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1536 IEEE Transactionson Power Delivery, Vol. 5, No. 3, July 1990

Survey of Active Power Line Co.nditioning Methodologies

W. M. Grady, Senior Member M. J. Samotyj, Member A. H. Noyola, Student Member
The University of Texas at Austin Electric Power Research Institute The University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712 Palo Alto, CA 94303 Austin. TX 78712

Keywords - Harmonic Distortion, Active Power Line Thus far, most of the publicized problem cases have been caused
Conditioner, Active Power Filter, Power Quality by large single-source offenders such as arc furnaces and megawatt-
sized adjustable-speed-drive (ASD) systems. These situations have
Abstract - Active power line conditioning (APLC) is a been handled effectively by electric utility companies on a case-by-
relatively new concept that can potentially correct network distortion case basis. However, background distortion levels are gradually
caused by power electronic loads by injecting equal-but-opposite increasing because of the aggregation of thousands of small
distortion at carefully selected points in a network. This paper residential, commercial, and industrial loads. Cumulative problems
presents the results of an extensive literary survey on the subject of caused by aggregated nonlinear loads are much more difficult to deal
APLCs. Thirty-seven key publications [ I ] - [37] are identified and with than are single-source problems.
reviewed. Existing and proposed line conditioning methodologies
are compared, and a list of the advantages and limitations of each is One possible solution is to place unintermptible power supplies
presented. (UPS) between critical loads and the power system. However, UPS
systems are quite expensive, and while they do a good job in
INTRODUCTION protecting their own load, they are major power system polluters and
often cause problems for neighboring loads. Thus, there exists the
Modern solid-state electronic devices can be used to control large need for new and innovative circuits that can be placed at end-user
amounts of electric power efficiently and safely. These devices are facilities and on distribution feeders to reduce distortion levels, cancel
found in a wide variety of end-use applications, such as light- the effects of transient phenomena, and provide much of the
dimmers, A C D C converters, and adjustable-speed motor-drives. protection for end-users that is now achievable with UPS systems.
Circuit power levels range from a few watts to many megawatts.
Although power electronic devices such as thyristors and power One innovative concept that has been mentioned in the literature
transistors have been available for twenty-five years or more, state- over the past several years and that has great potential is the active
of-the-art semiconductor device technology is continually improving power line conditioner (APLC), also known as an active power filter.
and thus providing better, more reliable, and more economical It appears to be an attractive, viable method for reducing voltage and
components. current harmonic distortion, voltage spikes, transients, and flicker. It
injects equal-but-opposite distortion, thereby cancelling the original
These improvements, combined with the efficiency and problem and improving power quality on the connected power
controllability advantages of power electronics circuits, are resulting system. At present, APLCs are mainly concepts "on paper," with
in a "power electronics revolution" for end-use equipment. New and only a few experimental versions available. Other types of power
innovative circuits are being developed at a rapid pace, and clearly the line conditioners, such as UPS or ferroresonant conditioners, can be
trend is toward high penetration levels of electronic loads. purchased, and many of them are referred to as active power line
conditioners. However, the function of most of them is to protect the
Unfortunately, there are some problems associated with these connected load, without regard to their impact on system-side power
new circuits and devices. Unlike conventional loads, they control the quality.
flow of power by chopping, flattening, or shaping the otherwise
sinusoidal power system voltages and currents. These waveform This paper presents the results of an extensive literary survey on
distortions can cause problems for neighboring loads, and they tend the subject of active power line conditioners. Thirty-seven key
to have an overall detrimental effect on the quality of electric power publications [ I ] - [37] are identified and reviewed. The period
provided to their neighbors. The resulting electrical "pollution," covered is 1973-1988, but the majority of references were published
whether it is produced by large single-sources or by the cumulative after 1985.
effect of many small loads, often propagates for miles along
distribution feeders. In fact, distortion is usually amplified at points PROPOSED APLC METHODOLOGIES
remote to the sources [38].
Two fundamental approaches for improving power quality with
Common symptoms of severe distortion include nuisance APLCs are presented in the thirty-seven publications. These are:
tripping of computers or computer-controlled industrial processes
and medical equipment, excessive heating in transformers, and Correction in the time-domain
equipment failure due to resonant overvoltages. Nuisance tripping of Correction in the frequency-domain.
industrial assembly line processes often leads to expensive down-
time and ruined products. Since polluting sources are frequently Either can be used in conjunction with:
very sensitive to pollution from other sources, power electronic loads Voltage-type converters
are at the same time villains and victims from a power quality point of
view [39]. Current-type converters.

