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Compendium Notes Chapter 7 – Lymphatic System and Immunity

7.1 Microbes, Pathogens, and You (Mader p. 122 – 125)

-Human infectious diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses collectively called
pathogens.
-Bacteria: Single-celled prokaryotes – no nucleus.
(1) Bacillus – rod shape
(2) Coccus – spherical shape
(3) Spirillum is curved.

Bacteria (prokaryote):
-Capsule (some have this); thick walled gummy consistency for sticking (such as to
teeth).
-Flagella
-Fimbriae: Stiff fibers that allow adhere to surfaces such as host cells.
-Pilus: Elongated hollow appendage used to transfer DNA from one cell to another.
-*and more… see Mader p. 122

(Mader p. 122)

Virus:
-Viruses bridge the gap between living and nonliving. Outside host, viruses are
essentially chemical that can be stored on a shelf.
-Acellular – not composed of cells.
-Four times smaller than bacteria, which is about 100x smaller than a eukaryotic cell.

(Mader p. 123)
Prions
-Prion: proteinaceous infectious particles
-Mad cow disease is a Prion
-Originally thought to be virus

7.2 Lymphatic System (Mader p. 126 – 129)

-Consists of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs.


-closely associated with cardio system.

Four Main Functions that Contr. to Homeostasis


(1) Lymphatic capillaries absorb excess tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream
(2) In small intestines, lymphatic capillaries called lacteals absorb fats in the form of
lipoproteins and transport to bloodstream
(3) Lymphatic system is responsible for production, maintenance, and distribution of
lymphocytes.
(4) Lymphatic system helps defend the body against pathogens.

Lymphatic vessels:
-One way system of capillaries, vessels, and ducts that take lymph to cardio veins in the
shoulders.
-Lymphatic capillaries: Take up excess tissue fluid.
-Ducts (highways): Thoracic duct (larger) and right lymphatic duct (smaller).
-Thoracic returns lymph collected from body below the thorax, left arm, and left
side of head and neck into the right subclavian vein.

Lymphatic Organs:
-Lymphatic organs are divided into:
(1) Primary: Red bone marrow and the thymus gland.
(2) Secondary: Lymph nodes and spleen.
-Red bone marrow: Central fort that puts the troops (white blood cells) through training.
-Lymphocytes come in the form of “B cells” or “T cells”.
-Thymus: Special training center for T cells to mature (because B cells mature in bone
marrow).
-Located in the thoracic cavity between the trachea and the sternum, superior to
the heart.
-Has two functions:
(1) Produces thymus hormones, such as thmosin, that are thought to aid in the
maturation of T lymphocytes.
(2) Immature T lymphocytes migrate from bone marrow through bloodstream to
thymus, for maturation.
-Spleen
-Filters blood.
-Lymph nodes
-Occur along lymphatic vessels, filter lymph.
-Lymphatic nodules
-Concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule. Tonsils are
example.
-Peyer’s patches
-Located in intestinal wall and the appendix – encounter pathogens that enter the
body by way of the intestinal tract.

7.3 Nonspecific Defenses (Mader p. 128 – 129)

Barriers to Entry (first line)


-Skin and mucous membranes
-Chemical barriers
-Resident Bacteria

Inflammatory Response (second line)


-Mainly neutrophils and macrophages surrounding and killing pathogens
-If neutrophils are overwhelmed, call in cytokines (cytokines attract more white
blood cells to area, including monocytes)

Complementary Proteins
-Complement system: They are involved and amplify inflammatory response (can also
attract phagocytes to the scene).
-Membrane Attack Complex: Produces holes in surface of bacteria and viruses (fluids and
salts enter bacterial cell or virus to point of burst).
-Interferons: Proteins produced by virus-infected cells as a warning to non-infected cell in
area.

7.4 Specific Defenses (Mader p. 130 – 135)

-Specific defenses depend on the action of B Cells and T Cells (lymphocytes)


-Able to recognize antigens because they have specific receptors.
-Each lymphocyte has only one type of receptor (receptor and antigen fit together
like a lock and key).
-During maturation of B Cells and/or T Cells, diversification occurs to extent that there
are SPECIFIC B cells/T Cells for ANY antigen.
B Cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
-Receptor on a B Cell is called a “BCR”
-Antigen selects, then binds to BCR and then B Cell multiplies itself (clonal
selection model)
-Some cloned B Cells become memory cells (long-term immunity) and some become
plasma cells (larger than regular B cells with extensive rough ER for mass production of
antibodies to specific antigen).
-If antigen comes around again, memory B cells quickly divide and give rise to
more plasma cells
-Once threat of infection has passed, plasma cell production ceases and present cells
undergo apoptosis (cell death).

