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Nokia D500, Rel. 3.4, Product Documentation

Product Description

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Product Description

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use
of Nokia's customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is
submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the
prior written permission of Nokia. The document has been prepared to be used by professional
and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it.
Nokia welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and
improvement of the documentation.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or
performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but
shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia and the customer. However, Nokia has
made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are
adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia will, if necessary, explain issues
which may not be covered by the document.
Nokia's liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors.
NOKIA WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT
OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY
LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it.
This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to
the applicable laws.
NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation.
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective
companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright Nokia Corporation 2005. All rights reserved.

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Contents

Contents

Contents 3

1 D500 overview 5
1.1 D500 MSAP solutions 5
1.1.1 D500 node 6
1.2 Network applications and DSL technologies 7
1.3 Supported service models 10
1.3.1 Common DSL deployment models 10
1.3.2 Switched deployment model in ATM network 10
1.3.3 Layer 2/3 switching 11
1.3.4 Traffic management and quality of service in the D500 12
1.4 D500 R3 services 18
1.4.1 IP multicast 18
1.4.2 Layer 3 switching 20
1.4.3 Bridging and VLANs 22
1.4.4 Point-to-point protocol 24
1.4.5 L2TP LAC 25
1.4.6 Single Ended Loop Testing 26
1.5 Network topologies 26
1.5.1 Integrated D500 architectures 27
1.5.2 Integrated configurations: D50(e) and D500, or third-party DSLAM and
D500 28
1.5.3 Cascaded D500 nodes 28
1.5.4 Stand-alone D500 29
1.6 Voice solution with the D500 R3 30
1.6.1 Voice over DSL (VoDSL) 30
1.6.2 Integrated Access Device (IAD) 30
1.6.3 Voice Gateway 31
1.6.4 Voice over IP / End-to-End SIP connectivity 31
1.6.5 Voice solution in next Generation Network 31
1.7 Element management 32
1.7.1 In-band management routing to co-located equipment 33
1.7.2 D500 Web-based Craft Terminal 35
1.7.3 Command line interface (CLI) 36
1.7.4 NetAct for Broadband 36
1.7.5 D500 Administrative Tools Suite 36
1.7.6 Performance diagnostics 37

2 D500 MSAP components 39


2.1 Configuration of D500 node in Central Office 39
2.1.1 Scalable Broadband Access 40
2.1.2 D500 17-slot and 21-slot subracks 40
2.1.3 D500 subrack 43
2.2 D500 RAM (Remote Access Module) 50
2.2.1 Power unit 52
2.3 D500 LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelves) and LPF Cards 53
2.3.1 LPF (Low Pass Filter) Cards 54
2.3.2 Scalable Broadband Access 56

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2.3.3 D500 17-Slot LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelf) 56


2.3.4 D500 4-Slot LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelf) 60
2.4 D500 MSAP units and interfaces 61
2.4.1 ATM and Gigabit Ethernet trunk/control units 61

3 D500 subrack power supply and cabling 71


3.1 Broadband Power Supply Adapter (BB-PSA) 71
3.2 Optical trunk and tributary interfaces 74
3.2.1 Ethernet network cabling 77
3.2.2 ATM network cabling 77
3.3 Cabling in multiple node configurations 78
3.4 Subscriber line cabling 78

4 Site configurations and usage considerations 81


4.1 D500 Site Configurations 81
4.2 Amount of Connections 92
4.2.1 Suggestions and comments 93
4.2.2 Bandwidth and packet processing 93
4.2.3 Bandwidth considerations in equipping D500 94

5 Support services 97
5.1 Broadband Access Support Services Modules 97
5.2 Support Services Details 98

6 Specifications 101
6.1 D500 standards compliance 101
6.2 D500 MSAP hardware physical specifications 105
6.3 Technical specifications 108
6.4 D500 interfaces 109
6.5 Craft Terminal  system requirements 112
6.6 Command line interface (CLI)  system requirements 113
6.7 BB-PSA technical specifications 114
6.8 BB-PSA standards 115
6.9 BB-PSA mechanical dimensions 116
6.10 PSP technical specifications 116
6.11 PSP standards 117
6.12 PSP mechanical dimensions 117
6.13 Fan tray specifications 117

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D500 overview

1 D500 overview

1.1 D500 MSAP solutions


With the new generation D500 MSAP (Multi-Service broadband Access
Platform) solutions, Nokia offers service providers cost-effective DSL
networking solutions for business and residential customers. The D500 MSAP
solutions comprise:

. the D500 Broadband Access Node with either 17 or 21 slots


.
the D500 RAM (Remote Access Module) with 6 slots
. the D500 17-slot LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelf)
.
the D500 4-slot LPFS.

The D500 Broadband Access Node is often referred to as the D500, the D500
Subrack or the D500 Node.

The D500 R3 provides a new packet processor based control unit into the D500
platform. The control unit is combined with the Gigabit Ethernet trunk interface.
The R3 control unit provides a data, voice, and video traffic delivery mechanism
for service providers. Most of the todays DSL access networks are ATM-based
and this unit can be deployed in a pure ATM switch mode that provides full ATM
QoS (UBR, VBR-rt, VBR-nrt, CBR) for todays residential services the same
way than its predecessor releases. The network processor on the control unit is
designed to provide a low-latency, low-jitter, bypass function for ATM-native
services such as voice over ATM.

On top of the extensive set of ATM features D500 R3 provides the capability of
processing traffic on the packet level. The new deployment of advanced services
will greatly benefit from the features that IP offers including layer 2 and layer 3
switching, IP Multicast, IGMP Proxy and Snooping, DHCP relay with option82
and Ethernet/IP quality of service at Gigabit bit rates. Nokia recognizes that
existing services and some latency sensitive traffic, such as voice, might require

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Product Description

the benefits of ATM QoS; therefore, the R3 architecture supports ATM and IP
traffic/QoS simultaneously. In short, the R3 control unit offers flexibility for
evolving customer networks from ATM to Ethernet to IP. It satisfies the needs of
an all-ATM network, an ATM/IP network, and an all-IP network.

1.1.1 D500 node

The D500 Broadband Access node consists of a single, high-density subrack with
a multi gigabit backplane supporting the following units and management
interface:

. The Gigabit Ethernet trunk card (TK1000 and TKETH1G)) is designed for
Metro Ethernet networks, where the traffic can be routed or bridged from
the D500 to the broadband aggregation server. The Gigabit Ethernet trunk
allows network providers to evolve from ATM to IP through a layer-two
network interface such as Ethernet, preparing the operator for the time
when the core/backbone IP network connects with the access network.
This trunk card provides a high-capacity (1000 Mbps) network connection
to allow the operator to support the delivery of multimedia content, such as
video and digital TV, to customers from the digital subscriber line access
multiplexer (DSLAM).
.
OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit (TRB155). It provides a single-mode or multi-
mode optical connection to a cascaded D500 node, a subtended D50e/D50
or an ATM UNI compliant third party DSLAM. It is possible to use a
tributary unit also as a second trunk interface.
. D500 17-slot and D500 21-slot subracks can accommodate up to 15 and 19
high-density cards respectively. D500 R3 supports the following line cards
and low pass filter cards.
Line cards:
- ADSL48af , 48-port, ADSL, Annex A, front mount
- ADSL48aft, 48-port, ADSL, Annex A, front mount
- ADSL48art, 48-port, ADSL, Annex A, rear mount
- ADSL48bf, 48-port, ADSL, Annex B, front mount
- ADSL2+af, 48-port, ADSL2+, Annex A, front mount
- ADSL2+bf, 48-port, ADSL2+, Annex B, front mount
- SHDSL24f , 24-port, SHDSL, Annex A and B, front mount
- SHDSL24r , 24-port, SHDSL, Annex A, rear mount
- VDSL24df, 24-port, VDSL, Annex D, front mount
- VDSL24ef, 24-port, VDSL, Annex E, front mount
Low pass filter cards:

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- LPF24af, 24-port, ADSL, Annex A, front mount


- LA24as, 24-port, ADSL, Annex A, Swe, front mount
- LA24bf, 24-port, ADSL, Annex B, front mount
- LA48af, 48-port, Annex A, front mount
- LA48bf, 48-port, Annex B, front mount.
D500 line cards provide interface to the trunk/control unit through the
D500 subrack backplane. The D500 21-slot subrack can accept rear-access
and front-access line cards. The D500 17-slot subrack and the D500 RAM
can only accept line cards, which have DSL interface connections on the
front of the cards.
The element management tools offered by the D500 solution are:
- Web-based Craft Terminal for managing the node locally via a direct
physical Ethernet connection, remotely via an out-of-band Ethernet
connection, or via an in-band ATM or Ethernet connection.
- CLI (Command Line Interface) for management locally via a serial
port or Ethernet connection, or remotely via an in-band ATM or
Ethernet connection.
- NetAct for Broadband for remote management via an in-band ATM
or Ethernet connection.

D500 Node
in a
CENTRAL OFFICE
CPE
Management
Router or
Terminal
NIC
ATM/IP ATM or
Ethernet Trunk

Figure 1. D500 component architecture

1.2 Network applications and DSL technologies


The D500 ADSL, SHDSL and VDSL line cards, and the LPF cards provide a
remote deployment solution enabling you to push DSL interfaces closer to the
end-user customer.

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ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) offers fast Internet access with one
telephone line for voice service. ADSL is intended primarily for residential
subscriber service. Asymmetrical ADSL rates are most useful for applications
where high-speed downstream rates are more important than upstream rates.
When paired with Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) access, ADSL requires a
POTS or ISDN splitter to separate voice traffic from data traffic.

Note

Although ADSL can support in-band transmission of multiple voice channels, its
asymmetric bandwidth poses limits on maximum upstream traffic rates.
Therefore, fewer voice channels (64 kbit/s per channel) can be accommodated
within the 800 kbit/s maximum ADSL upstream rate.

The D500 ADSL card with Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation has
asymmetric data rates of 8 Mbit/s downstream and 1 Mbit/s upstream. There are
48 ports per card. The ADSL line cards are characterised by high density and low
power consumption.

The addition of ADSL POTS or ISDN splitters allow splitting voice frequency
signals from the high-speed data providing high-speed data channels with voice
service over a POTS or an ISDN telephone line while routing data traffic off the
voice telephone switch to the ATM network.

ADSL2+

ADSL2 (ITU-T G.992.3, G992.4) has mainly been developed to improve rate and
reach performance with better modulation efficiency and reduced framing
overhead. ADSL2+ (G992.5) doubles the used bandwidth providing downstream
rates up to 24 Mbit/s. It can also be used to reduce cross talk in the remote
installations by masking the downstream band up to 1.1MHz.

The ADSL2+ line card supports 48 ports of asymmetric DSL using DMT with
front cabling The D500 ADSL2+ line card comply with the ITU-T G.992.1 (g.
dmt), G.992.2 (g.dmt lite), G.992.3 (g.dmt.bis), G.992.4 (g.dmt.bis lite), and
G.992.5 (ADSL2+) standards.The ADSL2+ 48af card supports the following
Annexes:

. ADSL2+ Annex A enhanced downstream


.
ADSL2 Annex L Extended Reach

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Other additional value-added features for ADSL2+ line card include: better loop
diagnostic, improved initialization, fast start-up and power management options.
The ADSL2+ 48af card also supports enhanced capacity of 1000 Mbit/s between
the line card and the CU/Trunk unit

SHDSL

Single-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line (SHDSL) supports symmetric


traffic and is used widely for business purposes. It can support, for instance,
multiple voice channels using voice over DSL (VoDSL) and symmetric
bandwidth traffic rates. It is the preferred DSL service for SME (Small and
Medium Enterprise) business applications. SHDSL is a purely digital technology.
It requires an IAD interface at the customer site to multiplex voice and data
services over ATM in-band connections. However, the result is the ability to
deploy multiple voice channels, fast Internet, and LAN interconnection over a
single copper pair. Pair bonding of copper pairs can double bandwidth and reach.

The D500 SHDSL card with Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation (TC-
PAM) has symmetric (upstream/downstream) data rates of up to 2.3 Mbit/s (and
4.6 Mbit/s with pair bonding) in 64 Kbit/s increments. There are 24 ports per
card. SHDSL is designed for symmetrical, mostly business driven applications
such as video conferencing, Web-hosting, voice, and remote LAN
interconnections. SHDSL supports equal upstream and downstream rates. TC-
PAM line coding reduces network interference and latency to extend service
reach and boost traffic rates over the entire bandwidth range.

VDSL

Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) is essentially a high-speed
variation of ADSL. VDSL is designed for high bandwidth applications, such as
HDTV and Video on Demand. VDSL can achieve high asymmetric data rates up
to 22 Mbit/s downstream and 3 Mbit/s upstream over existing copper telephone
lines. Because VDSL is designed to achieve high data rates on short loops,
effective reach is limited to approximately 1.6 kilometres (1 mile).

The D500 VDSL card with Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation has
asymmetric data rates up to 22 Mbit/s downstream and 3 Mbit/s upstream in 64
Kbp/s increments or symmetric 10/10 Mbit/s over a single copper twisted-pair.
There are 24 ports per card. The VDSL line cards provide you with new revenue
opportunities. It is possible to add VDSL POTS or ISDN splitters for data-plus-
voice applications.

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LPF cards

The deployed DSL technology solutions include ADSL and VDSL compatible
low pass filter cards (splitter cards) for splitting POTS and ISDN voice
frequencies from data frequencies. The LPF cards support the unbundling of local
loops and line sharing.

1.3 Supported service models

1.3.1 Common DSL deployment models

The D500 offers an advanced packet-based architecture based on the network


processor design. This architecture manages both ATM cell type traffic and
packet-based traffic, such as IP. The D500 supports traditional ATM multiplexing
and switching with ATM uplink as well as ATM to Ethernet interworking with
Gigabit Ethernet uplink. If the D500 has been provisioned to work as an ATM
switch, it doesnt perceive the encapsulation method supporting all the DSL
deployment models. When an Ethernet uplink is being used the PPPoA traffic is
converted to PPPoE and the routed traffic (RFC1483 routed encapsulation) is
routed to a VLAN or an ATM PVC. In addition to these traditional Layer 2
switching based deployment models D500 supports Routed Bridge Encapsulation
(RBE). DSL ports configured to use RBE receive RFC1483 bridged Ethernet
frames and forwards the traffic according to the destination IP address.

1.3.2 Switched deployment model in ATM network

The standard specifies ATM to be used in the transport layer on top of the
physical ADSL layer. If ATM is used also on the network side, the connections
from the DSL subscribers can easily be established and switched using ATM
PVCs and IP level intelligence is not required.

The D500 provides Permanent Virtual Connections (PVC)  providing always


available configured end-to-end connections over ATM. The trunk/control unit
has 256K cells buffer capacity, which is equivalent to approximately 12.3 MB
(megabytes) of ATM payload. The line card has buffering for 1K cells in the
downstream direction per DSL port.

The cross-connection feature for Virtual Connections (VC) allows the OC-3/
STM-1 tributary units to function as trunk units for virtual connections to and
from line cards, tributary units, and the trunk unit. In this case the trunk unit acts
as a switch instead of a multiplexer for VC cross-connections.

The D500 Node and the RAM support four types of VC cross-connections:

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. Line card port to trunk unit port


. Line card port to tributary unit port
. Tributary unit port to trunk unit port
.
Tributary unit port to tributary unit port.

The D500 supports a maximum of 4064 ATM connections per trunk/control or


tributary unit, and a maximum of 400 connections per DSL line card (ADSL48).

1.3.3 Layer 2/3 switching

With Ethernet networks the traditional ATM switching model needs to replaced
by packet switching, which can be done either on Ethernet layer (layer 2) or IP
layer (layer 3) depending on the chosen deployment model. The D500 supports
both layer 2 and 3 switching and forwarding.

Layer 2 forwarding decisions depend only on the MAC header of the arriving
packet. The decision is based on the incoming packet's destination MAC address
and VLAN ID or VC. On bridged interfaces, the trunk unit behaves like a
standard learning bridge. Packets received from the customer side are forwarded
to the configured trunk VLAN/VCC and MAC addresses are added to the
relevant bridging table. This is the method used for forwarding bridged (as well
as PPPoE) traffic across the D500.

Forwarding across an L2TP tunnel is a special case. In the D500 L2TP tunnels
are statically created entities between the D500 and an LNS, typically an access
router. The D500 implements the LAC functionality allowing any number of PPP
sessions to be tunnelled to a single endpoint.

Layer 3 switching decisions are made on the basis of the IP header of the
incoming frame. When a DSL port is provisioned for routed encapsulation, the
Ethernet frame is missing or when provisioned for RBE the MAC header is not
used for routing purposes. Instead, the routing decision is based on the destination
IP address and the current state of the routing table. The routing table entry may
have been statically configured, or it may have been obtained dynamically from
DHCP snooping.

In addition, certain packets arriving from the trunk side need to be duplicated and
sent to multiple ATM PVCs. This category includes multicast and broadcast
packets. Broadcasts need to be selectively copied to all ATM PVCs, which
belong to the bridge group associated with the VLAN ID of the arriving Ethernet
packet. Multicasts need to be selectively copied to subscriber-side ATM PVCs on
which one or more hosts have recently joined a multicast group. This requires that
the D500 monitors all IGMP traffic and detect when any host on a PVC enters or
leaves a multicast group.

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The following functions in D500 are part of the packet switching procedure and
performed on every packet at wire speed:

. Packet classification (unicast / multicast / broadcast / bridged / routed /


IGMP / ARP / PPPoE / L2TP)
. Snooping (that is, selectively managing the packets according to the
service type)
. Header update (if required)
.
Packet duplication (if required)
. Forwarding

In addition to the real time packet processing performed at wire speed, there are a
number of asynchronous processes running in the trunk card. They maintain the
routing and bridge tables used by the wire speed processing routines. These
asynchronous processes include:

. ARP task
.
IGMP proxy task
. MAC address table manager
.
L2TP LAC task
. PPPoE task
.
DHCP relay task.

