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# UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof.

Steven Errede

LECTURE NOTES 5
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN VACUUM

THE WAVE EQUATION(S) FOR E AND B

In regions of free space (i.e. the vacuum), where no electric charges, no electric currents and
no matter of any kind are present, Maxwells equations (in differential form) are:

1) E r , t 0 2) B r , t 0
Set of coupled
first-order

B r ,t E r , t 1 E r , t partial
3) E r , t 4) B r , t o o 2 differential
t t c t equations
c 1 o o
2

We can de-couple Maxwells equations e.g. by applying the curl operator to equations 3) and 4):

B 1 E

E B 2
t c t
0 0 1

E 2 E
t
B
B 2 B 2
c t
E

1 E 1 B
E 2
2
B 2
2

t c t c t t

1 2 E 1 2 B
E 2 2 B 2 2
2 2

c t c t

These are three-dimensional de-coupled wave equations for E and B - note that they have
exactly the same structure both are linear, homogeneous, 2nd order differential equations.
Remember that each of the above equations is explicitly dependent on space and time,

i.e. E E r , t and B B r , t :

1
2 E r , t 2
2
E r,t 1
2 B r , t 2
2
B r,t
c t 2 c t 2
or:

1 E r ,t 1 B r ,t
2 2

E r ,t 2
2
0 B r ,t 2
2
0
c t 2 c t 2

Thus, Maxwells equations implies that empty space the vacuum {which is not empty, at
the microscopic scale} supports the propagation of {macroscopic} electromagnetic waves,
which propagate at the speed of light {in vacuum}: c 1 o o 3 108 m s .

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 1

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

EM waves have associated with them a frequency f and wavelength , related to each other
via c f . At the microscopic level, EM waves consist of large numbers of {massless} real

photons, each carrying energy E hf hc , linear momentum p h hf c E c and

angular momentum z 1 where h = Plancks constant = 6.626 1034 Joule-sec and h 2 .

EM waves can have any frequency/any wavelength the continuum of EM waves over the
frequency region 0 f (c.p.s. or Hertz {aka Hz}), or equivalently, over the wavelength
region 0 (m) is known as the electromagnetic spectrum, which has been divided up
(for convenience) into eight bands as shown in the figure below (kindly provided by Prof. Louis
E. Keiner, of Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC):

## 2 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Monochromatic EM Plane Waves:

Monochromatic EM plane waves propagating in free space/the vacuum are sinusoidal EM
plane waves consisting of a single frequency f , wavelength c f , angular frequency
2 f and wavenumber k 2 . They propagate with speed c f k .
In the visible region of the EM spectrum {~380 nm (violet) ~ 780 nm (red)}, EM light
waves (consisting of real photons) of a given frequency / wavelength are perceived by the human
eye as having a specific, single color. Hence we call such single-frequency, sinusoidal EM
waves mono-chromatic.
EM waves that propagate e.g. in the z direction but which additionally have no explicit x- or
y-dependence are known as plane waves, because for a given time, t the wave front(s) of the EM
wave lie in a plane which is to the z -axis, as shown in the figure below:

## The planar wavefront

x associated with a plane
EM wave propagating in
the k z direction lies
z in the x-y plane.
y
constant everywhere in
(x,y) on this plane.

Note that there also exist spherical EM waves e.g. emitted from a point source, such as an
atom, a small antenna or a pinhole aperture the wavefronts associated with these EM waves are
spherical, and thus do not lie in a plane to the direction of propagation of the EM wave:

## Portion of a spherical wavefront

associated with a spherical wave

n.b. If the point source is infinitely far away from observer, then a spherical wave plane wave.
In this limit, the radius of curvature RC ). i.e. a spherical surface becomes planar as RC .

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 3

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Monochromatic traveling EM plane waves can be represented by complex E and B fields:

E z , t E o ei kz t B z , t Bo ei kz t

## Propagating in the Propagating in the

k z direction k z direction

## n.b. complex vectors: n.b. complex vectors:

e.g. E o E o x E o ei x Eo ei x e.g. Bo Bo y Bo ei y Bo ei y

n.b. The real, physical instantaneous time-domain EM fields are related to their corresponding
complex time-domain fields via:

E r , t Re E r , t

B r , t Re B r , t

Note that Maxwells equations for free space impose additional constraints on E o and Bo .

Not just any E o and/or Bo is acceptable / allowed !!!

Since: E 0 B 0
and:

Re E 0 Re B 0

These two relations can only be satisfied r , t if E 0 r , t and B 0 r , t .

In Cartesian coordinates: x y z
x y z

Thus: E 0 and
B 0 become:

i kz t i kz t

x

x

y

y
z
z

oE e 0 and

x

x

y

y z Bo e
z

0

Now suppose we do allow: E o Eox x Eoy y Eoz z ei Eo ei

polarization in x y z 3 D

Bo Box x Boy y Boz z ei Bo ei

polarization in x y z 3 D

Then: x y z Eox x Eoy y Eoz z ei ei kz t 0
x y z

x y z Box x Boy y Boz z ei ei kz t 0
x y z

## 4 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Or: x y z Eox x Eoy y Eoz z ei kz t ei 0
x y z

x y z Box x Boy y Boz z ei kz t ei 0
x y z

Now: Eox, Eoy, Eoz = Amplitudes (constants) of the electric field components in x, y, z
directions respectively.
Box, Boy, Boz = Amplitudes (constants) of the magnetic field components in x, y, z
directions respectively.

We see that: i kz t ei 0 has no explicit x-dependence
x Eox xe
x

And: i kz t ei 0 has no explicit y-dependence
y Eoy ye
y

i kz t ei 0 has no explicit x-dependence
x Box xe
x

And: i kz t ei 0 has no explicit y-dependence
y Boy ye
y

az
However:
z
e ae az

Thus: i kz t ei ikEoz ei kz t ei 0 true iff Eoz 0 !!!
z Eoz ze
z

i kz t ei ik oz ei kz t ei 0 true iff Boz 0 !!!
z Boz ze
z

## Thus, Maxwells equations additionally tell us/impose the restriction that an

electromagnetic plane wave cannot have any component of E or B to (or anti- to)
the propagation direction (in this case here, the k z -direction)

Another way of stating this is that an EM plane wave cannot have any longitudinal

components of E and B (i.e. components of E and B lying along the propagation
direction).
Thus, Maxwells equations additionally tell us that an EM plane wave is a purely
transverse wave (at least while it is propagating in free space) i.e. the components of

E and B must be to propagation direction.

