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August 2014

LTE AdvancedEvolving
and expanding in to new
frontiers

1
LTE Advanced: Evolving & expanding into new frontiers

Brings carrier aggregation and Extends benefits of LTE to


1 its evolution led by Qualcomm
Technologies
3 unlicensed spectrum

Enables hyper-dense HetNets; Expands LTE in to new frontiers


2 Further gains with enhanced
receivers
4 device-to-device, Broadcast
TV, higher bands & more

1000x mobile data challenge enabler

2
LTE Advanced brings different dimensions of improvements
F1

Leverage wider bandwidth LTE Carrier #1

LTE Carrier #2
Carrier Up to
Higher
data rates
LTE Carrier #3
100 MHz
Carrier aggregation across multiple carriers, LTE Carrier #4
aggregation
multiple bands, and across licensed and LTE Carrier #5
(bps)
unlicensed spectrum

Leverage more antennas Higher spectral


MIMO efficiency
Downlink MIMO up to 8x8, enhanced Multi User (bps/Hz)
MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4

Leverage HetNets Higher spectral


efficiency per
With advanced interference coverage area
management (FeICIC/IC) (bps/Hz/km2)

Small Cell Range Expansion


3
Carrier Aggregation rapidly
expanding and evolvingled
by Qualcomm

4
Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies Inc.
Carrier Aggregationfatter pipe to enhance user experience

Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #1

Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #2

Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #3


Aggregated Up to
100 MHz
Data Pipe
Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #4

Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #5

Higher user data rates and More capacity for typical Leverages all
Higher peak data rates
lower latencies for all users bursty usage1 spectrum assets

1The typical bursty nature of usage, such as web browsing, means that aggregated carriers can support more users at the same response (user experience) compared to two individual carriers, given that the for carriers are partially loaded which is typical
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in real networks. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users. For completely loaded carrier, there is limited capacity gain between individal carriers and aggregated carriers,
Carrier aggregation increases capacity for typical network load
Typical bursty
Burst Rate Carrier aggregation capacity gain
smartphone applications (normalized)
6
2 10MHz Single Carriers
10MHz + 10MHz Carrier Aggregation
You 5
Tube

User experience
Skype
4

3
Pandora

2
Partially
loaded
carriers Capacity gain can exceed 2x
1 (for same user experience)1
Data bursts

0
Idle time 0 63 6
12 9
18 12
24 15
30
Load
(Mbps)

1Carrier aggregation doubles burst rate for all users in the cell, which reduces over-the-air latency ~50%, but if the user experience is kept the same (same burst rate), multicarrier can instead support more users for partially loaded carriers. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users
(less loaded carrier) but less for many users (starting to resemble full buffer with limited gain). Source: Qualcomm simulations, 3GPP simulation framework, FTP traffic model with 1MB file size, 57 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), 2x2 MIMO, TU3, NLOS, 15 degree downtilt 2GHz spectrum.,
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Carrier aggregation gaining momentum Led by Qualcomm
Technologies, Inc.

9x35
8974
LTE Advanced 9x25 LTE Advanced
LTE Advanced (Cat6)
(Cat4)

Worlds 1st LTE Advanced LTE Advanced Cat 6


carrier aggregation (300 Mbps)
(Launched Jun 2013) (Announced Nov 2013)

150 Mbps peak data rate (cat 4) 300 Mbps peak data rate (cat 6)
10 + 10 MHz in downlink 20 + 20 MHz in downlink
QTIs 3rd generation Qualcomm Gobi LTE modem QTIs 4th generation Qualcomm Gobi LTE modem
HSPA+ 3 carriers DL & 2 carrier UL aggregation HSPA+ 3 carriers DL & 2 carrier UL aggregation 7
Qualcomm Snapdragon and Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
Taking carrier aggregation global - 4Th Gen Gobi LTE
New Gobi modem paired with new RF solution

4th Generation LTE modem One chip, all carrier


aggregation combinations
40 MHz Support in downlink (20 MHz+ 20MHz) Supports next gen LTE Advanced wideband CA
300 Mbps Peak data rate (LTE Cat6) 4th generation LTE transceiver
FDD/TDD Support 1st 28nm RF
1st 20nm modem ~3x* more CA band combinations
HSPA+ 3 carrier downlink & 2 carrier uplink aggregation
Common platform for LTE Advanced & HSPA+ carrier
aggregation