Thus, there are four basic methodologies, each of which contains

many possible control strategies.

Converter Types
The voltage waveform at a power system bus is affected by the
current injected at that bus. A "stiff" system is one for which the
voltage is rather insensitive to current, while the voltage at a "weak"
system bus is quite sensitive to current. Therefore, providing that a
system is not too stiff, a nonsinusoidal voltage waveform at a bus
can be corrected to sinusoidal by injecting the proper current
magnitude and waveform. This is the basic operating principle of an
0885-8977/90/0700-1536S01.000 1990IEEE


APLCs use an inverter and dc source to produce the precisely Time-domain correction techniques described in the references
chopped waveform needed to correct a distorted system voltage (or are shown in Figure 3 and can be classified as one of the following:
current) [4]. The dc source is altemately and very rapidly connected Triangular-wave
positively or negatively, or disconnected to absorb or supply power
as needed. The two basic types of inverters are voltage and current, Hysteresis
as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The dc source of a voltage inverter Deadbeat.
consists of a capacitor that resists voltage changes, while that of a
current inverter consists of an inductor that resists current changes. In addition, the following two time-domain error functions are
In both cases, the dc source receives its power from the ac power described in the references:
system, either intentionally through the switching action [ 2 3 ] or Extraction of Fundamental Component (EXT)
through a separate charging circuit [6].
Instantaneous Reactive Power Compensation (IRP).
The power electronic circuit and devices used in both types of
converters are quite similar. Due to the rather modest ratings of the For EXT, the fundamental component f6o(t) of the distorted
APLCs described, most of the references utilize bipolar junction waveform f(t) is extracted through a 60 Hz filter [4]. Extracted error
transistors (BJTs) at switching frequencies up to 50 kHz. Some e(t) is then found from e(t) = fa(t) - f(t).
references propose the use of silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) or
gate-turnoff thyristors (GTOs). For maximum flexibility and For IRP, an instantaneous orthogonal power transformation is
performance in unbalanced conditions, most references propose the used on both the actual and 60 Hz components of voltage and current
use of single-phase APLCs, one per phase. to produce a power function [15]. The difference between the two
transformations is the error.
Some references propose that APLCs be used in conjunction with
conventional tuned harmonic high-pass filters [6]. These hybrid Of the three time-domain correction techniques, the triangular-
systems offer the advantages of reduced converter size and cost. wave method is the easiest to implement [9]. It can be used to
generate either a two-state or three-state switching function. A two-
state switching function consists of a dc source that can be connected
Correction In Time-Domain either positively or negatively, as illustrated by APLC output e'(t) in
Figure 4. A three-state switching function can be positive, negative,
Correction in the time-domain is based on the principle of holding or zero (off). Therefore, the inverter is always on when a two-state
the instantaneous voltage or current within some reasonable tolerance switching function is used, but it can be tumed off when a three-state
of a sine wave. An instantaneous error function is computed "on- function is used. For a current source, the off-state corresponds to
line," and it can be, for example, the difference between actual and the inductor being short-circuited through a freewheeling diode.
reference waveforms - or possibly a more elaborate function such as
instantaneous reactive power compensation. As shown in Figure 4, extracted error function e(t) for the
triangular-wave method is compared to a higher-frequency triangular
carrier wave (up to 50 Hz). The inverter is switched each time the
Power System
two curves cross, and the result is injected signal e'(t) that produces

equal-but-opposite distortion. The net effect is to reduce the
extracted error and to compensate for distorted waveforms.


