944 (see Bombing of Bucharest in World War II).[2][3]

The modern theatre[ edit]


The current National Theatre is located about half a kilometre away from the old site, just south of the Hotel Intercontinental at
Piaa Universitii (University Square), and has been in use since 1973.
The new edifice reconstructed from 2010 to 2014, was inaugurated to the end of the year 2014, and with 7 halls, as the Grand Hall
(Sala Mare) with 900 seats, is the biggest and the latest theater edifice of Europe. [4][5]

The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul Parlamentului) is the seat of the Parliament of Romania. Located on
Dealul Arsenalului in central Bucharest (Sector 5), it is the largest administrative building in the world[1] with a height
of 84 m, an area of 365,000 m2 and a volume of 2,550,000 m3. In terms of weight, the Palace of the Parliament is the heaviest
building in the world, weighing in at around 4,098,500,000 kg.[2]

Senate and the Chamber of


A colossal parliament building known for its ornate interior composed of 23 sections, it houses the
Deputies, three museums and an international conference center. The museums hosted inside the Palace are the National
Museum of Contemporary Art, the Museum of Communist Totalitarianism (established in 2015)[3] and the Museum of
the Palace. Though named the House of the Republic (Romanian: Casa Republicii), after the Romanian Revolution in
1989 it became widely known as the People's House (Romanian: Casa Poporului). Due to its impressive endowments, events
organized by state institutions and international bodies such as conferences, symposia, and others take place there, but even so about
70% of the building remains empty.[4][5]

In 1990, Australian business magnate Rupert Murdoch wanted to buy the building for US $1 billion, but his bid was rejected.
[6] As of 2008[update], the Palace of the Parliament is valued at 3 billion ($3.4 billion), making it the most expensive
administrative building in the world.[7] The cost of heating and electric lighting alone exceeds $6 million per year, as much as the
cost for a medium-sized city.[8]

Contents

The building of the Palace is located in the central part of Bucharest (in Sector 5), in a location that today is known as Dealul
Arsenalului, framed by Izvor Street to the west and northwest, United Nations Avenue to the north, Liberty Avenue to the east
and Calea 13 Septembrie to the south.

History[ edit]
Palace of the Parliament under construction on 1 May 1986. View toward Unirii Boulevard

View from the Palace. For its construction, Uranus-Izvor neighborhood was demolished. [9]

After the earthquake of March 4th 1977, Nicolae Ceauescu started a reconstruction plan of Bucharest. The
People's House was the center of this project. Named Project Bucharest, it was an ambitious project of Ceauescu's begun in 1978 as
an intended replica of Pyongyang, the North Korean capital. A systematization project existed since the 1930s (during the
time of Carol II) for the UniriiDealul Arsenalului area. Its construction was organized as a contest and won by Anca
Petrescu, who was appointed chief architect of the project when she was just 28. In total, the team that coordinated the work was
made up of 10 architects, which supervised a further 700. [10] Construction of the Palace began on June 25th 1984, and the
inauguration of the work was attended by Ceauescu.

The building was erected on the site of some monasteries that were demolished and on the site of Uranus Hill that was leveled. In this
area were located the National Archives, Vcreti Monastery, Brncovenesc Hospital, [11] as well as about 37 old factories and
workshops.[12] Demolition in Uranus area began in 1982. 7 km2 of the old city center was demolished, and 40,000 people were
relocated from this area. The works were carried out with forced labor of soldiers and so the cost was minimized. [13]

Between 20,000 and 100,000 people worked on the site, sometimes operating in three shifts. Thousands of people died at the People's
House, some mention a figure of 3,000 people.[14]
In 1989 building costs were estimated at $1.75 billion, and in 2006 at 3 billion.

After 1989[edit]

Since 1994 the building hosts the Chamber


of Deputies, after the initial headquarters of the institution, the Palace of the
Chamber of Deputies (now the Palace of the Patriarchate), was donated by state to the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Since 2004 the Romanian Senate is headquartered in the building, originally housed in the former building of the Central
Committee of the Romanian Communist Party.

Between 2003 and 2004 a glass annex was built alongside external elevators. [15] This was done to facilitate access to the National
Museum of Contemporary Art opened in 2004 inside the west wing of the Palace. In the same period, a project aiming to hoist a huge
flag was canceled following protests from the public. A flag was already hoisted on the building, but was removed together with the
support.

