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University of the Philippines

DILIMAN EXTENSION PROGRAM IN PAMPANGA

Clarkfield, Pampanga

THE ADVANTAGES AND


DISADVANTAGES OF SOCIAL
MEDIA ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS:
An Annotated Bibliography
ADVANTAGES
Reference: Exploring the Potential Benefits of Using Social Media in Education

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to investigate the potential benefits of using social media in
education. A thorough examination of a large set of these online tools has revealed that social
media have many educational advantages. In fact, it has been found out that these web-based
applications can improve communication among students and between teachers and students.
Thanks to these technologies, both teachers and students can interact with each other in a
matter of seconds. Social media can also be used to promote students engagement. Students
who often complain of being intimidated or bored in the classroom may feel comfortable to
express their creativity and voice their opinion on a social network website. Another finding of
this study is that social media applications foster collaboration as they allow students to work
together to achieve a common goal. Given these educational benefits, we recommend that
these online social tools should be used in learning environments.

Annotated Bibliography:

The short paper talks about the potential advantages of social media on education as
Web 2.0 technology emerged. The authors of the study have given significant points that this
tool can indeed affect learning of individuals. Relationships between teachers and students and
among students when it comes to learning were discussed. In the study, three main benefits of
social media on education are given.

Primarily, social media acts as a communication channel for all students and teachers.
Social media can be a medium for the teachers to understand the students confusion and
academic difficulties. Experts have said that the main problem in schools are the lack or
absence of connection between students and teachers. With this, social media helps to
thicken the feedback process of student-teacher communication. Thus, with the interaction
provided by social media platforms, optimal learning can be achieved.

The second benefit of social media on education is its engaging environment. Some
social media platforms do not require face-to-face engagement; thus, this can be an advantage
for shy students to participate in learning activities comfortably. One dilemma that the students
experience in classrooms is the uninteresting materials provided by instructors and the lack of
interaction with teachers. However, social media can offer interactive learning tools for students.
Social media can not only enhance behavioral engagement but also provide learning activities
that are both social and interactive.

Finally, social media offer collaborative platforms that helps students and teachers work
together intellectually and socially in order to achieve common goal. This is what we call
cooperative learning. According to the study, there are three collaborative elements:
Participation, Interaction, Synthesis. Students and teachers can not only participate and give
individual ideas and information, but also interact with each other and process and interconnect
ideas and resources jointly.
Reference: The Impact of New Social Media on Intercultural Adaptation

Abstract:

New social media have become increasingly popular components of our everyday lives
in todays globalizing society. They provide a context where people across the world can
communicate, exchange messages, share knowledge, and interact with each other regardless
of the distance that separates them. Intercultural adaptation involves the process of promoting
understanding through interaction to increase the level of fitness so that the demands of a new
cultural environment can be met. Research shows that people tend to use new social media to
become more integrated into the host culture during their adaptation and to maintain
connections to their home countries. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of using new
social media on the intercultural adaptation process. In-depth interviews of international
students in a U.S. university are conducted. Based on the results of the analysis, directions for
future research in this line of research are also discussed.

Annotated Bibliography:

Social media plays an enormous role in todays globalization. More people are turning to
social media to stay connected to friends and family, especially those who live far away from
their loved ones. There are four main stages in intercultural adaptation: honeymoon, crisis,
adjustment and biculturalism. These are the four stages that a migrant would go as they adapt
to a culturally different environment.

The study focused on how internet usage, specifically social media, impacted the
enculturation process for international students at a university in the United States of America.
The respondents of the study did say they strengthen, build, and maintain relationships through
social media. It helped them in overcoming adjustment challenges and establishing a sense of
community. In terms of adjustment challenges, the use of social media enabled them to become
more familiar with the American way of life and to understand the norms and traditions. On the
other hand, a sense of community is developed through contacts made and maintained across
the university campus and even across the U.S. Social media even provides them the
opportunity to connect with people in the same situation, and with this, they may share their
experiences with each other. Social media becomes a giant address which enables people to
become connected with various people that otherwise they would have lost or struggled to have
any contact with.

