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20/12/2016 JohannGottfriedHerderWikipedia

JohannGottfriedHerder
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

JohannGottfried(after1802:von)Herder(25August
174418December1803)wasaGermanphilosopher, JohannGottfriedHerder
theologian,poet,andliterarycritic.Heisassociatedwiththe
periodsofEnlightenment,SturmundDrang,andWeimar
Classicism.

Contents
1 Biography
2 Worksandideas
2.1 GermanyandtheEnlightenment
3 Bibliography
3.1 WorksinEnglish
4 Seealso
5 Notes
6 References
7 Furtherreading
Born 25August1744
8 Externallinks
Mohrungen,KingdomofPrussia
(todayMorg,Poland)
Died 18December1803(aged59)Weimar,
Biography SaxeWeimar

BorninMohrungen(nowMorg,Poland)intheKingdomof Almamater UniversityofKnigsberg


Prussia,Herdergrewupinapoorhousehold,educating
Era 18thcenturyphilosophy
himselffromhisfather'sBibleandsongbook.In1762,an
introspectiveyouthofseventeen,heenrolledatthelocal Region Westernphilosophy
UniversityofKnigsberg,wherehebecameastudentof School Enlightenment
ImmanuelKant.Atthesametime,Herderbecamean CounterEnlightenment
intellectualprotgofJohannGeorgHamann,anintensely
subjectivethinkerwhodisputedtheclaimsofpuresecular Romanticnationalism[1][2]
reason. Anticolonialistcosmopolitanism[3][4]
SturmundDrang
Hamann'sinfluenceledHerdertoconfesstohiswifelaterin WeimarClassicism
lifethat"Ihavetoolittlereasonandtoomuch
Historicism[5]
idiosyncrasy",[20]yetHerdercanjustlyclaimtohave
foundedanewschoolofGermanpoliticalthought.Although Romantichermeneutics[6]
himselfanunsociableperson,Herderinfluencedhis Germanliberalism[7]
contemporariesgreatly.Onefriendwrotetohimin1785, Main Philology,philosophyoflanguage,
hailinghisworksas"inspiredbyGod."Avariedfieldof interests culturalanthropology,philosophyof
theoristswerelatertofindinspirationinHerder's
tantalisinglyincompleteideas. mind,aesthetics,philosophyof
history,politicalphilosophy,
In1764,nowaclergyman,HerderwenttoRigatoteach.It philosophyofreligion
wasduringthisperiodthatheproducedhisfirstmajor Notable Thoughtisessentiallydependenton
works,whichwereliterarycriticism. ideas
language[8]
In1769HerdertraveledbyshiptotheFrenchportofNantes Teleologicalconceptionof
andcontinuedontoParis.Thisresultedinbothanaccountof history[9][10]
histravelsaswellasashiftofhisownselfconceptionasan
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author. Culturalrelativism[11]
Volksgeist
By1770HerderwenttoStrasbourg,wherehemettheyoung
Empiricalapproachtothe
Goethe.Thiseventprovedtobeakeyjunctureinthehistory
ofGermanliterature,asGoethewasinspiredbyHerder's investigationoflanguagesand
literarycriticismtodevelophisownstyle.Thiscanbeseen cultures[12]
asthebeginningofthe"SturmundDrang"movement.In Influences
1771Herdertookapositionasheadpastorandcourt
preacheratBckeburgunderCountthroughoutthenation Influenced
WilhelmvonSchaumburgLippe.

Bythemid1770s,Goethewasawellknownauthor,andusedhisinfluenceatthecourtofWeimartosecure
HerderapositionasGeneralSuperintendent.Herdermovedtherein1776,wherehisoutlookshiftedagain
towardsclassicism.

Towardstheendofhiscareer,HerderendorsedtheFrenchRevolution,whichearnedhimtheenmityofmany
ofhiscolleagues.Atthesametime,heandGoetheexperiencedapersonalsplit.Anotherreasonforhis
isolationinlateryearswasduetohisunpopularattacksonKantianphilosophy.[21]

In1802HerderwasennobledbytheElectorPrinceofBavaria,whichaddedtheprefix"von"tohislastname.
HediedinWeimarin1803atage59.

Worksandideas
In1772HerderpublishedTreatiseontheOriginofLanguageandwentfurtherinthispromotionoflanguage
thanhisearlierinjunctionto"spewouttheuglyslimeoftheSeine.SpeakGerman,OYouGerman".Herder
nowhadestablishedthefoundationsofcomparativephilologywithinthenewcurrentsofpoliticaloutlook.