The plane of polarization of an EM plane wave is defined (by convention) to be parallel to E .

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 5

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Furthermore: Maxwells equations impose yet another restriction on the allowed form of

E and B for an EM wave:

B 1 E
E and/or: B 2
t c t

B 1 E

Re E Re
t

Re B Re 2
c t

Can only be satisfied r , t iff:

B 1 E
E and/or: B 2
t c t
Thus:

0 0 0 0 0
E z E y Ex E y
E y E x B x B y B z
E
x z x y x y z t x t y t z
y z

0 0 0 0 0
B z B y B x B y B y B x 1 E x 1 E y 1 E z
B x y x y z c 2 t x c 2 t y c 2 t z
y z z x

0
0
With: E E x x E y y E z z Eox x Eoy y Eoz z e
i kz t i
e

0
0
B B x x B y y B z z Box x Boy y Boz z e
i kz t i
e

Thus: E x x E y y Eox x Eoy y e
i kz t i
E e

B B x x B y y Box x Boy y ei kz t ei

## E E B B Can only be satisfied /

E y x x y x x y y can only be true iff the
z z t t x and y relations are
B B 1 E 1 E y
B y x x y 2 x x 2 y separately / independently

z z c t c t satisfied r , t !

## 6 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

E y B E y B x
i.e. E : x x x ikEoy i Box (1)
z t z t
E B y E x B y
x y y ikEox i Boy (2)
z t z t

B y 1 E x B 1 E 1
B : x 2 x y 2 x ikBoy 2 i Eox (3)
z c t z c t c
B 1 E y B x 1 E y 1
x y 2 y 2 ikBox 2 i Eoy (4)
z c t z c t c

k
From (1): ikE oy i Box Eoy Box or: Box Eoy
k
k
From (2): ikE ox i Boy Eox Boy or: Boy Eox
k
1 1
From (3): ikBoy i Eox Boy 2 Eox
c2 c k
1 1
From (4): ikBox i Eoy Box 2 Eoy
c2 c k

Now: c f 2 f
2

k
and:
1 k
c

k 2
1
E : (1) Box Eoy
c
1
(2) Boy Eox Maxwells equations also
c
have some redundancy
1
B : (3) Boy Eox encrypted into them!
c
1
(4) Box Eoy
c

1 1
So we really / actually only have two independent relations: Box Eoy and Boy Eox
c c

But: z y x z x y
x y z y x z
Very Useful Table: y z x z y x
z x y x z y

1
We can write the above two relations succinctly/compactly with one relation: Bo c k E o

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 7

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Physically, the mathematical relation Bo 1c k E o tells us that for a monochromatic EM plane

wave propagating in free space, E and B are:
a.) in phase with each other.
b.) mutually perpendicular to each other .and. each is perpendicular to the

propagation direction: B k ( k z = propagation direction)

The E and B fields associated with this monochromatic plane EM wave are purely transverse
{ n.b. this is as also required by relativity at the microscopic level for the extreme relativistic
particles the (massless) real photons traveling at the speed of light c that make up the
macroscopic monochromatic plane EM wave.}

The purely real/physical amplitudes of E and B are {also} related to each other by: Bo 1c Eo

2 2 2 2

## Griffiths Example 9.2:

A monochromatic (single-frequency) plane EM wave that is plane polarized/linearly polarized in
the x direction, propagating in the k z direction in free space, has:

E E x definition of linearly polarized EM wave, polarized in the x direction.

B 1c k E 1c z Ex 1c E z x 1c Ey

y
1

With: B c k E , BcE 1
and: Bo 1c Eo

Then: E z , t E o e
i kz t
x Eo e
i kz t i
e x Eo e
i kz t
x

B z , t B e
i kz t
y B e
i kz t i
e y B e
i kz t
o o o y ei cos i sin

The physical instantaneous electric and magnetic fields are given by the following expressions:

real

imaginary

E z, t Re E z, t Re Eo cos kz t x i Eo sin kz t x

The physical
E z, t Eo cos kz t x instantaneous

E and B fields
real

imaginary
are in-phase

B z, t Re B z , t Re Bo cos kz t y i Bo sin kz t y with each other
for a linearly
polarized EM
B z , t Bo cos kz t y 1c Eo cos kz t y plane wave

## 8 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Note that: E B z E z, B z ( z = direction of propagation of EM wave)

Instantaneous Poyntings vector for a linearly polarized EM plane wave propagating in free space:

S z, t 1
o E z, t B z, t 1
o Re E z, t Re B z , t

S z, t 1
o Eo Bo cos 2 kz t x y

z
Watts
S z, t 1
o Eo Bo cos 2 kz t z 2
m

EM power flows in the direction of propagation of the EM plane wave (here, k z direction)

## Generalization for Propagation of Monochromatic

Plane EM Waves in an Arbitrary Direction
Obviously, there is nothing special / profound with regard to plane EM waves propagating in
a specific direction in free space / the vacuum. They can propagate in any direction. We can
easily generalize the mathematical description for monochromatic plane EM waves traveling in
an arbitrary direction as follows:

Introduce the notion / concept of a wave vector (or propagation vector) k which points in the

direction of propagation, whose magnitude k k . Then the scalar product k r is the
appropriate 3-D generalization of kz:

1-D: If: k kz with k k and: r xx yy zz with r r x 2 y 2 z 2

Then: k r kz xx yy zz kz

3-D: If: k k x x k y y k z z with k k x2 k y2 k z2 and: r xx yy zz

Then:
k r k x x k y y k z z with

r x2 y2 z 2

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 9

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Now: k x k cos x
k y k cos y where cos x , cos y , cos z = direction cosines w.r.t.
k z k cos z (with respect to) the x , y , z -axes respectively

## cos x k x sin cos

Direction
Cosines: cos k y sin sin
y in spherical-polar coordinates
cos z k z cos

## Note: cos 2 x cos 2 y cos 2 z

sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2
sin 2 cos 2 1

If e.g. k r then: k r kr . We explicitly demonstrate this in spherical polar coordinates:

## k x k cos x k sin cos x r cos x r sin cos

For k r : k y k cos y k sin sin and: y r cos y r sin sin
k z k cos z k cos z r cos z r cos

Then: k r k x k y k z kx cos
x y z x ky cos y kz cos z
kr cos 2 x kr cos 2 y kr cos 2 z
kr sin 2 cos 2 kr sin 2 sin 2 kr cos 2

kr sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 kr sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 cos 2
kr sin 2 cos 2 kr