The restaurant, accessible only to politicians, was refurbished. Since 1998 the building houses a Regional SECI Center for Fighting
Transborder Crime.[16]

In 2008, the Palace hosted the 20th NATO summit. In 2010, politician Silviu Prigoan proposed re-purposing the building
into a shopping centre and an entertainment complex. Citing costs, Prigoan said that Parliament should move to a new
building, as they occupied only 30% of the massive palace. While the proposal has sparked a debate in Romania, politician Miron
Mitrea dismissed the idea as a "joke".[17]

Technical details[ edit]


Elaborate decorations in Alexandru Ioan Cuza Hall
The construction of the Palace began in 1984 and initially should have been completed in only two years. The term was then
extended until 1990, but even now it is not finalized. Only 400 rooms and two meeting rooms are finished and used, out of 1,100
rooms.

The building has eight underground levels, the last one being an antiatomic bunker, linked to the main state institutions by 20 km of
catacombs.[18] Nicolae Ceauescu feared nuclear war. The bunker is a room with 1.5 m thick concrete walls and can not be
penetrated by radiation. The shelter is composed of the main hall headquarters that would have had telephone connections with all
military units in Romania and several residential apartments for state leadership, in the event of war.

The building has a developed area of 365,000 m2, making it the world's second-largest administrative building, after The
Pentagon, and in terms of volume, with its 2.55 million m3, it is the third most massive, after the Vehicle Assembly
Building of the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida and the Temple of the Feathered Serpent in
Teotihuacan, Mexico.[19] For comparison, it can be mentioned that the building exceeds by 2% the volume of the Great
Pyramid of Giza,[20] and therefore some sources label it as a "pharaonic" construction. [21]
The building of the Palace of the Parliament sinks by 6 mm each year.[22] Romanian specialists who analyzed the data argue that
massive weight and structure of the Palace lead to the settlement of layers below the construction.

Materials[edit]

Palace's famous crystal chandeliers were manufactured at Vitrometan Media glass factory.[23] The manufacture of the 480
chandeliers took two years.

The building was constructed almost entirely of materials of Romanian origin. The only exceptions are the doors of Nicolae Blcescu
Hall. These were received by Ceauescu as a gift from his friend Mobutu Sese Seko, the President of Zaire.[24]
Among them: 3,500 tonnes of crystal 480 chandeliers, 1,409 ceiling lights and mirrors were manufactured; 700,000 tonnes
of steel and bronze for monumental doors and windows, chandeliers and capitals; 900,000 m3 of wood[25] (over 95%
domestic) for parquet and wainscotting, including walnut, oak, sweet cherry, elm, sycamore maple; 200,000 m2 of
woolen carpets of various dimensions (machines had to be moved inside the building to weave some of the larger carpets); velvet
and brocade curtains adorned with embroideries and passementeries in silver and gold.

Object 1

The Victory Square (Piaa Victoriei) is located at the intersection of several important thoroughfares of Bucharest, of which the most
reputed of all is the historical Victory Avenue (Calea Victoriei). The square is a recommendable tourist sight due to the fact is
concentrates a fair amount of attractions.

The Victory Palace, which is now the seat of the Romanian Government, is located here, and yet another side of the square is
overtopped by the Grigore Antipa National Museum of Natural History. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant is also located nearby,
on the Kiseleff Street, complementing the range of tourist sights one can explore while strolling around in the Victory Square.

By heading northwards from the Victory Square, following either the Kiseleff Street or the Aviators Boulevard, tourists can easily
get to the Herstru Park. Of course, taking the metro is a much more straightforward solution, but the mere walking can also be
taken into account by visitors who want to make an extensive and direct experience of Bucharest to the full extent of its tourist
opportunities.

Object 2

Unlike plenty other European capitals, Bucharest does not boast of a millenniums-long history. The first historical reference to this
city under the name of Bucharest dates back to the Middle Ages, in 1459.

The story goes, however, that Bucharest was founded several centuries earlier, by a controversial and rather legendary character
named Bucur (from where the name of the city is said to derive). What is certain is the area on which nowadays Bucharest stretches
has been inhabited since ancient times.

As said, the city was first mentioned in 1459, in a document issued by the court of Prince Vlad the Impaler, the prince (voievod in
Romanian) who allegedly inspired the creation of the world renowned character of Dracula. It was in those times that Bucharest
started to grow as an important economic and political center of Wallachia. The Old Princely Court is the most important
architectural complex which reminds of those times.

Modern era
For several centuries after the reign of Vlad the Impaler, Bucharest, irrespective of its constantly increasing chiefdom on the political
scene of Wallachia, did undergo the Ottoman rule (it was a vassal of the Empire), the Russian occupation, as well as short
intermittent periods of Hapsburg domination. Lipscani Street (Strada Lipscani), which now delineates the historical quarter of
Bucharest, was back then the main thoroughfare, crossing the center of the old city.

