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TESTING PROCEDURE FOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION


RELAY USING CONVENTIONAL KIT

This test procedure is not for circulation and should be carried out by well
trained person. This procedure explained about operating value test and operating time test only.
Individual function only is considered for testing purposes and suitable setting can be adopted and
tested. It is not necessary to test the relay at all setting and one setting is enough for confirming
relay operation .Since P633/P32 is a numerical relay ,scheme operation check and load check
should be carried out by seeing measurement CHAPTER and DISTURBANCE RECORDER
WAVE FORM only.

Particulars of apparatus to be tested:


Designation : Transformer Differential Protection Device(Relay)
Type P631/ P632/ P633/P634
Model No. :
Sl.No. :
Rating : In=1/5 A, Vx=48-250 VDC/100-230VAC,Vn=50-130V AC
Rated Auxiliary supply : 220 VDC
Identification No. : -
Drawing No. : P632
Mounting : Vertical [Normal service]
Condition of sample : New

Tests to be conducted:

PRODUCT DETAILS:

Rated Input current : 1/5 A

Operating characteristics :Differential Over current

Setting : Idiff>0.1to2.5Amp,Idiff>>2.5to30Amp, Idiff>>>2.5to30Amp,

Rated Auxiliary supply : 220 VDC

Range : 48-250 VDC/100-230VAC

TERMINAL DETAILS:
Auxiliary supply terminals : 20X25 (+) & 20X26 (-)
Current input terminals : 1/5 A
a- side (HV SIDE ) A -Phase 04X1 & 04X 2
B -Phase 04X3 & 04X 4
C -Phase 04X5 & 04X 6
N 04X7 & 04X 8
b-side ( LV SIDE) A -Phase 06X1 & 06X 2
B -Phase 06X3 & 06X 4
C -Phase 06X5 & 06X 6
N 06X7 & 06X 8
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Voltage input terminals : 04X13 & 04X16

Output contacts (O/C) : Relay K1 (Tripping) 20X1 & 20X 2 (N/O)


20X3 & 20X 4 (N/O)
K2 20X5 & 20X 6 (N/C)
20X7 & 20X 6 (N/O)
K3 20X8 & 20X 9 (N/O)
K4 20X10 & 20X11 (N/O)
K5 20X10 & 20X12 (N/O)
K6 20X10 & 20X13 (N/O)
K7 20X10 & 20X14 (N/O)
K8 20X15 & 20X16 (N/C)
20X17 & 20X16 (N/O)
OPTO INPUT : U1 20X18 (+ ive)& 20X19 (-ive)
U2 20X20 (+ ive)& 20X21 (-ive)
U3 20X22 (+ ive)& 20X24 (-ive)
U4 20X23 (+ ive)& 20X24 (-ive)
Test conditions:
Auxiliary voltage to be applied : 220 VDC

1.0 ACCURACY TEST:


1.1 Determination of errors relating to characteristic quantity:

Output RL-3 is assigned permanently for following FUNCTIONS


Id>A
Id>B
Id>C
Id>>A
Id>>B
Id>>C
Io> HV
Io> LV1
Io> LV2
Aux0
Relay Setting

-- Operating value test:


1) DIFFERETIAL FUNCTION TEST

Relay setting
/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/DIFF
DIFF Enable PS1--Yes
DIFF Idiff> PS1--0.20 Iref
DIFF Idiff>> PS1--15.0 Iref
DIFF Idiff>>> PS1--BLOCKED
DIFF m1 PS1--0.20
DIFF m2 PS1--0.80
DIFF IR,m2 PS1--1.5 Iref A
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DIFF Op.mode rush rst.PS1--With


DIFF RushI(2f0)/I(f0) PS1--20 %
DIFF 0-seq. filt.a en.PS1--No
DIFF 0-seq. filt.b en.PS1--No
DIFF Overflux.bl. en. PS1--No
DIFF Ov. I(5f0)/I(f0) PS1--20 %
DIFF Op.del.,trip sig.PS1--0.00 s
DIFF Hyst. effective PS1--No