1.3.4 Traffic management and quality of service in the D500

Traffic management and quality of service (QoS) are required to ensure that the
network resources can support service offerings provided by service and network
providers. The D500 addresses service levels with respect to service type and
customer type, supporting network convergence towards packet based
architectures and operator flexibility. Providing this capability supports
simultaneous feeds from ATM and IP interfaces, while at the same time providing
the required service levels over both QoS (ATM) and class of service (IP)
connections and flows simultaneously.

The D500 supports SDH and Ethernet interfaces accommodating both ATM and
IP traffic flows individually or simultaneously. As packets and cells enter the
D500 they go through four major steps to ensure that they are handled
appropriately relative to the type of information or services they are carrying. The
flow through the D500 is:

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1. classification and marking


2. policing
3. queuing
4. scheduling and shaping.

In general, classification identifies the PDU, policing ensures conformance, and


scheduling provides the appropriate servicing of the queues so traffic can be
presented into the network in an appropriate manner, with respect to class
priorities. Since ATM as a connection-based protocol differs from packet based
protocols, such as IP, the traffic management in the D500 is also different
depending on the protocol. With ATM QoS strict performance values can be
guaranteed whereas with IP CoS allows only specification of relative priority of a
packet. It has no provisions to specify different drop precedence for packets of a
certain priority.

The D500 supports four ATM quality of service classes (that is, CBR, rt-VBR,
nrt-VBR, and UBR) and three IP class of services classes (that is, EF, AF and
DF). For example, services requiring CBR in ATM, would require EF if it is an IP
flow. The Nokia D500 treats the traffic with respect to traffic parameters and
priority levels regardless of whether it is ATM or IP traffic and thus trying to
provide the same level of quality of service regardless of the protocol.

Quality of service in ATM networks  ATM QoS

ATM QoS capabilities are supported in the trunk/control unit. ATM QoS provides
the following features:

. Multiple classes of service:


- Constant Bit Rate (CBR) is used by connections that request a static
amount of bandwidth to be continuously available during the
connection lifetime. Examples are real-time video, audio, circuit
emulation services, and audio-video distribution such as TV, pay-
per-view, and distance learning. CBR services provide connectivity
up to a peak cell rate with an upper bound of cell delay variation
tolerance. The source may emit cells at or below the negotiated peak
cell rate at any time for any duration and the QoS commitments still
pertain.
- Variable Bit Rate real-time (VBR-rt) service category supports
applications requiring variable bandwidth with tight bounds on
delay. Cell traffic is generated in bursts. Traffic is guaranteed an
average rate of bandwidth, although the amount varies depending on

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the traffic requirements of the connection (Peak Cell Rate, Sustained


Cell Rate, and Maximum Burst Size). Examples are variable bit rate
CODECs, aggregated voice with silence removal, video
conferencing, and loop emulation services with AAL2.
- Variable Bit Rate non-real-time (VBR-nrt) service category supports
applications requiring variable bandwidth with less stringent bounds
on delay (as in transaction processing). However, VBR-nrt does not
provide delay guarantees. VBR-nrt is typically used for management
and signalling applications.
- Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is intended for applications that do not
require a fixed bandwidth or fixed interval of transmission, and are
highly tolerant of delay and loss. Examples are file transfer, e-mail,
and LANs.
There is no explicit commitment from the network provider regarding
capacity or throughput in the UBR class. The network transmits cells based
on available bandwidth without delay or throughput guarantees, and the
only traffic parameter is PCR (Peak Cell Rate).
. Traffic Policing
Once a virtual connection is established, active processes monitor and
enforce the rules embodied in the traffic contract. This is called traffic
policing. Traffic policing is carried out by a process component called the
Usage Parameter Control (UPC), resident in the trunk/control unit. UPC is
responsible for ensuring that the traffic submitted to the network does not
exceed the traffic descriptors set for the connection. The UPC tags or
discards errant cells based on the Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA),
also known as the Dual Leaky Bucket algorithm. The GCRA is the method
by which the D500 measures the bandwidth conformance of each CBR and
VBR connection. It is a flow control algorithm where cells are monitored
to check whether they comply with the established connection parameters.
Cells violating the descriptor parameters can be tagged (CLP bit set to 1)
for discard if congestion occurs. In the D500, both traffic directions are
policed in a similar manner.
. Traffic shaping for each ATM connection
. Congestion control and avoidance, including
- Early Packet Discard (EPD) (also called Frame Discard)  once the
queue congestion threshold is reached, EPD stops all new incoming
packets (a Protocol Data Unit consisting of ATM cells) and makes
an intelligent choice of dropping all cells in a packet instead of
randomly dropping cells from many packets.
- Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI)  notifies other
network resources that a given queue is in a congestion state.
. Connection Admission and Control (CAC)

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. Performance Monitoring
. Provisionable buffering and queue depths (in cells) for each priority queue.

IP class of service in packet networks - IP CoS

IP CoS provides the rules how to manage IP flows. In the D500 all the traffic
management is done in the control unit and the following features are supported.

.
Multiple classes of service:
- The IPv4 ToS byte in the IP-header consists of three precedence bits
that are mainly used to classify packets at the edge of the network
into one of the eight possible categories. Packets of lower
precedence (lower values) can be dropped in favor of higher
precedence when there is congestion on a network. The D500 can
support three different traffic management classes, EF, AF and DF.
The incoming traffic is divided into those classes according to the
Differential services code point marking as shown below:

Table 1. Precedence bits and


traffic class

Precedence Traffic
bits class

111 AF

110 AF

101 EF

100 AF

011 AF

010 AF

001 AF

000 DF

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- Expedited forwarding (EF) is designed for providing a low-loss,


low-latency, low-jitter, and assured bandwidth service. Applications
such as Voice over IP (VoIP), video, and online trading programs
require such a robust network-treatment.
- Assured Forwarding (AF) defines a method by which similar type of
connections can be given different forwarding assurances. For
example, traffic could be divided into gold, silver, and bronze
classes, with gold being allocated 50 percent of the available link
bandwidth, silver 30 percent, and bronze 20 percent. The AF PHB
defines four AF classes; namely, AF1, AF2, AF3, and AF4,
although in D500 all the AF classes are treated similarly.
- Default Forwarding (DF) specifies that a packet marked with a
DSCP value 000' gets the traditional best effort service after EF and
AF traffic.
.
Traffic classification
- Traffic Classification rules allow assigning of transmission priority
to network traffic based on predefined traffic rules. A traffic
classification rule has two main parts: Traffic Description and
Actions. The Traffic Description identifies the traffic classification
type for the rule. The Actions specify where traffic matching that
classification type will be switched to and how the transmission
priority is defined. In the D500 there are three variables that affect
on traffic classification: traffic type, the sub-interface traffic has
arrived in and the service class of the arrived packet.
- The D500 can classify and pass through IP traffic without changing
the DSCP field or remark the traffic based on input port, DSCP
value, ATM QoS type or any mixture of these. If the IP DiffServ
feature is enabled for the connection, the traffic is policed, queued
and shaped within the three service classes defined above.
.
Traffic policing
- The policing process within the D500 is implemented in the same
manner for both ATM and IP traffic. The incoming packets are
marked with an identifier describing the rate and priority. IP traffic
uses the two rate-three colour marking algorithms defined in RFC
2698 for AF traffic and single rate-three colours algorithm, RFC
2697, for EF traffic. In IP, the single rate model is for real-time
traffic, just like ATM, and uses Peak Information Rate (PIR). The
three colours markings define the priority and are designated as
green, yellow, and red.
- Green refers to those packets that conforms to the Committed
Information Rate (CIR) and Committed Burst Size (CBS) contract
therefore it should be served with high priority. Yellow refers to
packets that conform to PIR contract but not the CIR contract. These
packets can be scheduled if sufficient resources are available in the

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network. Packets that fail the PIR contract are marked as red and are
served at the lowest priority within the class. In most cases, red
packets are discarded before scheduling. These colours can also be
used as a drop precedence reference, related to the Per-Hop
forwarding Behaviour (PHB), such as EF, AF, and DF.
.
Traffic Shaping and Queue Management
Traffic Shaping provides the network with a mechanism to ensure that
traffic leaving the system will conform to provisioned traffic parameters.
Shaping analyses the packets and helps guide the traffic according to the
algorithms and to avoid congestion and provide smooth traffic delivery.
The D500 uses weighted random early discard (WRED) for queue
management. WRED provides precedence, or weightings, to provide for
preferential traffic handling of higher priority packets and cells. WRED
can selectively discard traffic in the event of queue congestion and
provides differentiated performance characteristics for different classes and
quality of services.
.
Scheduling
The last step in the CoS function, before delivery of traffic to the network,
is scheduling. Weighted Round Robin (WRR) is implemented in the D500
for this function. WRR is a scheduling method that provides bandwidth
allocation for different priority queues according to the specified weights
per interface. WRR applies priority classes and weights to determine how
much bandwidth each flow is allowed relative to other flows. At the same
time, WRR provides an efficient means to schedule or serve the queues.
WRR controls both queue service order and amount of traffic serviced,
providing bandwidth-sharing and relative delay ordering among the
queues.

Ethernet (Layer 2) CoS

The IP CoS based on DiffServ Codepoints is a method that can be used to


differentiate layer 3 service classes, so that the D500 traffic management can
process packets according to their priority level. The method is, however, not
applicable for bridged subinterfaces, which examine the packets only in Ethernet
(layer 2) level. In order to support different service classes also in bridging mode,
the D500 release R3 supports different Ethernet CoS classes by using Ethernet
user priority bits. These three user priority bits are part of the Ethernet frames
VLAN Tag.

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Internally the D500 supports three Ethernet priority service classes (High,
Medium and Low). The global mapping of the VLAN tag user priority field
values to the D500 priority service classes (i.e. which user priority field values
belong to each group) is user configurable. The configured mapping applies to
the whole node (for example there is only one global VLAN user priority
mapping per node) and the new mapping settings will take effect only after node
reboot.

The queuing and scheduling of Ethernet CoS traffic is handled in the D500
basically the same way as IP DiffServ traffic. The same three queues (High/EF,
Medium/AF4 and Low/DF) and the same schedulers are used in both cases.

If Ethernet CoS is enabled, there are two options: Pass mode and Map mode. In
the Pass mode the user priority bits of the incoming packet are used directly to
select the internal Ethernet priority service class, which determines the policing,
queue selection and scheduling behaviour. The Map mode allows the user to
remap per subinterface the received Ethernet priority service class to any of the
three service classes (High, Medium or Low) supported by the D500.

The D500 supports both Pass and Map modes in the upstream direction. In the
downstream direction only Pass mode is supported.

Mapping can be applied also in cases, where there is no VLAN tag included in
the received Ethernet frame. This feature may be usefull e.g. when VLAN tags
are not used in the client side subinterface (D500 R3 supports both Ethernet
frames with VLAN tag and without VLAN tag in the client side). In this case in
the upstream direction Ethernet CoS mapping can be done on a PVC bases: all
frames received from a subinterface (PVC) are mapped to the preconfigured
priority service class. This mapped service class is then used for selecting the
policing and queuing behaviour, and the respective user priority field value is
inserted into the VLAN tag in the trunk interface.

1.4 D500 R3 services

1.4.1 IP multicast

The technological advances of Gigabit Ethernet trunk/control unit enhances the


communication between the core network content servers, which broadcast
channels of digital TV usually at 2-6 Mbps per channel to the subscriber. Once
subtended from a multicast router network or directly from the network content
server, the Nokia D500 solution not only provides IP multicasting by acting as an
IGMP proxy or IGMP snooper; but also, the solution provides a MAC address
based authorization/authentication scheme that enhances the solutions ability to
replicate and forward broadcast channels only to authorised customers.

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The D500 solution is designed so that multicast PDUs received on the trunk/
control unit interface can be multicast to the DSL line card or tributary units on a
per port basis. The multicast channels can be initially delivered to the D500
during system start-up in several ways:

The D500 trunk/control unit interface (Gigabit Ethernet) can be flooded with the
multicast channels without having to request the multicast channels from the
network.

The D500 trunk/control unit can use IGMPv2 to request all provisioned multicast
channels from the network.

The D500 trunk/control unit can proxy a subscriber IGMPv2 request for a
multicast channel providing the channel is not already being sent to the D500
trunk/Control unit interface. In this scenario the D500 or D500 RAM will leave
the multicast channel subscription when any subscriber is no longer requesting
the multicast channel, which in turn saves bandwidth in the access network for
other applications. This approach will impact channel delay only for a selected
channel, which is not already present in the D500.

The D500 can also support IP multicast in Layer 2 mode with IGMP snooping. In
IGMP snooping mode the D500 will only monitor the IGMP messages sent by
the client devices and starts to replicate the multicast channels based on the
monitored IGMP messages.

D500 supports IGMP Pre-Join feature. This feature is applicable only in IGMP
proxy mode of D500 and is a configurable option for a multicast channel
package. D500 initiates IGMP join request for all channels that are associated
with the channel package, when the Pre-Join feature is enabled for a multicast
channel package. Also, upon system startup, D500 initiates the IGMP join
requests for all channels that are associated with the Pre-Join enabled channel
packages. This reduces the joining time for the multicast clients when they send
an IGMP join message to D500.

D500 DSLAM supports IGMP fast leave feature. The feature is a configurable
option at the client subinterface level. The IGMP fast leave feature can be enabled
in both IGMP proxy and IGMP snooping mode of D500. By default the feature is
disabled.

In IGMP proxy mode, in the normal scenario (IGMP fast leave disabled) when
D500 receives an IGMP leave message from the client, an IGMP query message
will be sent through the client subinterface and the LMQI (Last Member Query
Interval) timer would be started. If it does not get any IGMP report within the
timer expires, it leaves the multicast group. If the fast leave feature was enabled,
D500 would immediately leave the multicast channel on receiving an IGMP
leave message from the client.

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In IGMP snooping mode, if the IGMP fast leave feature was enabled on the client
subinterface, D500 would immediately clear the fast path information for the
multicast channel on receiving an IGMP leave message for the channel from the
client.

D500 supports configuration of bandwidth groups for multicast channels. The


bandwidth groups will be associated with the configurable bandwidth and a set of
multicast channels. In IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy modes of D500,
whenever an IGMP report message is received, apart from the existing
validations, D500 checks for the bandwidth availability before accepting the
IGMP join request. The required bandwidth is the one configured in the
bandwidth group for the requested channel. If the channel is not configured under
any bandwidth groups, a system level default bandwidth is considered. The
bandwidth feasibility is checked across unit, port and subinterface level. If the
aggregate of already utilized bandwidth and the request channel bandwidth is
within the maximum limit allowed, at unit, port and subinterface levels, the
channel request will be accepted. This feature will always be enabled across the
system in both IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy modes.

1.4.2 Layer 3 switching

The layer 3 switching decisions are done based on IP level information, that is,
the packet is forwarded according to the destination IP address and the
information in the D500 routing table. The basic difference between D500 IP
switching and basic router functionality is that D500 doesnt run any routing
protocols, such as RIP, OSPF or BGP.

There are two basic scenarios in which the traffic forwarding needs to take place
at the IP level. If the DSL connection is set to use routed ATM encapsulation
(RFC2684R) and the trunk interface uses Ethernet, there is no common Layer 2
protocol between the links and the traffic needs to be forwarded according to the
IP level information. The routed encapsulation is not widely used because it
requires a customer CPE to be a router with static IP address, consumes
additional IP addresses and needs lot of manual configuration work.

The more practical scenario is to set the DSL ports to use RBE. DSL operators
want to minimise CPE configuration and allow use of standard IP address
allocation protocol for devices in the home network. To achieve that, the CPE
needs to be a transparent bridge and hosts must get their IP address information
dynamically using DHCP server. When the host boots up, it sends out DHCP
requests. These requests are then relayed to the appropriate DHCP server, which
assigns an IP address to the host from one of its previously defined address
spaces. RBE refers to the feature that, when Ethernet frames are received, the
Ethernet header is ignored, and the destination IP address is examined instead.
That is, the packets originated from the customer are not bridged but instead
routed, based on IP destination address. The packets destined for a customer are

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directed to the appropriate destination interface, based on IP destination address.


The D500 finds a destination MAC address corresponding to the destination
interface from the ARP table, and places it in the Ethernet header. If no MAC
address can be found, the router generates an ARP request for the IP destination
address, and forwards it to its destination interface only.

One of the biggest advantages of RBE model is scalability. Routed model also
adds security and the time-consuming configuration of routing tables can be
avoided with RBE. The routing table entries may still be statically configured, but
also obtained dynamically from DHCP snooping. If a DSL port is configured to
use RBE the D500 can act as a DHCP relay. When the host in a customer
premises is booted up the D500 receives a DHCP request, modifies it into DHCP
relay request, adds option82 field if so configured and forwards the request to the
configured DHCP server. Once the DHCP server response is received the D500
adds a route entry (and/or an ARP entry) into the routing table and forwards the
response to the requesting client. With this procedure the routes can be
automatically added when new devices are connected to customer side. Aging of
the routing table drops the unused entries from the table. The DHCP relay
option82 can be used to carry the information where the DHCP request was
originated to the DHCP server. This feature may help service operator to limit the
number of IP addresses behind a DSL connection or help finding a misbehaving
client in the network.

To conserve IP addresses, using unnumbered interfaces is an alternative. An


unnumbered interface is an interface that uses another interface's IP address by
using the "ip unnumbered" command. In this case all the customers connected to
same destination from the D500, for instance the same ISP, can use the same IP
address connected to the destination. For the router all the customers seem to be
in the same LAN, which mean that all the customers need to be also in the same
subnet than the unnumbered interface

In the case of using unnumbered interfaces where you may find two subscribers
on the same subnet, the RBE uses proxy ARP. In the figure below, an example of
unnumbered interface is provided. Here, 192.168.1.2 (Host A) wants to
communicate with 192.168.1.3 (Host B). However, in this case of unnumbered
interfaces, Host A is on the same subnet as Host B.

