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Sixth Edition .

Fundamentals
of Fluid Mechanics
International Student Version

BRUCE R. MUNSON
DONALD F. YOUNG
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

THEODORE H. OKIISHI
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa, USA

WADE W. HUEBSCH
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia, USA

WILEY
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
c ontents

i 2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface


2.9 Pressure Prism
57
63
INTRODUCTION 2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved
Surface 66
Learning Objectives 1
2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 68
1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3
2.11.1 Archimedes'Principle 68
1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional
2.11.2 Stability 71
Homogeneity, and Units 4
2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with
1.2.1 Systems of Units 7
Rigid-Body Motion 72
1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 10
2.12.1 Linear Motion 73
1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 10
2.12.2 Rigid-Body Rotation 75
1.4.1 Density 10
2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 77
1.4.2 Specific Weight 11
References 78
1.4.3 Specific Gravity 11
Review Problems 78
1.5 Ideal Gas Law 11
Problems 78
1.6 Viscosity 13
1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20
1.7.1 Bulk Modulus 20
1.7.2 Compression and Expansion
of Gases 20
1.7.3 Speed of Sound 22 ELEMENTARY FLUID
1.8 Vapor Pressure 23 DYNAMICSTHE BERNOULLI
1.9 Surface Tension 24 EQUATION 93
1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27 Learning Objectives 93
1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29 3.1 Newton's Second Law 94
References 30 3.2 F = ma along a Streamline 96
Review Problems * 31 3.3 F = ma Normal to a Streamline 100
Problems 31 3.4 Physical Interpretation 102
3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic,
and Total Pressure 105
2 3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli
Equation 110
FLUID STATICS 38 3.6.1 Free Jets 110
Learning Objectives 38 3.6.2 Confined Flows 112
2.1 Pressure at a Point 38 3.6.3 Flowrate Measurement 118
2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 40 3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic
2.3 'Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 41 Grade Line 123
2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid 42 3.8 Restrictions on Use of the
2.3.2 Compressible Fluid 45 Bernoulli Equation 126
2.4 Standard Atmosphere 47 3.8.1 Compressibility Effects 126
2.5 Measurement of Pressure 48 3.8.2 Unsteady Effects 128
2.6 Manometry 50 3.8.3 Rotational Effects 130
2.6.1 Piezometer Tube 50 3.8.4 Other Restrictions 131
2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer 51 3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 131
2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer 54 References 133
2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure Review Problems 133
Measuring Devices 55 Problems 133

XVII
XVIII Contents

5.2.4 Application of the Moment-of-


-, Momentum Equation 216
FLUID KINEMATICS 147 5.3 First Law of ThermodynamicsThe
Energy Equation 223
Learning Objectives 147 5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 223
4.1 The Velocity Field 147
5.3.2 Application of the Energy
4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow
Equation 225
Descriptions 150
5.3.3 Comparison of the Energy
4.1.2 One-, Two-, and Three-
Equation with the Bernoulli
Dimensional Flows 151
Equation 229
4.1.3 Steady and Unsteady Flows 152
5.3.4 Application of the Energy
4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines, ' "
Equation to Nonuniform Flows 235
and Pathlines 152
5.3.5 Combination of the Energy
4.2 The Acceleration Field 156
Equation and the Moment-of-
4.2.1 The Material Derivative 156
Momentum Equation 238
4.2.2 Unsteady Effects 159
5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics
4.2.3 Convective Effects 159
Irreversible Flow 239
4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates 163
5.4.1 Semi-infinitesimal Control
4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 165
Volume Statement of the
4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 166
Energy Equation 239
4.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds
5.4.2 Semi-infinitesimal Control
Transport Theorem 168
Volume Statement of the
4.4.2 Physical Interpretation 173
Second Law of Thermodynamics 240
4.4.3 Relationship to Material Derivative 173
5.4.3 Combination of the Equations
4.4.4 Steady Effects 174
of the First and Second
4.4.5 Unsteady Effects 174
Laws of Thermodynamics 241
4.4.6 Moving Control Volumes 176
5.4.4 Application of the Loss Form
4.4.7 Selection of a Control Volume 177
of the Energy Equation 242
4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 178
5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 244
References 179
References 245
Review Problems 179
Review' Problems 245
Problems 179
Problems 245