Procedure: Input energizing quantity (current) is increased slowly until relay contact operates
a- SIDE (HV SIDE )

Sl Idiff> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE (Amp)
0.20 Iref 0.099 to 0.121
1.00 Iref 0.198 to 0.242
2.00 Iref 0.297 to 0.363

Sl Idiff>> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE (Amp)
3.00 Iref 0.099 to 0.121
10.0 Iref 0.198 to 0.242
25.0 Iref 0.297 to 0.363

b- SIDE (LV SIDE )

Sl Idiff> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE (Amp)
0.20 Iref 0.099 to 0.121
1.00 Iref 0.198 to 0.242
2.00 Iref 0.297 to 0.363

Sl Idiff>> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE (Amp)
3.00 Iref 0.099 to 0.121
10.0 Iref 0.198 to 0.242
25.0 Iref 0.297 to 0.363

Bias Test

Procedure: Apply equal value of current in a-SIDE (HV SIDE ) & b-SIDE (LV SIDE ).
a-SIDE (HV SIDE ) input energizing quantity (current) is increased slowly until relay
contact operates
Actual Differential Current = Vector sum of both current
Bias Current = ( Magnitude sum of currents) / 2 A
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Theoretical Diffl current = 0.2+0.2 XIb (for slope=20%)


=0.2 +0.2 X 1.5 +(Ib-1.5) X 0.8 (for slope=80%)

Phase Applied Measured Calculated Calculated Claimed value


s Current (LV1) Current Diffl. Bias Diffl
(HVside1) Current Current (Amp)
0.2 A 0.239 to 0.293
0.5 A 0.301 to 0.369
A-Ph 1.0 A 0.582 to 0.712
2.5 A 2.381 to 2.911
5.0 A 5.418 to 6.622
0.2 A 0.239 to 0.293
0.5 A 0.301 to 0.369
B-Ph 1.0 A 0.582 to 0.712
2.5 A 2.381 to 2.911
5.0 A 5.418 to 6.622
0.2 A 0.239 to 0.293
0.5 A 0.301 to 0.369
C-Ph 1.0 A 0.582 to 0.712
2.5 A 2.381 to 2.911
5.0 A 5.418 to 6.622

SECOND HARMONIC TEST


Procedure: Rated Input energizing quantity (current-1A/50Hz is applied in A-PHASE and relay is
found to be in the operated condition .Apply current with frequency 100Hz in phase with 50Hz
current in A-PHASE and increase slowly until relay contact opens. Record 100Hz current as
Second harmonic restrain current

Sl RushI(2f0)/I(f0) Applied 50Hz Measured Resetting Value Claimed Value


No current (Amp) of 100Hz (Amp) (Amp)
20 % 0.0925 to 0.1075
30% 0.0925 to 0.1075

REF TEST
Procedure: Input energizing quantity (current) is increased slowly until relay contact operates

a- SIDE REF (HV SIDE )


Relay setting
/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/REF_1
REF_1 Enable PS1--Yes
REF_1 Operating mode PS1--High impedance
REF_1 Idiff> PS1--1.00 Iref
REF_1 Idiff>>> PS1--Blocked K
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REF_1 m1 PS1--0.20
REF_1 m2 PS1--1.50
REF_1 IR,m2 PS1--1.00 Iref

Sl Idiff> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No Setting (Amp)
0.2 Iref 0.19 to 0.21
0.3 Iref 0.285 to 0.315
0.5 Iref 0.475 to 0.525
0.7 Iref 0.665 to 0.735
1.0 Iref 0..95 to 1.05

b- SIDE REF (LV SIDE )