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IP=192.168.1.2
GW=192.168.1.1

Virtual interface: Loopback01


Host A IP=192.168.1.1
Bridged
CPE IP=192.168.2.254

IP=192.168.1.3
GW=192.168.1.1
Aggregation
D500 Router

IP=192.168.2.1

Host B
Bridged
CPE

Figure 2. IP unnumbered operation

Host A learns the Host B MAC address by sending out an ARP broadcast to Host
B via D500. When the RBE interface at the D500 receives this broadcast
message, it will send out a proxy ARP Response with the MAC address of
192.168.1.1 to Host A. Host A will take that MAC address, place it in its Ethernet
header, and send the packet back. When the D500 receives the packet, it skips the
Ethernet header, looks at the IP destination header, and then routes it on the
correct interface.

1.4.3 Bridging and VLANs

The Nokia D500 R3 supports two different types of bridged connections, a single
PVC to a VLAN mappings and VLAN bridge groups.

The one-to-one PVC to a VLAN mapping can be used when the connectivity
information needs to be transferred into the Ethernet access network. In this case
the PVC coming from the customer premises is mapped to a VLAN in the trunk
interface and the bridging occurs only between those two connection end-points.

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The Nokia D500 can support up to 8000 PVC-VLAN connections, although in


practice the number is limited to 4094 by the VLAN address space. The
maximum number of clients, that is, the number of MAC addresses supported in
the client side is 16 000.

A VLAN bridge group can be established between several customer side PVCs
and one trunk side VLAN. D500 introduces the concept of bridged group pools to
support configurable number of clients per bridged group. Three bridged group
pools are supported. They are known as small, medium and large. The number of
bridged groups in a pool and the number of clients per bridge group in a pool are
configurable. The total number of bridged groups across the pools cannot exceed
400 and the total number of bridged group clients cannot exceed 8000. The
maximum number of clients per bridge group cannot exceed 1600. The new
configuration comes into effect after rebooting the node.

The bridge groups can be used in PPPoE deployments or to provide pure Layer 2
connections to business customers. If the unicast packet's MAC address matches
the Ethernet address at the trunk interface, it can be destined to the D500 node or
it can be a locally terminated IP packet. If the MAC does not belong to the D500
system, the frame is a handled like a typical bridged frame and is forwarded to a
single ATM VC based on the destination MAC. Broadcast Packets Received on a
Bridged VLAN/VCC are duplicated and forwarded to all ATM VCs belonging to
the same bridge group as the receiving VLAN.

The D500 supports DHCP relay with option82 also in Layer 2 mode. When a
host in a customer premsies is booted up, the D500 receives a DHCP request, it
adds the option82 fields and sends the DHCP request as a unicats packet to the
DHCP server. Once the D500 receives the DHCP response, it will forward the
response only to the requested client.

D500 supports option82 in bridged mode (non DHCP relay mode). The feature is
a configurable option for bridged trunk subinterface. In bridged mode, D500
supports addition of option82 fields for upstream DHCP packet. D500 broadcasts
the processed packet to the bridged trunk interface. For downstream DHCP
packets, D500 will strip off the option82 fields and forward the packet to the
corresponding client subinterface. In the downstream direction, if the DHCP
packets are received without the option82 field; then the packet will be dropped.

When the D500 is in bridged mode, sub option 2 information field of DHCP
option82 will contain either nokia binary format or subscriber id string or
subscriber ID2 string.

D500 provides a configurable option at the subinterface level to enable or disable


directed DHCP response. The feature can also be modified after the trunk
subinterface creation.

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D500 acts as PPPoE Intermediate Agent for bridged connections. The feature is a
configurable option during bridged client subinterface creation. In bridged mode,
the D500 supports addition of DSL line identification tag for upstream PADI and
PADR packets and forwards the packet to bridged trunk interface. For
downstream PADO and PADS packets, DSL line identification tag will be
removed if packets contain the tag. The processed PADS and PADO packets are
forwarded to the corresponding client subinterface.

D500 supports blocking of static IP addresses for DHCP clients. When DHCP
snooping or option82 support is enabled in bridged mode, D500 blocks all
ingress IP and ARP packets except DHCP control and PPP packets when static IP
address is assigned to the client. This feature is provided as a configurable option
for the bridged client subinterface. When enabled, D500 checks the source IP
address of the ingress IP or ARP packet and drops the packet if source IP address
is not the one assigned by DHCP server.

D500 supports a feature that allows traffic from selective IP address for bridged
clients. The user is provided with the configurable option for the subinterface to
selectively allow traffic from a set of IP addresses. If configured, D500 blocks all
ingress IP and ARP packets with source IP address other than the allowed IP
addresses configured or the one assigned dynamically by DHCP server.

1.4.4 Point-to-point protocol

Point-to-point protocol (PPP) defines an encapsulation mechanism for


transporting multi-protocol packets across layer 2 (L2) point-to-point links.

From the traditional ATM based DSLAM point of view, the PPP sessions through
the DSLAM have been transparent. The connections have been switched on the
ATM layer without any knowledge about the cell payloads.

The D500 R3 provides new opportunities for PPP deployments. The new
enhanced model to manage the traffic enables D500 to switch and queue PPP
sessions, allows simultaneous PPPoE connections with RBE connections,
converts PPPoA sessions to PPPoE when GigE trunk is used and aggregates
sessions to save layer 2 provisioning work.

The most common option for PPP deployments is to have PPPoE server behind
the trunk side VLAN/VCC. In this case, client side PPPoA and PPPoE traffic is
forwarded to the configured trunk side VLAN/VCC. For client side PPPoE traffic
grooming is straightforward: PPPoE sessions are transparent to DSLAM, and
frames are passed transparently, just like in regular bridging. If a PPP destination
has been specified for a specific connection the D500 will forward all PPP traffic

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to the selected VLAN/VCC. In case of PPPoA connections, the D500 has to act
as a PPPoE client, thus opening and closing PPPoE session upon PPPoA clients
requests. PPPoE traffic returning from the network is forwarded to PPPoA clients
according to the PPPoE session.

D500 acts as PPPoE Intermediate Agent for RBE connections. The feature is a
configurable option during RBE client subinterface creation. In RBE mode, the
D500 supports addition of DSL line identification tag for upstream PADI and
PADR packets and forwards the packet to the PPPoE grooming bridged trunk
interface. For downstream PADO and PADS packets, DSL line identification tag
will be removed if packets contain the tag. The processed PADS and PADO
packets are forwarded to the corresponding client subinterface.

1.4.5 L2TP LAC

The D500 supports L2TP access concentrator (LAC) functionality.

In the D500 L2TP tunnels are statically created entities between a LAC and an
LNS. The LNS is typically an access router on the trunk side. The trunk unit
implements the LAC functionality allowing PPP sessions to be tunnelled to a
single endpoint. Each PPP protocol session is terminated on the server end by the
LNS, and on the client end by either a CPE router or a host running PPPoE.

IP packets containing L2TP control messages are processed locally and used to
drive state machines for configured L2TP tunnels. L2TP data is forwarded to the
appropriate PPPoE or PPPoA endpoint, which is identified on the basis of the
session ID carried in the header.

D500 supports most L2TP LAC functionalities and uses the well-known UDP
port 1701. The entire L2TP packet is encapsulated in a UDP datagram. These
packets are then forwarded via the appropriated tunnel ID. The tunnels are
maintained and created over a reliable L2TP control channel, which transmits
packets "In-Band" over the same packet transport.

Tunnel creation is static and requires manual configuration. This process occurs
independently of all other protocol negotiations and requires only that the LNS be
configured and accepting L2TP calls. After tunnels are established, the D500
LAC continually maintains the tunnels through the use of L2TP maintenance and
control messages.

L2TP tunnels may be created over both ATM connections and Gigabit Ethernet
VLANs. The LACs job is to create and manage L2TP tunnels. Once the tunnel is
up and a tunnel ID is selected a PPP session can be initiated. PPP forwarding is
done based on session IDs learned by snooping the PPPoE session establishment

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messages. The ID is used to select the destination (slot/port/VC or slot/port/VC/


tunnelID or slot/port/VLANID/tunnelID). Forwarding is then simple matter of
editing the header in accordance with the encapsulation method used at either end
of the connection.

1.4.6 Single Ended Loop Testing

Single Ended Loop Testing (SELT) is a value-added feature offered to service


providers. SELT can be used for characterizing or testing the loop during pre-
service activation and running post-service tests wehn line failures occur.

SELT provides the following information for service providers about the DSL
loop:

. Loop length
. Loop termination (open or short circuit)
. Loop gauge (awg)
. Upstream and downstream capacity in bps
.
Inband noise represented as graph
. Termination response represented as graph
.
Upstream and downstream rate vs margin, represented as graph

A SELT test can be initiated from the Web Craft Terminal and NetAct for
Broadband management interfaces. There can be a maximum of six SELT tests
initiated per ADLS2+ line card simultaneously.

1.5 Network topologies


The D500 supports deployment of the following equipment configurations for R3

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Regional
GigE
Network

D500

GigE GigE

POP
D500

D500
STM-1
D500
OC-3
CO1 CO2
MCS MCS D500

LCS LCS

Figure 3. D500 Network Topologies

1.5.1 Integrated D500 architectures

D500 nodes have full interoperability between the D50(e), and previous D500
(and/or D500 RAM) releases to enable seamless integration of all systems.
Interoperability preserves investment in existing D50(e) nodes while enabling
integration with the new D500-based networks. The integrated D50(e)/D500
architecture will enhance DSL network performance to include remote
interoperability between the D50(e) and D500, expanded line density per trunk,
and shared ATM trunking.

Further flexibility is achieved by subtending third-party DSLAMs using the ATM


UNI interface of the OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit.

The figure below shows the deployment of different D500 network architectures.

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1.5.2 Integrated configurations: D50(e) and D500, or third-party DSLAM


and D500

D50(e) MCS system as well as D500 R2.x system (or the third-party DSLAM)
can be subtended to the D500 R3 via connection to the OC-3/STM-1 tributary
unit ATM UNI interface, as shown in the figure below. This configuration
provides a method of aggregating D50(e) systems (or third-party DSLAMs) to
share common trunk capacity to the core ATM network and save costs of leased
lines or fibre count.

CO 1
D500
STM-1
MCS LCS
Regional OC-3
Network
STM-1
POP OC-3 CO 2 CPE
MCS LCS

Nokia Element
Management
Application for
D50 & D500

Figure 4. D50(e) MCS subtended to D500

1.5.3 Cascaded D500 nodes

Cascading several D500 nodes is useful for operators who want to increase line
density within a site without incurring extra cost of additional trunk requirements
or to extend line capacity to multiple remote sites. The intra-site topology is
intended for large Central Offices where the number of lines per site exceeds 500
lines. See the figure below for illustration.

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D500 D500
STM-1
Regional CPE
OC-3
Network

Nokia Element
Management
Application for
D50 & D500

Figure 5. Cascaded D500 topology

1.5.4 Stand-alone D500

A stand-alone D500 configuration, as illustrated in the figure below, consists of a


single D500 node and may be useful for operators who have small to medium-
sized core- network deployments and require a separate overlay network for DSL
services.

D500

Regional CPE
Network

Nokia Element
Management
Application for
D50 & D500

Figure 6. Stand-alone D500 configuration

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1.6 Voice solution with the D500 R3

1.6.1 Voice over DSL (VoDSL)

Nokias Voice over DSL (VoDSL) strategy aims to facilitate rapid deployment of
converged voice and data services to residential and Small office/Home office
(SoHos) users, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), and Multi-Dwelling Unit
(MDU) and Multi-Tenant Unit (MTU) users.

Using VoDSL, the D500 can support multiple voice and data channels through a
single subscriber loop. By transporting voice directly over the DSL network,
VoDSL does not require inline POTS filters to separate analog voice from data.
The VoDSL strategy involves the used ATM Quality of Service (QoS) at the
multiplexer while partnering with 3rd party Voice (Home) Gateways or Integrated
Access Devices (IADs) at the customer premises and GR303/V5.2 Voice over
DSL Gateways (VoDSL GWs) at the Central Office.

Voice
Gateway

PSTN

Class 5
Voise Switch
D500

Internet
HGW / IAD ATM Switch

Central Office Service POP

Figure 7. D500 for VoDSL solution

1.6.2 Integrated Access Device (IAD)

An IAD can reside at each subscriber premises and serves as the interface
between the DSL network and the customers voice and data equipment. The IAD
uses ATM or IP over DSL technologies to multiplex all of the subscribers voice
and data traffic onto a single copper pair, which terminates at the Full-service
Access Multiplexer. Unlike CPE equipment, which requires filtering of voice

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from data via a POTS or an ISDN splitter, the IAD can deliver integrated voice
and data directly over the xDSL network using ATM or IP adaptation at the
subscriber source. The IAD connects the subscribers existing telephone
equipment including analog telephones, key systems, fax machines, and modems
to PSTN telephone lines.

1.6.3 Voice Gateway

The Voice Gateway is a large-scale platform that receives local voice traffic from
all subscribers in ATM or IP format and converts it back into TDM format for
delivery to the existing Class 5 PSTN voice switch via GR303 or V5.2 interface.

1.6.4 Voice over IP / End-to-End SIP connectivity

Via software client installed into a PC or a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) phone
the end user can connect to another end user through IP network (IP over ATM)
as controlled by SIP servers. At the same time other SIP based services provided
by the SIP client together with SIP servers are available to the end user. Examples
of such services are messaging, presence and Push to Talk services. The
interworking with PSTN network requires a voice gateway in the border of IP
network and PSTN network. The voice over IP connectivity through D500 can
utilize IP Class of Service (CoS) mechanism of D500.

1.6.5 Voice solution in next Generation Network

The Next Generation Network, the first truly data oriented broadband network to
support all services over all media, will be All IP network. The future broadband
network and its evolution will be characterized by six different transitions that
can take place independently:

. Transition from a dial-up-like circuit-switched network to a session based


packet-switched network
. Convergence of fixed voice and data networks
. Convergence of mobile and fixed networks
.
Transition from mere connectivity to service creation platforms
. Transition to IPv6 networks
.
Transition from a copper-based network towards optical networks

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The transitions will be made in several steps, allowing the optimization of


revenues and of utilization of the existing investment. As a fundamental
application, the voice services will be delivered over the Next Generation
Network with Voice over Packet solutions. The D500 fully covers the
requirements for Broadband access to Next Generation network voice solution.
The Nokia Voice strategy provides the operator the option to migrate from today's
circuit switched PSTN networks into SIP controlled carrier class Voice over
Packet networks, allowing also intermediate steps for specific market segments
with VoDSL solutions.

1.7 Element management


The D500 management offers several network protocol interfaces for software
provisioning, operation, and diagnostics reporting. The D500 offers an
SNMPv1.4 protocol interface as a standard management interface. The CLI
management works over TCP using the TELNET protocol. The Web browser
interface operates using HTTP, and the Web-based Craft Terminal applet
communicates with the D500 over a proprietary protocol on top of TCP.

The out-of-band remote management of the D500 node takes place via an
Ethernet hub connection.

Management Broadband
Terminal Modulator

TCP/IP WAN or LAN

ATM/Ethernet D500
Switch
NTs
NTs

Figure 8. D500 out-of-band management

The in-band remote management is supported via a dedicated Virtual Channel


Connection (VCC) of the OC-3/STM-1 trunk or tributary interface or via the
Ethernet trunk interface.

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Management Broadband
Terminal Modulator

TCP/IP WAN or LAN

Router
D500
ATM/Ethernet
Switch NTs
NTs

Figure 9. D500 in-band management

1.7.1 In-band management routing to co-located equipment

With the in-band management routing feature you can manage co-located
equipment through the D500 in-band management channel.

The co-located equipment placed in the same Central Office (or street cabinet) as
the D500 node (or D500 RAM) is connected to the D500's Ethernet management
interface. This co-located equipment can be managed remotely by utilizing the
same in-band management connection that is used to manage the D500.

D500
STM-1
Regional OC-3
Network

x y

Figure 10. In-band management routing

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The equipment connected to the D500's Ethernet management interface must be


assigned suitable IP addresses from the same subnetwork as the D500 Ethernet
management interface. The workstation managing the co-located equipment must
be in the same subnetwork as the in-band management interface or alternatively
the default gateway on the D500 must be set to the address of a gateway located
on the same subnetwork as the in-band management interface.

Example 1.

In-band management routing

The Ethernet management interface of the D500 node (or D500 RAM) has IP
address 192.168.69.14 and subnet mask 255.255.255.0. Thus the co-located
equipment must be assigned an IP address in the range 192.168.69.1 -
192.168.69.13 or 192.168.69.15 - 192.168.69.254.

The in-band management interface of the D500 has IP address 192.168.42.8 and
subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The workstation managing the co-located equipment
via the in-band management channel must either be assigned an IP address from
the range 192.168.42.1 - 192.168.42.7 or 192.168.42.9 - 192.168.42.254 or there
must be a gateway in the 192.168.42.X subnetwork and the address of that
gateway must be configured as the default gateway in the D500.

See the figure below.

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D500
Ethernet

192.168.69.14
Mgmt. Eth. if
Default GW = 192.168.69.5
192.168.42.254

Ethernet
192.168.69.119
In-Band Mgmt. if
192.168.42.8

192.168.42.254
Router / Gateway

Management
Workstation

Figure 11. Example of in-band management routing

1.7.2 D500 Web-based Craft Terminal

The D500 supports a Web-based Craft Terminal interface for configuration and
management of the D500 resources. Web-based Craft Terminal provides
configuration access through the management network using web technology.
Thus maintenance personnel are not required to have anything else than a web
browser on their management terminal. The web browser connects to the D500
through an in-band network connection via the trunk facility, or locally via an
Ethernet hub connection.

