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# Chapter One

Introduction
to
Heat Transfer
Heat
Heat, is the form of energy that can be transferred
from one system to another as a result of
temperature difference.
The science that deals with the determination of
the rates of such energy transfers is heat transfer.
Whenever there exists a temperature difference in
a medium or between media, heat transfer will
occur.
The larger the temperature gradient, the higher the
rate of heat transfer.
Heat
The energy transfer is always from the higher
temperature medium to the lower temperature one,
and the energy transfer stops when the two
mediums reach the same temperature.
Heat (energy) always move from
warmer substance to cooler substance

HOT COLD

## Heat will continue to move until both

substances are the same temperature.

HOT HOT
To study the rate of
Why to heat being transferred
study
or
heat
transfer? How long the process
takes place to transfer
such amount of heat from
one eq. state to another as
a result of temperature
difference.
Differences between..
Thermodynamics Heat Transfer

## Only an amount of Rate of heat transfer

energy (heat) The times of cooling &
heating
Makes no references to
how long the process
will take
Deals with systems in
equilibrium
Heat
The symbol for heat is Q.

Units of Q:
- Watt (W).
- Calorie in the SI system - International
System of Units.
- British Thermal Unit (Btu) in the English
System of Units.
Temperature
Measure the amount of energy possessed by the
molecules of a substance.

substance is.

## Can be used to predict the direction

of heat transfer.
Temperature
The symbol for temperature is T.

## Common scales for measuring temperature:

- Celsius (C)
- Kelvin (K)
- Rankine (R)
- Fahrenheit (F )
Specific Heat
Specific heat is defined as the energy required to
raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance
by one degree

## A common unit for

specific heats is
kJ/kg C
or
kJ/kg K.
Specific Heat
Cv - can be viewed as the energy required to raise
the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by
one degree as the volume is held constant.

## Cp - can be viewed as the energy required to raise

the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by
one degree as the pressure is held constant.

Normally : Cp > Cv
Ideal Gas : Cp = Cv + R
Incompressible susbtances (solid & liquid):
Cp Cv C
Modes of Transferring Heat
Heat is transferred from one body to another in
three possible ways:

1. Conduction
2. Convection
Modes of Transferring Heat

## Modes of Heat Transfer

Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries
Environment

## Chemical Food Tech

Tech

Heat
Transfer
Application

Polymer
Bio Tech
Tech
Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

Chemical
Tech

Furnace

## Distillation Column Heat Exchanger

Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

## Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

Bio Tech

## Auto Clave Bioreactor

Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

Environment

## Incinerator Cooling Tower

Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

Food Tech

Microwave
Oven

Refrigerator Pasteurization
Applications of Heat Transfer in
Industries

Polymer
Tech