It was in 1881 that it became the capital city of the Principality of Romania, after the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia. Much
of the medieval architectural heritage was destroyed in a fire in 1847, but the modern era brought a new period of prosperity. A
strikingly modern city was being built, and the architectural landscape and urban layout brought international fame to Bucharest,
such that the city was dubbed the Little Paris, and Calea Victoriei, one of the most celebrated avenues in nowadays Bucharest, was
often compared with Champs Elysees.

One of the gloomiest episodes of the early 19th century refers to the moment when the population was stricken by the so-called
Carageas plague, an epidemics which killed about one quarter of the population.

Contemporary age
It was in 1918 (December the 1st, more precisely) that Transylvania was united with the previously constituted Principality of
Romania. Hence, Bucharest became the capital of the entire country, after a 2-year period when the capital of the Principality was
transferred to Iai due to the fact Bucharest was under German occupation (1916 to 1918, during World War One).

The period between the two world wars was exceptionally favorable to Bucharest. It was precisely then that the city experienced its
cultural heydays. Casa Capa, already acknowledged as a landmark of social, political and cultural meetings and debates, continued
to enhance its prestige, both nationally and at international scale. However, subsequently to World War Two, once the Communist
regime took over the political scene, much of the historical Bucharest lost its coordinates, at least architecturally speaking.
The megalomaniac projects of Nicolae Ceauescu raised to the ground most of the historical landmarks of the city, not to mention
his unfortunate contribution was complemented by the tragic earthquake in 1977, when Bucharest suffered further damage, and not
only with respect to the city layout and architectural patrimony, but also to its population. The Parliament Palace (otherwise known as
the Peoples House, Casa Poporului in Romanian) is the best example which illustrates the artistic vision of the regime. For a deeper
insight into the communist heritage, tourists need to look no further than the monotonous apartment buildings built in a dull
Communist style which populate most of the city.

The last violent historical episodes which have taken over Bucharest refer to the 1989 Revolution and to the subsequent political and
social commotions, commonly known under the name of Mineriads (Mineriade in Romanian), which took place in the early 1990s.

At present, Bucharest undergoes a constant and deep urban planning renewal, the much awaited facelift focusing, in part, on restoring
whatever medieval and modern era heritage survived in time. The bewilderingly miscellaneous picture of Bucharest is, in fact,
comprehensive enough to accommodate both spectacular elevated touches and grotesque dull shades, and not only architecturally
speaking, but from the point of view of all that is related to the city (culture, peoples customs, infrastructure and so on).

Object 3

The Triumphal Arch (Arcul de Triumf) of Bucharest, which is located on the Kiseleff Street, was declared a historical monument in
2004. It is one of the most notable landmarks of the capital and, next to the Parliament Palace, it can be deemed a symbol of
Bucharest. The structure of the current Triumphal Arch dates back to 1922, whereas the present decorative elements were added only
16 years later, in 1938, the year when the monument, in its final form, was inaugurated.

However, the history of the monument dates back to the mid 19th century. Until 1922, previous versions of the arch were hastily and
repeatedly built in 1848, 1859, 1878, 1906 and 1918, in order to mark certain military and political achievements of Romania. Yet,
given the perishable nature of the construction material (chiefly wood), these versions did not survive.

The reinforced concrete structure was inaugurated in 1922, in order to celebrate the victory of Romania in World War One, and the
event was attended by the most important political figures of the time, including foreign politicians from Europe, Japan and the USA.
The bearing structure of the edifice survived in time, but the decorative elements (bas-reliefs chiefly) were made of plaster, and they
decayed rapidly. This is why they were replaced with marble and stone elements, mainly allegorical sculptures realized by sundry
artists of the time, under the supervision of Petre Antonescu, the same architect who designed the bearing structure of the 1922 arch.

At present, the Triumphal Arch dominates the surroundings of the Kiseleff Street, marking the intersection of this thoroughfare with
the Constantin Brezan Boulevard, the Alexandru Averescu Boulevard and with the Alexandru Constantinescu Boulevard. It is one of
the emblematic monuments of the capital and a tourist sight just as important as the C.E.C. Palace, the Parliament Palace or the
Romanian Athenaeum.

Object 4

Nightlife in Bucharest has its undeniable highlights, as well as its share of ill-famed temptations newcomers in particular are warned
against falling into. Thus, prostitution, though illegal, is a constantly surging phenomenon no tourist should even have the curiosity to
explore, but just look the other way and search for more socially accepted manners of spending the nights in Bucharest.