Relay Setting
/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/REF_2
REF_2 Enable PS1-- Yes
REF_2 Operating mode PS1-- High impedance
REF_2 Idiff> PS1-- 0.20 Iref
REF_2 Idiff>>> PS1-- Blocked
REF_2 m1 PS1-- 0.20
REF_2 m2 PS1-- 1.50
REF_2 IR,m2 PS1-- 1.00 Iref

Sl Idiff> Measured Operating Value (Amp) Claimed Value


No Setting (Amp)
0.2 Iref 0.19 to 0.21
0.3 Iref 0.285 to 0.315
0.5 Iref 0.475 to 0.525
0.7 Iref 0.665 to 0.735
1.0 Iref 0.95 to 1.05

DTOC FUNCTION TEST

Procedure: Input energizing quantity (current) is increased slowly until relay contact operates

RELAY SETTING
/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/DTOC1

DTOC1 Enable PS1--Yes


DTOC1 Block tim.st. IN PS1--Without
DTOC1 Gen.starting modePS1--W/o start. IN/Ineg
DTOC1 tGS PS1--0.00 s
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DTOC1 Rush restr.enabl PS1--No


DTOC1 I> PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 I>> PS1--30.00 Inom
DTOC1 I>>> PS1--30.00 Inom
DTOC1 I> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 I>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 I>>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 tI> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tI>> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tI>>> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 Ineg> PS1--0.25 Inom
DTOC1 Ineg>> PS1--8.00 Inom
DTOC1 Ineg>>> PS1--8.00 Inom
DTOC1 Ineg> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 Ineg>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 Ineg>>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 tIneg> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tIneg>> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tIneg>>> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 IN> PS1--0.25 Inom
DTOC1 IN>> PS1--8.00 Inom
DTOC1 IN>>> PS1--8.00 Inom
DTOC1 IN> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 IN>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 IN>>> dynamic PS1--1.00 Inom
DTOC1 tIN> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tIN>> PS1--0.00 s
DTOC1 tIN>>> PS1--0.00 s

a.2.1) For phase fault (A,B,C) I >; tI> 0 sec

I> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating value Claimed operating value
A Ph B Ph C Ph (AAC)
0.5 I nom 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5 I nom 5 1 4.75 5.25
20 I nom 20 1 19 21

a.2.2) For phase fault (A,B,C) I>>; tI >> 0 sec

I>> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating value Claimed operating value
A Ph B Ph C Ph (AAC)
0.5 I nom 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5 I nom 5 1 4.75 5.25
20 I nom 20 1 19 21

a.2.3) For phase fault (A,B,C) I >>> ; tI>>> 0 sec

I>>> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating value Claimed operating value
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A Ph B Ph C Ph (AAC)
0.5 I nom 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5 I nom 5 1 4.75 5.25
20 I nom 20 1 19 21

a.2.5) For earth fault IN> ; tIN> 0 sec

IN> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


value I neutral> value (AAC)
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 0.21
1 I nom 1.0 1 0.95 1.05
8.0 I nom 8.0 1 7.60 8.40

a.2.6) For earth fault IN>> ; tIN>> 0 sec

IN>> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured Claimed operating


operating value value (AAC)
I neutral>>
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 0.21
1 I nom 1.0 1 0.95 1.05
8.0 I nom 8.0 1 7.60 8.40

a.2.7) For earth fault IN>>> ; tIN>>> 0 sec

IN>>> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured Claimed operating


operating value value (AAC)
I neutral>>>
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 0.21
1 I nom 1.0 1 0.95 1.05
8.0 I nom 8 1 7.60 8.40

a.2.9) For NEGATIVE SEQUENCE Ineg > ; tIneg > 0 sec


Procedure:
Apply 3 phase Negative sequence current and increase till the function assigned contact closes