Throughoutthisperiod,hecontinuedtoelaboratehisownuniquetheoryofaestheticsinworkssuchasthe
above,whileGoetheproducedworkslikeTheSorrowsofYoungWerthertheSturmundDrangmovement
wasborn.

HerderwroteanimportantessayonShakespeareandAuszugauseinemBriefwechselberOssianunddie
LiederalterVlker(ExtractfromacorrespondenceaboutOssianandtheSongsofAncientPeoples)published
in1773inamanifestoalongwithcontributionsbyGoetheandJustusMser.Herderwrotethat"Apoetisthe
creatorofthenationaroundhim,hegivesthemaworldtoseeandhastheirsoulsinhishandtoleadthemto
thatworld."Tohimsuchpoetryhaditsgreatestpurityandpowerinnationsbeforetheybecamecivilised,as
shownintheOldTestament,theEdda,andHomer,andhetriedtofindsuchvirtuesinancientGermanfolk
songsandNorsepoetryandmythology.

AfterbecomingGeneralSuperintendentin1776,Herder'sphilosophyshiftedagaintowardsclassicism.Herder
wasathisbestduringthisperiod,andproducedworkssuchashisunfinishedOutlineofaPhilosophical
HistoryofHumanitywhichlargelyoriginatedtheschoolofhistoricalthought.Herder'sphilosophywasofa
deeplysubjectiveturn,stressinginfluencebyphysicalandhistoricalcircumstanceuponhumandevelopment,
stressingthat"onemustgointotheage,intotheregion,intothewholehistory,andfeelone'swayinto
everything".Thehistorianshouldbethe"regeneratedcontemporary"ofthepast,andhistoryascienceas
"instrumentofthemostgenuinepatrioticspirit".

HerdergaveGermansnewprideintheirorigins,modifyingthatdominanceofregardallottedtoGreekart
(Greekrevival)extolledamongothersbyJohannJoachimWinckelmannandGottholdEphraimLessing.He
remarkedthathewouldhavewishedtobebornintheMiddleAgesandmusedwhether"thetimesofthe
Swabianemperors"didnot"deservetobesetforthintheirtruelightinaccordancewiththeGermanmodeof
thought?".HerderequatedtheGermanwiththeGothicandfavouredDrerandeverythingGothic.Aswiththe
sphereofart,equallyheproclaimedanationalmessagewithinthesphereoflanguage.Hetoppedthelineof
GermanauthorsemanatingfromMartinOpitz,whohadwrittenhisAristarchus,sivedecontemptulinguae
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TeutonicaeinLatinin1617,urgingGermanstogloryintheirhitherto
despisedlanguage.Herder'sextensivecollectionsoffolkpoetrybegana
greatcrazeinGermanyforthatneglectedtopic.

Herderwasoneofthefirsttoarguethatlanguagecontributestoshaping
theframeworksandthepatternswithwhicheachlinguisticcommunity
thinksandfeels.ForHerder,languageis'theorganofthought'.Thishas
oftenbeenmisinterpreted,however.NeitherHerdernorthegreat
philosopheroflanguage,WilhelmvonHumboldt,arguethatlanguage
determinesthought.Languageisboththemeansandtheexpressionof
man'screativecapacitytothinktogetherwithothers.Andinthissense,
whenHumboldtarguesthatallthinkingisthinknginlanguage,heis
perpetuatingtheHerdertradition.Butforboththinkers,culture,
language,thinking,feeling,andabovealltheliteratureofindividuals
andthepeople'sfolktraditonsareexpressionsoffreespiritedgroups
andindividualsexpressingthemselvesinspaceandtime.Twocenturies
later,theseideascontinuetostimulatethinkers,linguistsand
anthropologists,andtheyhaveoftenbeenconsideredcentraltothe
SapirWhorfhypothesis,andtheAmericanlinguisticanthropology TheJohannGottfriedHerderstatuein
traditioninspiredbyBoas,andmorerecently,DellHymes.Herder's WeimarinfrontofthechurchSt.
focusuponlanguageandculturaltraditionsasthetiesthatcreatea PeterundPaul
[22]
"nation" extendedtoincludefolklore,dance,musicandart,and
inspiredJacobandWilhelmGrimmintheircollectionofGermanfolktales.Arguably,thegreatestinheritorof
Herder'slinguisticphilosophywasWilhelmvonHumboldt.Humboldt'sgreatcontributionlayindeveloping
Herder'sideathatlanguageis"theorganofthought"intohisownbeliefthatlanugageswerespecific
worldviews(Weltansichten),asJrgenTrabantarguesintheWilhelmvonHumboldtlecturesontheRouen
EthnolinguisticsProjectwebsite.

