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Computation of Flow and Resistance around LNG Carrier in Deep and Shallow Water

A. Maimun*, F. A. Adnan, A. Y. Sian, Rahimudin, A. Priyanto, Yasser M. Ahmed

Marine Technology Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,

81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

adi@fkm.utm.my

ABSTRACT

Many more methods can be found in the literature to correct shallow

water effects. To mention some; Raven (2012), Jiang (2001), and work

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations are conducted of Blaauw and van der Knaap (1983). However, it must be noted that

with general purpose solver Fluent to examine the effect of resistance these methods were developed based on limited laboratory or field

and viscous free surface flow of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier measurements, which do not work best for all types of vessels in all

hull form. Shear-stress transport k turbulence and multiphase volume types of shallow water parameters. Wave breaking, squat, deformation

of fluid (VOF) free surface employed. The test matrix included depth of free surface in strong shallow water influences often introduce

values of H/d from 1.2 to 5 at several speeds ranging within Fn = complex physical interactions and makes shallow water effect cannot be

0.0403 - 0.2215. The resistance characteristics and wave profile of the predicted with sufficient accuracy. Thus, it is useful to examine the

LNG model also investigated. Model tests were conducted in towing shallow water effect with more than one formula and compare the

tank for validation of the computed results. Overall results agree fairly results based on the type of ship and parameters in restricted water.

well with experimental data, reveals the feasibility of RANS method in

practical prediction of LNG resistance characteristics. Numerical calculations have been less common in the past until now.

The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) offers the opportunities for

KEY WORDS: Resistance; shallow water; computational fluid studies on shallow water hydrodynamic problems which can only be

dynamics (CFD); RANS; free surface. studied by experimental means in the past. In addition, inclusion of

shallow water is relatively simple in CFD compared to model test by

INTRODUCTION simply defining a suitable boundary condition at the bottom of the

computational domain. Exploiting on the powerful computational

The remarkable growth of demand for energy by the year has led to facilities, CFD can be used as a cost-effective alternative for model

increasingly larger liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier. On the other tests.

hand, increasing dimensions of LNG carrier lead to increasingly

influence of restricted fairway to vessel hydrodynamics, and the vessel In this study, the authors performed a series of calculations of flow

increasingly suffer from the shallow water effects in restricted water. around LNG in different water depths. The resistance and viscous free

surface flow of LNG carrier in calm water are examined. The

Some notable changed regarding ship operated in shallow water which calculations were executed by general purpose commercial RANS

has been observed including increased wave making especially at the solver Fluent V14. The calculated values of LNG resistance can be

forward end of ship, increased width of wake, decreased propulsive divided into the frictional and pressure components. They were

efficiency, and loss of speed. The wave pattern generated by the ship compared and presented in the paper. Model tests were also conducted

hull is significantly affected by the water depth and the ships speed to validate the numerical results. This paper is organized as follows;

relative to the critical wave speed. This affect the flow around the ship First, the mathematical model is presented. This is followed by

significantly, hence significantly affect the resistance of ship. descriptions of the numerical and experimental methods. The

computational results are shown in the results section for analysis, and

It is crucial for a naval architect to be able to assess the influence of discussions. Finally, concluding remarks are made in the conclusion

shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of the vessel during section.

the design process. Thus, a reliable prediction of the shallow water

effect is of high important. A variety of methods are available in NUMERICAL METHODS

literature on estimation of ship resistance in shallow water.

