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Component Modeling - HA Page 1 of 5

Component Modeling
For harmonic analysis, frequency characteristics, and the nonlinearity of power system components must
be recognized and modeled appropriately. Depending on their nature and behavior, these components are
modeled in very different ways.

Nonlinear loads in power systems are essentially either injecting harmonic currents into the system or
applying harmonic voltages at the given points. Therefore, they are conventionally modeled as current
sources and voltage sources with harmonic frequencies. Normal power sources such as power grids or
generators, if they contain harmonic components in their fixed voltages, are modeled as voltage sources
with harmonic frequencies.

Harmonic Current Source


Nonlinear components that are normally modeled as a harmonic current source:

z Static Load
z UPS
z Charger/Converter
z VFD
z SVC
z Transformer
z Inverter

When modeled as harmonic current sources, these components will inject harmonic current into the
connected buses.

A saturated transformer can also be modeled as a harmonic current source when it contributes significant
harmonic current into the system (most likely when the transformer is lightly loaded). Harmonic current
source generated by a transformer is normally shared evenly at all of the sides; however, if the transformer
windings have grounding impedances or their ground connections do not allow the triple harmonic currents
to flow, all the sides will share the harmonic current based on the grounding impedances.

UPS is modeled as a load on its input side and injects harmonic current into the connected AC input bus. If
a UPS has an output bus and a sub-network connected to, it will also inject harmonic current into the AC
output bus.

To model a component as a harmonic current source, go to the Harmonic page of that component and select
an appropriate harmonic current library via the Library button and Harmonic Library Quick Pick Editor.
Beginning in ETAP 12.0.0, by default current magnitudes from a harmonic current source are a percentage
of the component fundamental load flow current.

Previous to ETAP 12.0.0 the current magnitudes from a harmonic current source were a percentage of the
component rated current. To use the previous behavior, an ETAPS.INI entry is available. Input
HAUseEquipmentBase=1 if the previous behavior is desired. Please see the ETAP.INI section of Chapter 4
for more details.

As an additional option, instead of selecting a harmonic current source from the library, if IEEE 519
Equation is selected in the Harmonic page of the component editor the spectrum will be generated based on
IEEE Std 519-1992. This option is only available for the following power electronic components: UPS,
VDF, Charger, Inverter, and SVC.

Harmonic Voltage Source


The following components are normally modeled as a harmonic voltage source:

z Power Grid
z Synchronous Generator
z Inverter
z Static Load

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Polluted power grids (utilities) or saturated synchronous generators can be modeled as harmonic voltage
sources if they contain significant voltage distortion.

Inverters and static loads can also be modeled as harmonic voltage sources if they primarily cause voltage
distortion instead of current distortion.

To model a component as a harmonic voltage source, go to the Harmonic page of that component and
select an appropriate harmonic voltage library via the Library button and Harmonic Library Quick Pick
Editor. Beginning in ETAP 12.0.0, by default voltage magnitudes from a harmonic voltage source are a
percentage of the component fundamental load flow voltage.

Previous to ETAP 12.0.0 the voltage magnitudes from a harmonic voltage source were a percentage of the
component nominal voltage. To use the previous behavior, an ETAPS.INI entry is available. Input
HAUseEquipmentBase=1 if the previous behavior is desired. Please see the ETAP.INI section of Chapter 4
for more details.

Harmonic Impedance for Rotating Machines


If a rotating machine is not modeled as a harmonic source, its equivalent harmonic impedance is its
negative impedance, adjusted linearly with frequency.

Harmonic Impedance for Load Components


For a load or a shunt component, when it is not modeled as a harmonic source, its equivalent harmonic
impedance is calculated from its fundamental loading using an equivalent parallel R and X circuit.

The reactance part of the harmonic impedance for rotating machines and load components are adjusted
linearly based on the order of harmonic.

Harmonic Impedance for Branch Components


Harmonic impedance of a branch component is computed from the impedance at the fundamental
frequency by considering adjustments due to harmonic frequency. A linear adjustment is made to the
reactive part for impedance branch, transformer, and reactor, whereas it is non-linear for transmission line.
To account for the skin effect a non-linear adjustment is made to the resistive part for transformer, reactor,
and transmission line.