Herderattachedexceptionalimportancetotheconceptofnationalityandofpatriotism"hethathaslosthis
patrioticspirithaslosthimselfandthewholeworldsabouthimself",whilstteachingthat"inacertainsense
everyhumanperfectionisnational".Herdercarriedfolktheorytoanextremebymaintainingthat"thereisonly
oneclassinthestate,theVolk,(nottherabble),andthekingbelongstothisclassaswellasthepeasant".
ExplanationthattheVolkwasnottherabblewasanovelconceptioninthisera,andwithHerdercanbeseenthe
emergenceof"thepeople"asthebasisfortheemergenceofaclasslessbuthierarchicalnationalbody.

Thenation,however,wasindividualandseparate,distinguished,toHerder,byclimate,education,foreign
intercourse,traditionandheredity.Providencehepraisedforhaving"wonderfullyseparatednationalitiesnot
onlybywoodsandmountains,seasanddeserts,riversandclimates,butmoreparticularlybylanguages,
inclinationsandcharacters".Herderpraisedthetribaloutlookwritingthat"thesavagewholoveshimself,his
wifeandchildwithquietjoyandglowswithlimitedactivityofhistribeasforhisownlifeisinmyopiniona
morerealbeingthanthatcultivatedshadowwhoisenrapturedwiththeshadowofthewholespecies",isolated
since"eachnationalitycontainsitscentreofhappinesswithinitself,asabulletthecentreofgravity".Withno
needforcomparisonsince"everynationbearsinitselfthestandardofitsperfection,totallyindependentofall
comparisonwiththatofothers"for"donotnationalitiesdifferineverything,inpoetry,inappearance,intastes,
inusages,customsandlanguages?Mustnotreligionwhichpartakesofthesealsodifferamongthe
nationalities?"

FollowingatriptoUkraine,Herderwroteapredictioninhisdiary(JournalmeinerReiseimJahre1769)that
SlavicnationswouldonedaybetherealpowerinEurope,asthewesternEuropeanswouldrejectChristianity
androtaway,whiletheeasternEuropeannationswouldsticktotheirreligionandtheiridealism,andwouldthis
waybecomethepowerinEurope.Morespecifically,hepraisedUkraine's"beautifulskies,blithetemperament,
musicaltalent,bountifulsoil,etc.[...]somedaywillawakenthereaculturednationwhoseinfluencewillspread
[...]throughouttheworld."OneofhisrelatedpredictionswasthattheHungariannationwoulddisappearand
becomeassimilatedbysurroundingSlavicpeoplesthisprophecycausedconsiderableuproarinHungaryandis
widelycitedtothisday.[23]
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GermanyandtheEnlightenment

ThisquestionwasfurtherdevelopedbyHerder'slamentthatMartinLutherdidnotestablishanationalchurch,
andhisdoubtwhetherGermanydidnotbuyChristianityattoohighaprice,thatoftruenationality.Herder's
patriotismborderedattimesuponnationalpantheism,demandingofterritorialunityas"Heisdeservingof
gloryandgratitudewhoseekstopromotetheunityoftheterritoriesofGermanythroughwritings,manufacture,
andinstitutions"andsoundinganevendeepercall:

"Butnow!AgainIcry,myGermanbrethren!Butnow!Theremainsofallgenuinefolkthoughtisrolling
intotheabyssofoblivionwithalastandacceleratedimpetus.Forthelastcenturywehavebeen
ashamedofeverythingthatconcernsthefatherland."

InhisIdeasuponPhilosophyandtheHistoryofMankindheeven
wrote:"CompareEnglandwithGermany:theEnglishareGermans,and
eveninthelatesttimestheGermanshaveledthewayfortheEnglishin
thegreatestthings."