Thus, most generally, we can write the E r , t and B r , t -fields as:

i k r t
E r , t E o e n where: n polarization vector n k

i k r t
B r , t Bo e

kn

i.e. nk 0 because E is transverse

i k r t i k r t
B r , t 1c k E r , t 1c E o e k n Bo e k n

We must have: B r , t E r , t k i.e. E B 0 and E k 0 and B k 0

## 10 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## The Direction of Propagation of a Monochromatic Plane EM Wave: k

The Real/Physical (Instantaneous) EM Fields are:

E r , t Re E r , t Eo cos k r t n

where: n polarization vector E

B r , t Re B r , t Bo cos k r t k n
Bo 1c Eo in free space

Instantaneous Energy, Linear & Angular Momentum in EM Plane Waves (Free Space)
Instantaneous Energy Density Associated with an EM Plane Wave (Free Space):

1 1 2
u EM r , t o E 2 r , t B r , t uelect r , t umag r , t
2 o

1 2 1 2 1
where: uelect r , t o E r , t and umag r , t B r ,t oE2 r ,t
2 2 o 2

1 2 1
But: B2 2
E and 2 o o for EM waves propagating in vacuum/free space
c c

1 o o 2 1
Thus: uEM r , t o E 2 r , t E r , t o E 2 r , t o E 2 r , t o E 2 r , t
2 o 2

Or:

uEM r , t o E 2 r , t o Eo2 cos 2 k r t Joules

m
3

## n.b. for EM plane waves propagating in the vacuum:

umag r , t uelect r , t and/or: umag r , t uelect r , t 1

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 11

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Instantaneous Poyntings Vector Associated with an EM Plane Wave (Free Space):

Watts
S r,t E r,t H r ,t 1
o E r ,t B r ,t 1
o Re E z , t Re B z, t 2
m
For a linearly polarized monochromatic plane EM plane wave propagating in the vacuum, e.g.:

E r , t Eo cos kz t x and: B r , t Bo cos kz t y

Then: S r , t 1
o Eo Bo cos 2 kz t z but: Bo 1c Eo for EM plane waves in vacuum.

c
Thus: S r , t 1
o c Eo2 cos 2 kz t z multiply RHS by 1
c

1 2 1
Hence: S r , t c E cos 2 kz t z but: 2 o o
2 o
o c c

o o 2
Thus: S r , t c Eo cos 2 kz t z c o Eo2 cos 2 kz t z
o

But: u EM r , t o E 2 r , t o Eo2 cos 2 kz t

S r , t cu EM r , t z Here, the propagation velocity of EM field energy: vE cz

Poyntings Vector = Energy Density * (Energy) Propagation Velocity: S r , t uEM r , t vE

Instantaneous Linear Momentum Density Associated with an EM Plane Wave (Free Space):
1
EM r , t o o S r , t 2 S r , t 2
kg
c
m -sec
For linearly polarized monochromatic plane EM waves propagating in the vacuum:
1 1
EM 2 c o Eo2 cos 2 kz t z o Eo2 cos 2 kz t z
c c
uEM

But: u EM r , t o E 2 r , t o Eo2 cos 2 kz t

1 1
EM r , t o o S r , t 2 S r , t uEM r , t z 2
kg

c c m -sec

## 12 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Instantaneous Angular Momentum Density Associated with an EM Plane Wave (Free Space):

EM r , t r EM r , t
kg

m-sec
1 1
EM r , t o o S r , t 2 S r , t uEM r , t z 2
kg
But:
c c m -sec
for an EM plane wave propagating in the z direction:
1 1
EM r , t 2 r S r , t uEM r , t r z
kg
c c
m-sec
n.b. depends on the choice of origin
The instantaneous EM power flowing into/out of volume v with bounding surface S enclosing
volume v (containing EM fields in the volume v) is:

U EM t uEM r , t
PEM t d S r , t da (Watts)
t v t S

## n.b. closed surface S enclosing volume v.

The instantaneous EM power crossing an (imaginary) surface (e.g. a 2-D plane a window!) is:

PEM t S r , t da
S

The instantaneous total EM energy contained in volume v is: U EM t v uEM r , t d (Joules)

## The instantaneous total EM linear momentum contained in the volume v is:

kg-m
pEM t EM r , t d
v
sec
The instantaneous total EM angular momentum contained in the volume v is:
kg-m 2
LEM t EM r , t d
sec
v

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 13

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## 3-D Vector Impedance Associated with an EM Plane Wave (Free Space):

Z r ,t E r,t 1 H r ,t (Ohms) = Ohms law for EM fields! (n.b. a vector quantity)

## Analog of: Ohms law for AC circuits: Z t V t I t (n.b. a scalar quantity)

2
Complex form of Ohms Law: Z t V t I t V t I t I t
*

What {precisely} is the mathematical meaning of a generic reciprocal vector 1 A r , t ???

The magnitude of the reciprocal vector 1 A r , t 1 A r , t is invariant (i.e. cannot
change) for arbitrary rotations & translations of the coordinate system. The direction that the

reciprocal vector 1 A r , t points in space {at time t} is also invariant for arbitrary rotations &
translations of the coordinate system.
Note further that inverse unit vectors {such as 1 x , 1 y , 1 z } are meaningless!

For a purely real generic vector A r , t Ax r , t x Ay r , t y Az r , t z {e.g. expressed
in rectangular/Cartesian coordinates}, the mathematical definition of a purely real reciprocal

vector 1 A r , t , satisfying all of the above requirements is:

A r , t A r , t Ax r , t x Ay r , t y Az r , t z
1 1 Using
A r , t where:
rectangular
Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t / Cartesian
coordinates

## Hence, we also see that:

1 A r , t Ar ,t Ax r , t x Ay r , t y Az r , t z Using
2 2 rectangular
Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t
/ Cartesian
coordinates

Note: For the more general case of complex reciprocal vectors 1 A r , t these relations become:

1 1 A* r , t A x* r , t x A *y r , t y A z* r , t z Using
A * r , t where: A * r , t rectangular
Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t Ar ,t
/ Cartesian
coordinates

## Hence, we also see that:

1 A * r , t A* r , t A x* r , t x A *y r , t y A z* r , t z Using
2
rectangular
A r , t A r , t 2
Ar ,t Ar ,t
/ Cartesian
coordinates

## 14 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Thus, e.g. for a linearly polarized monochromatic EM plane wave propagating in the vacuum in
the k z direction, with instantaneous/physical purely real time-domain EM fields of:
1
E r , t Eo cos kz t x and: B r , t Bo cos kz t y with: Bo Eo
c

and: H r , t 1
o B r,t 1
o Bo cos kz t y 1
o c Eo cos kz t y

The vector impedance Z r , t associated with a monochromatic plane EM plane wave
propagating in the k z direction in free space is:

S r ,t

E r ,t H r ,t E r ,t H r ,t
S r,t

Z r ,t E r ,t 1 H r,t
H r ,t
2 2
H r,t H r,t

c o Eo2 cos 2 kz t z
o2 c3 o z o c c 2 o o z
Note the cancellations!!!