Note: *Compared to previous generation QCT solutions; Qualcomm Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. ; Qualcomm WTR 3925 is a product of Qualcomm Atheros, Inc.
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Global demand for LTE Carrier Aggregation
QTI chipsets designed to support all CA band combinations currently in deployment or in planning

~50 band combinations being defined by 3GPP


Japan
China B11 + B18

North America Europe B39 + B41 B3 + B28


B1 + B7 B1 + B8 Requirements:
B3 + B7 B1 + B18
B4 + B17 Contiguous B38 700-2700 MHz
B3 + B20 B1 + B19
B4 + B13 Contiguous B7
B7 + B20 B1 + B21 Inter-Band CA
B4 + B12 Contiguous B3
B8 + B20 B1 + B26 Intra-Band CA
B5 + B12 Contiguous 40
B2 + B17 Non Contiguous 41 B3 + B19 Wider Bandwidth
B4 + B5 Contiguous B39 B19 + B21 TDD CA
B5 + B17 Contiguous B1
FDD CA
B4 + B7
B2 + B5 South Korea
B2 + B29
B4 + B29 South America Australia
B3 + B8
B2 + B4
Contiguous B41
B1 + B5 RFFE
B3 + B5
B2 + B13
Non Contiguous B7
B3 + B8
B3 + B26 +
B23 + B29 B3 + B28
B2 + B12
B8 + B26 Modem
Non Contiguous B3
Contiguous B41
Non Contiguous 41
Non Contiguous B4
Non Contiguous B25

Source: 3GPP, the combinations in blue are completed as of September 2013, remaining represent work items in progress; 3GPP continually defines band combinations
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Advanced multiple antenna
techniques for more capacity

10
More antennaslarge gain from receive diversity

Downlink

1.8x 4x4 MIMO


4 Way LARGE GAIN,
Diversity, 1.7x Receive
Diversity NO STANDARDS OR
MIMO (+ 2 x 2 MIMO)
NETWORK IMPACT

1x 2 x 2 MIMO
MAINSTREAM
COMMERCIAL

NodeB Device Relative spectral efficiency

Note: LTE Advanced R10 and beyond adds up to 8x8 Downlink MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), enhanced Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4. Simulations: 3GPP framework, 21 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), 10MHz FDD, 11
carrier freq 2GHz, 25 UEs per cell, TU 3km/h, full-buffer traffic, no imbalance or correlation among antennas. 2x4 MIMO used for receive diversity gain of 1.7x compared to 2x2 MIMO, similarly 2x3 diversity provides a 1.3x gain over 2x2 MIMO
Leverage fiber backhaul installations
Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) for more capacity and better user experience

Coordinated scheduling Coordinated beamforming

Remote Radio
Head (RRH) Macro
Remote Radio
Head (RRH)
Same or different cell identity across macro and RRH

Central
processing/scheduling
(requires low latency fiber)
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Note: CoMP enabled by TM10 transmission modes in the device and network. Picture focuses on downlink CoMP techniques, CoMP can also apply to the uplink
Its not just about adding small cells LTE Advanced brings
even more capacity and enables hyper-dense HetNets1

2.8X

with Range Expansion


LTE Advanced
LTE R8
1.4X
1X

LTE R8
Small Cell Range Expansion Macro Macro+ Macro+
(FeICIC/IC) Only 4 Picos 4 Picos

Data rate improvement2

Higher capacity, network load balancing,


enhanced user experience, user fairness
1Byapplying advanced interference management to HetNets. 2Median downlink data rate. Assumptions: 4 Picos added per macro and 33% of users dropped in clusters closer to picos (hotspots) : 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO, 25 users and 500m ISD. Advanced interference management: enhanced time-
domain adaptive resource partitioning, advanced receiver devices with enhanced RRM and RLM1Similar gain for the uplink 13
Capacity scales with small cells deployed - thanks to advanced
interference management (FeICIC/IC)

~37X

SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
~21XSMALL CELL SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL

SMALL CELL SMALL CELL


SMALL CELL
~11X SMALL CELL SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL SMALL CELL

SMALL CELL SMALL CELL


~6X SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL
+4 Small +8 Small +16 Small +32 Small SMALL CELL
Cells Cells Cells Cells SMALL CELL SMALL CELL
SMALL CELL