Figure 1 : Voltage-Type APLC

Wpjiq5] Triangular-Wave

Power System

[4] - 1976
1171 1S86
1201 - 1986

171 - 1979
[la] . 1984
[IS] - 1986

[13] . 198.5
[19] . 1966
[U] - 1983
[28] . 1987
1311 . 1oQ8

i23j . 1987 [21] - 1986 i33j . loas

(2.51 . 1987 [a] . 1988
1271 . 1987 [37] . 1988

Figure 3: Options and References for Time-Domain Correction

Figure 2: Current-Type APLC


Extracted Error:e(t)=f,,(l)-f(t) Extracted Error : e ( I ) = f60( 1 ) - f ( 1)

Figure 4: Time-Domain Correction Using Triangular-Wave Method Figure 5: Time-Domain Correction Using Hysteresis Method with
with Two-State Switching Function Three-State Switching Function

The most commonly proposed time-domain correction technique

is the hysteresis method [lo]. Preset upper and lower tolerance
limits are compared to the extracted error signal. As long as the error 4
Predetermined Extracted Error
is within the tolerance band, no switching action is taken. Switching Harmonic Function
action occurs whenever the error leaves the tolerance band. When Injeclion e(t)=f,(t)-f(l)
using a two-state switching function, the inverter is always on. M
However, when a three-state switching function is used, the inverter

1 1
=- l,sin( ho,l+S,)
is off as long as the error is within the tolerance band. APLC output h=2

e'(t) using a three-state switching function is illustrated in Figure 5. 4

Cancel U Harmonics
Two-State with Compuled
Deadbeat control-based switching functions have been proposed Switching Function
for inverter switching circuits but have not yet been used with v
APLCs. However, the deadbeat concept can be readily extended for Continuous
use with APLCs, and for that reason, three key references on
deadbeat control are included in this survey [13], [19], [26]. Unlike Three-State
the triangular-wave and hysteresis methods, deadbeat control uses
recent experience to predict error function e(t) for the next sample
period (fraction of one cycle of 60 Hz).
15) -
[I21 - 1984
1141 . 1985
Correction In Frequency-Domain irai . 1986
[XI -
[291 . 1987
Correction in the frequency-domain is based on the principle of (30J - 1988
I321 - 1988
Fourier analysis and periodicity of the distorted voltage or current
waveform to be corrected. This concept is illustrated in Figure 6,
where options and references are shown. While one early reference Figure 6 Options and References for Frequency-Domain Correction
[3] suggests the use of predetermined harmonic injection for
situations where there are a few predominant and fixed harmonics
present, more recent references [29] use a Fourier transform to
determine the harmonics to be injected. Once the Fourier transform
is taken, an inverter switching function is computed to produce tHe
distortion-cancelling output. This can be accomplished with either
two-state or three-state switching functions. The inverter switching
frequency must be more than twice the highest compensating
harmonic frequency [ 181.

The operating principle for frequency-domain converters is
illustrated in Figure 7. Extracted error e(t) is obtained using a 60 Hz
filter circuit. Next, the Fourier transform of e(t) is taken. Finally, a
compensating switching function e'(t) is constructed by solving a set
of nonlinear equations to determine the precise switching times and Extracted Error
(possibly) the magnitude of the correcting signal. The nonlinear Waveform

equations are usually linearized about some operating point [l].

e ( t ) = fm ( r ) - f ( r ) = -~Fhsin(hoot+Gk)
Example compensating functions are shown in Figure 8. h-2

All references assume quarter-wave symmetry when computing

e'(t) to reduce the order of the set of nonlinear equations. This
assumption may be valid for some single-source corrections, but it is
usually not valid in actual power system applications.