2 Here, Z has no spatial
1
o c Eo2 cos 2 kz t and/or temporal
dependence for a
monochromatic EM
1 1 o
o o z o c z o
plane wave propagating
o c z z Z o z in free space!

o o
o o
o

Thus, in free space: Z r , t Z o z oo z (Ohms)

o
where: Z o o is known as the {scalar!} characteristic impedance of free space.

The vector impedance Z r , t associated with an EM field is a physical property of the
medium that the EM field is propagating which in this case {here} is the vacuum.
Microscopically, the quantum numbers of the {QED} vacuum free space {which, at the
microscopic level is not empty!} must all be associated with scalar-type quantities spin = 0,
even parity (+) for both space inversion operation P and charge conjugation C, i.e. the quantum
numbers of the {QED} vacuum are J PC 0 .
Note further that all of the physical macroscopic (mean-field) parameters of the vacuum must
be invariant {i.e. unchanged} under arbitrary rotations, translations and Lorentz boosts - from
one reference frame to any other. This means that all macroscopic physical parameters of the
vacuum intrinsically must have no spatial and/or temporal dependence they are constants:

## o 8.85 1012 Farads m = electric permittivity of free space

o 4 107 Henrys m = magnetic permeablity of free space
c 1 o o 3 108 m s = speed of EM waves propagating in in free space
o
Zo o 376.82 = characteristic impedance of EM waves propagating in free space

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 15

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

The vectorial nature of Z r , t is simply associated with the direction of propagation of the

EM wave here, in this case {i.e. the vacuum} the k z direction, so: Z r , t Z o z oo z .
For EM waves propagating in the vacuum, it cant physically matter which direction they are

propagating in any direction k will give Z r , t Z k o k ! o o

Note also from the above derivations, that we also have a relation between the vector

impedance Z r , t and Poyntings vector S r , t associated with a propagating EM wave:

S r ,t

E r , t H r , t E r , t H r , t S r,t

Z r ,t E r,t 1 H r ,t
H r,t
2 2
H r ,t H r,t

For the complex time-domain representation of EM fields at least those associated with
monochromatic (i.e. single-frequency) EM waves, then in general we have:

E r , t ; E r ; e it and: H r , t ; H r ; e it , and thus the complex vector
impedance is:

E r , t ; H * r , t ; E r , t ; H * r , t ;

Z r , t; E r , t; 1 H r , t; 2 Ohms
H r , t; H r , t;

S r ;

* *
E r ; e it H * r ; e it E r ; H r ; E r ; H r ; S r ;

2 Z r ;
H r ; e it H * r ; e it H r ; H * r ;
2
H r ; H ;

where S r , and Z r ; are the complex frequency-domain Poyntings vector and vector
impedance, respectively. Note that at least for monochromatic/single-frequency EM waves

that: Z r , t ; Z r ; , i.e. the complex vector impedance associated with monochromatic
EM waves has no time dependence! It is a manifestly frequency-domain quantity!

## For monochromatic EM plane waves propagating in free space/the vacuum in the k z

direction, the complex vector impedance is a purely real quantity:

Z r , t ; Z r ; Z o z oo z 376.82 z

Physically, the real part of the complex vector impedance e Z r ; is associated with
propagating EM waves/propagating EM wave energy, whereas the imaginary part of the

complex vector impedance m Z r ; is associated with non-propagating EM wave energy
i.e. EM wave energy that simply sloshes back and forth locally, 2 per cycle of oscillation!

## 16 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Time-Averaged Quantities Associated with EM Waves:

Frequently, we are not interested in knowing the instantaneous power P(t), energy / energy density,
Poyntings vector, linear and angular momentum, etc.- e.g. simply because experimental measurements
of these quantities are very often only averages over many extremely fast cycles of oscillation
1
(e.g. period of oscillation of a light wave: light 1 flight 15 1015 sec cycle 1 femto-sec )
10 cps

## We want/need time-averaged expressions for each of these quantities (e.g. in order to

compare directly with experimental data) e.g. for monochromatic plane EM light waves:

## If we have e.g. a generic instantaneous physical quantity of the form: Q t Qo cos t

2

1 t Qo t
The time-average of Q t is defined as: Q t Q Q t dt cos 2 t dt
t 0
t 0

Qo

1
Q Q t Qo
2
t

## The time average of the cos 2 t function:

t
1 t sin 2t 1 sin 2 1 sin 2
0
1
cos 2 t dt

0
0 2 4 t 0 2 2 2 2

## But: 2 f and: f 1 2 2 sin sin 2 0

1 1 1 1
cos 2 t dt Q t Q Qo

0 2 2 2

The time-averaged quantities associated with an EM plane wave propagating in free space are:

EM Energy Density: uEM r , t uEM r , t Total EM Energy: U EM t U EM t

Poyntings Vector: S r,t S EM r , t EM Power: PEM t PEM t

Linear Momentum Density: EM r , t EM r , t Linear Momentum: pEM t pEM t

Angular Momentum Density: EM r , t EM r , t Angular Momentum: LEM t LEM t

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 17

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

For a monochromatic EM plane wave propagating in free space / vacuum in the k z direction:

1
uEM r , t o Eo2
Joules
Time 2 3
m
averaged 1
S r , t c o Eo2 z c uEM r , t z
quantities for Watts
2
EM plane 2 m
wave 1 1 1
EM r , t o Eo2 z 2 S r , t uEM r , t z 2
kg
propagating 2c c c
in the z m -sec
1
direction

1

EM r , t r EM r , t 2 r S r , t u EM r , t r z
c c
kg

m-sec
We define the intensity I associated with an EM wave as the time average of the magnitude of
Poyntings vector:
1 Watts
Intensity of an EM wave: I r S r , t S r , t c uEM r , t c o Eo
2
2
2 m
The intensity of an EM wave is also known as the irradiance of the EM wave it is the so-called
radiant power incident per unit area on a surface.