Herder,whohatedabsolutismandPrussiannationalism,butwhowas
imbuedwiththespiritofthewholeGermanVolk,yetashistorical
theoristturnedawayfromthelightoftheeighteenthcentury.Seekingto
reconcilehisthoughtwiththisearlierage,Herdersoughttoharmonize
hisconceptionofsentimentwithreasoning,wherebyallknowledgeis
implicitinthesoulthemostelementarystageissensuousandintuitive
perceptionwhichbydevelopmentcanbecomeselfconsciousand
rational.ToHerder,thisdevelopmentistheharmonizingofprimitive
andderivativetruth,ofexperienceandintelligence,feelingand
reasoning.
Herder
HerderisthefirstinalonglineofGermanspreoccupiedwiththis
harmony.ThissearchisitselfthekeytomuchinGermantheory.And
Herderwastoopenetratingathinkernottounderstandandfeartheextremestowhichhisfolktheorycould
tend,andsoissuedspecificwarnings.HearguedthatJewsinGermanyshouldenjoythefullrightsand
obligationsofGermans,andthatthenonJewsoftheworldowedadebttoJewsforcenturiesofabuse,andthat
thisdebtcouldbedischargedonlybyactivelyassistingthoseJewswhowishedtodosotoregainpolitical
sovereigntyintheirancienthomelandofIsrael.[24]Herderrefusedtoadheretoarigidracialtheory,writingthat
"notwithstandingthevarietiesofthehumanform,thereisbutoneandthesamespeciesofmanthroughoutthe
wholeearth".

Healsoannouncedthat"nationalgloryisadeceivingseducer.Whenitreachesacertainheight,itclaspsthe
headwithanironband.Theenclosedseesnothinginthemistbuthisownpictureheissusceptibletono
foreignimpressions."And:

ThepassageoftimewastodemonstratethatwhilemanyGermansweretofindinfluenceinHerder's
convictionsandinfluence,fewerweretonotehisqualifyingstipulations.

Herderhademphasisedthathisconceptionofthenationencourageddemocracyandthefreeselfexpressionof
apeople'sidentity.HeproclaimedsupportfortheFrenchRevolution,apositionwhichdidnotendearhimto
royalty.HealsodifferedwithKant'sphilosophyfornotplacingreasoningwithinthecontextoflanguage.
Herderdidnotthinkthatreasonitselfcouldbecriticized,asitdidnotexistexceptastheprocessofreasoning.
Thisprocesswasdependentonlanguage.[25]HealsoturnedawayfromtheSturmundDrangmovementtogo
backtothepoemsofShakespeareandHomer.

TopromotehisconceptoftheVolk,hepublishedlettersandcollectedfolksongs.Theselatterwerepublishedin
1773asVoicesofthePeoplesinTheirSongs(StimmenderVlkerinihrenLiedern).ThepoetsAchimvon
ArnimandClemensvonBrentanolaterusedStimmenderVlkerassamplesforTheBoy'sMagicHorn(Des

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KnabenWunderhorn).

Herderalsofosteredtheidealofapersonsindividuality.Althoughhehadfromanearlyperiodchampionedthe
individualityofculturesforexample,inhisThisTooaPhilosophyofHistoryfortheFormationofHumanity
(1774),healsochampionedtheindividualityofpersonswithinacultureforexample,inhisOnThomasAbbt's
Writings(1768)andOntheCognitionandSensationoftheHumanSoul(1778).

InOnThomasAbbt'sWritings,Herderstatedthat"ahumansoulisanindividualintherealmofminds:itsenses
inaccordancewithanindividualformation,andthinksinaccordancewiththestrengthofitsmentalorgans....
Mylongallegoryhassucceededifitachievestherepresentationofthemindofahumanbeingasanindividual
phenomenon,asararitywhichdeservestooccupyoureyes."[26]