FINITE CONTROL VOLUME


ANALYSIS 757 DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF
c
187
FLUID FLOW 263
Learning Objectives ' '.-
5.1 Conservation of MassThe Learning Objectives 263
Continuity Equation 188 6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 264
5.1.1 Derivation of the Continuity 6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration
Equation 188 Fields Revisited 265
5.1.2 Fixed, Nondeforming Control 6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation 265
Volume 190 6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation 266
5.1.3 Moving, Nondeforming 6.2 Conservation of Mass 269
Control Volume 196 6.2.1 Differential Form of
5.1.4 Deforming Control Volume 198 Continuity Equation 269
5.2 Newton's Second LawThe Linear 6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 272
Momentum and Moment-of- 6.2.3 The Stream Function 272
Momentum Equations 200 6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 275
5.2.1 Derivation of the Linear 6.3.1 Description of Forces Acting
Momentum Equation 200 on the Differential Element 276
5.2.2 Application of the Linear 6.3.2 Equations of Motion 278
Momentum Equation 201 6.4 Inviscid Flow 279
5.2.3 Derivation of the Moment-of- 6.4.1 Euler's Equations of Motion 279
Momentum Equation 215 6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation 279
Contents XIX

6.4.3 Irrotational Flow 281 7.7.2 Problems with Two or More


6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Pi Terms 352
Irrotational Flow 283 7.8 Modeling and Similitude 354
6.4.5 The Velocity Potential 283 7.8.1 Theory of Models 354
6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286 7.8.2 Model Scales 358
6.5.1 Uniform Flow 287 7.8.3 Practical Aspects of
6.5.2 Source and Sink 288 Using Models 358
6.5.3 Vortex 290 7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 360
6.5.4 Doublet 293 7.9.1 Flow through Closed Conduits 360
6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential 7.9.2 Flow around Immersed Bodies 363
Flows 295 7.9.3 Flow with a Free Surface 367
6.6.1 Source in a Uniform 7.10 Similitude Based on Governing
StreamHalf-Body 295 Differential Equations 370
6.6.2 Rankine Ovals 298 7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 373
6.6.3 Flow around a Circular Cylinder 300 References 374
6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Review Problems 374
Analysis 305 Problems 374
6.8 Viscous Flow 306
6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships 306
6.8.2 The Naiver-Stokes Equations
6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous,
307
8
VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPES 383
Incompressible Fluids 308
6.9.1 Steady, Laminar Flow between Learning Objectives 383
Fixed Parallel Plates 309 8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 384
6.9.2 Couette Flow 311 8.1.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow 385
6.9.3 Steady, Laminar Flow in 8.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully
Circular Tubes 313 Developed Flow 388
6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow 8.1.3 Pressure and Shear Stress 389
in an Annulus 316 8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 390
6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 318 8.2.1 From F = ma Applied to a
6.10.1 Numerical Methods 318 Fluid Element 390
6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 319 8.2.2 From the Navier-Stokes
References 320 Equations 394
Review Problems 320 8.2.3 From Dimensional Analysis 396
Problems 321 8.2.4 Energy Considerations 397
8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 399
8.3.1 Transition from Laminar to
7
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS,
Turbulent Flow
8.3.2 Turbulent Shear Stress
399
401
37 8.3.3 Turbulent Velocity Profile 405
SIMILITUDE, AND MODELING
8.3.4 Turbulence Modeling 409
Learning Objectives 332 8.3.5 Chaos and Turbulence 409
7.1 Dimensional Analysis 333 8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 409
7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 335 8.4.1 Major Losses 410
7 3 ' Determination of Pi Terms 336 8.4.2 Minor Losses 415
7.4 Some Additional Comments 8.4.3 Noncircular Conduits 425
About Dimensional Analysis 341 8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 428
7.4.1 Selection of Variables 341 8.5.1 Single Pipes 428
7.4.2 Determination of Reference 8.5.2 Multiple Pipe Systems 437
Dimensions 342 8.6 Pipe Fkwrate Measurement 441
7.4.3 Uniqueness of Pi Terms 344 8.6.1 Pipe Flowrate Meters 441
7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 345 8.6.2 Volume Flow Meters 446
7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups 8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 447
in Fluid Mechanics 346 References 449
7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 350 Review Problems 450
7.7.1 Problems with One Pi Term 351 Problems 450
XX Contents