The hydrodynamics in this study are modeled using RANS equations

Perhaps the most widely practice method for estimation of resistance in employing the Finite volume method (FVM). In this method, water is

shallow water correction could be found from Lackenby (1963). assumed incompressible, thus the volume of water entering

Generally, this shallow water resistance estimation method gives a computational cells in vicinity of ships hull will match with an equal

velocity correction in shallow water relative to deep water velocity and volume of water flowing out, leads to continuity equation. Together

was adopted by ITTC (2012) as recommended standard. To use the with Navier-Stokes equations, conservation of momentum of the flow

correction formula, one would first need to determine the deep water can be defined and flow field around ships hull can be characterized.

resistance of the model to use as input. Despite its popularity, the Free surface and wave elevation are solved based on the Volume of

correction method of Lackenby was actually extended from the work of Fluid method. Formulations and details of the numerical methodologies

Schlichting (which was developed based on warship hull forms). in CFD are well documented in many literatures. Thus, only the main

The 7th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodymics-APHydro2014 Vladivostok, September 9-13, 2014

features of the methodologies described. The LNG model is attached to the computer controlled planar motion

mechanism at the carriage in bare hull and free to heave and pitch. Two

Governing Equation load cells was used and placed at equal distance from the midship of

model to record the longitudinal force. A glimpse of experimental test

The governing equations applied in this study are instantaneous conducted has been shown in Fig. 1.

conservation of mass (continuity equations) and momentum (RANS) for

incompressible turbulence flow. These equations are expressed in

Cartesian tensor form as follows: a

a

0 (1)

(2)

2

3

coordinates xi (i = 1, 2, 3), p, and are the static pressure, fluid

density and fluid viscosity respectively, ij is the Kronecker delta and b

is the Reynolds stress, where a

2 !

"

3

(3)

!

Turbulence Model

model, shear-stress transport (SST) model was used, where

a

(

( ( ) $) &) *) ') (5)

kinetic energy due to mean velocity gradients and generation of . The

effective diffusivity for the SST k model represented by ! and ) .

The term &! represents the dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy and

term &) represents dissipation of . Cross-diffusion term of the model

is given by *) , and '! and ') are user-defined source terms. The SST

model remained as one of the most accurate and reliable turbulence Fig.1. Captive model test in towing tank: a. Model towed in deep water

models for external hydrodynamics (Fonfach and Guedes Soares, 2010). condition after passing the shallow water platform, b. Model test in deep

water condition, c. Model test in shallow water condition

SIMULATION DESIGN AND ANALYSIS METHODS The LNG model ship was manufactured with a scale ratio of 1:112 and

contains open stern-form with buttock flow line and a wide central skeg.

Experiment The principal dimensions of LNG tanker are presented in Table 1 and

the body plan is shown in Fig. 2.

The experimental results discussed have been obtained by captive

model test in the towing tank at Marine Technology Centre of Universiti Table 1 Principal dimension of the ship and model

Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). This facility, with main dimensions of 120

4 2.5 m3, allows execution of captive model test in deep water

conditions. 20 m shallow water platform was installed in the tank during Principal particulars Full scale Model

the test and water was drained from the tank in order to get to the

desired water height to models draught ratio, resulting into two water Length between perpendicular (L) in meters 266 2.375

depth, the deep water (H/d = 25) and shallow water (h/d = 1.3)

conditions could be investigated in a run.

The 7th Asia-Pacific

Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodymics

Hydrodymics-APHydro2014 Vladivostok September 9-13, 2014

Vladivostok,

Beam (B) in meters 41.6 0.371 near the free surface and surrounding ththe ship hull regions as shown in

Fig. 4 to capture the ship waves.

wave Since wall function is used in this

Draft (d) in meters 11.13 0.099 study, the size of first grid point away from ship hull is refined to y+ =

50 for every Froude number with 20 cells within boundary layer to

Block coefficient (Cb) 0.746 0.746 capture the detailed fluid property. The dimensions of the three grids are

summarized in Table 2.

a

Fig. 2. Body plan of the LNG carrier a

Computational Domain and Boundary Conditions

onditions

2.3L 1.3L

1.3L z

x

0.14L

y

1.6 L

Pressure outlet

b

Ship hull Bottom a

Pressure inlet (no slip) (no slip)

Wall

(no slip)

