Keywords  Harmonic Distortion, Active Power Line Thus far, most of the publicized problem cases have been caused
Conditioner, Active Power Filter, Power Quality by large singlesource offenders such as arc furnaces and megawatt
sized adjustablespeeddrive (ASD) systems. These situations have
Abstract  Active power line conditioning (APLC) is a been handled effectively by electric utility companies on a caseby
relatively new concept that can potentially correct network distortion case basis. However, background distortion levels are gradually
caused by power electronic loads by injecting equalbutopposite increasing because of the aggregation of thousands of small
distortion at carefully selected points in a network. This paper residential, commercial, and industrial loads. Cumulative problems
presents the results of an extensive literary survey on the subject of caused by aggregated nonlinear loads are much more difficult to deal
APLCs. Thirtyseven key publications [ I ]  [37] are identified and with than are singlesource problems.
reviewed. Existing and proposed line conditioning methodologies
are compared, and a list of the advantages and limitations of each is One possible solution is to place unintermptible power supplies
presented. (UPS) between critical loads and the power system. However, UPS
systems are quite expensive, and while they do a good job in
INTRODUCTION protecting their own load, they are major power system polluters and
often cause problems for neighboring loads. Thus, there exists the
Modern solidstate electronic devices can be used to control large need for new and innovative circuits that can be placed at enduser
amounts of electric power efficiently and safely. These devices are facilities and on distribution feeders to reduce distortion levels, cancel
found in a wide variety of enduse applications, such as light the effects of transient phenomena, and provide much of the
dimmers, A C D C converters, and adjustablespeed motordrives. protection for endusers that is now achievable with UPS systems.
Circuit power levels range from a few watts to many megawatts.
Although power electronic devices such as thyristors and power One innovative concept that has been mentioned in the literature
transistors have been available for twentyfive years or more, state over the past several years and that has great potential is the active
oftheart semiconductor device technology is continually improving power line conditioner (APLC), also known as an active power filter.
and thus providing better, more reliable, and more economical It appears to be an attractive, viable method for reducing voltage and
components. current harmonic distortion, voltage spikes, transients, and flicker. It
injects equalbutopposite distortion, thereby cancelling the original
These improvements, combined with the efficiency and problem and improving power quality on the connected power
controllability advantages of power electronics circuits, are resulting system. At present, APLCs are mainly concepts "on paper," with
in a "power electronics revolution" for enduse equipment. New and only a few experimental versions available. Other types of power
innovative circuits are being developed at a rapid pace, and clearly the line conditioners, such as UPS or ferroresonant conditioners, can be
trend is toward high penetration levels of electronic loads. purchased, and many of them are referred to as active power line
conditioners. However, the function of most of them is to protect the
Unfortunately, there are some problems associated with these connected load, without regard to their impact on systemside power
new circuits and devices. Unlike conventional loads, they control the quality.
flow of power by chopping, flattening, or shaping the otherwise
sinusoidal power system voltages and currents. These waveform This paper presents the results of an extensive literary survey on
distortions can cause problems for neighboring loads, and they tend the subject of active power line conditioners. Thirtyseven key
to have an overall detrimental effect on the quality of electric power publications [ I ]  [37] are identified and reviewed. The period
provided to their neighbors. The resulting electrical "pollution," covered is 19731988, but the majority of references were published
whether it is produced by large singlesources or by the cumulative after 1985.
effect of many small loads, often propagates for miles along
distribution feeders. In fact, distortion is usually amplified at points PROPOSED APLC METHODOLOGIES
remote to the sources [38].
Two fundamental approaches for improving power quality with
Common symptoms of severe distortion include nuisance APLCs are presented in the thirtyseven publications. These are:
tripping of computers or computercontrolled industrial processes
and medical equipment, excessive heating in transformers, and Correction in the timedomain
equipment failure due to resonant overvoltages. Nuisance tripping of Correction in the frequencydomain.
industrial assembly line processes often leads to expensive down
time and ruined products. Since polluting sources are frequently Either can be used in conjunction with:
very sensitive to pollution from other sources, power electronic loads Voltagetype converters
are at the same time villains and victims from a power quality point of
view [39]. Currenttype converters.