There are plenty of bars, discos and clubs to keep the party people busy during their nocturnal explorations of Bucharest. For the
more culturally-oriented travelers, the theaters, concert halls and opera of Bucharest are a solution at hand. Thus, may it be dancing,
drinking, a casual conversation or a theater performance, Bucharest has something to offer to anyone. It is, as said, a place which
embraces all contradictions, and this feature holds true with respect to nightlife too.

Theaters and concert halls in Bucharest

Bucharest National Theater


The Bucharest National Theater is one of the most reputed cultural venues in Bucharest and nationwide alike. Enjoying a virtually
central location in Bucharest, at the intersection of some of the most important thoroughfares of the city, the Bucharest National
Theater is a top choice for people who want to spend a cultural and rewarding night out in Bucharest. The history of this institution
goes back to the first half of the 19th century, which is relevant for making an idea about the importance of its activity on the cultural
life of Bucharest.

Bucharest (/bjukrst/; Romanian: Bucureti, pronounced [bukuret] listen (helpinfo)) is the capital and largest
city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at

WikiMiniAtlas
442557N 260614E / 44.43250N 26.10389E / 44.43250; 26.10389Coordinates: 442557N 260614E /
44.43250N 26.10389E / 44.43250; 26.10389, on the banks of the Dmbovia River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the
Danube River and the Bulgarian border.
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media,
culture, and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical ( neo-classical), interbellum (Bauhaus and art deco), communist-
era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned
Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris).[7] Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily
damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and above all Nicolae Ceauescu's program of systematization, many
survived. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. [8] In 2016, the historical city centre was
listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch.[9]

According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits,[6] a decrease from the 2002 census.[3] The
urban area extends beyond the limits of Bucharest proper and has a population of about 1.9 million people.[10] Adding the
satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million
people.[11] According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a larger urban zone of 2,183,091 residents.[5] According to unofficial
data, the population is more than 3 million.[12] Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population
within city limits, after London, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris.

Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania [13] and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation
hubs of Eastern Europe. The city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades",
and recreational areas.

The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest" (Municipiul Bucureti), and has the same administrative
level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor.

Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the Bucharest
Metro, run by Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by RATB (Regia Autonom de Transport Bucureti), which
consists of buses, trams, trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, a private minibus system operates there. As of
2007[update], a limit of 10,000 taxicab licenses was imposed. [61]

Piaa Unirii Station, Bucharest Metro

Railways[edit]

Bucharest is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by Cile Ferate Romne. The main railway station is Gara de
Nord ("North Station"), which provides connections to all major cities in Romania, as well as international destinations:
Belgrade, Sofia, Varna, Chiinu, Kiev, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Budapest, Istanbul,
Moscow, etc.
The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor,
Bneasa, and Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a commuter railway serving Bucharest and the surrounding
Ilfov County. Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest.
The oldest station in Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in 1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus
terminal.[62]

Air[edit]
Henri Coand International Airport

Bucharest has two international airports:


Henri Coand International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located 16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the
Bucharest city center, in the town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms of passenger traffic:
8,317,168 in 2014.[63]
Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is
situated only 8 km (5.0 mi) north of the Bucharest city center.

Roads[edit]

Victory Avenue (Calea Victoriei), a major avenue in central Bucharest


Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network. A few of the busiest national roads and motorways
link the city to all of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Ukraine.
The A1 to Piteti, the A2 Sun Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanta and the A3 to Ploieti all start from
Bucharest.

Basarab Overpass

Union Boulevard (Bulevardul Unirii), one of the most transited road arteries of the city
The city's municipal road network is centred around a series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from the city
centre to the outskirts. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one
external ring road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in
car ownership in recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest amounted to 1,125,591. [64] This results in wear
and potholes appearing on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as one of Bucharest's main infrastructural
problems. A comprehensive effort on behalf of the City Hall to boost road infrastructure was made, and according to the general
development plan, 2,000 roads have been repaired by 2008. [65] On 17 June 2011, the Basarab Overpass was inaugurated and
opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest cable-stayed
bridge in Romania and the widest such bridge in Europe;[66] upon completion, traffic on the Grant Bridge and in the Gara de
Nord area became noticeably more fluid. [67]

Water[edit]
Although it is situated on the banks of a river, Bucharest has never functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as
Constana and Galai acting as the country's main ports. The unfinished Danube-Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km
(45 mi) long and around 70% completed, could link Bucharest to the Danube River, and via the Danube-Black Sea
Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to resume construction as
part of the European Strategy for the Danube Region. [68]