Figure 7: Measured and Extracted Error Waveforms for Frequency-

Domain Correction




Two-St at e Hysteresis methods are described most frequently in the

Switching Function references, employing both voltage-type and current-type converters.
As the speed of digital signal processors improves, the future trend
will probably be toward predictive controllers, such as deadbeat
e'([)- -E Fhsin(hwot+Gk) controllers.

The triangular-wave method is a very simple technique to

implement. Very fast response for on-line applications is
accomplished with simple control circuits. The main disadvantages
of this technique are high switching losses and high-frequency
distortion [7]. High losses are the result of fast switching rates. A
switching action is performed either two times or four times for each
period of the high-frequency carrier, depending on whether a two-
Switching Function state or three-state switching function is used.
Hysteresis methods also have very fast response times [20], but
e'(t)- -1Fhsin(hw0t+6,) they incur fewer switching losses than do triangular-wave-based
h.2 methods. Rather than using a high-frequency carrier to control the
switching rate, switching occurs only when the error leaves a
specified tolerance band. Switching rate, losses, and amount of
correction are affected by the width of the tolerance band [35]. Very
good results have been shown using this technique. As in all time-
Figure 8: Compensating Functions for Cancelling M Harmonics in correction techniques, corrective switching actions are taken
Frequency-Domain instantaneously, and no attempt is made to utilize the possible
periodic nature of signal distortion.
The deadbeat control technique responds very quickly to sudden
changes in the power system [19]. It has predictive capabilities not
seen in other methods. Signal predictions are based on the past few
samples, but signal periodicity is generally ignored.
This section compares the advantages and disadvantages of Frequency-domain correction is accomplished by using either
different methodologies for improving power quality with APLCs. predetermined methods or cancellation-of-M-harmonics methods.
Predetermined harmonic injection methods perform similarly to
Voltage-Type vs. Current-Type APLCs passive filters, but instead of using tuned filters to absorb harmonic
A clear trend for a preferred type of APLC cannot be identified in currents, they inject fixed harmonic frequency currents [3].
Therefore, predetermined methods have the same disadvantage as do
the literature. Analysis of the proposed systems shows that passive filters in that the problem harmonics must be known in
approximately half of the authors describe current-type APLCs, and advance. A phase-locked-loop circuit can be used to ensure proper
half describe voltage-type APLCs. The choice depends on source of phase angle of the injected harmonics. For non-changing power
distortion at the specified bus, equipment cost, and amount of systems where the distortion harmonics are well known, this
correction desired. correction technique can be used, with its main advantage being ease
of implementation.
Voltage-type converters have an advantage in that they can be
readily expanded in parallel to increase their combined rating [ 161.
Their combined switching rate can be increased if they are carefully Cancellation-of-M-harmonics techniques adjust for changing
controlled so that their individual switching times do not coincide. distortion spectrum and system response [30]. Periodic
Therefore, higher-order harmonics can be eliminated by using characteristics of waveforms are included when computing the
parallel voltage-type converters without increasing individual switching pattern of the injected waveform. The highest
converter switching rates. Generally speaking, voltage-type compensated harmonic is specified. The main disadvantage lies in
converters are lighter and less expensive than current-type converters the rather burdensome computational requirements needed for a
[171. solution, which results in longer response times. These times can
probably be reduced by using expert systems.
The main drawback of voltage-type converters lies in the
increased complexity of their control systems [22]. For systems with Time-Domain vs. Frequency-Domain
several converters connected in parallel, this complexity is greatly
increased. Time-domain and frequency-domain correction techniques have
both been successfully implemented, but a specific trend toward
Current-type converters are, on the other hand, claimed to be either technique has not been identified in the references. Both
simpler and more reliable [17]. Higher losses are their main
techniques have been used with voltage-type and current-type
drawback. Losses are less important in low-power applications but converters.
very important in high-power applications.
The greatest advantage of time-domain correction is its fast
Since they are easily expandable, voltage-type APLCs are likely response to changes in the power system [20]. Also, it is easy to
to be used for network-wide compensation. Current-type APLCs implement and has little computational burden. Of course, it ignores
will continue to be popular for single-node distortion problems. In periodic characteristics of the distorted waveform and does not learn
other words, electric utility interest will likely be focused on voltage- from past experiences. Since time-correction techniques take
type converters, while industrial users will likely use both types of measurements at only one point in the power system, they are
converters. generally limited to single-node applications and are not well suited
for overall network correction.