When working with time-averaged quantities such as uEM r , t , S r , t , EM r , t ,

EM r , t , etc. it is convenient/useful to define the so-called root-mean-square ( RMS)

values of the E and B electric and magnetic field amplitudes (using the mathematical definition
of RMS from probability and statistics):
For a monochromatic (i.e. single frequency, sinusoidally-varying) EM wave (only):
1 1
Erms E Eorms Eo 0.707 Eo
2 2
1 1
Brms B Borms Bo 0.707 Bo
2 2

Where: Eo = peak (i.e. max) value of the E -field = amplitude of the E -field.

Bo = peak (i.e. max) value of the B -field = amplitude of the B -field.

E z, t
Eo
1 1
Eorms Eo Eo Eorms Eo 0.707 Eo
2 2
z or t

## 18 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Thus we see that:

1 1 1 1 1 1
Erms Erms E E E E and Brms Brms B B B B
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2
i.e. that:
2
Erms E E peak Eo2rms Eo2 and Brms
2
B 2 B peak Borms Bo
2

2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1
uEM t o Eo2 o Eo2 o Eo2rms
RMS Joules
Then:
rms
uEM t
2 2 2 4 2 m3
1 1
For mono- Srms t S t c uEM t z c uEM rms
t z RMS Watts

2 2 m 2

chromatic
1 1 1 1 rms
EM plane rmsEM t 2
S t uEM t z 2 Srms t uEM t z RMS kg

waves 2c 2c c c 2
m -sec
(only): rms 1 RMS kg
1
2

EM t r EM t r rms EM t 2 r S rms t
c
1 rms
uEM
c

t r z m-sec

1 1 1
I rms S rms t S rms t I S t c uEM rms
t c o Eo2rms RMS Watts

2 2 2 m 2

Real world example: Here in the U.S., 120 Vac/60 Hz wall power refers to the RMS AC voltage!
The peak voltage (i.e. the voltage amplitude) is: V peak 2Vrms 2 120 169.7 170.0 Volts.
n.b. For EM waves sinusoidal waves, the root-mean-square (RMS) must be defined properly /
mathematically e.g. the RMS value of square or triangle wave
amplitudes (from Fourier analysis these consist of linear combinations of infinite # of harmonics)
1 1
rms rms (See/refer to probability & statistics reference books!!)
2 2

## The Relationship(s) Between the Complex Time-Domain Poyntings Vector

and the Complex Vector Impedance/Admittance of an EM Plane Wave:
Complex Time-Domain Poyntings Vector:

S r , t ; E r , t ; H r , t ; Watts m 2

## Complex Vector Impedance of an EM Plane Wave:

2
Z r , t ; E r , t ; H 1 r , t ; E r , t ; H * r , t ; H r , t ; Ohms

## Complex Vector Admittance = Reciprocal of Complex Vector Impedance:

2
Y r , t ; Z 1 r , t ; E 1 r , t ; H r , t ; E * r , t ; H r , t ; E r , t ; Siemens

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 19

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

If we start with Poyntings vector, we show that it is linearly related to vector admittance and/or

reciprocal vector impedance {we suppress (here) the argument r , t ; for notation clarity}:

( E E ) 1
S E H H (EE) E H ( E E )Y ( E E ) Z 1 Watts m 2

E Y

Note that the units of E Volts m , hence: ( E E ) Z 1 Volts m Ohms Watts m 2 !!!
2

We can also obtain the alternate relations:

( H H ) 1 1
S E H E (H H ) H ( H H ) Z ( H H )Y Watts m 2
E

H Z

Note that the units of H Amps m , hence: ( H H ) Z Amp m Ohms Watts m 2 !!!
2

Note that the above complex relations are the vector analogs of the complex scalar power and
Ohms law relations associated with AC circuits {suppressing the arguments t ; for
notational clarity}:
Complex time-domain AC power:

## Complex Ohms Law:

2
Z V I (V I * ) I Volts Amps Ohms

## Y 1 Z I V I V * V Amps Volts Siemens Ohms 1

2

Starting with complex time-domain AC power, we show that it is linearly related to scalar
admittance and/or reciprocal scalar impedance:

(V V ) I
P V I I (V V ) (V V )Y (V V ) Z Watts
V V
Note that the units of V Volts , hence: (V V ) Z Volts 2 Ohms Watts !!!

## We can also obtain the alternate relations:

( I I ) V
P V I V ( I I ) ( I I ) Z ( I I ) Y Watts
I I

Ohms Watts !!!

## 20 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

RMS Newtons
m2
When an EM wave impinges (i.e. is incident) on a perfect absorber (e.g. a totally black object
with absorbance {aka absorption coefficient} A = 1, as seen at the frequency of the EM wave),
all of the EM energy (by definition) is absorbed {ultimately winding up as heat}.
By conservation of energy, linear momentum & angular momentum the object being
irradiated by the incident EM wave acquires energy, linear momentum & angular momentum
from the incident EM wave.
The EM Radiation Pressure acting on a perfect absorber for a normally incident EM wave is
defined as:
net
Time-Averaged Force FEM t RMS Newtons
EM absorber A 1
perfect

Unit Area A
m2

## However, the time-averaged EM force is defined as:

net d pEM t pEM t time rate of change of the time-
FEM t = averaged linear momentum
dt t

pEM t 1 RMS Newtons
the EM Radiation Pressure at normal incidence is:
perfect
A1
A
EM
t
absorber
m2

## In a time interval t 1 f , the time-averaged magnitude of the EM linear momentum

transfer pEM t at normal incidence to a perfect absorber of EM radiation is:

pEM t EM t V

## EM Linear momentum density Volume of EM wave associated with time interval t

The volume associated with an EM wave propagating in free space over a time interval t is:
V A ct where ct = distance traveled by the EM wave in the time interval t .

pEM t 1 EM t V 1 EM t A c t
EM perfect
A1 c EM t
t t t A
absorber
A A

Thus, we see that for a monochromatic EM plane wave propagating in free space normally
incident on a perfect absorber (A = 1):
1 RMS Newtons
EM absorber A 1 c EM t
Rad o Eo2 uEM I c
perfect