Web-based Craft Terminal is ideal for the set-up and commissioning of D500,
initiating communication with NetAct 3.0 (and later releases), or for quick, on-
site diagnosis of hardware-related or local network problems. The advanced
features of the Web-based Craft Terminal include, for example, the virtual
configuration feature which allows the user to add, modify and delete units
virtually, that is, unit information is stored in the nodes non-volatile memory
before the units are physically installed in the subrack. Another feature

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facilitating node management is the Quick Connection Creation feature. It makes


connection creation process more effective by allowing the user to pre-select slot,
port and link parameter settings before the VPI/VCI and traffic descriptor settings
are entered for each connection. The management features also include functions
for locking and deleting multiple connections simultaneously.

1.7.3 Command line interface (CLI)

The command line interface (CLI) provides an alternative management interface


via the local serial port (RS-232) or a TCP/IP management network. This allows a
text-based interface for the maintenance personnel to access current alarm lists
and to configure node parameters for provisioning and troubleshooting.

Note that compared to Web-based Craft Terminal, the CLI provides two
additional features: a script feature allowing long strings of commands to be
executed at one command and a feature for restoring factory default settings.

1.7.4 NetAct for Broadband

Nokia NetAct for Broadband is a client/server-based system that incorporates a


full range of functions for fault, performance, and configuration management for
the whole Nokia broadband solution covering Nokia D500 and Nokia SMS.
NetAct offers centralized, high-capacity element management capability to
minimize the cost associated with operating a large broadband access network. It
also provides a Northbound CORBA interface to the Operators existing OSS
systems. Nokia NetAct is available for the Sun Solaris operating environment.

1.7.5 D500 Administrative Tools Suite

The D500 Administration Tools Suite (ATS) provides tools for upgrading the
node software, making back-ups of the current configuration and restoring a prior
configuration to the node.

The Administration Utilities Suite operates on an NT 4.0 or Windows 2000


workstation and provides the following applications:

.
D500 ATS, which is an upgrade program and includes the two following
applications, too.
.
D500 Backup Wizard, including backup/restore functions.
. D500 Configuration Report Tools (CRT) for retrieving serial numbers,
CLEI codes, software revisions and generating reports for units, subracks
and systems.

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1.7.6 Performance diagnostics

In addition to the advanced fault and performance management features provided


by the network and node management applications, the following diagnostic
features may be used in troubleshooting D500 performance:

. Each unit has LED indicators to display the status of the individual unit
(FAIL, ENABL, ACT, and ALARM indicators are available).
. The D500 backplane includes alarm output connections for Audible and
Visual alarms.
. Alarm input connections allow the D500 to act as a conduit for transferring
alarms from the operational environment to the Craft Terminal.
. Fan Trays included in each subrack provide alarm indications that are
monitored by the system and can be made available to operators via Craft
Terminal. Alternatively, the Fan Tray alarms can be displayed directly by a
LED included on the Fan Tray.

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2 D500 MSAP components


The D500 MSAP (Multi-Service broadband Access Platform) solution can
consist of different combinations of the following elements:

. D500 Broadband Access Node(s) with 17 slots (front cabling) and/or 21


slots (front or rear mount cables)
. D500 RAM(s) (Remote Access Module), installed either horizontally or
vertically
. D500 17-Slot LPFS(s) (Low Pass Filter Subrack), and/or
.
D500 4-Slot LPFS(s).

2.1 Configuration of D500 node in Central Office


The D500 17-slot and D500 21-slot subracks include the following component:

. One trunk/control unit with 1000Base-FX Ethernet interface (TK1000).

Besides, in the remaining slots any combination of the following units can be
used:

.
Up to four OC-3/STM-1 tributary units (TRB155)
. In a D500 17-slot subrack, up to 15 line cards and/or low pass filter cards
of the following types: ADSL48af(t), ADSL48ar, ADSL48bf, ADSL2+af,
ADSL2+bf, SHDSL24f, VDSL24df, VDSL24ef, LPF24af, LA24asf,
LA24bf to deliver ADSL, SHDSL and/or VDSL services.
. In D500 21-slot subracks, up to 19 line cards and/or low pass filter cards.
You can use all units mentioned above. The following units can also be
used: ADSL48ar and/or SHDSL24r. The D500 21-slot subrack provides
the same services as the D500 17-slot subrack.

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Note

The names of the line cards are created in the following way:

.
Denomination of the signal.
. Number of ports.
.
Annex of a standard, with which the unit is compliant (note, the annex is
not always mentioned). Annex A is indicated by letter a, Annex B - by b,
Annex D - by d and Annex E - by e.
. Type of mount cable or loop terminations (f indicates front cable mounting,
r - rear cable mounting).

For example, for the ADSL48af line card, 48 indicates that this line card has 48
ports, a shows that the line card is Annex A compliant, f indicates front mounting
cable or loop terminations for this unit.

2.1.1 Scalable Broadband Access

The Nokia D500 subrack offers scalable, modular design to facilitate easy
upgrading from smaller installations to a large-scale installation.

For example, by adding a maximum of 15 48-port ADSL48af line cards to the


D500 (in a 21-slot subrack - 19 ADSL48af line cards), up to 720 or, respectively,
912 subscribers can be connected to a single D500 node. This upgrade enables
location of the D500 at the Central Office with a remote connection to a POTS or
ISDN splitter, or to multiple D500 nodes (or D500 RAMs) in a cascade daisy-
chain configuration.

2.1.2 D500 17-slot and 21-slot subracks

In a Central Office configuration, the D500 17-slot subrack is installed in a 19-


inch rack or a standard 500-mm ETSI rack and the D500 21-slot subrack is
installed in a 23-inch Telco rack. The D500 subracks include pre-installed
mounting brackets on the sides of the subrack for bolt on rack.

The trunk/control unit interface to the backbone Ethernet network uses a single
1000Base-FX full duplex interface with multi-mode or single mode connection.

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In a data-plus-voice configuration, Low Pass Filter (LPF) subracks can be used


for installing up to 17 LPF units (in a D500 17-slot LPFS) for splitting the voice
signal from data signal. The splitter cards can also be installed directly in the
D500 node or D500 RAM.

The figures below shows examples of fully installed 500-mm and 600 mm ETSI
racks including three 17-slot and 21-slot subracks, a Broadband Power Supply
Adapter (BB-PSA) and three cable trays.

BB-PSA

Subrack 1

Subrack 2

Subrack 3

Figure 12. Fully installed 500-mm rack

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The figure below shows an example of a fully installed 23 inch ANSI rack
including three 21-slot subracks and a Broadband Power Supply Adapter (BB-
PSA).

Figure 13. Fully installed 600 mm rack

The figure below shows an example of a fully installed 23-inch ANSI rack
including three 21-slot subracks and a Broadband Power Supply Adapter (BB-
PSA).

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Figure 14. Optional installation order for the 23-inch rack

2.1.3 D500 subrack

The figures below show the design and features of the D500 subrack front.

In front mounting, all connectors are on the front plates of the line cards and
trunk/control units. The following connectors are used:

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. OC-3/STM-1 LC or MT-RJ connectors for the OC-3/STM-1 tributary


interfaces.
. LC connectors for the aggregate Gigabit Ethernet interface.
.
CHAMP connectors for the ADSL48, VDSL and SHDSL line cards.

Rear mounting is used only on the D500 21-slot subrack. The line card
connectors are located at the rear of the subrack backplane.

Note

Cables to the backplane connectors are routed over the top of the Connector
Access Panel. Therefore, it is important to leave adequate space between shelves
for wiring when mounting components in the rack.

From the Craft Terminal and CLI, you can read the serial number, hardware
version, and software version of any unit in the D500 subrack and reset, lock, or
unlock the units by command. When a unit is inserted into a unit slot, the FAIL
LED flashes red until the unit is initialised.

The D500 subrack includes a pre-installed Fan Tray with six (17-slot subrack) or
eight (21-slot subrack) fans. The fans operate at different speed depending on the
temperature in the Fan Tray:

. >45C (113F) - maximum speed (voltage on fans 221,5V)


. >35C (95F) - normal speed (voltage on fans 191V)
. -20...+35C (-4...+95F) - reduced speed (voltage on fans 171V).

The Fan Tray includes a LED for visual fan alarms indicating degraded
performance. The alarms can also be viewed via the Web-based Craft Terminal.

Refer to the feature numbers in the tables below for the names of the features and
where to obtain further information in the D500 documentation. The illustrated
subracks are equipped with a trunk/control unit with a Gigabit Ethernet interface.

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D500 17-slot subrack

1
2
3 16
17
4 18

5 19
6 20
7
8 21
9
FAN ALARM

10
22
11
12 23
24
13
14 25
26
28
27

15

Figure 15. D500 17-slot subrack front view

Table 2. D500 17-Slot Subrack Contents

# Feature

1 Air Deflector

2 Air Deflector latches

3 Power Configuration Connectors

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Table 2. D500 17-Slot Subrack Contents (cont.)

# Feature

4 Grounding Points

5 Line Test Chaining

6 Line Test Measure

7 Visual and Audio Alarm Output Connectors


(major, critical)

8 Relay Rack Alarm Connector

9 Fan Tray Latches

10 Fan Tray

11 Unit Lock Tabs

12 LED Indicators: Fail, Enable, Active, and


Alarm

13 ADSL, SHDSL, VDSL Line Cards

14 OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit

15 DSL Line Card (CHAMP.50) Connectors

16 External Alarm Input Connectors

17 Ethernet Connectors for Out-of-band Network


Management

18 Visual and Audio Alarm Output Connectors


(minor)

19 Bay Alarm Connector

20 ESD Ground

21 Input Power Connectors (Sections 1 and 2)

22 External Synchronization Connectors

23 Backplane

24 Mounting Bracket

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Table 2. D500 17-Slot Subrack Contents (cont.)

# Feature

25 STM-1 Connectors: OC-3/STM-1 MM with


MTRJ connector, OC-3/STM-1 SH and OC-3/
STM-1 LH with LC connector

26 Trunk/control unit with Gigabit Ethernet


interface

27 Serial Port Management Connector

28 Audio Alarm Reset Button

D500 21-slot subrack

15 10

1
2
11
3
4
5
12
6
7
8

14

13

Figure 16. D500 21-slot subrack front view

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Table 3. D500 21-slot subrack front contents

# Feature

1 Fan Tray Latches

2 Fan Tray

3 Unit Lock Tabs

4 LED Indicators: Fail, Enable, Active, and


Alarm

5 ADSL, SHDSL, VDSL Line Cards

6 trunk/control unit with Gigabit Ethernet


interface

7 OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit

8 OC-3/STM-1 MM with MTRJ connector, OC-3/


STM-1 SH and OC-3/STM-1 LH with LC
connector

9 Serial Port Management Connector

10 ESD Ground

11 Mounting Bracket

12 Backplane

13 Dust Filter

14 Ethernet Port for Out-of-band Management

The figure below shows the design and features of the D500 21-slot subrack rear.
The DSL network interface connections are CHAMP connectors on the rear of
the backplane. Refer to the feature numbers in the table below for the name of the
features.

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2 10
11
3 12
4 13
14
5
6 15

7 16
8

17

Figure 17. D500 21-slot subrack rear view

Table 4. D500 21-slot Subrack Rear Contents

# Feature

1 Power Configuration Connector

2 Input Power Connectors (Section 1)

3 Grounding Points

4 Audible Alarm Output Connectors (minor,


major, critical)

5 Relay Rack Alarm Connector

6 Bay Alarm Connector

7 Visual Alarm Output Connectors (Minor, Major,


Critical)

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Table 4. D500 21-slot Subrack Rear Contents (cont.)

# Feature

8 External Synchronization Connectors

9 DSL Line Card Interface (CHAMP.50)


Connectors

10 Input Power Connectors (Section 2)

11 - 13 Ethernet Connectors for Out-of-band Network


Management

14 External Alarm Input Connectors

15 Line Test Chaining

16 Line Test Measure

17 Mounting Bracket

2.2 D500 RAM (Remote Access Module)


The D500 Remote Access Module (RAM) is a part of the Multiservice Access
Platform (MSAP) designed to meet the need for smaller sites. Its hardened,
compact assembly enables easy deployment of DSL services in smaller sites with
space limitations, such as street-side cabinets, wall mounts, and controlled
environmental vaults. Therefore, operators can effectively extend the reach of
DSL by moving the DSL interface closer to the end user. Shorter loop lengths
increase signal strength and access speed at the customer CPE interface. The
D500 RAM is designed to be a stand-alone small MSAP or to be subtended to a
master MSAP.

The D500 RAM is a data-only system. If your application requires data-plus-


voice service, an external splitter subrack can be used.

The D500 RAM supports all the same plug-in units as the full-sized D500
subrack:

.
D500 trunk/control units
. D500 line cards
.
D500 tributary units.

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The D500 RAM also requires a power unit designed to distribute power to the
D500 RAM assembly. The power unit provides a power and alarm module and
local management Ethernet interface for Web-based Craft Terminal and the
command line interface (CLI).

The D500 Remote Access Module (RAM) supports up to:

.
Two ATM trunk/control units or one Ethernet trunk/control unit

Note

There can be only one DS1, E1, or E1E trunk in the D500 RAM subrack.

. One D500 RAM power unit


. Four slots capable of containing the following types of units:
- line cards
- tributary units
- low pass filter (LPF) cards.

The following figure shows a possible configuration of a partially installed unit:

Trunk/Control Unit Line Card Fan Tray Flange

Flange Free Slots Tributary Unit Power Unit

Figure 18. D500 RAM and units

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The D500 RAM assembly includes a pre-installed fan tray and power unit. The
fan tray is required for forced air cooling. The power unit distributes power to the
D500 RAM. In the figure above, there is one open slot that can contain a backup
trunk/control unit, and two open slots that can contain line cards or tributary
units.

Warning

The D500 RAM is activated by switching on the power at the Central Office
or remote power source. Do not switch on the power until the power unit is
inserted in the appropriate slot, the power connectors are installed on the
power cables, and the power cables are attached to the power unit. Inserting
or removing the power unit while a live power cable is attached to it can
result in equipment damage and potentially life-threatening exposure to
dangerous voltage levels. Follow local electrical safety procedures when
making power source connections.

2.2.1 Power unit

The power unit distributes power to the D500 RAM. It is designed to accept
power from two redundant -48 VDC power supplies. The power unit will switch
to backup power if the primary power source should fail. The power unit also
includes a maintenance interface for local management, alarm inputs for
collection of external alarms, and a synchronisation interface for external network
timing. The power unit interface is described below.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 19. D500 power unit

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1. Sync: An external timing device can connect to the D500 power unit to
provide system timing. The timing device connects to the IN port, and the
OUT port can be connected to the IN port on another D500 RAM or
subrack to allow one timing device to support multiple DSLAMs.
2. Environmental alarms: The power unit includes four input connections for
environmental alarms that detect external conditions outside acceptable
thresholds.
3. Local manager connection: The D500 RAM includes two 10Base-T
Ethernet connections allowing field technicians to directly connect to the
D500 RAM with a Web-based Craft Terminal or the CLI over a telnet
session.
4. Fuse holder: The fuse holder holds a 15 AMP GMT fuse for each power
supply.
5. Power connector: Two power connectors, labeled 1 and 2, provide a
redundant power interface for the D500 RAM. Power connector 1 is the
primary power interface and power connector 2 is the backup power
interface. If the primary power interface fails, the backup interface will
supply power.

Warning

The D500 RAM is activated by switching on the power at the Central Office
or remote power source. Do not switch on the power until the power unit is
inserted in the appropriate slot, the power connectors are installed on the
power cables, and the power cables are attached to the power unit. Inserting
or removing the power unit while a live power cable is attached to it can
result in equipment damage and potentially life-threatening exposure to
dangerous voltage levels. Follow local electrical safety procedures when
making power source connections.

6. Visual alarms: Three LEDs provide visual alarm status for power supplies
by displaying a steady green light when power is available. The HUB LED
indicates when power is available at the Ethernet hub. The LEDs labeled 1
and 2 indicate when power interfaces 1 and 2 are receiving power.

2.3 D500 LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelves) and LPF


Cards
The D500 17-slot LPFS and the D500 4-slot LPFS are populated with plug-in
units for splitting voice traffic from data traffic.

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Note

It is recommended that the ADSL48aft line card is used with a LPF card that has
no DC blocking.

2.3.1 LPF (Low Pass Filter) Cards

The different types of LPF (splitter) cards split the low frequency voice signal
from the high frequency data signal; the voice signal is sent to the voice switch,
and the data signal is sent to the D500. Each splitter card provides 24 or 48 ports
of ADSL POTS, ADSL ISDN, or VDSL POTS/ISDN splitter functionality per
ETSI requirements (TR 101 728 v1.1.1). All signals to the subscriber, PSTN
network, and DSL line cards are routed through three standard front panel Amp
Champ connectors.

The following figure diagrams the functionality of an LPF card.

DSL/NET
HPF

DC
Block
LOOP/CPE

LPF
POTS

LEGEND:
HPF = High pass filter
DC BLOCK = Direct current block
LPF = Low pass filter

Figure 20. LPF (splitter) card - generic diagram

The following LPF cards are used:

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. LPF24af, 24-port, ADSL, Annex A, front mount


. LA24as, 24-port, ADSL, Annex A, Swe, front mount
. LA24bf, 24-port, ADSL, Annex B, front mount
.
LA48af, 48-port, Annex A, front mount
. LA48bf, 48-port, Annex B, front mount.

LA24bf can be used both in ADSL over ISDN and VDSL installations. The
figures below show the front of the LPF card and describes its components.

DSL/NET Champ connector


connects to the D500 (network)
side of the copper pairs.

LOOP/CPE Champ connector


connects to the MDF (Subscriber)
side of the copper pairs.