INEG> Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


value Ineg> value (AAC)
0.5 I nom 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5 I nom 5 1 4.75 5.25
8.0 I nom 8.0 1 7.60 8.40

a.2.10) For NEGATIVE SEQUEMCE Ineg > >; tIneg >> 0 sec

INEG>> Setting Value(A I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


AC) value Ineg>> value (AAC)
0.5 A 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5A 5 1 4.75 5.25
8.0 I nom 8.0 1 7.60 8.40

a.2.11) For NEGATIVE SEQUEMCE Ineg > >>; tIneg >>> 0 sec
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INEG>>> Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


Setting value I neg>>> value (AAC)
0.5 I nom 0.5 1 0.475 0.525
5 I nom 5 1 4.75 5.25
8.0 I nom 8.0 1 7.60 8.40

a.3) IDMT FUNCTION TEST

/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/IDMT1

IDMT1 Enable PS1-- Yes


IDMT1 Block tim.st. IN PS1-- Without
IDMT1 Gen.starting modePS1-- W/o start. IN/Ineg
IDMT1 tGS PS1-- 0.00 s
IDMT1 Rush restr.enabl PS1-- No
IDMT1 Iref,P PS1-- 1.00 Inom
IDMT1 Iref,P dynamic PS1-- 1.00 Inom
IDMT1 Characteristic P PS1-- Definite Time
IDMT1 Factor kt,P PS1-- 1.00
IDMT1 Min. trip t. P PS1-- 0.00 s
IDMT1 Hold time P PS1-- 0.00 s
IDMT1 Release P PS1-- Without delay
IDMT1 Iref,neg PS1-- 0.80 Inom
IDMT1 Iref,neg dynamic PS1-- Blocked
IDMT1 Character. neg. PS1-- Definite Time
IDMT1 Factor kt,neg PS1-- 1.00
IDMT1 Min. trip t. neg PS1-- 1.00 s
IDMT1 Hold time neg PS1-- 0.00 s
IDMT1 Release neg PS1-- Without delay
IDMT1 Iref,N PS1-- 0.80 Inom
IDMT1 Iref,N dynamic PS1-- Blocked
IDMT1 Characteristic N PS1-- Definite Time
IDMT1 Factor kt,N PS1-- 1.00
IDMT1 Min. trip t. N PS1-- 1.00 s
IDMT1 Hold time N PS1-- 0.00 s
IDMT1 Release N PS1-- Without delay

a.3.1) For phase fault (A,B,C) ; Min. trip t. P= 0 sec

Iref,P Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating value Claimed operating value
Setting A Ph B Ph C Ph (AAC)
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 2.1
1 I nom 1.0 1 0.95 1.05
4 I nom 4.0 1 3.8 4.2
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a.3.2) For NEGATIVE SEQUENCE Iref,neg Min. trip t. neg= 0 sec


Procedure:
Apply 3 phase Negative sequence current and increase till the function assigned contact closes

Iref,neg Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


Setting value Ineg value (AAC)
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 2.1
0.4 I nom 0.4 1 0.380.42
0.8 I nom 0.8 1 0.76 0.84

a.3.3) For earth fault Iref,N ; Min. trip t. N= 0 sec

Iref,N Setting Value(A AC) I nom Measured operating Claimed operating


value I neutral value (AAC)
0.2 I nom 0.2 1 0.19 2.1
0.4 I nom 0.4 1 0.380.42
0.8 I nom 0.8 1 0.76 0.84

a.4 ) V < > (UNDER/OVER VOLTAGE)

Procedure:
Apply 3ph-n voltage(63.5V) and increase one phase voltage for over voltage or decrease one phase
voltage for under voltage function till the function assigned contact closes