Reference: Benefits and Risks of Children and Adolescents Using Social Media
Abstract:

Children and teenagers widely use social media, and recent studies have shown that
they spend majority of their time daily in social media pages. This study aims to show the
positive and negative impacts that social media has in the development of the teenagers. This
review brings together work from disparate fields which examine the relationship between social
media and social capital, privacy, youth safety, psychological well-being, and educational
achievement. We observed this phenomenon in Albania by interviewing teenagers between 11-
16 years of age. Those selected were regular users of social media. The study shows that
children and teenagers were positively affected as social media helped in increasing their
communication abilities, getting information, developing their technical skills, and how they can
effectively use this recent technology. On the other side, they are exposed to risk of Facebook
depression, cyberbullying, and online sexual harassments. In the conclusions part of this study,
some suggestions were given for further studies.

Annotated Bibliography:

Adolescence stage is when teenagers develop their identity and explore their sexuality,
and as well as physical and moral development. Since social media offers a supportive
environment to young people, it becomes their tool to discover and build new relationships with
other people, romantic or not. Based on the study, there are three major benefits of social media
on children and adolescents.

The most significant benefit of social media is socialization and communication. People,
especially teenagers, use social media to interact with one another. There is a term called
virtual empathy that can be acquired from using social media. With virtual empathy, people
can determine view of self, community, and of the whole world. Social media also helps people
stay connected from afar, especially with friends and families. Second benefit is the access to
health information. It is definitely advantageous on teenagers to gain knowledge about their self-
development: socially, morally, physically, or psychologically. Topics of interest for teenagers
such as STI, stress management, time management, and depression are available in some
social media sites. Lastly, children and adolescents may enhance their learning opportunities.
Some social media platforms provide students an efficient way of learning. They can work online
with assignments and projects by collaborating and sharing ideas.

On a survey conducted by the author, all 20 teen respondents answered that they spend
three or more hours of time browsing on social media. Some answered that they have
experienced both advantage and disadvantage of social media. On the bright side, 70% of the
respondents use social media for learning purposes, sharing posts and participating on of
educational topics. The author concluded that there are indeed both benefits and risks on social
media use, however, when used wisely, it certainly may have positive outcomes.
Reference: Facebook, YouTube and Instagram: Exploring Their Effects on Undergraduate
Students Personality Traits

Abstract:

Research presented in this article examines the effects of social media usage on
Normans (1963) five-factor personality traits. Drawing upon the Five-Factor Model of
personality traits, a research model that examines the effect of social media on personality traits
was developed. The validated model provides evidence of the effects of Facebook, YouTube
and Instagram usage on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism and
Openness to Experience.

Annotated Bibliography:

Social media gives everyone the opportunity to freely connect, communicate, and
interact to one another. In the study conducted in Malaysia among university students, social
media sites, specifically, Facebook, YouTube and Instagram, are studied to identify their effects
on the samples Personality Traits. The personality traits measured are based on the Big Five
Personality Traits that represents the fundamental description of human personality namely,
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. The study used
snowball sampling to distribute the printed and online questionnaires. A total of 382 university
student respondents participated in the study.

According to the results of the study, Facebook and YouTube users are extrovert
individuals. Thus, there is a positive effect of YouTube and Facebook on Extraversion. On the
other hand, usage of Instagram and YouTube positively affects Neuroticism, meaning that
YouTube and Instagram affect ones emotional stability since both sites offers commenting and
giving feedback between users. Meanwhile, Facebook and Instagram usage also has positive
effects on Openness to experience. This makes sense since open individuals can easily adapt
to changes and open to different ideas and opinions. Likewise, Instagram has positive effects on
Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