Capacity scales with small cells added1


LTE Advanced with 2x Spectrum added

1 Assumptions: Pico type of small cell, 10MHz@2GHz + 10MHz@3.6GHz,D1 scenario macro 500m ISD, uniform user distribution scenario. Gain is median throughput improvement, from baseline with macro only on 10MHz@2GH, part of gain is addition of 10MHz
spectrum. Users uniformly distributeda hotspot scenario could provide higher gains. Macro and outdoor small cells sharing spectrum (co-channel) 14
LTE Advanced - Evolving and expanding into new frontiers

Further Aggregated

improving LTE
Data Pipe

Advanced Evolving carrier Further More advanced antenna Higher capacity for
aggregation Enhanced HetNets features and 256 QAM Machine-to-machine and
Smartphone signaling

Enhanced
Receivers
for superior
performance Device
Interference cancellation

Rel. 12 & beyond


New 700MHz
to 3.8GHz
~3.5 GHz

Frontiers / ASA

LTE Advanced in LTE Broadcast LTE Direct for Higher bands & new
unlicensed spectrum going beyond mobile device to device licensing models
(Authorized Shared Access)

15
Carrier aggregation evolution,
Enhanced Hetnets

16
LTE Advanced carrier aggregation continues to evolve
Leveraging all spectrum assets
Across cells (Multiflow)
(Supported in Rel. 12)

FDD/TDD Aggregation Across licensed/ unlicensed


(Supported in Rel. 12) (Specific band combinations to be defined)
Traditional ASA/LSA Unlicensed
Paired Unpaired Licensed Licensed (LTE)

Anchor

3GPP continually defines


band combinations

Aggregated
Data Pipe

17
MultiFlow Dual-cell connectivity across small cells and across
macros and small cells

Small cell Booster Macro Anchor

Macro

Improved offload Higher cell-edge Robust


to small cells data rates mobility
18
Further enhancing HetNets performance
User deployed 3G/4G Operator deployed 3G/4G
Typically indoor small cells Indoor/outdoor small cells1

4G Relays
& Wireless
Backhaul

ENTERPRISE

RESIDENTIAL
METRO

MultiflowImprove Enhanced device LTE in unlicensed LTE/Wi-Fi tight


offload to small cells receiver spectrum interworking
Dual-cell connectivity Data channel interference Better utilize 5GHz spectrum with Converged small cells
across cells cancellation for even more gain unified LTE network & small cells with LTE & Wi-Fi
1 Such as relay and Pico/Metro/RRH small cells for hotspots. RRH= Remote Radio Heads, in addition Distributed Antenna Systems are used in HetNets 19
Enhanced receivers for superior
LTE Advanced performance

20
Enhanced receivers offer better user experience & more capacity
Interference Cancellation Interference Rel. 10/11 Re. 12
Cancellation
Sync ref. signal

Common ref. signal

Primary broadcast
channel
Data channel

Better user experience Higher network capacity Enhanced performance


for HetNets
Higher data rates especially at Higher users data rate increases Even more beneficial in managing
cell-edges overall network capacity interference in small cell deployments

21
Enhanced receivers further improve HetNet performance
Live demonstration at MWC 2014, utilizing our LTE Advanced test network in San Diego

Higher network capacity


140
Macro 1
120

Throughout
100 Enhanced Pico 2
Rel. 10/11
80 Receiver Receiver
Pico 3
60
40 Pico 4
20
Pico 5
0

Increased cell-edge data rates


30
Enhanced
25
Throughout Receiver
20
15
Rel. 10/11
Receiver
10
5
0
22
Extending the benefits of LTE
Advanced to unlicensed spectrum

23
Extending the benefits of LTE Advanced to unlicensed spectrum

Better network performance Enhanced user experience


Longer range and increased capacity Thanks to LTE Advanced anchor in
licensed spectrum with robust mobility

LTE in
Licensed
spectrum

700MHz to 3.8GHz
Carrier
Ideal for aggregation
small cells
LTE in
Unlicensed
spectrum
5 GHz

Unified LTE Network Coexists with Wi-Fi


Common LTE network with common Features to protect Wi-Fi neighbors
authentication, security and management.
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Leverages existing LTE standards, ecosystem and scale
LTE transmitted according to unlicensed spectrum regulations, such as power levels