Converter Types
The voltage waveform at a power system bus is affected by the
current injected at that bus. A "stiff" system is one for which the
voltage is rather insensitive to current, while the voltage at a "weak"
system bus is quite sensitive to current. Therefore, providing that a
system is not too stiff, a nonsinusoidal voltage waveform at a bus
can be corrected to sinusoidal by injecting the proper current
magnitude and waveform. This is the basic operating principle of an
APLC.
08858977/90/07001536S01.000 1990IEEE
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APLCs use an inverter and dc source to produce the precisely Timedomain correction techniques described in the references
chopped waveform needed to correct a distorted system voltage (or are shown in Figure 3 and can be classified as one of the following:
current) [4]. The dc source is altemately and very rapidly connected Triangularwave
positively or negatively, or disconnected to absorb or supply power
as needed. The two basic types of inverters are voltage and current, Hysteresis
as shown in Figures 1 and 2. The dc source of a voltage inverter Deadbeat.
consists of a capacitor that resists voltage changes, while that of a
current inverter consists of an inductor that resists current changes. In addition, the following two timedomain error functions are
In both cases, the dc source receives its power from the ac power described in the references:
system, either intentionally through the switching action [ 2 3 ] or Extraction of Fundamental Component (EXT)
through a separate charging circuit [6].
Instantaneous Reactive Power Compensation (IRP).
The power electronic circuit and devices used in both types of
converters are quite similar. Due to the rather modest ratings of the For EXT, the fundamental component f6o(t) of the distorted
APLCs described, most of the references utilize bipolar junction waveform f(t) is extracted through a 60 Hz filter [4]. Extracted error
transistors (BJTs) at switching frequencies up to 50 kHz. Some e(t) is then found from e(t) = fa(t)  f(t).
references propose the use of siliconcontrolled rectifiers (SCRs) or
gateturnoff thyristors (GTOs). For maximum flexibility and For IRP, an instantaneous orthogonal power transformation is
performance in unbalanced conditions, most references propose the used on both the actual and 60 Hz components of voltage and current
use of singlephase APLCs, one per phase. to produce a power function [15]. The difference between the two
transformations is the error.
Some references propose that APLCs be used in conjunction with
conventional tuned harmonic highpass filters [6]. These hybrid Of the three timedomain correction techniques, the triangular
systems offer the advantages of reduced converter size and cost. wave method is the easiest to implement [9]. It can be used to
generate either a twostate or threestate switching function. A two
state switching function consists of a dc source that can be connected
Correction In TimeDomain either positively or negatively, as illustrated by APLC output e'(t) in
Figure 4. A threestate switching function can be positive, negative,
Correction in the timedomain is based on the principle of holding or zero (off). Therefore, the inverter is always on when a twostate
the instantaneous voltage or current within some reasonable tolerance switching function is used, but it can be tumed off when a threestate
of a sine wave. An instantaneous error function is computed "on function is used. For a current source, the offstate corresponds to
line," and it can be, for example, the difference between actual and the inductor being shortcircuited through a freewheeling diode.
reference waveforms  or possibly a more elaborate function such as
instantaneous reactive power compensation. As shown in Figure 4, extracted error function e(t) for the
triangularwave method is compared to a higherfrequency triangular
carrier wave (up to 50 Hz). The inverter is switched each time the
Power System
two curves cross, and the result is injected signal e'(t) that produces
0
equalbutopposite distortion. The net effect is to reduce the
extracted error and to compensate for distorted waveforms.
()Harmonic
Generating
Error
Function
Power System
[4]  1976

1171 1S86
1201  1986
f3
ThreeState
171  1979
[la] . 1984
[IS]  1986
ThreeSlate
[13] . 198.5
[19] . 1966
[U]  1983
[28] . 1987
1311 . 1oQ8
e3
Threestale
[)
Harmonic
Generating
Figure 3: Options and References for TimeDomain Correction
Figure 4: TimeDomain Correction Using TriangularWave Method Figure 5: TimeDomain Correction Using Hysteresis Method with
with TwoState Switching Function ThreeState Switching Function
1 1
= l,sin( ho,l+S,)
is off as long as the error is within the tolerance band. APLC output h=2
+?