RELAY SETTING

/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/V<>

V<> Enable PS1-- Yes


V<> V> PS1-- 1. Vnom
V<> V>> PS1-- 1. Vnom
V<> tV> PS1-- 0.00 s
V<> tV>> PS1-- 0.00 s
V<> V< PS1-- 0.80 Vnom
V<> V<< PS1-- 0.80 Vnom
V<> Vmin> PS1-- 0.25 Vnom
V<> tV< PS1-- Blocked
V<> tV<< PS1-- Blocked
V<> tTransient PS1-- 1.00 s
V<> Hyst. V<> meas. PS1-- 1 %

a.4.1)OVER VOLTAGE V> ;tV > 0 sec

V> Setting Value(V V nom Measured operating value V> Claimed operating
AC) AN BN CN value (V AC)
1.1 V nom 69.859/121 110/3 V 67.76371.955
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1.25 V nom 79.385/137 110/3 V 77.003 --- 81.766


.5
1.5 V nom 95.263/165 110/3 V 92.40598.121

a.3.2) OVER VOLTAGE V>> ;tV> > 0 sec

V> > Value(V V nom Measured operating value V>> Claimed operating
Setting AC) AN BN CN value (V AC)
1.1 V nom 69.859 110/3 V 67.76371.955
1.25 V nom 79.385 110/3 V 77.003 --- 81.766
1.5 V nom 95.263 110/3 V 92.40598.121

a.3.3) UNDER VOLTAGE V< ;tV< 0 sec

V< Setting Value(V AC) V nom Measured operating value V< Claimed operating
AN BN CN value (V AC)
0.3 V nom 19.05 110/3 V 18.47819.622
0.6 V nom 38.10 110/3 V 36.957---39.243
0.9 V nom 57.15 110/3 V 55.43558.865

a.3.4) UNDER VOLTAGE V<< ;tV<< 0 sec

V<< Setting Value(V AC) V nom V<< Optd Claimed operating


AN BN CN value AAC
0.3 V nom 19.05 110/3 V 18.47819.622
0.6 V nom 38.10 110/3 V 36.957---39.243
0.9 V nom 57.15 110/3 V 55.43558.865

aa.4) f < > (UNDER/OVER FREQUENCY)

Procedure:
Apply3 phase voltage(63.5V) with rated frequency and increase or decrease the frequency till the
function assigned contact closes

RELAY SETTING
/Parameters/Function parameters/General functions/f<>

General enable USER -- Yes


Selection meas. volt -- Voltage A-G
Evaluation time -- 4 Periods
Undervolt. block. V< -- 0.65 Vnom(/3)

Other functions in General functions -- General enable USER -- No

/Parameters/Config. parameters/OUTP
Fct. assignm. K 7 --- f<> Trip signal f1
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/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/f<>

Enable PS1 --- Yes


Oper. mode f1 PS1 --- f
f1 PS1 --- 49.80 Hz
tf1 PS1 --- 0.00 s
df1/dt PS1 --- 2.0 Hz/s
Delta f1 PS1 --- 0.30 Hz
Delta t1 PS1 --- 0.30 s
Oper. mode f2 PS1 --- f
f2 PS1 --- 69.80 Hz
tf2 PS1 --- 0.00 s
df2/dt PS1 --- 2.0 Hz/s
Delta f2 PS1 --- 0.30 Hz
Delta t2 PS1 --- 0.30 s
Oper. mode f3 PS1 --- f
f3 PS1 --- 69.80 Hz
tf3 PS1 --- 0.00 s
df3/dt PS1 --- 2.0 Hz/s
Delta f3 PS1 --- 0.30 Hz
Delta t3 PS1 --- 0.30 s
Oper. mode f4 PS1 --- f
f4 PS1 --- 69.80 Hz
tf4 PS1 --- 0.00 s
df4/dt PS1 --- 2.0 Hz/s
Delta f4 PS1 --- 0.30 Hz
Delta t4 PS1 --- 0.30 s