2
m2

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 21

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

For a perfect reflector (e.g. a perfect mirror, with reflection coefficient R = 1{A = 0}), note that:
perfect perfect

pEM t reflector
2 pEM t absorber

## initial final final initial

Since pEM pEM pEM and pEM pEM for an EM wave reflecting off of a perfect
initial final initial initial initial
reflector, then pEM pEM pEM pEM pEM 2 pEM

i.e. an EM wave that reflects off of (i.e. bounces off of) a perfect reflector delivers twice
(2) the momentum kick (i.e. impulse) to the perfect reflector than the same EM wave that is
absorbed by a perfect absorber! Thus at normal incidence:

EM reflector R 1 2 EM absorber A1 2 I c
RMS Newtons

m2

Note that for a partially reflecting surface, with reflection coefficient R < 1, since R + A = 1,
the radiation pressure associated with an EM wave propagating in free space and reflecting off of
a partially reflecting surface at normal incidence is given by:

c
EM reflector R A 1 A EM absorber A1 2 R EM absorber R 1 A 2 R
I RMS Newtons

m2

Since A = 1 R, we can equivalently re-write this relation as:

EM reflector R A 1 A 2 R
c 1 R 2R I c 1 R I c
I RMS Newtons

m2

If the EM wave is not at normal incidence on the absorbing/reflecting surface, but instead
makes a finite angle with respect to the unit normal of the surface, these relations need to be

modified, due to the cosine factor S n S cos I cos associated with the flux of EM

energy/momentum EM t n EM t cos o o S t cos c12 S t cos c12 I cos
crossing the surface area A at a finite angle :

EM absorber A 1
Rad perfect I c cos RMS Newtons

m2

EM reflector R 1 2
Rad perfect I c cos RMS Newtons

m2

EM reflector R A 1 A 2 R
c cos 1 R I c cos
I RMS Newtons

m2

## 22 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Maxwells equations (and relativity) for the macroscopic E and B fields associated with an

EM plane wave propagating in free space mandate / require that E B propagation direction

(here, k z ) v prop cz , as shown in the figure below:

Compare this
microscopic picture
to that of a classical
/ macroscopic EM
plane wave,
polarized in the
x-hat direction:

Macroscopic EM plane waves propagating in free space are purely transverse waves, i.e.

E B , and both of the E and B fields are also to the propagation direction of the EM plane

wave, e.g. v prop cz . Thus: E v prop cz and: B v prop cz .

The behavior of the macroscopic E and B fields associated with e.g. a monochromatic EM
plane wave propagating in free space, at the microscopic scale is simply the sum over (i.e. linear

superposition of) the E and B -field contributions from {large numbers of} individual real
photons making up the EM field.

Each real photon has associated with it, its own E and B field e.g. a linearly polarized real
photon, polarized in x direction:

x E Eo cos kz t x ( x = polarization direction)

## Photon Real Photon Momentum:

z p h z

Photon Poyntings vector: S 1o E B z

y B Bo cos kz t y

1 1
B k E where the unit wavevector k z {here} and Bo Eo in vacuum.
c c
0

Real photon energy: E hf p c p c (Total Relativistic Energy2 = E2 p2 c 2 m2 c 4 )
Real photon momentum (deBroglie relation): m c 2 0 for real photon
p h
and c f c = speed of light (in vacuum) = 3 108 m/sec

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 23

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Question: How many real visible-light photons per second are emitted e.g. from a EM power =
10 mW laser? (mW = milli-Watt = 103 Watt)
Answer: The rate at which visible-light photons from a 10 mW laser depends on the color
(i.e. the wavelength , frequency f, and/or photon energy E) of the laser beam! E = hf = hc/.
When we say a 10 mW power laser, what precisely does this mean/refer to?

## Lets assume that the laser beam points in the z direction.

Also assume that the diameter of the laser beam is D = 1 mm = 0.001 m (typical).
Further assume (for simplicitys sake): Power flux density = intensity profile I(x,y) is uniform in
x and y over the diameter of the laser beam (not true in real life laser beams have ~ Gaussian
intensity profiles in x and y (i.e. I I o e 2 ); note that there also exist e.g. diffraction
2 2

## {beam-spreading} effects that should/need to be taken into account)

I x, y S x, y , t

In t = 1 second, the time-averaged energy associated with the 10 (RMS) mW laser beam is:

Elaser t Plaser t t
Elaser t 0.010 RMS Watts 1 sec

Elaser t 0.010
RMS Joules 1 sec
sec
Elaser t 0.010 RMS Joules = Time-averaged energy of laser beam

## 24 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

The {instantaneous} energy of the laser beam crosses an imaginary planar surface that is to
the laser beam.
If the laser has red light, e.g. red = 750 nm (n.b. 1 nm = 1 nano-meter = 109 meters)
or if the laser has blue light, e.g. blue = 400 nm
Since f = c/ the corresponding photon frequencies associated with red and blue laser light are:
c 3 108 m / s
f red 4.0 1014 cycles/sec (= Hertz, or Hz)
red 750 10 m 9

c 3 108 m / s
fblue 7.5 1014 cycles/sec (= Hertz, or Hz)
blue
9
400 10 m

The energy associated with a single, real photon is: E hf hc , where h = Plancks
constant: h = 6.626 x 1034 Joule-sec and c = 3 x 108 m/sec (speed of light in vacuum).
Thus, the corresponding photon energies associated with red and blue laser light are:

Ered hf red hc red

and: Eblue hf blue hc blue

since f = c/

Ered hf red 6.626 1034 Joule / sec 4.0 1014 / sec 2.6504 1019 Joules (red light)

Eblue hfblue 6.626 1034 Joule / sec 7.5 1014 / sec 4.9695 1019 Joules (blue light)

## In a time interval of t 1 sec, the time-averaged energy Elaser t N t E where

N t is the {time-averaged} number of photons crossing a area in the time interval t .