The operating principle for frequencydomain converters is
illustrated in Figure 7. Extracted error e(t) is obtained using a 60 Hz
filter circuit. Next, the Fourier transform of e(t) is taken. Finally, a
compensating switching function e'(t) is constructed by solving a set
of nonlinear equations to determine the precise switching times and Extracted Error
(possibly) the magnitude of the correcting signal. The nonlinear Waveform
1
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TimeDomain
Frequencydomain correction depends on the periodic Domain indicates whether correction is made in the timedomain
characteristics of distortion [18]. For example, voltage or current (T) or frequencydomain (F). No clear trend is established.
distortion produced by adjustablespeed motordrives tends to be
very periodic. The highest harmonic to be eliminated can be selected Type indicates whether the converter employed is voltagetype
beforehand using theoretical limits that are a function of device (V) or currenttype (I). Again, no clear trend is established. Both
switching frequency. Frequencydomain correction can handle types have been proposed and tested.
singlenode problems and can also be extended to minimize harmonic
distortion throughout a network. The greatest disadvantage of Switching Principle describes the method used to determine
frequencydomain techniques lies in increased computational how and when the energy storage device is switched. This depends
requirements [29]. Therefore, as the order of the highest harmonic to on the correction domain used. Choices include hysteresis,
be eliminated increases, the number of calculations also increases, triangularwave, Mharmonics, predetermined, deadbeat, and other
resulting in longer response times. For these reasons, compensation predictive. For correction in the timedomain, the hysteresis method
in online applications has been limited in the references to harmonics is the most commonly used. For correction in the frequencydomain,
at or below the 20th multiple. cancellation of M harmonics is the preferred method.
LAB. MODEL
LAB. MODEL
KOMATSUGI LAB. MODEL
MALESANI 1986 LAB. MODEL
CHOE LAB. MODEL
19 KAWAMURA USA 1986 LABMODEL
20 LEHUY CAN 1986 SIMULATED
21 AKAGI JPN 1986 LAB.MODEL
22 PENG JPN 1987 LAB.MODEL
23 1987 LAB. MODEL
24 1987 SIMULATED
 KOHATA
25
26
1987
1987
PROTOTYPE
LAB. MODEL
27 FISHER 1987 SIMULATED
28 TAKEDA 1987 PROTOTYPE
29 KIM KOR 1987 SIMULATED
 30
31
CHOE
PENG
KOR 1988
1988
LAB. MODEL
LAB.MODEL
32 NAKAJIMA 1988 SIMULATED
33 NAKAJIMA JPN 1988 PROTOWPE
34 TAKEDA JPN 1988 PROTOTYPE
36 AKAGI JPN 1988 LABMODEL T V HYSTER. 3STATE IRPVBI BJT 3.5 kHz
37 PENG JPN 1988 LABMODEL T V TRIANG. 2STATE IRPV&I BJT NAV
1
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CONCLUSIONS
The results of an extensive literary survey of key publications [7] A. B. Plunkett, "A CurrentControlled PWM Transistor
related to active power line conditioners (APLCs) are summarized. Inverter Drive," Conf. Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual Meeting,
The objective is to identify proposed components, performance Sep. 1979, pp. 785792.
characteristics, and trends, and to compare the advantages and
disadvantages of different methods for improving power quality with [8] I. Takahashi, A. Nabae, "Universal Power Distortion
APLCs. Compensator of Line Commutated Thyristor Converter," Conf.
Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual Meeting, Sep. 1980, pp. 858
For the most part, APLCs exist as "concepts on paper" or as 864.
laboratory prototypes. They are not in general use at this time.