POTS Champ connector


connects to the voice switch.

Figure 21. Front panel of the 24-port LPF card

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DSL
AMP Subminiature, D-type

LOOP
AMP Champ

POTS
AMP Subminiature, D-type

Figure 22. Front panel of the 48-port LPF card

2.3.2 Scalable Broadband Access

The LPF shelves offer scalable, modular design to facilitate easy upgrading. The
D500 17-slot LPFS and the D500 4-slot LPFS support the units in modular
increments of 24 loops per splitter card.

A 17-slot LPFS typically supports a maximum of 360 or 720 loops using 15 slots
(408 or 816 loops if all 17 slots are used) in modular increments of 24 or 48 loops
per splitter card.

The D500 4-slot LPFS can support a maximum of 96 or 192 lines.

2.3.3 D500 17-Slot LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelf)

The 17-slot LPF shelf is installed in an 500 mm rack or 19-inch cabinet or rack.
The shelf provides front access to all connections. It is 10 U in height. The LPFS
does not have a backplane, and no power is required for the LPF cards. Each 17-
slot LPFS typically supports a maximum of 360 loops using 15 LPF cards (408
loops if all 17 slots are populated with 24-port LPF cards) in modular increments
of 24 loops per card. One 17-slot LPFS filled with 15 48-port LPF cards supports

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a maximum of 720 loops or a maximum of 816 loops if all 17 slots are populated
with 48-port LPF cards. The LPFS supports ADSL over POTS, ADSL over
ISDN and VDSL over POTS/ISDN. The D500 and the D500 LPFS can be
located remotely from each other, if necessary.

DSL/NET Champ connector


connects to the D500 (network) side
of the copper pairs.

LOOP/CPE Champ connector


connects to the MDF (subscriber) side
of the copper pairs.

POTS Champ connector connects


to the voice switch.

Splitter card slots Splitter card slots


1-10 13-17

Figure 23. D500 17-slot LPFS filled with 24-port LPF cards

The following figures show how the D500 subrack and the 17-Slot LPF shelves
fit together.

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500 mm or 19''
Rack Installation
DC BB-PSA or
Power Switch
Panel

Optical trunk /
network interface

D500 Subrack 25-48 ports


Trunk / Control Unit
1-24 ports
Cable support
JC 24-pair Jumper
trays
Copper cable (0.45 m)

1-24 ports
1st D500 JC 24-pair Jumper
LPFS Copper cable (1.7 m)

Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

25-48 ports
TC 24-pair Tail Copper
2nd D500 cable with openend
LPFS (6 m, 15 m, 30 m, 50 m, 75m)

Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

The longer jumper cables are routed not on the front of the first D500 LPF
Subrack, but to the side (to the left or the right)!
The Power Switch Panel includes power cables for one D500.

Figure 24. D500 subrack and 17-slot LPF shelves

Two D500 LPF subracks and one 17-slot D500 node are installed in one rack
(cabinet).

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D500
JC 24-pair Jumper
Copper cable

LPFS-17 Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

Figure 25. Line cards and 48-port LPF cards in the same rack

MDF

LPFS-17

D500 LPFS-17 LPFS-17

D500 LPFS-17 LPFS-17

Figure 26. ADSL cards and 24-port LPF cards in separate racks

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MDF

D500 LPFS-17

D500 LPFS-17

Figure 27. Line cards and 48-port LPF cards in separate racks

2.3.4 D500 4-Slot LPFS (Low Pass Filter Shelf)

The 4-slot LPFS (for example, together with the D500 RAM) is an excellent way
of servicing your users in out-of-reach settings that require enhanced services
such as ADSL and VDSL. Both the D500 RAM and the D500 4-slot LPFS can be
effectively installed in space-constrained areas, such as curb-mounted cabinets for
example, in FTTN (fibre-to-the-node) applications.

The 4-slot low pass filter shelf is very similar to the 17-slot LPFS, except that it
supports 4 splitter cards for splitting voice traffic from data traffic. The LPFS-4
does not have a backplane, and no power is required for the splitter cards. The
shelf provides front access to all connections. The 4-slot LPFS, as the D500
RAM, can be mounted vertically or horizontally. Two or more LPF shelves can
be horizontally mounted above or below the D500 RAM in a 500-mm or 23-inch
rack. Two 4-slot LPF shelves can be vertically mounted in a 500-mm, 19-inch, or
23-inch rack. The measures of the shelf are 433 x 114 x 250 mm (width x height
x depth).

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Note

The LPF cards can be installed in the special LPFS in all cases and this will meet
the EMC requirements specified for the D500 node. Operationally the LPF cards
can be installed in a D500 subrack, but depending on the exact card equipping
and placement it may violate EMC requirements.

Power
Adapter

LPFS-4

D500 RAM

Figure 28. D500 RAM with two LPF shelves

2.4 D500 MSAP units and interfaces

2.4.1 ATM and Gigabit Ethernet trunk/control units

The trunk/control unit with either Gigabit Ethernet or OC-3/STM-1interface is a


plug-in unit, which multiplexes and demultiplexes data between the line cards
and the ATM or Ethernet trunk interface. The trunk/control unit uploads the
aggregated data stream to the line cards, transmitting data over a backplane
connection to the line cards.

The trunk/control unit performs the following system applications:

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. Network Management for network management and alarm connections.


The trunk/control unit controls the nodes network management interfaces
for network communications, system operations, and local alarm contacts.
The trunk/control unit provides all of the protocol support so the D500
nodes can communicate with the D500 user interfaces (Web-based Craft
Terminal, CLI or an SNMP based element manager).
. Multiplexing, cross-connecting and forwarding. The trunk/control unit
multiplexes and cross-connects data traffic for transfer between the ATM
or Ethernet network and the D500 line cards. The trunk/control unit
designates the transmission parameters necessary to switch and multiplex
ATM, Ethernet and IP connections with defined priorities and traffic rates.
Traffic descriptors ensure that traffic conforms to the bandwidth
requirements of the connection.
. Trunk/control unit with Gigabit Ethernet Interface (TK1000 and
TKETH1G).
The TKETH1G and TK1000 are dual port Gigabit Ethernet trunk/control
units with support for two Gigabit Ethernet Small Form-Factor Pluggable
(SFP transreceivers. Use of SFP adaptors allows operators to use different
kind of optical transmitters (short haul, long haul, extended long haul,
electrical etc) on the same CU/Trunk unit.
The TKETH1G and TK1000 trunk/CU unit supports up to 4096 standard
802.1Q virtual LANs per Gigabit Ethernet Trunk Interface with 802.1p
priority bits.
The trunk/control unit with 1000Base-FX Ethernet interface provides a
trunk interface to either an Ethernet switch or backbone router with
Ethernet interface. The unit supports a single 1000Base-FX full duplex
interface over an RJ-45 connector.
- 1000BaseFX MMMulti-mode fibre/medium power interface for
short range operation (up to 250m or 280 yard)
- 1000BaseFX SMSingle-mode fibre/medium power interface for
long range operation (up to 10km or 6 miles)
- 1000BaseFX SMSingle-mode fibre/high power interface for extra-
long range operation (up to 20km or 13 miles)
. OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit (TRB155)
The tributary unit provides an ATM UNI interface for cascading several
D500 nodes or subtending a D50e/D50 MCS or third-party DSLAM to a
D500 node. The OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit supports four interfaces and is
available in three variations:

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- OC-3/STM-1 MM  Multi-mode fibre/medium power interface for


short range operation (2 km or 1.25 miles)
- OC-3/STM-1 SH  Single-mode fibre/low power interface for
medium range operation (15 km or 9.3 miles)
- OC-3/STM-1 LH  Single mode fibre/high power interface for long
range operation (40 km or 25 miles).
. DS3 tributary unit (TBDS3)
Supports remote deployment by providing up to 8 DS3 connections (per
D500) for remote site access nodes. The DS3 tributary card also provides
added value for any standard DS3 ATM data services. The TBDS3
tributary unit is CU independent. The TBDS3 can be installed in any line-
or tributary card slot in both the D500 and D500 RAM subracks and
features front connections for front cabling access.
. DS1 triburary unit (TBDS1)
The tributary units provide a standard ATM User Network Interface (UNI)
that supports provisionable VPI/VCI mappings to the D500 trunk unit,
allowing ATM cells to be aggregated from other ATM network equipment.
The tributary unit types connect to standard ATM network equipment.
When subtending another D500, D50 or a third-party DSLAM to the
D500, the subtended equipment is connected to an OC-3/STM-1 tributary
unit.
The tributary units also function as trunk units for virtual connections to
and from line cards, tributary units, and trunk units. This feature is called
cross-connection of Virtual Connections (VC). The trunk unit acts as a
switch instead of a multiplexer for VC cross-connections.
.
E1 tributary unit (TBE1, TBE1E)
The TBE1 is a 16-port E1/IMA tributary card that supports remote
deployment by providing up to 16 connections for subtending the D500
and D500 RAM. In addition, the TBE1 tributary card also provides value-
added service for any standard E1 ATM data traffic. The 16-ports can
support up to 16 IMA groups with 1-8 E1 links per group. The TBE1
installs in any line or tributary card slot in both the D500 and D500 RAM
subracks and features front connectors for front cabling access. The
tributary unit is CU independent.

ADSL Line Cards

ADSL uses Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) multiplexing. The ADSL line
cards can provide 48 ports for ADSL data transmissions at 8 Mbit/s downstream
and 1 Mbit/s upstream. ADSL uses Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation to
transmit data in the 35 kHz to 1.1 MHz frequency spectrum. It divides the ADSL
frequency range into 256 discrete bands or bins, each with 4 kHz bandwidth. Of

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the available frequency, POTS uses 0.3 to 3.4 kHz, and ISDN uses 1 to 80 kHz,
which can be separated from data bandwidth through the use of the Low Pass
Filter cards. Each bin is independently modulated. This means that DMT can
monitor signal-to-noise ratio of each bin, detect which bins are impaired, and shift
bandwidth to the best channels.

Note

Actual rates available to the customer are affected by the quality of the local loop,
distance of transmission lines, and effective range of the DMT frequency signal

Bin 0 is reserved for POTS

Bins 1 - 5 Bins 6 - 31 Bins 32 - 255


Not Used Upstream Downstream
G.lite (32-128)

4 kHz 24 kHz 128 kHz 1.1 MHz


Data Rate = Number of channels x number of bit/channel x modulation rate

Figure 29. Discrete multi-tone frequency band

. The D500 ADSL48af, ADSL48ar, ADSL48art and ADSL48aft line cards


support both full-rate (G.dmt) and lite (G.lite) ADSL over POTS. The
following standards are supported:
- ADSL over POTS (ETSI): G992.1 Annex A
- ADSL Lite: G992.2.
- ADSL over POTS (US): T1.413-1998
.
The D500 ADSL48bf line card supports the full-rate(G.dmt) ADSL over
ISDN (ETSI) and G.lite . The standards supported are:
- ADSL over ISDN (ETSI): G.dmt is G992.1 Annex B
- ADSL Lite: G992.2.
.
The ADSL2+ line card supports the following:

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- ITU-T G.992.1 (g.dmt)


- ITU-T G.992.2 (g.dmt lite)
- ITU-T G.992.3 (g. dmt.bis
- ITU-T G.992.4 (g.dmt.bis lite)
- ITU-T G.992.5 (ADSL2+)

All ADSL line cards are provisionable on an individual port basis. Key
differences between G.Lite, G.DMT/POTS and G.DMT/ISDN are shown below:

Table 5. G.Lite, G.DMT/POTS and G.DMT /ISDN: key differences

G.Lite G.DMT/POTS G.DMT/ISDN

LPF (splitter) cards No Yes Yes


required at the Point of
Presence?

Transmission rate:
Downstream
Upstream up to 1.5 Mbit/s up to 1.0 Mbit/s up to 1.0 Mbit/s
up to 512 kbit/s up to 8.0 Mbit/s up to 8.0 Mbit/s

Frequency Spectrum 25 to 552 kHz 25 kHz to 1.1 MHz 138 kHz to 1.1 MHz
Used
Number of Highest Bin
127 256 256
Used

. ADSL48af and ADSL48aft Line Cards

The ADSL48af(t) line card provides 48 ports of DMT line encoding for
ADSL over POTS services for operators. The unit is designed specifically
for use in the D500 17-slot subrack or the D500 RAM and features front
connectors for front cabling access. It can be used in the D500 21-slot
subrack as well. The ADSL48af line card is Annex A compliant,
supporting both full-rate and lite ADSL. The ADSL48af card provides line
rates of up to 8 Mb/s downstream and 1 Mb/s upstream whereas the
ADSL48aft can support downstream rate up to 12 Mb/s. Both cards
support fixed rate and rate adaptive operation on a port-by-port basis.
.
ADSL48ar Line Card

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The ADSL48ar line card provides 48 ports of DMT line encoding for
ADSL over POTS services for operators. The unit is used only in the
D500-21 subrack (ANSI version) and features rear connectors for rear
cabling access. The ADSL48ar line card is compliant with ITU-T G.992.1/
2 Annex A, supporting both full-rate and lite ADSL. The card provides line
rates of up to 8 Mb/s downstream and 1 Mb/s upstream and supports both
fixed rate and rate adaptive operation on a port-by-port basis.
.
ADSL48bf Line Card
The ADSL48bf line card provides 48 ports of DMT line encoding for
ADSL over ISDN services for operators. The unit is designed specifically
for use in the D500-17 subrack (ETSI version) or the D500 RAM and
features front connectors for front cabling access. The ADSL48bf line card
is Annex B compliant, supporting full-rate ADSL. The card provides line
rates of up to 8 Mbit/s downstream and 1 Mbit/s upstream and supports
both fixed rate and rate adaptive operation on a port-by-port basis.
. ADSL2+ Line Cards (af, bf)
The 48-port ADSL2+ line card has been developed to improve rate and
reach performance with better modulation efficiency and reduced framing
overhead. ADSL2+ doubles the used bandwidth providing downstream
rates up to 25 Mbit/s. It can also be used to reduce cross talk in remote
installations by masking the downstream band up to 1.1MHz.

SHDSL24 Line Cards

SHDSL does not provide the possibility of carrying a voice connection over the
same line, and therefore POTS splitting is not required. SHDSL uses Voice over
DSL (VoDSL) to carry ATM-packetized voice over the DSL system. Therefore,
the same bandwidth can be used equally for both voice and data traffic.

SHDSL24 line cards can provide VoDSL digitised voice plus data at symmetrical
upstream and downstream rates between 192 kbit/s and 2.3 Mbit/s (in 64 kbit/s
increments) over single pair copper loops. With pair bonding over dual pairs,
SHDSL can achiever rates of up to 4.6 Mbit/s. SHDSL uses Trellis coded Pulse
Amplitude Modulation (TC-PAM) modulation with enhanced spectral
compatibility characteristics.

.
SHDSL24f Line Card

The SHDSL24f line card provides 24 ports of G.SHDSL line encoding and
is software configurable to be either Annex A or Annex B compliant
depending on the needs of the operator. The unit is designed for use in the
D500-17 subrack (ETSI version) and D500 RAM. It features front
connectors for front cabling access on the subrack. The SHDSL24f line
card supports symmetric variable rate services from 144 kbit/s to 2.3Mbit/s
in 64kbit/s increments and also provides fast and interleave path support,

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which can be provisioned on a port-by-port basis, but not on the same port
concurrently. The line card also supports fixed and rate adaptive training,
which can be provisioned on a per-port basis. The card supports 24 ports of
symmetric bit-rate transmission using Multi level Trellis Coded Pulse
Amplitude Modulation (TC PAM).
.
SHDSL24r Line Card
The SHDSL24r line card provides 24 ports of G.SHDSL line encoding and
is Annex A compliant. The unit is designed for use in the D500-21 subrack
(ANSI version) and features rear connectors for rear cabling access. The
SHDSL24r line card supports symmetric variable rate services from
64kbps to 2.3Mbps in 64kbps increments and also provides fast and
interleave path support, which can be provisioned on a port-by-port basis,
but not on the same port concurrently. The line card also supports fixed and
rate adaptive training, which can be provisioned on a per-port basis. The
card supports 24 ports of symmetric bit-rate transmission using Multi level
Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation (TC PAM).

VDSL24 Line Cards

The VDSL24 line cards can provide VDSL data transmissions at up to 22 Mbit/s
downstream and 3 Mbit/s upstream, depending upon line conditions and band
plan. VDSL uses Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation to transmit data in the
25 kHz to 12 MHz frequency spectrum. It divides the frequency range into 4096
discrete bands or bins, each with 4 kHz bandwidth. Of the available frequency,
POTS uses 0.3 to 3.4 kHz, and ISDN uses 1 to 80 kHz, which can be separated
from data bandwidth through the use of external low pass filter cards. Each bin is
independently modulated. This means that DMT can monitor signal to noise ratio
of each bin, detect which bins are impaired, and shift bandwidth to the best
channels.

.
VDSL24df Line Card

The VDSL24df line card provides 24 ports of DMT (ITU-T G.993.1


standard) line encoding. The unit is designed for use in the D500-21
subrack (ANSI version) and D500 RAM and features front connectors for
front cabling access. The VDSL24df is compliant with the ANSI T1E1.4 /
Annex D VDSL specification and is designed to perform at industry-
standard rates.
.
VDSL24ef Line Card
The VDSL24ef line card provides 24 ports of DMT (ITU-T G.993.1
standard) line encoding. The unit is designed for use in the D500-17
subrack (ETSI version) and D500 RAM and features front connectors for
front cabling access. The VDSL24ef is compliant with the ETSI TS
101270 / Annex E VDSL specification and is designed to perform at
industry-standard rates.

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Low Pass Filter (LPF) Cards

You can virtually install the splitter cards in Craft Terminal.

Note

The LPF cards can be installed in the special LPF shelf in all cases and this will
meet the EMC requirements specified for the D500 node. Operationally the LPF
card can be installed in a D500 subrack, but depending on the exact card
equipping and placement it may violate EMC requirements.