10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 555


10.6.1 The Hydraulic Jump 556
FLOW OVER IMMERSED BODIES 461 10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs 561
10.6.3 Broad-Crested Weirs 564
Learning Objectives 461
10.6.4 Underflow Gates 566
9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 462
10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 568
9.1.1 Lift and Drag Concepts 463
References 569
9.1.2 Characteristics of Flow Past
Review Problems 569
an Object 466
Problems 570
9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics
9.2.1 Boundary Layer Structure _and 470
Thickness on a Flat Plate *
9.2.2 Prandtl/Blasius Boundary 470
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 579
Layer Solution
9.2.3 Momentum Integral Boundary 474 Learning Objectives 579
Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 580
9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to 478 11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 585
Turbulent Flow 483 11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 588
9.2.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 485 11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 592
9.2.6 Effects of Pressure Gradient 488 11.4.1 Effect of Variations in Flow
9.2.7 Momentum-Integral Boundary Cross-Sectional Area 593
Layer Equation with Nonzero 11.4.2 Converging-Diverging Duct Flow 595
Pressure Gradient 492 11.4.3 Constant-Area Duct Flow 609
9.3 Drag 493 11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 609
9.3.1 Friction Drag 494 11.5.1 Adiabatic Constant-Area Duct
9.3.2 Pressure Drag 495 Flow with Friction (Fanno Flow) 609
9.3.3 Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 497 11.5.2 Frictionless Constant-Area
9.4 Lift 509 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer
9.4.1 Surface Pressure Distribution 509 (Rayleigh Flow) 620
9.4.2 Circulation 518 11.5.3 Normal Shock Waves 626
9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 522 11.6 Analogy between Compressible
References 523 and Open-Channel Flows 633
Review Problems 524 11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 635
Problems 524 11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 636
References 639
Review Problems 640
10 534
Problems 640
OPEN-CHANNEL
Learning Objectives
10.1 General Characteristics of Open-
534 12 645
Channel Flow 535 TURBOMACHINES
10.2 Surface Waves 536 Learning Objectives 645
10.2.1 Wave Speed ' 536 12.1 Introduction 646
10.2.2 Froude Number Effects 539 12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 647
10.3 Energy Considerations 541 12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 651
10.3.1 Specific Energy 542 12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 653
10.3.2 Channel Depth Variations 545 12.4.1 Theoretical Considerations 654
10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 546 12.4.2 Pump Performance Characteristics 658
10.4.1 Uniform Flow Approximations 546 12.4.3 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 660
10.4.2 The Chezy and Manning 12.4.4 System Characteristics and
Equations 547 Pump Selection 662
10.4.3 Uniform Depth Examples 550 12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and
10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 554 Similarity Laws 666
10.5.1 Classification of Surface Shapes 000 12.5.1 Special Pump Scaling Laws 668
10.5.2 Examples of Gradually 12.5.2 Specific Speed 669
Varied Flows 000 12.5.3 Suction Specific Speed 670
Contents xxi

12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 671


12.7 Fans 673
12.8 Turbines 673 VIDEO LIBRARY
12.8.1 Impulse Turbines 674 See book web site, www.wiley.com/
12.8.2 Reaction Turbines 682 go/global/munson, for this material.
12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 685
12.9.1 Compressors 686
12.9.2 Compressible Flow Turbines 689
12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 691 REVIEW PROBLEMS
References 693 See book web site, www.wiley.com/
Review Problems 693 go/global/munson, for this material.
Problems 693
H
LABORATORY PROBLEMS
COMPUTATIONAL FLUID See book web site, www.wiley.com/
go/global/munson, for this material.
DYNAMICS AND FLOWLAB 701

B I
CFD DRIVEN CAVITY EXAMPLE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF See book web site, www.wiley.com/
FLUIDS 714 go/global/munson, for this material.

C
PROPERTIES OF THE U.S.
J
FLOWLAB TUTORIAL AND
STANDARD ATMOSPHERE 717 USER'S GUIDE
See book web site, www.wiley.com/
go/global/munson, for this material.
D
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW DATA
FOR AN IDEAL GAS 718 K
FLOWLAB PROBLEMS
See book web site, www.wiley.com/
ONLINE APPENDIX LIST 723 go/global/munson, for this material.

,1l ANSWERS ANS-1


COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF
CONVERSION FACTORS INDEX 1-1
See book web site, www.wiley.com/
go/global/munson, for this material. VIDEO INDEX VI-1