However, they appear to have great potential for improving power
quality by injecting equalbutopposite distortion into a power [9] H. Kawahira, T. Nakamura, S . Nakazawa, M. Nomura,
system. Furthermore, they have the potential to provide some "Active Power Filter," Proc. of the JIEE  IPEC, Mar. 1983,
measure of energy storage for "ridethrough'' capability during pp. 981992.
momentary outages. These features will be increasingly valuable as
the cumulative effects of small, distorting loads become more 101 H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, "Instantaneous Reactive
significant. Power Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without
Energy Storage Components," IEEE Trans. on IA, vol. IA20,
Most published APLC control strategies are intended to counter no. 3, May/June 1984, pp. 625630.
the distortion produced by a single nearby offender. This implies
that an adequate control strategy can be devised using local 111 A. Kawamura, R. Hoft, "Instantaneous Feedback Controlled
information only, such as load voltage and current. This strategy PWM Inverter with Adaptive Hysteresis," IEEE Trans. on IA,
works well in the local vicinity, providing that the single offender is vol. IA20, no. 4, Jul./Aug. 1984, pp. 769775.
responsible for most of the problem. Due to harmonic amplification
factors, however, "localonly" control strategies can create severe 121 K. Hayafune, T. Ueshiba, E. Masada, Y. Ogihara,
distortion at distant locations [38]. "Microcomputer Controlled Active Power Filters," Proc. of the
IEEEIECON, Oct. 1984, pp. 12211226.
APLCs differ from uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) or
other power line conditioners in that they attempt to improve power
quality on the power systemside rather than on the loadside. Load 131 K. Gokhale, A. Kawamura, R. Hoft, "Dead Beat
side improvement is usually a welcome byproduct of this strategy. Microprocessor Control of PWM Inverter for Sinusoidal
Although much attention has been devoted in the literature to the "one Output Waveform Synthesis," Proc. of the IEEEPESC, June
distorting load, one APLC" concept, carefully placed and properly 1985, pp. 2836.
controlled APLCs can also be used to improve overall power quality
throughout a network. [I41 E. Masada, K. Hayafune, Y. Ogihara, "A Harmonic Control
Scheme for the Active Power Filter," Proc. of the 1st European
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Conf. on Power Electronics and Applications, Oct. 1985, pp.
2.292.34.
The authors would like to thank the Elecmc Power Research
Institute, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and the [15] H. Akagi, A. Nabae, S. Atoh, "Control Strategy of Active
Governor's Energy Management Center for supporting this work. A Power Filters using Multiple VoltageSource PWM
debt of gratitude also goes to the authors of the referenced APLC Converters," IEEE Trans. on IA, vol, IA22, no. 3, May/June
papers who kindly responded and provided feedback for the survey. 1986, pp. 460.465.
Finally, the advice and assistance of Dr. David Beer, U. T. Austin, is
also greatly appreciated. [I61 K. Komatsugi, T. Imura, "Harmonic Current Compensator
Composed of Static Power Converter," Proc. of the IEEE
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[ 181 G. Choe, M. Park, "Analysis and Control of the Active Filter
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PWM Inverter with Parameter Estimation Using Only Voltage
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N. Mohan, H. A. Peterson, W. F. Long, G. R. Dreifuerst, J. Converters," Electrical Engineering in Japan, vol. 106, no. 5,
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1542
[23] G. Van Schoor, J. Van Wyk, "A Study of a System of Current [37] F. Z. Peng, H. Akagi, A. Nabae, "A New Approach to
Fed Converters as an Active Three Phase Filter," Proc. of the Harmonic Compensation in Power Systems," Conf. Rec. of
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Cycloconverter Input Currents Harmonics using Active Power eds., Power System Harmonics, IEEE Tutorial Course Text
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Harmonics and Reactive Power using Static Induction
Thyristors," Proc. of the 2nd European Conf. on Power
Electronics and Applications, vol. 2, Sep. 1987, pp. 1265 BIOGRAPHIES
1270.