. LPF24af Low Pass Filter Card

The LPF24af card splits the low frequency voice signal from the high
frequency data signal; the voice signal is sent to the voice switch, and the
data signal is sent to the D500. Each splitter card provides 24 ports of
ADSL Annex A POTS splitter functionality per ETSI requirements (TR
101 728 v1.1.1). All signals to the subscriber, PSTN network, and ADSL
line card are routed through three standard front panel Champ connectors.
See figure LPF (splitter) card- generic diagram .
. LA24asf Low Pass Filter Card
The LA24asf low pass filter card provides 24 ports of ADSL line filtering.
The unit is Annex A compliant and features front connectors for front
cabling access on the D500 LPF shelf, D500 17-slot subrack, or D500
RAM. The unit is an alternate ETSI POTS splitter card which is used
widely in Scandinavia.
.
LA24bf Low Pass Filter Card
The LA24bf low pass filter card provides 24 ports of ADSL line filtering.
The unit is Annex B compliant and features front connectors for front
cabling access on the D500 low pass filter shelf (LPFS), D500 17-slot
subrack, or D500 RAM.
You can use this card for all VDSL line filtering applications, too.
. LA48af Low Pass Filter Card
The LA48af low pass filter card provides 48 ports of ADSL line filtering.
The unit is Annex A compliant and features front connectors for front
cabling access on the D500 low pass filter shelf (LPFS).
. LA48bf Low Pass Filter Card

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The LA48bf low pass filter card provides 48 ports of ADSL line filtering.
The unit is Annex B compliant and features front connectors for front
cabling access on the D500 low pass filter shelf (LPFS).

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3 D500 subrack power supply and cabling


Warning

The 48 VDC power must be disconnected at its source before connecting


wiring to the power supply adapter. A wired power supply adapter must not
be removed without first disconnecting the power at its source.

3.1 Broadband Power Supply Adapter (BB-PSA)


D500 17-slot and 21-slot subracks are powered by Central Office -48 volts DC
power systems (consisting of batteries and rectifiers). The Central Office power
supply is connected to the D500 subrack at the Broadband Power Supply Adapter
(BB-PSA). The D500 node requires -40.5 to -60.0 V DC Central Office power.
The BB-PSA can supply power to a maximum of three D500 subracks, see the
figure below.

Ready-made cables for power supply cabling between the BB-PSA and D500 are
available from Nokia. The figure below illustrates the cabling principle between
the BB-PSA and the D500 subrack.

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Batt. A Batt. B

+ + BB-PSA

D500

Figure 30. Cabling between the BB-PSA and D500 subrack

The power output connectors (see the figure below) are used for distributing
battery voltage for the subracks. There are three pieces of 3-pin polarised 3W3
type connectors (power-sub D connectors) for power outputs to the subracks.

The battery input terminal block (see the figure below) is used for connecting
battery voltage inputs for central battery voltages. The input terminals are
common to both power modules.

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Power Output
Connectors Battery Input
Terminals
Rack Alarm
Inputs

Circuit
Breakers
Bay Alarm

Rack Alarm Output


Connectors Rack Alarm
LEDs
Mounting
Brackets
Energy Storage Fuse Alarms

Figure 31. BB-PSA construction

The BB-PSA has two redundant power modules with three uniform outputs for
feeding the central battery voltage. Each output is connected to the load through a
circuit breaker in the negative supply line. The maximum total current supplied
by each of the two BB-PSA power modules is 90 A with the following
restrictions: the maximum load per module is 60 A and the maximum load per
output is 30 A. Should a module fail, the red LED of the power module indicates
the failure state (Energy Storage Fuse Alarm). The alarm is also shown as Bay
Alarm.

The motherboard filtering circuits in the subracks provides EMC filtering,


supplied by the BB-PSA

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The BB-PSA functions include a rack alarm circuit board for converting the
alarm inputs from the subracks to LED indications and combined relay outputs
for node alarm monitoring. In case any of the Subracks unit-specific on-board
converters should fail, there is also an auxiliary DC/DC converter on the BB-PSA
for powering up the alarm functions on the failed board and the LEDs of the plug-
in units in the subracks.

The BB-PSA can receive three types of rack alarms from the equipment subracks
through RJ-45 connectors and visually show them as rack alarms using the three
LEDs or forward them as relay contacts through the rack alarm output
connectors. The alarm types are critical, major, and minor. The acknowledgement
alarm for ACO (Automatic Cut Off) is shown with a green LED. The visual rack-
specific bay alarm is generated if any visual or audible alarm is on. It is visible
within a 180-degree radius of the rack.

3.2 Optical trunk and tributary interfaces


The optical interfaces used to interface to the D500 DSLAM share a number of
common properties independent of the rate or type of interface (for example
Gigabit Ethernet).

Multimode interfaces are normally used for intra-office applications, and


normally operate at a wavelength of 850 nanometers (nm) using graded index
fibre optic cable with a core diameter of 50 or 62.5 microns and outer cladding
diameter of 125 microns (for example, GI 50/125 micron MMF cable).

Singlemode interfaces are normally used for inter-office applications, and


typically operate at a nominal wavelength of 1310 nm using low-loss fibre optic
cable with a core diameter of 9 microns and outer cladding diameter of 125
microns (9/125-micron SMF cable). The singlemode interfaces have several
options, with maximum reach up to tens of kilometers.

Due to the wavelength response characteristics of the detectors, it is not possible


to interwork between the 850-nm multimode and 1310-nm singlemode interfaces,
and any test equipment used must also be fitted with the correct interface.

The tables below show the performance to be expected from the various interface
types.

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Table 6. Expected performance from various interface


types in T36423 cards

Unit Interface Fibre Con- Operat- Optical


type type nector ing path
type range attenua-
tion

T36423.03 1000Base.SX Multi- LC Up to 550 0...7.5 dB


(IEEE 802.3z) mode m (GI 50/
0...7.5 dB
125 m
fibre)
Up to 275
m (GI
62.5/125
m fibre)

T36423.04 1000Base- Single- LC Up tp 10 0...8 dB


LXLong Haul mode km
(IEEE 802.3z)

T336423.05 1000Base- Single- LC Up to 20 4...13 dB


LXExtra mode km
LongHaul
(IEEE802.3z)

Table 7. Expected performance from various interface types supported


in T36412 cards

Unit Interface Fibre Connec- Operat- Optical Optical


type type tor type ing Tx Rx
range power power

T36412.11 OC-3/STM-1 Short LC 15 km -15 & -8 -28 & -8


S1.1 single Haul dBm dBm
mode (Short 1310
Haul) nm

T36412.21 OC-3/STM-1 Long LC 40 km -5 & 0 -34 & -10


L1.1 single Haul dBm dBm
mode (Long 1310
Haul) nm

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Table 7. Expected performance from various interface types supported


in T36412 cards (cont.)

Unit Interface Fibre Connec- Operat- Optical Optical


type type tor type ing Tx Rx
range power power

T36412.31 OC-3/STM-1 Multi MTRJ 2 km -22.5 & - -31 & -14


(Multi mode) mode 14 dBm dBm
1310 (GI 50/125
nm mm fibre)
-19 & -14
dBm (GI
62.5/125
mm fibre)

Note that given distances are only target values, not to be used as specifications as
these values are based on typical cable attenuation. In addition, also dispersion is
a limiting factor for the distance. For T36423.05, an additional optical attenuator
may be needed if the minimum attenuation value is not achieved in the optical
path.

Table 8. Expected performance from various interface types using


SFP modules in T37420.01 control unit

SFP Interface Fibre Connec- Operat- Optical Optical


type type, tor type ing tx power rx power
wave range range
length

T 37421.01 1000Base-SX Multi- LC 2 m to -9,5...0 -17...0


(IEEE 802.3z) mode 550 m (GI dBm dBm
850 nm 50/125
m fibre
2 m to
275 m
(GI62.5/
125 m
fibre)

T 37422.01 1000Base-LX, Single- LC Up to 10 -9.5...-3 -20...-3


Long Haul mode km dBm dBm
(IEEE 802.3z) 1310 nm

T37423.01 1000Base-LX, Single- LC Up to 40 -4.5...0 -22.5...-3


Extra Ling mode km
Haul (IEEE 1310 nm
802.3z)

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Table 8. Expected performance from various interface types using


SFP modules in T37420.01 control unit (cont.)

SFP Interface Fibre Connec- Operat- Optical Optical


type type, tor type ing tx power rx power
wave range range
length

T37424.01 1000Base-LX, Single- LC Up to 80 -2...+3 -24...-3


Extra Long mode km dBm dBm
Haul (IEEE 1550 nm
802.3z)

Note

T37421.01 is not to be used in temperatures below 0oC

Note that given distances are only target values, not to be used as specifications as
these values are based on typical cable attenuation. In addition, also dispersion is
a limiting factor for the distance. For 1000Base-LX Extra long haul an additional
optical attenuator may be needed if the minimum attenuation value is not
achieved in the optical path.

3.2.1 Ethernet network cabling

The D500 Gigabit Ethernet interface usually connects to layer 2/3 switch or
directly to IP router either co-located with DSLAM or in another site. It uses
standard LC connectors and is available as a short-haul, multimode version, a
long-haul single-mode, and an extra long-haul single mode version.

3.2.2 ATM network cabling

The D500 subrack supports OC-3/STM-1 interfaces for the ATM network. When
connecting the D500 to an ATM network, the fibre interface from the D500 trunk
is terminated at either an ATM switch or the ODF (Optical Distribution Frame) in
the Central Office. Optical fibres with LC or MT- RJ connectors connect the ODF
to the faceplate of the STM-1/OC-3 tributary unit on the D500. The D500
supports multi-mode and single-mode (short haul and long haul) (9/125 micron)
optical fibres.

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3.3 Cabling in multiple node configurations


When subtending another D500, D50e/D50 or a third-party DSLAM to the D500,
cabling from the subtended equipment is connected to the OC-3/STM-1 tributary
unit. If the D500 is connected to a D50e/D50 Master Control Shelf (MCS), the
cable is terminated at the OC-3/STM-1 Link Interface in the MCS.

3.4 Subscriber line cabling


For R3.x, the D500 node can be configured for ADSL, SHDSL and VDSL
services. For ADSL and VDSL line cards, the D500 node can be configured for
data only or data plus voice by the addition of low pass filter cards. Low pass
filter cards may be located either in a low pass filter subrack, or, with some
limitations, in the D500 (or the D500 RAM). The subscriber line carries DSL
services between subscriber network and the D500 node.

In a data plus voice configuration, the POTS or ISDN channel is split off from the
digital channels at the low pass filter card. The line cabling varies, depending on
whether the D500 node is configured for data service only or data plus voice
service using an external low pass filter subrack and cards.

Because SHDSL uses VoDSL to transport ATM-packetized voice directly over


the DSL network, low pass filter cards are not used in the SHDSL configuration.
When the D500 node is configured for SHDSL service, the connection between
the subscriber network and SHDSL24 line card is made at the CHAMP
connectors on the front plate of the line cards.

ADSL and VDSL data-only-service configuration

When the ADSL and VDSL cards are configured for data service only, the
connection between the subscriber network and the line card is made at the
CHAMP connectors on the front plate of the line cards (the D500 17-slot and 21-
slot subracks).

The 17-slot or 21-slot subrack with 48 port ADSL48 cards can accommodate
connection to a maximum of 720 or 912 cable/pairs respectively at the Main
Distribution Frame (MDF).

The 17-slot or 21-slot subrack with 24 port VDSL24 cards can accommodate
connection to a maximum of 360 or 456 cable/pairs respectively at the Main
Distribution Frame (MDF).

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D500 subrack power supply and cabling

ADSL and VDSL data-plus-voice configuration

When the ADSL and VDSL cards are configured for data-plus-voice service, the
connection between the subscriber network and the line card is made at the D500
Low Pass Filter (LPF) card. Data plus voice frequency signals are received from
the customer at the LPF card located either in an low pass filter shelf, or with the
known limitations in the D500 subrack or D500 RAM. The LPF card splits the
low frequency voice signal from the high frequency data signal. The voice signal
is sent onto the voice switch (for POTS or ISDN) unimpeded; the data signal is
received by the line card at the CHAMP connectors on the front plate of the line
cards.

SHDSL Voice-over-DSL (VoDSL) Configuration

When the D500 node is configured for SHDSL service, the connection between
the subscriber network and SHDSL24af line card is made at the CHAMP
connectors on the front plate of the line cards. Because SHDSL uses VoDSL to
transport ATM-packetized voice directly over the DSL network, neither POTS,
nor ISDN splitters are used in the SHDSL configuration.

Combined POTS card and xDSL card configuration

If POTS card is used there are four different ways to implement the cabling for
the units.

. In ETSI version with internal splitters the line cable (both low and high
band) is connected to POTS card (lower) CHAMP connector. The (upper)
SCSI connector is connected to the adjacent xDSL card CHAMP with the
inter-connection cable.
.
In ANSI version the line cable is routed to the back of the subrack and the
inter-connection piece is connected directly in front CHAMP connectors of
the POTS and xDSL cards.
. If an ETSI version with external splitters is used, the POTS line cable is
connected in the front CHAMP connector of the POTS card and the data
line cable is connected in the front CHAMP connector of the xDSL card.
. If an ANSI version is used with external splitters, the POTS line cable and
data line cables are connected in the back side of the subrack.

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Product Description

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Site configurations and usage considerations

4 Site configurations and usage


considerations
There are some facts which are worth considering when you plan the deployment
of your equipment. Under certain conditions some of the circumscriptions
described in this chapter might appear. This section describes the internal
architecture of the D500 along with known limitations inside the node. With this
information you can make better decisions how to equip the D500.

4.1 D500 Site Configurations


Main Configuration Categories

.
2 market areas defined by two telecommunication standards: ANSI and
ETSI.
.
2 subrack types for each area:
- D500 Node with 17 slots for the ETSI market area (subrack with
front cabling), and D500 node with 21 slots for the ANSI and the
ETSI market areas (subrack with front and rear cabling);
- D500 RAM with front cabling.
. 4 scenarios for low pass filter cards (cards for splitting voice from data):
- no splitters used
- external splitters in the same rack: splitters installed in separate
subracks in the same cabinet
- external splitters in a separate cabinet: splitters installed in separate
subracks in a separate rack
- integrated solution: splitters installed in the D500 subrack or D500
RAM

As shown above, the D500 MSAP is available in 16 (2 x 2 x 4) main variants.

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Product Description

Variable features in recommended configurations

Configuration Parameters:

. At network level:
- ANSI or ETSI
- NetAct packages and line fees: Network Management packages
- Support Services.
. At site level:
- System software
- Configuration Type (4 splitter scenarios x 2 subrack types)
- Trunk/network interface type and option for cascading the D500
Nodes and/or D500 RAMs by using tributary units.
- Subscriber (xDSL) line type and line amount by 48-port and/or 24-
port incre-ments.
- Customer tail cabling (MDF-cabling) options: none, Champ-
connector set or Tail Cable 6-75 m (20-245 feet).
- Powering options:
- none;
- BB-PSA;
- Power Switch Panel (PSP);
- Power/Alarm Unit (for the D500 RAM).
The powering alternatives are DC or AC. Default is DC.
The power selection affects the alarm and powering cabling.
The D500 RAM contains its own power/alarm unit and it can be
connected to the BB-PSA or the PSP for operation.

Fixed Parameters for Site Configurations:

.
Fixed internal links (some optical and copper wiring inside the
configuration).
.
Standard mechanics (open 500-mm ETSI rack, 19-inch rack, or 23 inch by
7 foot telco relay rack), or application specific mechanics like outdoor
cabinet)
. Subrack, power, alarm and ground cabling.

Recommended Site Configurations (Volume Configurations)

A1 Site Configuration

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Site configurations and usage considerations

Rack containing one D500 subrack (or D500 RAM), and two D500 LPF shelves
(low pass filter shelves) (with 17 or 4 slots) with splitters in the same rack
(cabinet). Options for the rack:

.
a standard 500-mm rack or a 19-inch network rack, providing up to:
- 720 ADSL lines, or 360 VDSL or SHDSL lines (in a D500 node
with 17 slots);
- 192 ADSL lines, or 96 VDSL or SHDSL lines (per D500 RAM).
.
a standard 23 inch by 7 foot telco relay rack, providing up to:
- 912 ADSL lines, or 456 VDSL or SHDSL lines (in a node with 21
slots);
- 192 ADSL lines, or 96 VDSL or SHDSL lines (in a D500 RAM).

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Product Description

500 mm or 19''
Rack Installation
DC BB-PSA or
Power Switch
Panel

Optical trunk /
network interface

D500 Subrack 25-48 ports


Trunk / Control Unit
1-24 ports
Cable support
JC 24-pair Jumper
trays
Copper cable (0.45 m)

1-24 ports
1st D500 JC 24-pair Jumper
LPFS Copper cable (1.7 m)

Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

25-48 ports
TC 24-pair Tail Copper
2nd D500 cable with openend
LPFS (6 m, 15 m, 30 m, 50 m, 75m)

Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

Note: The 24-pair Copper Cables are ETSI colour coded


and Halogen free. The longer jumper cables are routed
not on the front of the first D500 LPF Subrack, but to the
side (to the left or the right)! The Power Switch Panel
includes power cables for one D500.