The results proved that social media does affect ones personality trait, though some
literatures provided by the researchers did not agree on the results of the study and few
hypothesis were not supported. Clearly, we cannot deny that social media can indeed affect our
personality. This study proves that social media can be a tool for understanding and identifying
social media users traits. This can be helpful to social media sites owners to further improve
their systems, especially those social media platforms that include professional and personal
relationship-building. In fact, social media platforms with interfaces that are based on ones
personality can gain higher sense of trust.
DISADVANTAGES
Reference: Problem Internet use and locus of control among college students: Preliminary
findings

Abstract:

Rapid growth and easy access to the Internet have facilitated its influence on the
American way of life. Aside from the numerous benefits of this now ubiquitous technological
tool, the problem of over use and the resulting Internet Addiction is becoming increasingly
apparent. College students represent a particularly vulnerable group for problem Internet use.
The present study investigated the relationship between problem Internet use and locus of
control among 706 undergraduate college students who completed questionnaires. Results
indicated that a large proportion of students reported feelings of dissociation and symptoms of
tolerance, withdrawal and escape. Moreover, frequent interpersonal and academic conflicts,
and physical health-threatening risks related to problem Internet use were found. While men
reported more Internet-related problems overall, women were more likely to attempt to cut back
or stop their Internet use. A significant positive correlation between external locus of control and
problem Internet use was found. Finally, men were seven times more likely to gamble online.

Annotated Bibliography:

The lifestyle of college students puts them most at risk of possible problem internet use
and locus of control given that they have flexible time. For the study written by Brian Rotsztein,
M.A., the term problem Internet use refers to intensive Internet use which can lead to problems
but not necessarily anything severely uncontrollable. Problem Internet is considered more of an
impulse control disorder than an addiction. Regardless of the exact terminology for it, the author
of the study contends that problem Internet use appears to have many features of that impulse
control disorders.

The term locus of control refers to the extent that a person thinks that he or she can
control the events in his or her life. Individuals with an internal locus of control believe that the
outcomes of events around them can be internally controlled. In other words, they believe that
through their own efforts, behaviors or skills will influence and determine the outcomes. Thus,
they take greater responsibility for their actions. In contrast, individuals with an external locus of
control base their life events to external forces such as chance, luck and fate etc. and behave
as if those forces are to the ones to be blamed for their loss in life. The hypothesis of the study
was that there is a correlation between problem internet use and external locus of control. The
study was successful in drawing a connection between the two. Interestingly the study also
found that men appear to be more likely to experience problems with their internet use. The
majority of women were more likely to control their internet use than men when problems arise.
Therefore, this suggests that women have a higher level of awareness regarding their internet
use than men.
Reference: A Study of the Effects of Social Media Use and Addiction on Relationship
Satisfaction

Abstract:

Based on traditional theories of relationship satisfaction and Internet dependency, this


study examined the relationship between social media use and addiction to interpersonal
relationship satisfaction with an individuals closest relationship. Two hundred nineteen (N =
219) individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 who are users of social media participated in an
online questionnaire about their satisfaction with their closest interpersonal relationship. Our
results were based on one-tailed correlations between time spent on social media, social media
withdrawal, and their connection to relationship satisfaction. The results did not support our
hypothesis and there was a negative correlation between social media use and relationship
satisfaction. Further implications and future investigations of the effects of social media use are
discussed.

Annotated Bibliography:

The study explored the effects of social media use and addiction on relationships.
Several key factors were taken into account when exploring this topic: stage of relationship,
relationship satisfaction, surveillance, and jealousy. The study did find that sites such as
Facebook have indeed an effect on relationships. The author suggests that couples are
changing the way in relationship people use social networking sites, specifically Facebook, and
that they are embracing the sites use into their relationship. Social media is a crucial
component in relationships with the current generation who have grown up with this technology.