Frequency-domain correction depends on the periodic Domain indicates whether correction is made in the time-domain
characteristics of distortion [18]. For example, voltage or current (T) or frequency-domain (F). No clear trend is established.
distortion produced by adjustable-speed motor-drives tends to be
very periodic. The highest harmonic to be eliminated can be selected Type indicates whether the converter employed is voltage-type
beforehand using theoretical limits that are a function of device (V) or current-type (I). Again, no clear trend is established. Both
switching frequency. Frequency-domain correction can handle types have been proposed and tested.
single-node problems and can also be extended to minimize harmonic
distortion throughout a network. The greatest disadvantage of Switching Principle describes the method used to determine
frequency-domain techniques lies in increased computational how and when the energy storage device is switched. This depends
requirements [29]. Therefore, as the order of the highest harmonic to on the correction domain used. Choices include hysteresis,
be eliminated increases, the number of calculations also increases, triangular-wave, M-harmonics, predetermined, deadbeat, and other
resulting in longer response times. For these reasons, compensation predictive. For correction in the time-domain, the hysteresis method
in on-line applications has been limited in the references to harmonics is the most commonly used. For correction in the frequency-domain,
at or below the 20th multiple. cancellation of M harmonics is the preferred method.

REVIEW OF SPECIFIC PUBLICATIONS Switching Function can be either two-state, three-state, or

preset injection. There appears to be a trend toward three-state
switching functions in the frequency-domain. For time-domain
The thirty-seven publications included in the survey are correction, only two-state switching functions have been proposed
summarized in Table 1. An attempt was made to contact the first for use with the triangular-wave technique. However, both two- and
author of each to ensure the accuracy of the survey results. Replies three-state switching functions are used with the time-domain
were received for twenty-six of the thirty-seven publications. The hysteresis method.
NAV and NAP symbols in Table 1 indicate that the corresponding
information is not available or not applicable, respectively.
Error Function describes the principle used to recognize and
measure distortion. The choice of whether the voltage or current
The summary table is divided into the following sections: waveform should be used in formulating error function e(t) is not
First Author and Country is the last name and home address obvious. This usually depends on the type of converter chosen. An
country of the first author, and it usually indicates where the research error function based on the 60 Hz component of terminal voltage
(EXT - V) or current (EXT - I) is most often described in the
took place. It is important to note that while initial developments of references. Another choice is instantaneous reactive power (IRP -
APLCs occurred in the United States, more recent developments
have been in Japan. Research efforts are continuing in the United
States and in other countries. P. E. Device - Switching devices used in the power electronic
circuits include SCRs, GTOs, BJTs, FETs and MOSFETs. BJTs
Year is the year of publication. are most commonly used. Future developments in power electronics
devices are expected, permitting higher rated APLCs to be built.
Status at Publication describes whether or not hardware was
built, tested, and implemented, or whether the proposed concept was
experimentally validated. Switching Frequency - Switching frequencies cited range
from 1 kHz to 50 kHz. The maximum harmonic (M) to be eliminated
is limited by the switching frequency.