[26] 1. Takahashi, M. Nunokawa, "Prediction Control for a W. Mack Grady, (SM,1983), was born on January 5, 1950, in
Cycloconverter of a Power Distortion Compensation System," Waco, Texas. He received the BSEE degree from The University of
Conf. Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. Texas at Arlington in 1971 and the MSEE and PhD degrees from
766772. Purdue University in 1973 and 1983, respectively.
[27] R. Fisher, R. Hoft, "Threephase Power Line Conditioner for From 1974 through 1980 he was employed as a system planning
Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction," Conf. engineer at Texas Power & Light Company (now TU Electric),
Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 803 Dallas. After receiving the PhD, he joined The University of Texas at
807. Austin, where he is currently Associate Professor of Electrical and
Computer Engineering. His areas of interest include power system
[28] M. Takeda, K. Ikeda, Y. Tominaga, "Harmonic Current analysis and operation, power system harmonics, power quality, and
Compensation with Active Filter," Conf. Rec. of the IEEEIAS shortterm load forecasting.
AnnuaZMeeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 808815.
Dr. Grady is a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Tau Beta Pi. He is
chairman of the IEEE Working Group on Power System Harmonics
[29] S. Kim, J. Park, J. Kim, G. Choe, M. Park, "An Improved and a registered professional engineer in Texas.
PWM Current Control Method for Harmonic Elimination using
Active Power Filter," Conf. Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual
Meeting, Oct. 1987, pp. 928931.
Marek J. Samotyj, (M, 1987) was born on May 22, 1947, in
[30] G. Choe, M. Park, "A New Injection Method for AC Poland. He received the BS and MS degrees in Electrical Engineering
Harmonic Elimination by Active Power Filter," IEEE Tram. on from Silesian Polytechnical University in Gliwice, Poland, in 1971,
Ind. Electron., vol. 35, no. 1, Feb. 1988, pp. 141147. and an MS degree in EngineeringEconomic Systems from Stanford
University in 1985.
[31] F. Z. Peng, H. Akagi, A. Nabae, "A Novel Power Filter,"
Proc. of the IEEEPESC, Apr. 1988, pp. 11511159. He was a Fulbright Senior Scholar in 198182 and a consulting
member of the Scientific Board of the Future Research Center at
[32] T. Nakajima, M. Tamura, E. Masada, "Compensation of Non Technical University in Wroclaw, Poland, in 198081. He served as
stationary Harmonics using Active Power Filter with Prony's editorinchief of the Polish Technical Review weekly magazine,
Spectral Estimation," Proc. of the IEEEPESC, Apr. 1988, pp. which is published by the Polish Federation of the Engineering
11601167. Associations, in 197981.
Mr. Samotyj joined EPRI in 1985, where he is presently Senior
[33] A. Nakajima, K. Oku, J. Nishidai, T. Shiraishi, Y. Ogihara, Project Manager in the Power Electronics and Controls Program of
K. Mizuki, M. Kumazawa, "Development of Active Power the Customer Systems Division.
Filter with Series Resonant Circuit," Proc. of the IEEEPESC,
Apr. 1988, pp. 11681173.
[34] M. Takeda, K. Ikeda, A. Teramoto, T. Aritsuka, "Harmonic Antonio H. Noyola, (M, 1986) was born on July 13, 1961, in
Current and Reactive Power Compensation with an Active Mexico City. He received the BS degree in MechanicalEIectricaI
Filter," Proc. of the IEEEPESC, Apr. 1988, pp. 11741179. Engineering at the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de
Monterrey, Mexico, in 1984, and the MSE degree (specializing in
[35] N. Mohan, C. Wong, Active Filters for HighVoltage Direct Electrical and Computer Engineering) from The University of Texas
Current (HVDC) Converter Terminals, Electric Power at Austin in 1987.
Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, Aug. 1988.
During 198485, he was a plant engineer for Procter & Gamble de
[36] H. Akagi, Y. Tsukamoto, A. Nabae, "Analysis and Design of Mexico, Mexico City. In 1985, he began his graduate studies at U.
an Active Filter using QuadSeries Voltage Source PWM T. Austin, where he is presently working toward a PhD degree in
Converters," Conf Rec. of the IEEEIAS Annual Meeting, Electrical and Computer Engineering. He is a Graduate Research
Oct. 1988, pp. 867873. Assistant for the Center for Energy Studies at U. T. Austin.
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