Figure 32. A1 site configuration with node and 17-slot LPFS

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500 mm or 19''
Rack Installation
DC BB-PSA or
Power Switch Panel JC 24-pair Jumper Cables
with reversed connectors
TC 24-pair Tail Copper (cables are routed to the top)
cable with open end
(6m, 15m, 30m,
JC BB-PSA to D500 RAM
50m, 75m)
power cable set (2.5m), used
4-slot LPFS with D500 RAM power/alarm
card or open-end cable for
your own PSA
Data / POTS MDF

POTS MDF

1 set cable support tray


(includes two pieces)

Note: The 24-pair Copper Cables are ETSI colour coded


and Halogen free. The Power Switch Panel includes
power cables for 3xD500. The BB-PSA has ANSI, ETSI
and 19" brackets

Figure 33. Site configuration with D500 RAM and 4-slot LPF shelves

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Product Description

Power Adapter
Cable Tie

Power Cables

Data / POTS MDF


Control Units D500 RAM

POTS MDF

Voice MDF

Figure 34. D500 RAM with 48-port LPF cards

A2 Site Configuration

Rack containing up to three D500 nodes; cascading option without splitters (data-
only solution) or with external splitters in a separate rack (cabinet). D500 LPF
Subracks with 17 slots are included automatically in the configuration if external
splitters are used

It is technically possible to use D500 RAMs instead of D500 nodes.

Options for the rack:

. A standard 500-mm rack or a 19-inch network rack, providing up to 2 160


ADSL lines, or up to 1080 VDSL or SHDSL lines (in nodes with 17 slots).
. A standard 23 inch by 7 foot telco relay rack, providing up to 2 736 ADSL
lines, or up to 1 368 VDSL or SHDSL lines (in nodes with 21 slots).

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Site configurations and usage considerations

500 mm or 19''
Rack Installation
DC BB-PSA or
Power Switch
Panel Optical trunk /
network interface

Trunk / Control Unit


D500 Subrack
25-48 ports
To MDF or LPF
1-24 ports

Cable support
trays To MDF or LPF

TC 24-pair Tail Copper


D500 Subrack cable with open end
(6 m, 15 m, 30 m, 50 m, 75m)
25-48 ports

1-24 ports To MDF or LPF

To MDF or LPF

D500 Subrack
25-48 ports

1-24 ports
To MDF or LPF

To MDF or LPF

Note: The 24-pair Copper Cables are ETSI colour coded


and Halogen free. The Power Switch Panel includes
power cables for 3xD500. The BB-PSA has ANSI, ETSI
and 19" brackets.

Figure 35. A2 site configuration

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Product Description

Cascading Option: Special configuration for Type A2 Site Configuration, which


changes the calculation rules. Cascading is possible only in A2 type configuration
where you cascade the master D500 to the two lower D500 nodes or D500 RAMs
by using OC-3/STM-1 tributary unit in the master D500 and OC-3/STM-1 trunk
unit in the slave D500 in R2 configurations and Gigabit Ethernet Short Haul
(MM) interface in R3 configurations.

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Figure 36. 23-inch rack installation, front view

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Product Description

Figure 37. 23-inch rack installation, rear view

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Site configurations and usage considerations

500 mm or 19''
Rack Installation
DC BB-PSA or
Power Switch
Panel Optical trunk /
network interface

Trunk / Control Unit


D500 Subrack
25-48 ports

1-24 ports
To MDF or LPF

Cable support To MDF or LPF


trays Tributary Unit

TC 24-pair Tail Copper


D500 Subrack cable with open end
(6 m, 15 m, 30 m, 50 m, 75m)
25-48 ports

1-24 ports
To MDF or LPF
To MDF or LPF

D500 Subrack
25-48 ports

1-24 ports To MDF or LPF

To MDF or LPF

Note: The 24-pair Copper Cables are ETSI colour coded


and Halogen free. The Power Switch Panel includes
power cables for 3xD500. The BB-PSA has ANSI, ETSI
and 19" brackets.

Figure 38. Cascading option of A2 site configuration

Cascading in the case of the 23 inch ANSI subrack is similar to the 19 inch
subrack. The connections for the MDF and the LPF should be done from the rear
side of the subrack.

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A3 Site Configuration

Rack for one D500 node or D500 RAM, with integrated splitters in the subrack.

Options for the rack:

. a standard 500-mm rack or a 19-inch network rack, providing up to:


- 336 ADSL lines, or 168 VDSL lines (in a D500 node with 17 slots);
- 48 ADSL or VDSL lines (per D500 RAM).
. a standard 23 inch by 7 foot telco relay rack, providing up to:
- 336 ADSL lines or 192 VDSL lines (in a node with 21 slots);
- 48 ADSL lines, or 168 VDSL lines (per D500 RAM).

Tail Cabling (MDF cabling) for Line Cards:

Choices for cable length for the installation of the line cards:

. None
. Connector set
. 6 m (20 feet)
.
15 m (49 feet)
. 30 m (98 feet)
.
50 m (164 feet)
. 75 m (246 feet).

4.2 Amount of Connections


The maximum number of ATM connections in a D500 node is 8000 on top of
which D500 can manage 8000 IP flows. The connections can be between the
trunk/control unit and a line card, between the trunk and a tributary unit, between
a tributary unit and a line card, and/or between two tributary units.

The maximum number of ATM connections that can be terminated in a single line
card is 400. There are no limitations regarding how many connections can be
terminated in the trunk unit or tributary units, as long as the connections
limitation for the whole node is observed.

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4.2.1 Suggestions and comments

The number of connections should not normally be a problem. If it becomes an


issue because of subtending the D500 to other equipment, the connections
through the master node to the subtended nodes could be done as a couple of VP
connections instead of hundreds of VC connections.

4.2.2 Bandwidth and packet processing

The D500 traffic switching capacity depends on the connection model, that is,
whether the transport layer is ATM or Ethernet and whether the traffic is switched
on the layer 2 or IP level. With Ethernet switching the capacity can be up to 1.5
million packets per second but with large amount of ATM connections the
capacity might drop to around 1M packets. However, this capacity is adequate for
all the typical installations and can only be exceeded with several tributary
connections.

The output bandwidth from the control unit has been divided to four sections. The
first three (1-3) sections control the line card slots 1-5, 6-10 and 13-17,
respectively. The last section is allocated for the trunk interface and the line card
slots 18-21 in the D500 21-slot subrack. Every line card slot has a programmable
port controller, which can be set according to the card type with the limitation of
2.5 Gb/s total bandwidth. In practise this means that sections 1-3 can each host
from zero to two OC-3/STM-1 tributary cards in addition to DSL cards. In the
fourth section the port manager for the trunk interface requires such broad
bandwidth that tributary cards should not be used in line card slots 16-19.

In the D500 every card slot has to be allocated at least the bandwidth required for
a line card (384 Mb/s). In practise this limits the number of OC-3/STM-1
tributary cards, which require bandwidth of 600 Mb/s, to two per section and six
per subrack. In the future releases with new tributary and line card versions this
number is subject to change.

Table 9. The allocated bandwidth for different connections

Configured Connection for Port Rate


Manager

ADSL48 Line Card 384 Mb/s

ADSL2+ Line Card 1000 Mb/s

SHDSL24 Line Card 384 Mb/s

VDSL24 Line Card 384 Mb/s

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Product Description

Table 9. The allocated bandwidth for different connections (cont.)

Configured Connection for Port Rate


Manager

4*STM-1/OC-3 Tributary Unit 600 Mb/s

Gigabit Ethernet Trunk Interface 1000 Mb/s

The provisioning of the connections is discussed in more detail in D500 customer


documentation Provisioning.

4.2.3 Bandwidth considerations in equipping D500

The packet based control units have some limitations in total throughput (i.e. in
the trunk side), and in the total throughput to the tributaries/linecards.

Whilst the total throughput is limited to about 2 Gbit/s due to the capacity of the
packet processor implementation in these units, the downstream bandwidth can
be much higher (up to 4 x 2.5 Gbit/s) if significant numbers of multicast channels
are in use.

The slots in the subracks are divided up into a maximum of 4 sections. Sections 1,
2 and 3 can provide a maximum of 2.5 Gbit/s throughput. Section 4 can provide
the same maximum, but in this case the bandwidth is shared between the slots and
the trunk interface(s) on the CU card. The CU consumes 1 Gbit/s, leaving 1.5
Gbit/s for linecards and tributaries.When planning the subrack equipping
configuration, these limitations need to be taken into account for reliable
operation. Below is a a table showing the units and capacity requirements of the
D500.

Unit Type Capacity reserved (Mbit/s)

ADSL line card 330

ADSL2+ line card 500

VDSL line card 330

SHDSL line card 59

OC-3/STM-1 tributary 600

E1/DS1 tributary 36

E3 tributary 276

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Site configurations and usage considerations

Unit Type Capacity reserved (Mbit/s)

DS3 tributary 359

Empty Slot 6

Note

It is not allowed to install OC-3/STM-1 tributary card with four ADSL2+ line
cards in the same 5-line card section (slots 1-5, 6-10 , 13-17).

Below is an example of a allowed configuration with a OC-3/STM-1 tributary


card.

Slots 1 - 10 ADSL2+ linecard

Slot 11 CU3

Slot 12 Empty

Slot 13 - 15 ADSL2+ line card

Slot 16 Empty

Slot 17 OC-3/STM-1 tributary card

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Support services

5 Support services
The support services options provided for the D500 MSAP are described here.

5.1 Broadband Access Support Services Modules


There are four modules of services grouped in two categories: Care Support
Services and HWS (Hardware Support Services).

Care Support Services:

- Care.

- Software Release (SR) plus Care.

Hardware Support Services:

- Repair & Return (RR).

- Advanced Replacement (AR).

Support Web:

Your calls are registered and validated against service level agreements in Nokia's
case-tracking facility. It is sophisticated, easy-to-use web-based facility for
logging, tracking and reporting issues which have arisen in your networks. With
this facility we provide timely and effective technical assistance. Issues are
tracked, managed and resolved using the advanced case-management system and
a proven escalation process which ensure the continuity of the service request. All
customer and product information resides in a unified database. It is accessible
from all TAC (Technical Assistance Centers) locations. This enables
comprehensive and expert technical assistance on a global scale.

Technical Assistance Centers (TAC):

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If a critical issue arises, first try to resolve it by using the Support Web
information. If this does not help, the Broadband Access Support Services
provide contact to the TAC engineers worldwide, ensuring expert technical
assistance for all hardware and software problems. With TAC support, end
customers can receive fast and secure access to comprehensively trained, high-
level Nokia service engineers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Care Support Services

Compared to the Care option, Software Release (SR) plus Care is a more
extensive option complemented with the Software Release service module. It
provides access to software fixes and updates plus software revisions. This
service module can be purchased as a one to five years option. For more
information see Support Services Details.

Hardware Support Services

Repair & Return (RR) provides an extension to the standard warranty that is
provided with the original equipment purchase. This service module can be
purchased as a one to five years option.

Advanced Replacement (AR) provides a better alternative to Repair & Return.


Advanced Replacement provides next business day dispatch of an equipment
replacement enabling you to keep a smaller inventory of spare parts in stock. This
service module can be purchased as a one to five years option. For more
information see Support Services Details below.

5.2 Support Services Details


Support Web:

Support Web Access provides Unlimited Trouble Calls per year for your trained
technicians. It also provides designated engineers from your team full access to:

- Secure telephone and web-based assistance, 7x24x365.

- Secure online access to Support Web's database to view and enter cases.

- Secure online access to Knowledge Base, online RMAs (Return Material


Authorizations) for warranty services, Service Contract Center and full product
documentation libraries, and the Nokia Learning Channel.

- Proactive notification services for new releases, alerts and updates.

Care:

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Support services

Care provides Technical Support and for all supported Nokia Broadband Systems
products, Support Web access, and TAC access with new service elements:
Unlimited trouble calls/cases per contract year.

Software Release (SR) plus Care:

This solution option provides all the Care elements plus access to Software
Release services. This includes Software Upgrades and Fixes plus new revisions.
Software Release service provides:

- New version releases (also known as version releases) of Nokia software.

- Maintenance release updates and error correction (also known as point releases)
of Nokia software.

Software Release service provides designated customer engineers full access to


new version or point releases of software through the following means:

- Proactive notification services for new releases, alerts, and updates.

- Secure web-based access, 7x24x365, for downloading software.

Repair & Return (RR) Hardware Service:

This option provides unlimited access to unlimited cases of Repair and Return of
Nokia hardware, determined by the you and confirmed by Nokia to be defective.
An effective warranty extension solution, Repair and Return HWS (Hardware
Services) is available for existing networks in a specially priced one-year term or
for new networks, a value-priced three-year term. You ship the hardware to Nokia
at your expense.

Standard RMA (Return Material Authorization) procedures apply. Repair and


Return Hardware Services provide:

- 30 business-day turnaround.

- An extension to the Nokia standard equipment warranty.

- Nokia repairs or replaces the equipment and returns the hardware at Nokia
expense (excluding customs or duties).

Advanced Replacement (AR) Hardware Service:

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This solution option provides unlimited access to the Next Business Day
Advanced Replacement of Nokia hardware, determined by you and confirmed by
Nokia to be defective. Advanced Replacement HWS is available for existing
networks in a specially priced one-year term or for new networks, a value-priced
three-year term. Standard RMA procedures apply for returned defective goods.
Advanced Replacement HWS service provides:

- An upgrade to the Nokia standard equipment warranty.

- Replacement hardware will be shipped on the next business day for requests
received by 1:00 p.m. local TAC time.

- Nokia pays the costs of shipping the replacement parts to you (excluding
customs or duties).

- You ship the defective part to Nokia at your expense within 5 working days of
receipt of Advanced Replacement hardware.

Services are not applicable if:

- Products are Out-of-Revision (products shipped more than 36 months prior to


contract initiation).

- Problems are non-Nokia related, including third-party or non-Nokia software


updates or non-Nokia hardware related problems.

- Products are not installed, operated or maintained in accordance with


specifications supplied by Nokia.

Note

On-site Hardware support is not part of the support packages.

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Specifications

6 Specifications

6.1 D500 standards compliance


Telecommunications standars

The D500 MSAP is a carrier-grade platform designed for operation in most


demanding telecommunications environments. The D500 complies with major
telecommunications industry standards covering relevant aspects of software and
hardware design, network interface, and DSL services.

Electromagnetic compatibility standards

The D500 elements conform to the following electromagnetic compatibility


(EMC) and electrical safety standards for telecommunication network equipment:

. EN 300 386, Electromagnetic compatibility


. EN 55022 Class A, Limits and methods of measurement of radio
disturbance char-acteristics of information technology equipment
. GR-1089-CORE, Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electrical Safety
.
CISPR 22 (1085).
. EN 50081-2.
.
EN 50082-2.
. FCC Part 15 Class A & B
. ITU-T K.20

Electrical specifications

Nominal power supply voltage is -48 or -60V.

.
[G.703] Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces;
ITU-T G. 703

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Electrical and Environmental Standards

. ETS 300 019-1-1: Class 1.2, Temperature Range (Storage)


. ETS 300 019-1-2: Class 2.3, Temperature Range (Transport)
. ETS 300 019-1-3: Class 3.1E, Temperature Range (Operation)
. GR-63-CORE, Network Equipment Building System requirements:
Physical Protection
. ANSI T1.315, Voltage Levels for DC-powered Equipment
.
ETSI EN 300 386, Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements
. ETSI ETS 300 132-2, Power Supply Interface at Input to Telecom
Equipment
. ETSI ETS 300 417-1-6, Synchronization Layer Functions

Mechanical and physical safety standards

.
GR-63-CORE, Network Equipment-Building System (NEBS)
Requirements: Physical Protection, Issue 1.
.
GR-78-CORE, Generic Physical Design Requirements for
Telecommunications Products and Equipment, Issue 3.
.
GR-49-CORE, Generic Requirements for Outdoor Telephone Network
Interface Devices.
.
IEC 60950 (1999-04), Safety of Information Technology Equipment.
Edition 3.0.
. EN 60950
. ETS 300 119-3
. EN 60825-1
.
NEBS GR-1089-CORE

Performance parameters

D500 performance parameters meet or exceed standards for bit rate ranges on
loops that meet Revised Resistance Design (RRD) guidelines and Carrier Serving
Area (CSA) requirements. These standards are met on all D500 supported line
card types.

Various line conditions can affect data rates, such as noise, bridged taps, and
cross-talk interference.