Social media can quickly distribute vast amounts of information. Naturally, surveillance
can arise in such an environment with individuals of different motives wanting information on
others. The study examined couples in different stages of relationship and partner surveillance
to determine any negative correlations. It did find that as self-disclosure increases (stage of
relationship), surveillance also increases. On the other hand, as a couple progresses further into
their relationship, the use of Facebook decreases. This is due to the fact that couples are
getting closer with their significant other by investing more time into the relationship. They check
their partners social media account to ensure and protect their relationship stability.
Reference: Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families

Abstract:

This paper intends to x-ray what social media is and how it translates to children,
adolescents and their parents as it pertains to family living. Internet provide benefits in the
areas of cognitive and social development and present risks as well as opportunities for
adolescents growth and development. Using social media web sites is among the most
common activity of todays children and adolescents. Any web site that allows social interaction
is considered a social media site. Internet also provide benefits in the area of intellectual,
emotional development and also present risks as well as opportunities to teenagers and
childrens development in functional and societal challenges. Social media offers todays
youths a portal for entertainment and communication. As society becomes more reliant on the
World Wide Web, the risk of internet addiction of children and teens is diagnosed with several
emotional and social phobia. For this reason, it is vital that parents become aware of the nature
of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and
adolescents. Pediatricians, psychologists and childhood educators are in a unique position to
help families understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and urge parents to monitor
for potential problems like cyberbullying, Facebook depression, sexting and exposure to
inappropriate content. The benefits of social media use justifies this papers output through
opportunities created for information gathering, entertainment and social interaction.

Annotated Bibliography:

According to the journal written by written by Dr. Mrs. Florence Undiyaundeye, new
generation of children and adolescents were born in the time of rapid technological changes,
which makes them susceptible to todays social media. This is alarming since there could be
more risks than benefits experienced by children and adolescents given that they have limited
self-regulation. Unfortunately, this can harm family relationships as well.

The author listed main five risks of social media to teens and pre-teens: Cyberbullying is
communicating false and embarrassing information about other person, which is similar to
online harassment. This can cause psychological outcome such as depression, severe isolation,
and suicide. Sexting is sending or sharing sexually explicit resources by digital devices, some of
those who experience this are threatened or charged with felony. Meanwhile, Facebook
depression is the depression that develops from spending too much time on social media sites
like Facebook. People who experience this tend to turn to risky internet sites and feel social
isolation. Defective social relationship, on the other hand, is experiencing distorted family and
friend bonds and interaction because too much exposure on social media. This can result to
lower level of self-esteem and psychological symptoms of maladjustment. Finally, distorted
senescence of reality is the experience of having a different view of what is normal. This is the
effect of multiple ads that target people based on web-browsing behavior and demographics.

Although, some benefits of social media for children were listed as well by the author, it
cannot still be denied that social media has a big negative impact on us. The author
recommends the parents to learn more about their childrens online life. Child educators and
pediatricians may also help parents on how to handle and monitor their childrens social media
behavior.
Reference: The effects of social media sites on self-esteem

Abstract:

With the advent of the Internet over a decade ago came the introduction of a new form
of communication referred to as social networking. On-line social networking sites, such as
Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter, have become increasingly popular and almost an integral part
of everyday life, especially for college students. Approximately ninety percent of college
students have a Facebook account, and it is estimated that the average amount of time spent
on this social networking site ranges from thirty minutes to over two hours on a daily basis. The
purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between on-line social networking sites,
particularly Facebook, and the self-esteem levels of college students. According to past
research, there appears to be a connection between more time spent online and a decline in
face-to-face communication with family and peers, which leads to feelings of loneliness and
depression (Chen & Lee, 2013).

To test the effect Facebook interaction has on self-esteem, undergraduate students


were asked to participate in an online, anonymous survey that consisted of the Rosenberg Self-
Esteem Scale, the Body Esteem Scale, the Facebook Intensity Scale, and the Eating Attitudes
Test-26. Data was analyzed using the bivariate correlation test and the independent samples T-
test. The results of the data collection suggest that females spend more time on Facebook than
males and have larger amount of friends on Facebook than males. Results also indicated that
females have lower body image satisfaction and a greater drive for thinness than males.