Thus, the number of red (blue) photons emitted from a red (blue) laser in a t 1 sec time interval is:

## Elaser t 0.010 Joules

# red photons: Nred t 19
3.7730 1016
Ered
2.6504 10 Joules/photon
Elaser t 0.010 Joules
# blue photons: Nblue t 19
2.0123 1016
blue
4.9695 10 Joules/photon

Thus, the {time-averaged} rate of emission of red (blue) photons from a red (blue) laser is:

Nred t
Rred
t 3.7730 1016 red photons/sec
t
Nblue t
Rblue
t 2.0123 1016 blue photons/sec
t

Note: In a time interval of t 1 sec, photons (of any color / / f / E ) will travel a distance
of d ct 3 108 m/s 1 s 3 108 meters

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 25

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

If the flux of photons is assumed (for simplicity) to be uniform across the D = 1 mm diameter
laser beam, then the time-averaged flux of photons (#/m2/sec) is:

F red
t
Rred t

3.7730 1016 sec 4.8039 10 red
22
2
A laser
103 m
2
m / sec

2

F blue
t
Rblue t

2.0123 1016 sec 2.562 10 blue
22
2
A laser
103 m
2
m / sec

2

If each photon has E Joules of energy, then power associated with red (blue) laser beam:

Pred t

Sred t Ered F red
t 2.6504 1019 Joules 4.8039 1022 red
Alaser m 2 /sec
1.2732 104 Watts m 2

Pblue t

laser Sblue t Eblue F blue
t 4.9695 1019 Joules 2.56211022 blue
A m 2 /sec
1.2732 104 Watts m 2
Thus we see that:

Pred t Pblue t
Sred t Sblue t 1.2732 104 Watts/m 2 10 mW laser
Alaser Alaser

n.b. This is precisely why you shouldnt look into a laser beam {with your one remaining eye}!!!

## Time-averaged linear momentum density:

1 1
red t o o Sred t 2 Sred t ured t z 1.4147 1013 kg/m 2 -sec
c c
blue blue 1 blue 1 blue
t o o S t 2 S t u t z 1.4147 1013 kg/m 2 -se c
c c
Momentum density, Poyntings vector, energy density are
Thus: red blue 1.4147 1013 kg/m 2 -sec
independent of frequency / wavelength / photon energy

## The time-averaged linear momentum contained in t 1 seconds worth of laser beam:

Time averaged linear momentum: p t = momentum density t x volume V
Volume V Alaser ct m 3

## 26 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## Red light momentum:

2
0.001 kg-m
pred t red t ctA 1.4147 1013 3 108 1
2 sec
3.3333 1011 kg-m sec
Blue light momentum:
2
0.001 kg-m
pblue t blue t ctA 1.4147 1013 3 108 1
2 sec
3.3333 1011 kg-m sec

Thus: pred t pblue t 3.3333 1011 kg-m sec

{TRICK}:

For an EM plane wave, the time-averaged energy density uEM t = time-averaged momentum

density EM t c (Since photon energy, E p c ). Thus:

kg
ured t red t c 1.4147 1013 2 3 10 m/s 4.2441 10 Joules/m
8 5 3

m /sec
kg
ublue t blue t c 1.4147 1013 2 3 10 m/s 4.244110 Joules/m
8 5 3

m /sec
2
kg-m Joule kg
Joule 2
2

s m m/s 2
The time-averaged energy contained in t = 1 seconds worth of laser beam is:
The time-averaged energy U t = time-averaged energy density u t volume V
V Alaser ct
2

t A ct 4.244110 3
Joules 0.001
t 3 10 1 m
5
Ured
u
red 8 3

m 2
0.010 Joules 10 mJ
2
Joules 0.001
U blue t ublue t A ct 4.2441105 3 10 1 m
8 3
3
m 2
0.010 Joules 10 mJ

U laser t
The time-averaged power in the laser beam: red
Plaser t 10mW laser
blue
t
t
d U t
Time-averaged Power (Watts) =
dt
Joules sec t = 1 sec

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 27

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Note: Plaser (laser power) is measured by the total time-averaged energy U t deposited in
(a very accurately) known time interval t using an absolutely calibrated photodiode (e.g. by NIST).

red

## blue 1 f 1.333 1015 sec 1.333 femto-sec 1.333 fs

blue

1 peak
The laser power measured is time-averaged power, i.e. Plaser t Plaser t
2
Consider (the time-averaged) energy density associated with this 10 mW laser:
Joules
uEM t 4.2441 105 3
m
1 1 peak
Now: uEM t uelect t umag t o Eo2 uEM t
2 2
1 1
And because: B t E t for EM plane waves propagating in free space / vacuum ( 2 o o )
c c

## We showed that: uelect t umag t

1 1 2 1 2
uelect t o Eo Bo2 2
Eo o o Eo2
2 2 c
1 1 2 1 o o 2 1 1
umag t
Bo Eo o Eo2
2 2o 2 2 o 2 2

Now: Eo = amplitude of the macroscopic electric field: E z , t Eo cos kz t x

Bo = amplitude of the macroscopic magnetic field: B z , t Bo cos kz t y

Define the RMS (Root-Mean-Square) amplitudes of the E and B fields:

1 1
Eorms Eo Eo2rms Eo2
2 2
1 1 1
Borms Bo Bo2rms Bo2 2 Eo2 in free space / vacuum
2 2 2c

1 1 2 1
Then: uelect t o Eo o Eorms (Joules/m )
2 3
2 2 2
1 1 2 1 2 1
umag t Bo Borms o Eo2rms in free space / vacuum
2 2 o 2 o 2

## 28 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

## So if: uEM t uelect t umag t 2 uelect t in free space / vacuum

2 o Eo2rms 4.2441105 Joules/m3
1
Then: Eo2rms uEM t where o 8.85 1012 Farads/m = electric permittivity of free space
o
1
1 4.2441105 Joules/m 2
Thus: E
laser
U EM t (Volts/m)
orms
o 12
rms 3.0970 10 3097 RMS Volts/m (n.b. same for red vs. blue laser light!)
3
Eolaser

## Then: Eolaser E peak

laser
2 Eolaser
rms 4380 Volts/m

1
Then: Bolaser Eolaser 10.3232 106 RMS Tesla 10.3232 102 RMS Gauss
rms
c rms
Note: 1 Tesla {SI/MKS units} = 104 Gauss {CGS units}
1
Thus: Bolaser Eolaser 2 Bolaser 14.5970 106 Tesla 14.5970 102 Gauss
c rms

Now earlier (above) we calculated the (time-averaged) number of photons present in the
{red and blue} laser beams that were emitted in a time interval of t = 1 sec.