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Specifications

WAN and digital network interface

. ITU-T G.707 Network Node Interface for the SDH


. ITU-T G.813, Timing Characteristics of SDH Equipment Slave Clocks
(SEC)
. ITU-T G.841, Types and Characteristics of SDH Network Protection
Architectures
. ITU-T G.957, Optical Interfaces for Equipment and Systems Relating to
the SDH
. Telcordia, GR-253-CORE, Synchronous Optical Network SONET
Transport Sys-tem, Issue 2, December 1995.
. ANSI T1.101, Synchronization Interface Standard
. ANSI T1.105, Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)  Basic
Description
. ANSI T1.231, Digital Hierarchy  Layer 1 In-Service Digital Transmission
PM
. ITU-T G.823, Control of Jitter and Wander Within Digital Networks Based
on 2048 kbit/s Hierarchy
. ITU-T I.432, B-ISDN User-Network Interface - Physical Layer
Specification
. ETSI ETS 300 417-1-6, Synchronization Layer Functions

Ethernet features

. IEEE 802.3 IEEE Standards for Local Area Networks

ATM features

.
ITU-T 1.610, B-ISDN OAM Principles and Functions
. ITU-T G.707, Network Node Interface for the SDH
.
Telcordia, GR-2842-CORE, ATM Service Access Multiplexer (SAM)
Generic Crite-ria, Issue 1, Revision 1
. Telcordia, TR-NWT-01112, Broadband ISDN User to Network Interface
and Net-work Node Interface Physical Layer Criteria
. RFC1483, Multiprotocol Encapsulation over AAL5
. ATM Forum af-tm-0056.000, Traffic Management Specification Version
4.0

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. ATM Forum af-phy-0046.000, 622.08 Mbit/s Physical Layer Specification


. ANSI T1.646, Physical Layer Specification for UNI Including DS1/ATM,
ANSI T1

DSL services

. ITU-T G.991.2, Single-Pair High-Speed DSL (SHDSL) transceivers


.
ITU-T G.992.1, Annex A, ADSL Over POTS (ANSI). Asymmetrical
Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Transceivers
.
ITU-T G.992.1, Annex B, ADSL Over ISDN (ETSI). Asymmetrical
Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Transceivers
. ITU-T G.992.2 Annex B, Splitterless Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber
Line (ADSL) Transceivers
. ITU-T G.993.1 Annex D, ANSI T1/E1.4 VDSL
.
ITU-T G.993.1 Annex E, ETSI TS 101270
. ITU-T G.994.1, Handshake procedures for DSL Transceivers
.
ITU-T G.996.1, Test Procedures for DSL Transceivers
. ITU-T G.997.1, Physical Layer Management for DSL Transceivers
.
ETSI TS 101 388 v1.1.1, Coexistence of ADSL and ISDN-BA on the
Same Pair
. ANSI T1.413 Issue 2, 1998, ADSL Over POTS (US)

LAN standards

. IEEE 802.1q VLAN


.
IEEE 802.3, IEEE Standards for Local Area Networks
. RFC826, Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
.
RFC1483, Multiprotocol Encapsulation over AAL5

SNMP Interface

. RFC1157, Simple Network Management Protocol


. RFC1902, Structure of Management Information for SNMPv2
. RFC2030, Simple Network Time Protocol Version 4

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Other IETF standards

. RFC1661, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)


. RFC2236, Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2
. RFC2516, A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)
. RFC2661, Layer Two Tunneling Protocol "L2TP"
.
RFC2698, A Two Rate Three Color Marker
. RFC3046, DHCP Relay Agent Information Option
.
RFC3140 Per Hop Behavior Identification Codes

The D500 is compliant also with the following standards:

.
ITU-T G.804, ATM cell mapping into Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
(PDH)
. ATM Forum TM 3.1/4.1
. ITU-T I.610, B-ISDN Operation and Maintenance Principles and
Functions

6.2 D500 MSAP hardware physical specifications


The D500 MSAP (Multi-Service broadband Access Platform) supports three
subrack models, the D500 17-slot subrack, the D500 21-slot subrack, and the
D500 Remote Access Module (RAM), each with different mounting
requirements:

. The 17-slot subrack is designed for mounting in a standard 500-mm ETSI


rack or in a 19-inch network rack.
. The 21-slot subrack is designed for mounting in a standard 23 inch by 7
foot Telco relay rack.

Note

A 7 foot Telco rack can accommodate three D500 subracks where not limited by
the heat dissipation requirements or the size of the power supply adapter.

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. The D500 RAM is a 6-slot, hardened subrack designed for mounting in a


versatile range of remote locations, such as building equipment rooms,
Controlled Environmental Vaults (CEVs), and outdoor cabinets. The RAM
can be mounted horizontally in a 500-mm (ETSI), 19-inch or 23-inch rack,
or mounted vertically in an enclosure or equipment room.

Table 10. D500 MSAP hardware physical specifications

Assembly Height (mm/in.) Depth (mm/in.) Body width (mm/


in.)

D500 node w/17 slots 600/23.62 263/10.35 442/17.4

D500 node w/21 slots 600/23.62 268/10.55 540/21.26

D500 RAM, horizontal 212/8.35 264/10.39 493/19.4

D500 RAM, vertical . 493/19.4 (body height) 264/10.39 212/8.35


.
575/22.64 (height w/
mounting flanges)

trunk/control units and . 400/15.75 250/9.84 25/0.98


tributary units .
430/16.93 (with mounting
flanges)

line cards same as above same as above same as above

17-slot D500 LPF 440/17.32 (flanges in ETSI 253/9.96 (flanges in ETSI 440/17.32 (flanges in
shelf position) position) ETSI position)

4-slot D500 LFP shelf 115/4.51 253/9.95 433/17.05

D500 low pass filter . 400/15.75 250/9.84 25/0.98


(splitter) cards .
430/16.93 (with mounting
flanges)

BB-PSA . 106/4.24 . 240/9.6 (behind 445/17.6


.
115/4.6 (with cabling) additional ETSI or 19"
brackets)
. 280/11.2 (total)

PSP 125/4.92 .
160/6.3 (behind 430/16.93
additional ETSI or 19"
brackets);
. 200/7.87 (total)

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Table 11. D500 MSAP hardware physical specifications


(continued)

Assembly Width w/mounting Weight (kg/lbs)


flanges (mm/in.)

D500 node w/17 slots 483/19.02 15/33.07 (without units)

D500 node w/21 slots 593/23.36 . 22/48 (without units)


.
34.47/76 (without units; with fan
tray)

D500 RAM, horizontal . 534/21.02 (ETSI . 10/22.05 (with neither units, nor
flanges) fan tray installed)
.
590/23.23 (ANSI .
10.43/23 (without units; with
flanges) power/alarm unit and fan tray
installed)

D500 RAM, vertical - Same as above.

ATM trunk same as above 1.3/2.9

Ethernet trunk same as above 1.3/2.9

TRB155 same as above 0.65/1.43

ADSL same as above 0.7/1.54

SHDSL same as above 0.8/1.76

VDSL same as above 0.6/1.32

17-slot D500 LPF shelf .


535/21.06 (flanges in 10/22 /without units)
ETSI position)
. 482/18.99 (flanges in
19" position)

4-slot D500 LFP shelf . 483/19.01 (flanges in 5.22/11.5


19" position)

D500 low pass filter - 2/4.41


(splitter) cards

BB-PSA 483/19.02 9/19

PSP .
483/19.02 (flanges in .
8/17.64 (for one D500 Subrack)
19" position) .
9/19 (for three D500 Subracks)
. 535/21.06 (flanges in
ETSI position)

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Note

The D500 17-slot and D500 RAM subracks require only front access for network,
subscriber and power cabling.

The D500 21-slot subrack requires front and rear access for ATM network,
telephone company (Telco) and power cabling for ventilation and maintenance.

6.3 Technical specifications

Table 12. General specifications

DSL ports

Number per unit 48 ports in ADSL


24 ports in SHDSL, VDSL and splitter cards, there is also a 48 port splitter
card.

Max. possible number of ports .


Per D500 17-slot subrack:
per D500 Subrack/ RAM/ LPFS - ADSL units: 720 ports.
- SHDSL, VDSL units: 360 ports.
.
Per D500 21-slot subrack:
- ADSL units: 912 ports.
- SHDSL, VDSL24 units: 456 ports.
- LPF24 units: 456 ports, if all 19 slots are used.
- LA48
. Per D500 RAM:
- ADSL units: 192 ports.
- SHDSL units: 96 ports.
. Per D500 17-slot LPF shelf:
- LPF24 units: 408 ports, if all 17 slots are used.
.
Per D500 4-slot LPF shelf:
- LPF24 units: 96 ports.

Power Supply and Consumption

Battery voltage Nominal values: -48 VDC


Normal service voltage range: -40,5 to -72 V DC

Abnormal service voltage range: 0 to -40,5 VDC and -72 to 75 VDC

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Table 12. General specifications (cont.)

Power consumption Control unit with Ethernet interface: max 60 W


Tributary unit with OC-3/STM-1 interface: max 45 W

ADSL idle 35 W max 65 W


ADSL2+ idle 35 W max 65 W
VDSL24 max 55 W
SHDSL24 max 45 W
Fan tray 30/40 W

Environment

Relative humidity 5 to 95% (non-condensing)

Temperature -40 C to +65 C (-40 F to 149 F)

Note

GIGE 1000BASE-SX SFP MODULE D500 (T37421.01): 0 C to +70


C (32 F to 158 F)

Standards  Environmental ETS 300 019-1-1: Class 1.2, Temperature Range (Storage)
ETS 300 019-1-2: Class 2.3, Temperature Range (Transport)
ETS 300 019-1-3: Class 3.1E, Temperature Range (Operation)
GR-63-CORE, Network Equipment Building System requirements: Physical
Protection (Central Office)

6.4 D500 interfaces

Table 13. D500 interfaces

Unit interface

Ethernet trunk interface


Ethernet trunk interface with SFP module

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Table 13. D500 interfaces (cont.)

Unit interface

Type 1000Base-SX SH short haul (<250 m), 850nm multimode version


1000Base-LX LH-long haul (<10km), 1310nm single mode version
1000Base-LX LH-long haul, high power (<20km), 1310nm single
mode version

Connector LC

Nominal bit rate 1000 Mbit/s

Standards IEEE 802.3z, IEEE 802.1Q, RFC 826

ATM tributary interface

Type OC-3/STM-1 MMmulti-mode, medium power application


OC-3/STM-1 SHsingle-mode, low power with short-haul
application
OC-3/STM-1 LHsingle mode, high power, long-haul application

Connector OC-3/STM-1 MM with MTRJ connector, OC-3/STM-1 SH and OC-3/


STM-1 LH with LC connector

Nominal bit rate 155.52 Mbit/s  OC-3/STM-1

Standards  STM-1 ITU-T G.707 Network Node Interface for the SDHITU-T G.957
Optical Interfaces for Equipment and Systems Relating to the SDH

Standards  OC-3 GR-253-CORE, Synchronous Optical Network SONET Transport


System, Issue 2, December 1995

Standards  ATM payload ITU-T G.707 Network Node Interface for the SDH
GR-2842-CORE, TR-NWT-01112

Traffic class CBR, VBR-rt, VBR-nrt, UBR

UNI 3.1

ADSL interface

Ports per subrack 48 ports per ADSL line card


48 ports per ADSL2+ line card
192 ports per D500 RAM
720 ports per D500 17-slot subrack
912 ports per D500 21-slot subrack.

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Table 13. D500 interfaces (cont.)

Unit interface

Type ITU.T G992.1 and G992.2 compliant G.dmt, G.lite

ADSL2+ Speed Up to 24 Mbit/s downstream; up to 1024 kbit/s upstream.

G.dmt  Speed Up to 8.1 Mbit/s downstream; up to 1024 kbit/s upstream.

G.lite  Speed Up to 1536 kbit/s downstream; up to 512 kbit/s upstream

VDSL interface

VDSL Ports per subrack* 24 ports per VDSL line card


96 ports per D500 RAM
360 ports per D500 17-slot subrack
456 ports per D500 21-slot subrack.

Type ITU.T G.993.1 Annex D and Annex E

Framing Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT)

Speed Downstream/Upstream Mbit/s over 24 AWG wire:

Band Plan 997, 24-port 10/10 @ 1 067 m (3,500 ft.);


16/1 @ 1 768 m (5,800 ft.)

Band Plan 997, 12-port 10/10 @ 1 250 m (4,100 ft.); 22/3 @ 1 402 m (4,600 ft.); 16/1 @ 1
250 m (4,100 ft.)

Band Plan 998, 24-port 22/3 @ 1 341 m (4,400 ft.); 16/1 @ 1 768 m (5,800 ft.)

Band Plan 998, 12-port 52/11 @ 732 m (2,400 ft.); 6/6 @ 1 280 m (4,200 ft.); 22/3 @ 1 463
m (4,800 ft.)

SHDSL interface

Ports per subrack 24 ports per SHDSL line card


96 ports per D500 RAM
360 ports per D500 17-slot subrack
456 ports per D500 21-slot subrack.

Framing Trellis coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation (TC-PAM)

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Table 13. D500 interfaces (cont.)

Unit interface

G.shdl  Speed
Single copper pair (1-port) 2.3 Mbit/s
Dual copper pair (2-ports) 4.6 Mbit/s
144 kbit/s to 2304 kbit/s, in 64 kbit/s increments.

Network management interface

Type 10Base-T Ethernet or in-band ATM PVC

Protocol SNMPv1

Connector RJ-45

Craft Terminal local management interface

Type 10Base-T

Connector RJ-45

Speed 10 Mbit/s

CLI serial interface

Type RS-232

Connector RJ-45

Speed 9,600 bps

6.5 Craft Terminal  system requirements

Table 14. Craft Terminal  minimum system requirements

Requirement Decription

Operating System Any operating system capable of running the required version of
Web browser (Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 are tested and
supported)

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Table 14. Craft Terminal  minimum system requirements (cont.)

Requirement Decription

Computer Workstation capable of running the required versions of Web


browser (for Windows, Pentium III recommended, speed above
733 MHz)

RAM 128 MB recommended

Hard disk space 6 MB for the Java plug-in and temporary files

CD-ROM drive Standard

Web browser Any browser capable of supporting the Java plug-in 1.3, such as
Netscape 4.75 or later (with Java plugin installed) Microsoft Internet
Explorer 5.50 or later (with Java plugin installed).

Note

Versions 3 (or older) of Netscape and Microsoft Internet


Explorer are totally incompatible

Java Plug-in The required Java plug-in version 1.3 can be downloaded from
http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/

Display 1024x768 resolution, 256 colours

Pointing device Compatible mouse or pointing device

Printer (optional) Microsoft Windows compatible printer

Interface ports Network interface for TCP/IP connection to the node

6.6 Command line interface (CLI)  system


requirements
. A computer with TCP/IP stack and a telnet client (any Windows, Unix or
Linux work station conforms to this requirement), or
.
A VT100-compatible serial terminal, configure RS-232 interface to 9600
bps, 8 bits, no parity.

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6.7 BB-PSA technical specifications

Table 15. BB-PSA technical specifications

Electrical specifications

Main circuit

Nominal input voltage -48/-60 VDC

Input voltage range -40.5...-60 VDC

Operating temperature range -40...+55 C (-40...+131 F)

Maximum current to be fed from battery inputs to unit 90 A max


power supplies

Maximum current to be fed from single output 40 A max (hydro-magnetic circuit breaker, trip
delay > 4 ms)

Input protection Serial separation diodes at both central battery


inputs Overvoltage protection by 100 V/20 J VDRs

Power loss < 10 W + 0.85 x Iload

DC/DC converter (VAP5)

Input voltage range 39.0...75.0 V

Turn-on voltage 29.5...32.5 V

Turn-off voltage 26.5...29.5 V

Nominal output voltage +5.0 VDC

Output voltage range +4.75...+5.25 VDC

Output current 0...1.0 A, available for node internal alarming use

Voltage isolation, input - output 500 VDC

Alarm interface

Alarm configuration GND-referenced, +Batt-referenced, or closed loop

Expected voltage level with reference to GND at alarm


inputs

no alarm 2.8...7.0 V
alarm 0.0...1.5 V

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Table 15. BB-PSA technical specifications (cont.)

Electrical specifications

Input impedance 4 700 ohm (pull-up resistors to +5 V)

Maximum alarm relay output ratings:


UDC 48 V...60 V
IDC (resistive load) 0.6 A...0.4 A
IDC (inductive load) 0.4 A...0.3 A

Resistance (DC) with:


closed relay contacts (max.) 0.5 ohm
open relay contacts (min.) 1 M ohm

Energy storage

Capacitance > 10 mF

Holdup capacity at maximum load (3600 W) drawn from Uout drops from 54 V to 40.5 V> 5 ms
the central battery
Uout drops from 67.5 V to 40.5 V > 10 ms

Interface connector type

Battery input terminal Phoenix HDFKV50, 50 mm2

Power output connector Power-sub D, 3W3 polarized, 3-pin, Fem-Male-


Fem

Alarm input connector RJ-45 x 4

Alarm output connectors (visual & audible) Phoenix Mini-Combicon, 6-pin, Male, 1.5 mm 2

6.8 BB-PSA standards


In addition to the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and safety standards
given at the beginning of chapter, BB-PSA conforms to the following standards:

. ETS 300 132-2, Power Supply Interface at the Input to


Telecommunications Equip-ment Operated by Direct Current (DC)

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6.9 BB-PSA mechanical dimensions

Table 16. BB-PSA mechanical dimensions

Mechanical dimensions

Height 106 mm/4.24 in. (115 mm/4.6 in.with cabling)

Width 483 mm/19 in. (with mounting brackets)

Depth 240 mm (behind the additional 19" or ETSI brackets)


Total depth 280 mm/11.2 in.

Weight 9 kg/19 lb.

6.10 PSP technical specifications


The Power Switch Panel (PSP) has the following technical specifications:

Table 17. PSP technical specifications

Technical specifications

Nominal input voltage -48/-60 V

Input voltage range -40.5...-60 V

Current fed through a single switch 16/20 A (intended)

Switch type 1-pole, 0-1,


63 A (absolute max.)
EN 6094, class AC 22

Max. no of D500 subracks served 3

No. of battery voltage connections 12 pcs (4 per each D500 in duplicated, mission critical
applications)

Input connections 16 mm2 (switches, batt.-)


10 mm2 (terminals, batt.+)

Output connections Tail cables 2*10 mm2 with keyed 3W3 connectors,
precut for each subrack position

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6.11 PSP standards


The Power Switch Panel (PSP) conforms to the electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) and safety standards given at the beginning of the chapter.

6.12 PSP mechanical dimensions

Table 18. PSP mechanical dimensions

Mechanical dimensions

Height 125 mm/4.92 in.

Width 430 mm/16.93 in.


483 mm/19.02 in. or 535 mm/21.06 in. (with mounting brackets, depending how the
brackets are installed)

Depth 160 mm/6.3 in. (behind the brackets)


Total depth 200 mm/7.87 in.

Weight 8 kg/17.64 lb.

6.13 Fan tray specifications


In addition to the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and safety standards
given at the beginning of chapter, the fan tray conforms to the following
standards:

. ETS 300 132-2


. ANSI T1.315

Table 19. Fan tray specifications

Electrical specifications

Nominal input voltage 48/60 V

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Table 19. Fan tray specifications (cont.)

Electrical specifications

Input voltage range -40.5...-75 V

Output voltage (for fans) 17...20...22 V depending on ambient


temperature

Number of fans 6 (17-slot subrack)


8 (21-slot subrack)

Power consumption 30/40 W

Alarms Opto-coupler alarms

Operating temperature range -40...+65C (-40...+149F)

Interface connector type Metric Connector 2 mm


5 x 2F Angle Power

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