Zero Sequence Impedance


If triplen harmonics (3rd, 6th, 9th, etc.) exist in the system, then the zero sequence impedance of rotating
machines and branch components is used in the calculation, adjusted to the harmonic frequency. For other
components, their equivalent zero sequence impedances are assumed to be the same as their positive
counterpart. It is very important to point out that for rotating machines (including the utility grid),
transformers, and harmonic filters, the Delta or Wye connections, grounding methods, and grounding
impedances will all affect the triplen harmonic flow in the system.

Harmonic Indices
The effect of harmonics is usually measured in terms of several indices that are defined below.

Note: The definitions are applied to both voltage and current.

Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)


Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), also known as Harmonic Distortion Factor (HDF), is the most popular
index to measure the level of harmonic distortion to voltage and current. It is a measure that shows the ratio
of the mean-square-root of all harmonics to the fundamental component. For an ideal system, THD is equal
to zero. THD is determined by:

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th
where Fi is the amplitude of the i harmonic, and F1 is that for the fundamental component.

Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)


Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD) simply calculates the ratio of a given harmonic component to the
fundamental component. This value is sometimes used to track the effect of each individual harmonic and
examine its magnitude. IHD is determined by:

Root Mean Square (RMS) - Total


This is the square root of the sum of the squares of the magnitudes of the fundamental plus all harmonics in
the system. For a system with no harmonics at all, the total RMS should be equal to the fundamental
component RMS. The total RMS is determined by:

Arithmetic Summation (ASUM)


This is the arithmetic summation of the magnitudes of the fundamental and all harmonics. It adds the
magnitudes of all components directly to have a conservative estimation of the crest value of voltage and
current, and is useful for the evaluation of the maximum withstanding ratings of a device. ASUM is
determined by:

Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)


Telephone Influence Factor (TIF) is a variation of the THD with a different weight given to each of the
harmonics based on its amount of interference to an audio signal in the same frequency range. Normally,
the current TIF has a more significant impact on adjacent communication systems. The TIF is determined
by:

where W is the TIF weighting factor. The values for the weighting factors for different harmonic
i
frequencies are given in the IEEE Standard 519. For non 60 Hz harmonics systems the weighting factors
are linearly interpolated.

I*T Product (I*T)


I*T Index is known as the inductive influence. It is a product of current components (fundamental and
harmonics) and weighting factors, as shown in the formula below:

where Ih = current component magnitude

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Th = weighting factor
h = harmonic order (h=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account

I* TB Product (I*TB) and I*TR Product (I*TR)


The balanced I*T product (I*TB) is calculated the same as I*T but takes only the summation of positive
and negative sequence harmonics. Similarly, the residual I*T product (I*TR) takes only the summation of
zero sequence harmonics.

Total Interharmonic Distortion (TIHD)


Total Interharmonic Distortion (TIHD) is the ratio of the RMS of all interharmonics to the fundamental
component.

where Fi are the interharmonic components, and F1 is the fundamental component.

Total Subharmonic Distortion (TSHD)


Total Subharmonic Distortion (TSHD) is the ratio of the RMS of all subharmonics to the fundamental
component.

where Fs are the subharmonic components, and F1 is the fundamental component.

Group Total Harmonic Distortion (THDG)


Ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic groups (g) to the RMS value of the group associated with the
fundamental:

where G = voltage or current


Gn = harmonic group calculated based on IEC 61000-4-7, equation (8)
n = harmonic order (n=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account for

Subgroup Total Harmonic Distortion (THDS)


Ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic subgroup (sg) to the RMS value of the subgroup associated with
the fundamental:

where G = voltage or current

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Gsgn = subharmonic group calculated based on IEC 61000-4-7, equation (9)


n = harmonic order (n=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account for

Harmonic Analysis
Toolbar
Study Case Editor
Display Options
Calculation Methods
Required Data
Output Reports
Alert View
Plots
One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

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