Annotated Bibliography:

The study explored the effects of social media use and addiction on
relationships. Several key factors were taken into account when exploring this topic: stage of
relationship, relationship satisfaction, surveillance, and jealousy. The study did find that sites
such as Facebook have indeed an effect on relationships. The author suggests that couples are
changing the way in relationship people use social networking sites, specifically Facebook, and
that they are embracing the sites use into their relationship. Social media is a crucial
component in relationships with the current generation who have grown up with this technology.

Social media can quickly distribute vast amounts of information. Naturally, surveillance
can arise in such an environment with individuals of different motives wanting information on
others. The study examined couples in different stages of relationship and partner surveillance
to determine any negative correlations. It did find that as self-disclosure increases (stage of
relationship), surveillance also increases. On the other hand, as a couple progresses further into
their relationship, the use of Facebook decreases. This is due to the fact that couples are
getting closer with their significant others by investing more time into the relationship. They
check their partners social media account to ensure and protect their relationship stability.
Reflection:

In the present world we live in, things go fast in a blink of an eye. Technological
innovation is endless, which has provided humans such brilliant inventions that help us in our
everyday lives. Social media is definitely one of that, and the most famous technological
phenomenon I may say. Indeed, social media has given us numerous advantages. Through it,
we can communicate to other people in different locations, collaborate and share ideas with one
another, and gain knowledge from resources found online. These advantages cannot only be
beneficial to each individual but to the whole society as well, ranging from households to
business organizations.

However, like the adored comic hero Spiderman said, with great power, comes great
responsibility. Social media has such huge impact on our lives that we fail to realize that it also
has risks that we should look out for since it can affect us in different aspects. Children and
adolescents are the most vulnerable ones when it comes to social media use. The level of their
self-regulation is not strong enough. Self-esteem significantly is the most affected part of
adolescents. Those who fail to fight this risk tend to experience severe depression and lack of
real-life social contact, worst case scenario is to commit suicide. Undeniably, too much time on
social media greatly affects even the most basic unit of community, which is family. Hence, it is
important for the parents to not take social media use so lightly. They must monitor their
childrens social media behavior and learn more about it. Gaps must be closed and physically
spending time with the members of the family is crucial

Certainly, social media mostly affects our psychological state, how we behave, how we
perceive, and why we do things as it is. People must know that offline life is more important
and should be treasured sincerely. Social media will not be detrimental as long as precautions
are done. It is necessary to balance real life and social media life. We shall focus more on what
benefits technological changes has given to us and be more responsible.
References:

Journals

Faizi, R., et. al. (2013). Exploring the Potential Benefits of Using Social Media in
Education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 3(4), 50-53.
Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272998596_Exploring_the_Potential_Benefits_of_Usin
g_Social_Media_in_Education

Hamid, N., et.al. (2015). Facebook, YouTube and Instagram: Exploring Their Effects on
Undergraduate Students Personality Traits. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 2(4), 138-
165. Retrieved from http://thejsms.org/index.php/TSMRI/article/view/101/63

Tartary, E. (2015). Benefits and Risks of Children and Adolescents Using Social Media.
European Scientific Journal, 11(13), 321-332. Retrieved from
http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/download/5654/5480

Undiyaundeye, F. (2014). Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and


Families. Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3(2), 1-4. Retrieved from
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/4/800

Theses and Short Paper

Farrugia, R. (2013). Facebook and Relationships: A Study of How Social Media Use is
Affecting Long-Term Relationships (Masters thesis). Retrieved from
http://scholarworks.rit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=theses

Raymer, K. (2015). The effects of social media sites on self-esteem (Masters thesis).
Retrieved from http://rdw.rowan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1283&context=etd

Sawyer, R. (2011) "The Impact of New Social Media on Intercultural Adaptation". Senior
Honors Projects. Paper 242. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/srhonorsprog/242

Conference Paper

Rotszein, B. (2010). Problem Internet use and locus of control among college students:
Preliminary findings. Paper presented at The 35th Annual Conference of the New England
Educational Research Organization, New Hampshire. Boston College. Retrieved from
http://www.brianrotsztein.com/downloads/internetresearch.pdf