Table 1: Summary Table


23 1987 LAB. MODEL
- 30
KOR 1988




The results of an extensive literary survey of key publications [7] A. B. Plunkett, "A Current-Controlled PWM Transistor
related to active power line conditioners (APLCs) are summarized. Inverter Drive," Conf. Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting,
The objective is to identify proposed components, performance Sep. 1979, pp. 785-792.
characteristics, and trends, and to compare the advantages and
disadvantages of different methods for improving power quality with [8] I. Takahashi, A. Nabae, "Universal Power Distortion
APLCs. Compensator of Line Commutated Thyristor Converter," Conf.
Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting, Sep. 1980, pp. 858-
For the most part, APLCs exist as "concepts on paper" or as 864.
laboratory prototypes. They are not in general use at this time.
However, they appear to have great potential for improving power
quality by injecting equal-but-opposite distortion into a power [9] H. Kawahira, T. Nakamura, S . Nakazawa, M. Nomura,
system. Furthermore, they have the potential to provide some "Active Power Filter," Proc. of the JIEE - IPEC, Mar. 1983,
measure of energy storage for "ride-through'' capability during pp. 981-992.
momentary outages. These features will be increasingly valuable as
the cumulative effects of small, distorting loads become more 101 H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, "Instantaneous Reactive
significant. Power Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without
Energy Storage Components," IEEE Trans. on IA, vol. IA-20,
Most published APLC control strategies are intended to counter no. 3, May/June 1984, pp. 625-630.
the distortion produced by a single nearby offender. This implies
that an adequate control strategy can be devised using local 111 A. Kawamura, R. Hoft, "Instantaneous Feedback Controlled
information only, such as load voltage and current. This strategy PWM Inverter with Adaptive Hysteresis," IEEE Trans. on IA,
works well in the local vicinity, providing that the single offender is vol. IA-20, no. 4, Jul./Aug. 1984, pp. 769-775.
responsible for most of the problem. Due to harmonic amplification
factors, however, "local-only" control strategies can create severe 121 K. Hayafune, T. Ueshiba, E. Masada, Y. Ogihara,
distortion at distant locations [38]. "Microcomputer Controlled Active Power Filters," Proc. of the
IEEE-IECON, Oct. 1984, pp. 1221-1226.
APLCs differ from uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) or
other power line conditioners in that they attempt to improve power
quality on the power system-side rather than on the load-side. Load- 131 K. Gokhale, A. Kawamura, R. Hoft, "Dead Beat
side improvement is usually a welcome by-product of this strategy. Microprocessor Control of PWM Inverter for Sinusoidal
Although much attention has been devoted in the literature to the "one Output Waveform Synthesis," Proc. of the IEEE-PESC, June
distorting load, one APLC" concept, carefully placed and properly 1985, pp. 28-36.
controlled APLCs can also be used to improve overall power quality
throughout a network. [I41 E. Masada, K. Hayafune, Y. Ogihara, "A Harmonic Control
Scheme for the Active Power Filter," Proc. of the 1st European
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Conf. on Power Electronics and Applications, Oct. 1985, pp.
The authors would like to thank the Elecmc Power Research
Institute, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and the [15] H. Akagi, A. Nabae, S. Atoh, "Control Strategy of Active
Governor's Energy Management Center for supporting this work. A Power Filters using Multiple Voltage-Source PWM
debt of gratitude also goes to the authors of the referenced APLC Converters," IEEE Trans. on IA, vol, IA-22, no. 3, May/June
papers who kindly responded and provided feedback for the survey. 1986, pp. 460.465.
Finally, the advice and assistance of Dr. David Beer, U. T. Austin, is
also greatly appreciated. [I61 K. Komatsugi, T. Imura, "Harmonic Current Compensator
Composed of Static Power Converter," Proc. of the IEEE-
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[ 181 G. Choe, M. Park, "Analysis and Control of the Active Filter
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[26] 1. Takahashi, M. Nunokawa, "Prediction Control for a W. Mack Grady, (SM,1983), was born on January 5, 1950, in
Cycloconverter of a Power Distortion Compensation System," Waco, Texas. He received the BSEE degree from The University of
Conf. Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. Texas at Arlington in 1971 and the MSEE and PhD degrees from
766-772. Purdue University in 1973 and 1983, respectively.