Large scale, global


1 LTE deployments 2 LTE in unlicensed spectrum
for USA, Korea and China
3 LTE in unlicensed
spectrum everywhere
268+ network launches LTE Advanced 3GPP R10 Extend deployment to regions with
in 100+ countries1 Targets 5 GHz unlicensed bands Listen Before Talk (LBT) regulations
LTE Advanced 3GPP R10 Wi-Fi and LTE co-existence features2 Optimized waveform enabling LBT, carrier
launched June 2013 discovery and expanded uplink coverage
Candidate for 3GPP R13 standard

Common core network R10 Converged 3G/4G small cells with


with common mobility, security, LTE for licensed and unlicensed
authentication and more. Ideal for
spectrum as well as Wi-Fi
small cells

Unified network for licensed and unlicensed spectrum


25
1Per GSA as of as of Feb 5th 2014. 2 With Carrier Sensing and Adaptive Transmission (CSAT) in the time domain.
Making LTE broadcast dynamic
and extending to terrestrial TV

26
LTE broadcast is commercial Powered by Qualcomm
Snapdragon processors

800
LTE Advanced KT Corp launches worlds first commercial LTE
Broadcast service

1st By Nick Wood, Total Telecom


Monday 27, January 2014

South Korean operator to use eMBMS technology to deliver mobile


TV service to Samsung Galaxy Note 3 smartphones.
Worlds 1st LTE KT Corp on Monday launched the worlds first commercial LTE Broadcast service,
Broadcast solution delivering mobile TV content to Samsung Galaxy Note 3 users.

- Called Olleh LTE Play, the service is based on eMBMs (evolved multimedia broadcast
multicast services) solutions developed in
Gobi LTE Modem
integrated into
Snapdragon 800 27
Qualcomm Snapdragon and Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Source: http://www.totaltele.com/view.aspx?ID=485128
LTE broadcast Higher capacity even with fewer users
Leveraging LTE infrastructure and spectrum

Unicast 7X
LTE Broadcast

3X

1.7X
X X X

1 user/ cell 2 users/cell 5 users /cell

Network capacity/throughput

Source: Qualcomm Research; Simulation assumptions - 2GHz carrier frequency, 5MHz spectrum, 500m site-to-site distance, cluster eMBMS with 19 sites MBSFN deployment (100% of carrier usage), comparison with unicast (based on average throughput) 28
is based
on the same amount of resource allocation.
Dynamic switching to broadcast offers even more flexibility

Event or demand driven


Pre-scheduled (e.g. at stadium only
during games)
Users accessing
same content Users moved to Based on demand (e.g. breaking news)
on unicast broadcast

Seamless transition
Make-beforebreak connection
Fully transparent to user

Part of Rel. 121


Dynamically switch between unicast and broadcast
(based on operator configured triggers)
1This feature is called Mood (Multicast operation on Demand) in Rel 12 29
Terrestrial TV service using LTE Broadcast
Enabling broadcasters to reach mobile devices
LTE Broadcast Single Frequency Network
(SFN) for the whole coverage area
- Using LTE sites/infrastructure

LTE LTE Broadcast on a dedicated


Broadcast TV spectrum
(Unicast)

Assisted Stand-alone
Enhanced user experience Mode
Mode
in the Assisted Mode
(e.g. On-demand content,
interactivity ) Devices in
Stand-alone or Assisted mode

~2x Higher capacity than todays broadcast (DVB-T/ATSC)


- Opportunity to free-up spectrum for mobile broadband
Current broadcast technology operates in Multi Frequency Network (MFN) mode with a frequency reuse of at least 4 with a spectrum efficiency of up to 4 bps/Hz inside each cell. This corresponds to an overall spectrum efficiency of approx. 1bps/Hz. Whereas LTE-B 30
operates in SFN over the entire coverage area with a spectrum efficiency of up to 2bps/Hz.
LTE Direct Operator-owned global
platform for continuous proximity
awareness

31
Designed for autonomous Always-ON discovery
Licensed spectrum utilized for continuous proximity awareness

DISCOVERY
Up to 500m range

LTE LTE Discover 1000s of services in


20s
milliseconds
64ms

Privacy sensitive
Device based, connectionless discovery
without location tracking