## # red photons emitted in t = 1 sec: Nred t 3.7730 1016 red photons

# blue photons emitted in t = 1 sec: Nblue t 2.0123 1016 blue photons

The volume associated with a D = 1 mm diameter laser beam turned on for t = 1 sec is:
2 2
D 0.001
V A ct ct 3 10 1 235.6194 m
8 3

2
2

N t
The (time-averaged) number density n t of {red and blue} photons in the laser beam is:
V

## Nred t 3.7730 1016

n red
t 1.6009 1014 red photons/m3
V 2.3562 10 2

## Nblue t 2.0123 1016

nblue t 8.5405 1013 blue photons/m3
V 2.3562 10 2

Then the (time-averaged) energy density uEM t of the {red and blue} laser beam is:

## Red photon energy: Ered hfred 2.6504 1019 Joules

Blue photon energy: Eblue hfblue 4.9695 1019 Joules

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 29

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

red
uEM t nred t Ered 1.6009 1014 2.6504 1019 4.2442 105 Joules/m3
blue
uEM t nblue t Eblue 8.5405 1013 4.9695 1019 4.2442 105 Joules/m3
The (time-averaged) energy U EM t uEM t V of the {red and blue} laser beams is:

red
U EM t uEM
red
t V 4.2442 105 2.3562 102 0.010 Joules 10 mJoules
blue
U EM t uEM
blue
t V 4.2442 105 2.3562 102 0.010 Joules 10 mJoules

Now here is something quite interesting: Given that Eorms Eo 2 for a monochromatic EM
plane wave propagating in free space/the vacuum, with time-averaged EM energy density:
Joules
uEM t o Eo2rms 12 o Eo2 3
m
Joules
But: uEM t n t E 3 n t = photon number density (#/m3) in laser beam
m
E hf hc = energy/photon (Joules)
o Eo2rms n t E This formula explicitly connects the amplitudes of the

n t macroscopic E and B fields (since Bo Eo c ) with the
Or: Eorms
2
E
o microscopic constituents of the and B fields (i.e. the photons)!!!

n.b. This formula physically says that the number of {real} photons in the EM wave (each of
photon energy E ) is proportional to Eo2 = the square of the macroscopic electric field amplitude!

n t
We can write this as: n t o Eo2rms E and note also that: Eorms E !!!
o
Thus, we can now see that the {time-averaged} EM energy density:

uEM r , t o Eo2rms n r , t E with: u EM r , t d U EM
v

## plays a role analogous to that of the probability density in quantum mechanics:

2
P r , t r , t | r , t r , t with: P r , t d 1
v

Since: n r , t uEM r , t E 2 o Eo2rms r E and: n r , t d N ,
v

2
Then: P r , t n r , t N r , t | r , t r , t !!!

Thus, we also see that the macroscopic electric field E r , t plays a role analogous to that of the

probability density amplitude r , t in quantum mechanics!!!

## 30 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

N t N t #
The (real) photon number density in the laser beam is: n t 3
V A ct m
N t
Then: o Eo2rms A ct N t E or: Eo2rms E
o A ct
N t
But: R t = the time averaged rate of photons in laser beam (#/sec)
t
1 R t
Eo2rms E and
2 o A c
N t R t #
F t A
A m 2 -s = flux of photons in the laser beam
t

1 1
F t E n r , t E
Joules
Eo2rms F t E and uEM t o Eo2rms
oc c m
3

#
Thus, we see that the {real} photon flux: F t c n r , t 2
m -s
Thus, the intensity {aka irradiance} of the laser beam is:
Watts
I S t k c uEM t o Eo2rms F t E c n t E 2
m

## The {time-averaged} <longitudinal separation distance> between photons is defined as:

ct
d t (m)
N t

3 108 m
For t = 1 sec: dred t 7.85 109 m ~ 8 109 m 8 nm (1 nm = 109 m)
3.773 10 ' s
16

3 108 m
dblue t 1.49 108 m ~ 15 109 m 15 nm
2.012 10 ' s
16

## Recall that: red 750 nm and blue 400 nm

Thus: d t for either red or blue laser light.

A
d t
N t

## Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 31

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

Thus:
2
0.001

2
d red t 2.35 1020 m
3.773 10 16

2
0.001

2
d blue t 4.40 1020 m
2.0123 1016

We showed above that the time-averaged/mean number density of photons in the laser beam is:

n r , t uEM r , t E 12 o Eo2 E photons m3 .

## The instantaneous number density of photons in the laser beam is:

n r , t uEM r , t E o Eo2 cos 2 kz t E photons m3

We can normalize the instantaneous photon number density to obtain an instantaneous 3-D
photon probability density, P3-D z , t 1 m3 . Recall that the laser beam intensity is
uniform/constant in the cross-sectional area A of the laser beam.

The 3-D photon probability density, P3-D r , t is:

P3-D r , t n r , t N uEM r , t N E o Eo2 cos 2 kz t N E 1 m3
But note that: N
E U EM Joules in time interval of t secs .

Then also note that: U EM uEM r , t Vol 12 o Eo2 A n r , t E A .

n r , t u EM r , t o Eo2 2
Thus: P 3-D
r,t cos 2 kz t cos 2 kz t 1 m3
N U EM 1
2
o Eo2 A A

with:
2 z ct 2 A z ct
P3-D r , t d cos 2
kz t dz da cos 2 kz t dz
v A
A z 0 A z 0

1 z c t
2 cos 2 kz t dz 1
z

0

1
2

We thus see that the instantaneous normalized photon number density P3-D r , t n r , t N
plays a role analogous to that of the probability density in quantum mechanics
2
P r , t r , t | r , t r , t , with: P r , t d 1 . Hence, we also see that the
v

## 32 Professor Steven Errede, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois

UIUC Physics 436 EM Fields & Sources II Fall Semester, 2015 Lect. Notes 5 Prof. Steven Errede

macroscopic electric field amplitude Eo 1
o n r , t E plays a role analogous to the
probability density amplitude in quantum mechanics!

We can calculate the time rate of change of the normalized 3-D photon probability density, P3-D r , t :

P3-D r , t 2 4
cos 2 kz t sin kz t cos kz t
t A t A

We can define a normalized 3-D photon probability current density as: J 3-D r , t c P3-D r , t z .

We calculate the divergence of the normalized 3-D photon probability current density:
2
J3-D r , t c P3-D r , t z c cos 2 kz t z
A
2 4k
c cos kz t c sin kz t cos kz t
2

A z A

We thus show that the photons in this laser beam obey the continuity equation for photons:

P3-D r , t 3-D
J r , t 0
t
From above:

P3-D r , t 4 4k
sin kz t cos kz t and: J3-D r , t c sin kz t cos kz t
t A A

## However, in free space, we have: ck .

P3-D r , t 4ck
Hence: sin kz t cos kz t J3-D r , t
t A

P3-D r , t
Thus: J3-D r , t 0
t

i.e. microscopically, photons neither disappear, nor are they created in propagating as this laser beam!