For the present study, the domain was made up of seven boundaries:

hull surface, flow pressure inlet, flow pressure outlet, top and bottom as

well as two side walls. Schematic diagram indicating the computational

domain is given in Fig. 3. Location of the hull, tank bottom and two Fig.4.. Computational grid topology: aa. Overview of the grid, b. Frontal

side walls are corresponding

onding to the towing tank with smooth walls and view of the ship with refinement on the surface grid around ship

no-slip condition imposed. Hydrostatic pressure at outlet boundary was

calculated as a function of water volume fraction. Calculations were

performed in model scale with standard wall function used. Computational Setup and Numerical Simulation

Grid Generation The SIMPLE-Consistent algorithm is used to couple the momentum and

continuity equations. Pressure Staggering Option (PRESTO!) scheme is

The grid systems are generated by ICEM CFD with structural grid used for pressure interpolation while other terms are discretized using a

approach. Three geometrical similar grids with different grid spacing in second order upwind method. Volume fraction equations solved by

three directions are generated for grid independent study. The three High Resolution Interface Capturing (HRIC) scheme.

scheme Convergence was

systematically varied grids set were created ated with uniform grid assessed by ensuring the drag converge to steady state and residuals

refinement factor, + , -. , 2 where , -. - and , are the grid

1

scaled by the initial imbalance of equations drop four oorders of

spacing of two successively refined grids with , corresponding to the magnitude.

grid spacing of finest grid.

Viscous flow field around LNG model at Froude number ranging

rangi from

All the grid generated in this study are such that finer grids distributed 0.04 to 0.22 corresponding to 4 knots

knot to 20 knots in full scale are

computed. The simulation program included five identical series of

The 7th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodymics-APHydro2014 Vladivostok, September 9-13, 2014

experiments at different H/d ratios, namely H/d = 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6 and 5

to study the effect of shallow water. 0.075 49

29 = 8 = (7)

log 4@ 2 1

Simulations are run on a shared-memory type machine with 4 2 ' 78

processors (3.6 GHz). The computing time for finest grid (Grid-1) used

4 processors required roughly 30 wall clock hours. It must be emphasize The pressure resistance coefficient, CP is calculated as CT CF.

that the ship model is fixed at even keel for all simulations, whereas

experiments are performed with ship model free in heave and pitch

motions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Test matrix

Model In the grid independent study, the solution change between fine and

0.194 0.292 0.403 0.51 0.632

speed (m/s) medium grid 21 is mostly below 1% of fine grid solution S1, whereas

Fn 0.0403 0.0604 0.0835 0.1057 0.1309 the solution change between medium and coarse grid 32 is close to 4%

S1. 21 is smaller at approximate 2.5 times 32. Fig. 5 shows the

6

Rn (10 ) 0.535 0.801 1.108 1.403 1.738 comparison of total resistance from CFD prediction over different grid

size with experiment measurement. Grids for simulation in others water

depth were generated based on the medium grid size, considering its

H/d = 5.0 accuracy and shorter simulation time in compared to the fine grid.

H/d = 1.6 -

3.50

H/d = 1.4 -

H/d = 1.3 - 3.00

H/d = 1.2 -

2.50

RT [N]

2.00

Model Exp

0.75 0.850 0.9 0.950 1.070 Grid-1 (fine)

speed (m/s) 1.50 Grid-2 (medium)

Fn 0.1554 0.1761 0.1865 0.1968 0.2215 Grid-3 (coarse)

1.00

Rn (106) 2.062 2.337 2.475 2.612 2.940 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22

Fn

different grid system

H/d = 1.6 - -

H/d = 1.4 - - Resistance Characteristics

H/d = 1.3 - -

Fig. 6 shows the trend of total resistance from CFD prediction on

H/d = 1.2 - - medium grid system and experiment measurement. The CFD results of

the LNG hull in deep and shallow water (H/d = 1.3) are compared

: Simulation & experiment performed, : simulation performed, -: test against the experimental resistance data. A shallow water effect

not performed. correction was made to the experimental data based on correction

method of Lackenby. In general, the agreement is qualitatively

Resistance Characteristics reasonable, but quantitatively, considerable differences are seen at

shallow water H/d = 1.3 at high Froude number.