Structure of Antibody
-Basic unit of molecule is a Y-shaped protein with two arms (See Mader p. 132).
-Neutralization: A clump of antigens combine with antibodies, termed immune complex.
This is like a beacon for white blood cells to kill.

Classes of Antibodies
-Five different classes of circulating antibodies.
-IgG are major type in blood. They bind to pathogens and toxins.
-IgM are first produced by a newborn. First to appear with infection and first to
leave. (Good activators of complement system).
-IgA are main type of antibody found in saliva, tears, mucus and breast milk
(secretions).
-IgD serve as antigen receptors on immature B Cells.
-IgE are responsible for prevention of parasitic worm infections, but also cause
allergic responses.

T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity

-T cells attack diseased cells and cancer cells. Other T cells release cytokines that
stimulate both nonspecific and specific defenses.
-When T cell leave thymus, it has a unique TCR 9receptor).
-T cells are unable to recognize an antigen without help.
-T Cells have help from antigen-presenting cell (APC) such as a macrophage.
-Activated T cells and all daughter cells can recognize “foreign” from “self”.
*Complicated* (See Mader p. 134).

-Cytotoxic T Cells: Paratrooper that carry rifles with bayonets. After a cyto T cell binds to
a virus-infected cell or tumor cell, it releases perforin molecules, which punch holes into
the plasma membrance, forming a pore. Then cyto T cell delivers granzymes into the
pore, and these causes the cell to undergo apoptosis.

-Helper T Cells: Despite name, they are like general that do not fight directly. Instead,
they regulate immunity by secreting cytokines (chemical (order) that enhance the
response of all types of immune cells. B cells cannot be activate without T cell help (HIV
infects helper T cells and other cells and inactivates immune response_.

-Memory T Cells: Remain in body and can jump-start immune reaction to antigen
previously present.

Acquired Immunity

-Active Immunity: Individual produces antibodies against an antigen.


-Passive Immunity: Individual is given prepared antibodies via an injection.

Active Immunity
-Occurs naturally after a person is infected with pathogen. Also, vaccines are in this
category because the person isn’t sick yet, but they can build a tolerance with help of
vaccine.

Passive Immunity
-Person is given prepared antibodies or immune cells to combat a disease. Passive
immunity is temp. because their body is not producing the plasma cells.

Monoclonal Antibodies
-Every plasma cell derived from same B cell secretes antibodies against specific antigen.
These are called monoclonal antibodies because all of them are the same type and
because they are produced by plasma cells derived form the same B cell.
-Mostly produced “in glass jar” outside of body.

Cytokines and Immunity


-Cytokines are signaling molecules produced by T lymphocyte, macrophages and other
cells.
-Cytokines regulate white blood cell formation.

7.6 Hypersensitivity Reactions (Mader p. 138 – 139)

-Sometimes immune system responds in manner that harms body – such as allergies,
incompatible bloody type, tissue rejection, or autoimmune disease.

Allergies
-Hypersensitivity to substances (allergens)
-Immediate Allergic Response: Caused by antibodies IgE that are attached to receptors on
plasma membrane of mast cells (antibodies produced b/c of allergen) in the tissues and
also to basophils in the blood. When allergen attaches to IgE antibodies on these cells,
they release histamine and other substances that bring about allergic symptoms.
-Anaphylactic Shock: Immediate allergic response that occurs because allergen has
entered bloodstream.
-Delayed Allergic Response: Initiated by memory T Cells at site of allergen contact in
body (TB test is this).
Tissue Rejection
-Rejection of transplanted tissue results because recipient’s immune system recognizes
that tissue is not “self.”
-Cytotoxic T Cells respond by attacking cells of transplanted tissue.

Disorders of Immune System


-Autoimmune Disease: Cytotoxic T Cells or antibodies attack body’s own cells.
-i.e. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
-i.e. Rheumatoid Arthritis