[27] R. Fisher, R. Hoft, "Three-phase Power Line Conditioner for From 1974 through 1980 he was employed as a system planning
Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction," Conf. engineer at Texas Power & Light Company (now TU Electric),
Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 803- Dallas. After receiving the PhD, he joined The University of Texas at
807. Austin, where he is currently Associate Professor of Electrical and
Computer Engineering. His areas of interest include power system
[28] M. Takeda, K. Ikeda, Y. Tominaga, "Harmonic Current analysis and operation, power system harmonics, power quality, and
Compensation with Active Filter," Conf. Rec. of the IEEE-IAS short-term load forecasting.
AnnuaZMeeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 808-815.
Dr. Grady is a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi. He is
chairman of the IEEE Working Group on Power System Harmonics
[29] S. Kim, J. Park, J. Kim, G. Choe, M. Park, "An Improved and a registered professional engineer in Texas.
PWM Current Control Method for Harmonic Elimination using
Active Power Filter," Conf. Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual
Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 928-931.
Marek J. Samotyj, (M, 1987) was born on May 22, 1947, in
[30] G. Choe, M. Park, "A New Injection Method for AC Poland. He received the BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering
Harmonic Elimination by Active Power Filter," IEEE Tram. on from Silesian Polytechnical University in Gliwice, Poland, in 1971,
Ind. Electron., vol. 35, no. 1, Feb. 1988, pp. 141-147. and an MS degree in Engineering-Economic Systems from Stanford
University in 1985.
[31] F. Z. Peng, H. Akagi, A. Nabae, "A Novel Power Filter,"
Proc. of the IEEE-PESC, Apr. 1988, pp. 1151-1159. He was a Fulbright Senior Scholar in 1981-82 and a consulting
member of the Scientific Board of the Future Research Center at
[32] T. Nakajima, M. Tamura, E. Masada, "Compensation of Non- Technical University in Wroclaw, Poland, in 1980-81. He served as
stationary Harmonics using Active Power Filter with Prony's editor-in-chief of the Polish Technical Review weekly magazine,
Spectral Estimation," Proc. of the IEEE-PESC, Apr. 1988, pp. which is published by the Polish Federation of the Engineering
1160-1167. Associations, in 1979-81.
Mr. Samotyj joined EPRI in 1985, where he is presently Senior
[33] A. Nakajima, K. Oku, J. Nishidai, T. Shiraishi, Y. Ogihara, Project Manager in the Power Electronics and Controls Program of
K. Mizuki, M. Kumazawa, "Development of Active Power the Customer Systems Division.
Filter with Series Resonant Circuit," Proc. of the IEEE-PESC,
Apr. 1988, pp. 1168-1173.

[34] M. Takeda, K. Ikeda, A. Teramoto, T. Aritsuka, "Harmonic Antonio H. Noyola, (M, 1986) was born on July 13, 1961, in
Current and Reactive Power Compensation with an Active Mexico City. He received the BS degree in MechanicalEIectricaI
Filter," Proc. of the IEEE-PESC, Apr. 1988, pp. 1174-1179. Engineering at the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de
Monterrey, Mexico, in 1984, and the MSE degree (specializing in
[35] N. Mohan, C. Wong, Active Filters for High-Voltage Direct- Electrical and Computer Engineering) from The University of Texas
Current (HVDC) Converter Terminals, Electric Power at Austin in 1987.
Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, Aug. 1988.
During 1984-85, he was a plant engineer for Procter & Gamble de
[36] H. Akagi, Y. Tsukamoto, A. Nabae, "Analysis and Design of Mexico, Mexico City. In 1985, he began his graduate studies at U.
an Active Filter using Quad-Series Voltage Source PWM T. Austin, where he is presently working toward a PhD degree in
Converters," Conf Rec. of the IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting, Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is a Graduate Research
Oct. 1988, pp. 867-873. Assistant for the Center for Energy Studies at U. T. Austin.