The total resistance RT is compose of frictional resistance RF and

pressure resistance RP. In experimental method, frictional resistance is In the deep water conditions, the experimental data shows the lowest RT

defined by ITTC-57 ship model correlation line. Sum of wave and at the lowest speed Fn=0.0835. A further increase in speed produces

hydrostatic terms are defined as residual resistance RR and assumed increase in the RT curve and record the largest RT at highest speed

equivalence to pressure resistance, RP = RT RF. In CFD method, the Fn=0.2215. CFD data show an increase from minimum RT near lowest

frictional resistance RF and pressure resistance RP are computed as speed Fn=0.0403 up to the maximum at the highest speed Fn=0.2072.

Compared to the experimental data, the computational results are under

integral of tangential stresses and normal stresses over the hull. Total

predicted from 6.4% to 11.2% of experimental value.

resistance coefficient CT is expressed by non-dimensionalising RT as

43

In shallow water condition of H/d = 1.3, the experimental and CFD data

23

1

show increase from minimum RT near lowest speed Fn=0.0403 up to the

(6)

' 78 maximum at the highest speed Fn=0.2215. Compared to the

2 experimental data, the CFD results are over predicted from 6.5% to

79.78% of experimental value. Differences between the experimental

where S is the wetted hull surface area in still water. The frictional

and CFD data may attribute to the possible error during procedure of

resistance coefficient, CF, in accordance with the ITTC-57 formula is

experiment or numerical simulations and the different in running

defined by: attitudes between CFD and experiment where model is fixed and even

The 7th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodymics-APHydro2014 Vladivostok, September 9-13, 2014

keel in CFD while physical model in towing tank experience free trim

changes and squat.

3.50

6.0

CFD, H/d = 1.3 3.00

CFD, H/d = 5.0 (deep water)

5.0

Lackenby, H/d = 1.3 (exp) 2.50

CP/CF ratio

Exp, H/d = 1.3 CFD, H/d = 1.2

4.0 2.00

Exp (deep water)

CFD, H/d = 1.3

RT [N]

3.0 1.50

CFD, H/d = 1.4

1.00

2.0 CFD, H/d = 1.6

0.50

CFD, H/d = 5.0

1.0

0.00

0.02 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.27

0.0

0.02 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.22 Fn

Fn

Fig. 8. Comparison of resistance ratio CP/CF in CFD and experiment

Fig. 6. Comparison of resistance between computational and

experimental results (medium grid) Free Surface

Except the shallow water conditions at high Froude number, overall The study of free surface wave profile around the hull is crucial with

trends are encouraging in that the computational results follow the regard to the study of wave resistance. Fig. 9 shows the computed free

trends of the experimental data well. High validation comparison error surface wave elevation for Fn = 0.1761 and at H/d = 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 and 5.

at the highest Froude number in shallow water may indicates the The zones of high pressure at the bow and the stern regions of hull are

difficulties in resistance prediction due to high wave making resistance. detected wall by the CFD. In the H/d = 5, typical Kelvin wave pattern

More mesh elements around the hull are required, which could not be with symmetric and diverging waves are observed. For the shallower

attained due to limitation in computational resources. water depth conditions, larger amplitude of bow wave appears and

drastic reduction of the stern waves occurs compared to deep water

9.0 conditions as water depth decreases.

CFD, H/d = 1.2

8.0 CFD, H/d = 1.3

CFD, H/d = 1.4 This explained the increase of CP/CF ratio with decrease of water depth

7.0 CFD, H/d = 1.6 that caused by the pressure change due to differential change in wave

CFD, H/d = 5.0 profile. The study clearly shows that the effect of pressure to the ship

6.0 Lackenby, H/d = 1.2

Lackenby, H/d = 1.3 hull becomes more pronounced in shallower water depths.