Negligible LTE capacity impact


<1% of uplink resources for thousands of services

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Source: Qualcomm simulations; Assumes 10MHz system
Operator platform that enables new mobile services
Mobile Proximity and Discovery services at scale
Operator owned LTE Direct platform Common discovery network
Managed, owned, monetized by mobile operator Enables discovery horizontally across apps, OS, operators

Expected to be in every Rel 12 device


Part of 3GPP Release 12 standard

33
Utilizing higher bands & new licensing
models (Authorized Shared Access)

34
ASA leverages underutilized spectrum for exclusive use
Exclusive Use Used in both macros and small cells
Incumbents (i.e., government) may not Small cells can be closer to incumbent
use spectrum at all times and locations than macros

Incumbent
3G/4G Macro Base user
Station 3G/4G Small Cells

Protects spectrum incumbents Regular Incentive-based cooperation model


Multi-band
Binary use either incumbent or Device1 Allows incumbents to monetize
rights holder with protection zones unused spectrum

35
1No device impact due to ASA, just a regular 3G/4G device supporting global harmonized bands targeted for ASA. Carrier aggregation would be beneficial to aggregate new ASA spectrum with existing spectrum, but is not required.
ASA/LSA1 Implementation underway in Europe and USA
PROOF OF OPERATOR
STANDARDS CONCEPT INTEREST
POLICY REGULATORY
Trialed
Demonstrated Live in Finland in
Defined by CEPT Specified by ETSI by many infra/device
Endorsed Currently working on vendors; 2.3 GHz and
Sep13
by 28 EU member in report published in Feb 142
for harmonizing 2.3 GHz3 requirements 3.5 GHz demos at MWC
states Nov 13 Feb 14

Proposed by FCC
Evaluation by NTIA To make 3.5GHz4 band
Endorsed by 28 EU dedicated to licensed shared
member states Nov 13 access for mobile broadband

1 ASA has been named LSA (Licensed Shared Access) in the EU by the Radio Spectrum Policy Group; 23ECC Report 205; 33Draft ECC decision on harmonized technical and regulatory conditions for the use of the band 2300-2400
MHz for MFCN; 3GPP Band 40, 2.3-2.4 GHz; 4 Target 3.5 GHz in the US is 3550-3650 MHz 36
LTE Advanced - 1000x data challenge enabler
Continue to evolve LTE:
-- Multiflow, Hetnets enhancements
-- Opportunistic HetNets
LTE in unlicensed spectrum
LTE Broadcast and LTE Direct

Carrier Aggregation (TDD and FDD)


Authorized Shared Access (ASA)
Higher spectrum bands (esp. TDD)

Hetnets with FeICIC/IC


Full interference management
New deployment models, e.g.
neighborhood small cells

More Small Cells is Key to 1000x 37


Qualcomm Technologies LTE advanced leadership

Standards Leadership Industry-first Demos Industry-first Chipsets from QTI


A main contributor to key MWC 2012: Live Over-The-Air HetNet Worlds 1st LTE Advanced solution (Jun 13)
LTE Advanced features Demo with Mobility
First with LTE Broadcast (Jan 14)
Instrumental in driving interference MWC 2013: Live OTA opportunistic
cancellation and other Hetnets features HetNet Demo with VoIP Mobility. LTE Advanced cat 6 (300 Mbps) solution
Authorized Shared Access (ASA) demo announced in Nov. 13
Pioneering work on LTE Direct and LTE
in unlicensed spectrum MWC 2014: Enhanced HetNets with data-
channel interference cancellation
800 MDM 9x35
LTE Advanced LTE Advanced

Worlds 1st LTE 300Mpbs (Cat 6)


Advanced solution solution
Qualcomm Snapdragon and Qualcomm Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
38
LTE Advanced: Evolving & expanding into new frontiers

Brings carrier aggregation and Extends benefits of LTE to


1 its evolution led by Qualcomm
Technologies
3 unlicensed spectrum

Enables hyper-dense HetNets; Expands LTE in to new frontiers


2 Further gains with enhanced
receivers
4 device-to-device, Broadcast
TV, higher bands & more

1000x mobile data challenge enabler

39
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Qualcomm, Snapdragon and Gobi are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. A ll trademarks of Qualcomm
Incorporated are used with permission. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their re spective owners.

References in this presentation to Qualcomm may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsi diaries or business units
within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable.

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