Frequency setting f<> Function

f1 Setting Measured operating value ( Hz ) Claimed operating value Hz


45 Hz 43.6546.35
48 Hz 46.56 --- 49.44
52 Hz 50.44 --- 53.56

V/f FUNCTION-ALARM
Relay Setting
/Parameters/Function parameters/Parameter subset 1/V/f
V/f Enable PS1-- Yes
V/f V/f> (alarm) PS1-- 1.05 Vnom/fnom
V/f V/f(t)> PS1-- Blocked
V/f V/f>> PS1-- Blocked
V/f tV/f> PS1-- 0 s
V/f t at V/f=1.05 PS1-- 72.8 s
V/f t at V/f=1.10 PS1-- 18.8 s
V/f t at V/f=1.15 PS1-- 8.8 s
V/f t at V/f=1.20 PS1-- 5.3 s
V/f t at V/f=1.25 PS1-- 3.7 s
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V/f t at V/f=1.30 PS1-- 2.8 s


V/f t at V/f=1.35 PS1-- 2.3 s
V/f t at V/f=1.40 PS1-- 1.9 s
V/f t at V/f=1.45 PS1-- 1.7 s
V/f t at V/f=1.50 PS1-- 1.5 s
V/f t at V/f=1.55 PS1-- 1.4 s
V/f t at V/f=1.60 PS1-- 1.3 s
V/f Reset time PS1-- 0 s
V/f tV/f>> PS1-- 0 s

Procedure :Apply AC voltage (50Hz) less than setting and increase the voltage with time
delay of 200mSec till it operates. Record the value (Operating value = setting X supply
frequency )
Sl No V/f> (alarm) Value(V AC) Measured Operating Claimed Value
Setting Value (Volt) (Volt)
(Vnom/fnom)
1.00 110.0 106.70 to 113.30
1.10 121.0 117.37 to 124.63
1.19 130.9 126.973 to 134.83

1.2 Operating time test


LOW SET OPERATING TIME;
Relay Setting
SETTINGS(1)
S1 Id> 200.0e-3PU
Procedure: Apply 1ph current with 5 times setting value & measure operating time ..
HV SIDE1
Sl No Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE
30 to 40 m Sec

HIGH SET OPERATING TIME;


Relay Setting
SETTINGS(1)
S1 Id>> 5 PU
Procedure: Apply 1ph current with 5 times setting value & measure operating time ..
LV 1
Sl No Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
A-PHASE B-PHASE C-PHASE
10 to 20 m Sec

REF OPERATING TIME;


Relay Setting
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SETTINGS(1)
S1 Io> HV 100.0e-3PU
S1 Io> LV1 100.0e-3PU
S1 Io> LV2 100.0e-3PU

Procedure: Apply 1ph current with 5 times setting value & measure operating time ..
Sl No Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
HV LV1 LV2
20 to 40 m Sec

OVERFLUX OPERATING TIME(TRIP);


Relay Setting
SETTINGS(1)
S1 V/f(Trip)Char DT
S1 V/f (Trip) 2.20-
Procedure: Apply voltage 121VAC (110% OF SETTING) ,50Hz and measure operating
time
Sl No tV/f (Trip) setting Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
(Sec) (Sec)
2S 1.90 to 2.1S
20 S 19.0 to 21.0S
50 S 47.5 to 52.5

Relay Setting
SETTINGS(1)
S1 V/f(Trip) I DMT
S1 V/f (Trip) 2.20-
S1 TMS 1
Procedure: Apply voltage 121VAC (110% OF SETTING) ,50Hz and measure operating
time
Sl No Applied Voltage Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
(Sec) (Sec)
121V 16.92 to 20.68
132V 4.770 to 5.83
143V 2.520 to 3.08

OVERFLUX OPERATING TIME(ALARM);


Relay Setting
SETTINGS(1)
S1 V/f(Trip)Char DT
S1 V/f (ALARM) 2.20-
Procedure: Apply voltage 121VAC (110% OF SETTING) ,50Hz and measure operating
time
Sl No tV/f (ALARM) setting Measured Operating Time Claimed Operating Time
(Sec) (Sec)
2S 1.90 to 2.1S
20 S 19.0 to 21.0S
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50 S 47.5 to 52.5