5.0

RT [N]

Lackenby, H/d = 1.6 Shallow water conditions are still a challenge for numerical

4.0 Lackenby, H/d = 5.0

computations. For high Froude numbers, interaction of hull with bottom

3.0 leads to a complex flow and the grid used may still have been somewhat

2.0 coarse. Applying finer mesh in certain critical areas would result in

much longer computing times.

1.0

0.0

0.02 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.22

Fn

Fig. 7, showing the shallow water resistance from CFD and method of

Lackenby. Comparing CFD and experimental results, the shallow water

resistance by Lackenby gives a relatively higher values for the total

resistance. This result is also mentioned by Raven (2012), showing the

method of Lackenby gave higher overall resistance estimates.

Fig. 8 shows the resistance ratio CP/CF from CFD calculations. For all

the water depth conditions, the pressure components in the resistance

dominate in current LNG model with increases with higher speed. The

CP/CF in this study shows the minimum at Fn=0.0403, followed by

increase with further increase in speed produces a maximum at

Fn=0.2215, which may attribute to the changes in free surface around

the hull. This demonstrated the pressure on the ship hull is more

pronounced for shallower water depths.

The 7th Asia-Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodymics-APHydro2014 Vladivostok, September 9-13, 2014

the shallow water investigations, the shallower depth gave larger total

resistance (RT). The study shows that the increase of RT for shallower

water depth is due to the changes in amplitudes of the bow and stern

waves. Differences between the CFD and experimental data are

expected due to inconsistency in running attitudes between CFD and

experiment. More studies are required to investigate the effect of finer

grid and covering trim and sinkage in CFD for more practical prediction

of resistance characteristics in future.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

and Centre for Information and Communication Technology (CICT) in

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The authors would like to express their

sincere gratitude to Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation

(MOSTI) Malaysia and Malaysia Ministry of Education for the financial

support given to the research.

REFERENCES

restricted water. Delft Hydraulic Laboratory, 1983.

Fonfach, J. M. A., Guedes Soares, C., (2010). Improving the Resistance

of a Series 60 Vessel with a CFD Code. Proceedings of V European

Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, Lisbon, Portugal.

H. C. Raven.(2012). Towards a new shallow-water correction method

for ship speed-power relations. Technical report, MARIN.

ITTC. (2012).ITTC Recommended procedures and guidelines. Speed

and power trials, Part 2 Analysis of speed/power trial data.

Lackenby, H. (1963). The effect of shallow water on ship speed.

Shipbuilder 70, ( 672)

Menter, F. R. (1994). Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence

Models for Engineering Applications. AIAA Journal. Vol. 32(8), pp.

1598 -1605.

Muzaferija, S. Peric, M., Sames, P., and Schellin. T. (1998). A Two-

Fluid Navier-Stokes Solver to Simulate Water Entry. Proceedings of

22nd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Washington, DC. pp. 277

289.

T. Jiang. (2001). A new method for resistance and propulsion prediction

of the ship performance in shallow water. Proceedings of 8th PRADS

Symposium, China.

Van Doormaal, J. P. and Raithby, G. D. (1984). Enhancements of the

SIMPLE Method for Predicting Incompressible Fluid Flows.

Numerical Heat Transfer. Vol. 7, pp. 147 -163.

Volker Bertram. (2000). Practical ship hydrodynamics. London:

Butterworth Heinemann.

Fig. 9. Free surface elevations at Fn = 0.1761 and H/d = 5, 1.6, 1.4, 1.2

(from top to bottom)

CONCLUSIONS

purpose solver Fluent to examine the effect of resistance and viscous

free surface flow of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier hull form are

presented. The numerical studies in this paper gave a deeper insight into

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