Culture[ edit]
Main article: Culture of Romania

National Library of Romania

Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of
Romania, such as the Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates
elements of Romanian and international culture.
Landmarks[edit]

Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch)

Interior of the Crtureti Carusel Bookstore

The statue of Ion Luca Caragiale near InterContinental Bucharest


Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the Palace
of the Parliament, built
in the 1980s during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceauescu. The largest Parliament building in the world, the
palace houses the Romanian Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the National Museum
of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the largest convention centres in the world.
Another landmark in Bucharest is Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch), built in its current form in 1935 and modeled after the Arc
de Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of Rebirth, a stylized marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to
commemorate the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. The abstract monument sparked
controversy when it was unveiled, being dubbed with names such as "the olive on the toothpick", (mslina-n scobitoare), as many
argued that it does not fit in its surroundings and believed that its choice was based on political reasons. [69]

The Romanian Athenaeum building is considered to be a symbol of Romanian culture and since 2007 is on the list of the
Label of European Heritage sites.[70]

InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated near University Square and is also a landmark of the city.
The building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the city. [71]

House of the Spark (Casa Scnteii) is a replica of the famous Lomonosov Moscow State University. This edifice built in the
characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the
superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952 and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalins death that
occurred in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scnteii (House of the Spark) after the name of the official gazette of the Central
Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scnteia, it was made for the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of
Bucharests official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in Bucharest featuring the Hammer and Sickle, the Red Star
and other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the faade.

Other cultural venues include the National


Museum of Art of Romania, Museum of Natural History Grigore Antipa,
Museum of the Romanian Peasant (Muzeul ranului Romn), National History Museum, and the Military
Museum.

Visual arts[edit]

National Museum of Art of Romania

In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected
international works. The National Museum of Art of Romania is perhaps the best-known of Bucharest museums. It is
located in the royal palace and features collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by sculptor
Constantin Brncui, as well as an international collection assembled by the Romanian royal family.
Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of
art collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian artists and international artists such as Paul
Czanne, Eugne Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso.
The Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru,
tefan Golescu, and Nicolae Blcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary (Romania's rebirth, 1849) and
patriotic (The Principalities' Unification, 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering important Romanian
painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the Bucharest
Museum patrimony.

The Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving merchant houses in Bucharest and includes works by
Romanian painter Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces.

Throne room at the royal palace, which today houses the National Museum of Art
The Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and
Theodor Pallady.

Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of
Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains
Romanian and international contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which caters to multimedia and
experimental art. Private art galleries are scattered throughout the city centre.

The palace of the National Bank of Romania houses the national numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes,
coins, documents, photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and dies and moulds. The building was constructed
between 1884 and 1890. The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.

Performing arts[edit]

Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National
Radio Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which
was founded in 1852, and hosts classical music concerts, the George Enescu Festival, and is home to the George Enescu
Philharmonic Orchestra.
Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L. Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known
theatre in Bucharest is the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned Romanian-Jewish actress
Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the Nottara
Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the revue theatre of Constantin Tnase.

Music and nightlife[edit]

Covaci Street in Lipscani

Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of
the 1970s and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular, particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning
of the 1990s, the hip
hop/rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists from Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia,
Paraziii, and La Familia enjoy national and international recognition.
The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has Spitalul de Urgen's raucous updating of traditional
Romanian music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and Roma-influenced genre of music that is
particularly popular in Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and blues scene, and to an even larger extent,
house music/trance and heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen since 2002, with the
presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz, as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians.

Lipscani and Regie. The


With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed throughout the city, with clusters in
city hosts some of the best electronic music clubs in Europe, such as Kristal Glam Club and Studio Martin.[72] Some other
notable venues are Fratelli and Colectiv.
Street food: 3-5 $
Self-catering: pizza - 5$, burgers 5-7$
Public transport - bus: 1 ticket - 0.3 $
10 ways by subway: 4,7 $
Admission to museums: 3$
Meals in good restaurants: 8-10 $
Meals at best restaurants: 15 $
Meals at cheap restaurants: lunch - 6 $, dinner - 8 $
Taxi rides: 0,4 $/km

Supermarket items:
bread: 0,23 $
water 2L: 0,7$
beer: 0,8 $
vodka: 9 $
wine: 2$

Clubs:
Juices & coffee: 2$
Beer: 1,2 $
Wine: 2,3 $
Vodka mixed with juice: 1 glass 6$
1 bottle vodka + juice: 60$

Shopping Centre:
Fast Food Meal: 3,2 $
Coffee: 2$
Cinema: 3,5$
Pizza: 4$
Salad: 4$

Pool Admission for 1 day: 4-8 $


Sisha: 7$