Bibliography
SongtoCyrus,theGrandsonofAstyages(1762)
"EssayonBeing"(176364)[27]
OnDiligenceinSeveralLearnedLanguages(1764)
TreatiseontheOde(1764)[28]
HowPhilosophycanbecomemoreUniversalandUsefulfortheBenefitofthePeople(1765)[29]
FragmentsonRecentGermanLiterature(176768)[30]
OnThomasAbbt'sWritings(1768)
CriticalForests,orReflectionsontheScienceandArtoftheBeautiful(1769)
JournalofmyVoyageintheYear1769(firstpublished1846)
TreatiseontheOriginofLanguage(1772)[31]
SelectionfromcorrespondenceonOssianandthesongsofancientpeoples(1773)Seealso:James
Macpherson(17361796).
OfGermanCharacterandArt(withGoethe,manifestooftheSturmundDrang)(1773)
ThisTooaPhilosophyofHistoryfortheFormationofHumanity(1774)[32]
OldestDocumentoftheHumanRace(177476)
"EssayonUlrichvonHutten"["NachrichtvonUlrichvonHutten"](1776)[33]
OntheResemblanceofMedievalEnglishandGermanPoetry(1777)
Sculpture:SomeObservationsonShapeandFormfromPygmalion'sCreativeDream(1778)
OntheCognitionandSensationoftheHumanSoul(1778)
OntheEffectofPoeticArtontheEthicsofPeoplesinAncientandModernTimes(1778)
FolkSongs(177879seconded.of1807titledTheVoicesofPeoplesinSongs)
OntheInfluenceoftheGovernmentontheSciencesandtheSciencesontheGovernment(Dissertation
ontheReciprocalInfluenceofGovernmentandtheSciences)(1780)
LettersConcerningtheStudyofTheology(178081)
OntheInfluenceoftheBeautifulintheHigherSciences(1781)
OntheSpiritofHebrewPoetry.AnInstructionforLoversoftheSameandtheOldestHistoryofthe
HumanSpirit(178283)
God.SomeConversations(1787)
IdeasonthePhilosophyoftheHistoryofMankind(178491)
ScatteredLeaves(178597)
LettersfortheAdvancementofHumanity(179197or179397?(variousdrafts))
ChristianWritings(5vols.)(17948)
Terpsichore(17956)AtranslationandcommentaryoftheLatinpoetJakobBalde.
PersepolisianLetters(1798).FragmentsonPersianarchitecture,historyandreligion.
LuthersCatechism,withacatecheticalinstructionfortheuseofschools(1798)
UnderstandingandExperience.AMetacritiqueoftheCritiqueofPureReason.PartI.(PartII,Reason
andLanguage.)(1799)
Calligone(1800)
Adrastea:EventsandCharactersofthe18thCentury(6vols.)(18013)[34][35]
TheCid(1805afreetranslationoftheSpanishepicCantardeMioCid)

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WorksinEnglish

SelectedWritingsonAesthetics.EditedandtranslatedbyGregoryMoore.PrincetonU.P.2006.pp.x+
455.ISBN9780691115955.EditionmakesmanyofHerder'swritingsonaestheticsavailableinEnglish
forthefirsttime.
AnotherPhilosophyofHistoryandSelectedPoliticalWritings,eds.IoannisD.EvrigenisandDaniel
Pellerin(Indianapolis:HackettPub.,2004).AtranslationofAucheinePhilosophieandotherworks.
PhilosophicalWritings,ed.MichaelN.Forster(Cambridge:CambridgeUniv.Press,2002).Themost
importantphilosophicalworksoftheearlyHerderavailableinEnglish,includinganunabridgedversion
oftheTreatiseontheOriginofLanguageandThisTooaPhilosophyofHistoryfortheFormationof
Mankind.
Sculpture:SomeObservationsonShapeandFormfromPygmalion'sCreativeDream,ed.JasonGaiger
(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,2002).Herder'sPlastik.
SelectedEarlyWorks,eds.ErnestA.MenzeandKarlMenges(UniversityPark:ThePennsylvaniaState
Univ.Press,1992).PartialtranslationoftheimportanttextberdieneueredeutscheLitteratur.
OnWorldHistory,eds.HansAdlerandErnestA.Menze(Armonk,N.Y.:M.E.Sharpe,1997).Short
excerptsonhistoryfromvarioustexts.
J.G.HerderonSocial&PoliticalCulture(CambridgeStudiesintheHistoryandTheoryofPolitics),ed.
F.M.Barnard(CambridgeUniversityPress,2010(originallypublishedin1969))ISBN9780521
133814Selectedtexts:1.Journalofmyvoyageintheyear17692.Essayontheoriginoflanguage3.
Yetanotherphilosophyofhistory4.Dissertationonthereciprocalinfluenceofgovernmentandthe
sciences5.Ideasforaphilosophyofthehistoryofmankind.
Herder:PhilosophicalWritings,ed.DesmondM.ClarkeandMichaelN.Forster(CambridgeUniversity
Press,2007),ISBN9780521790888.Contents:PartI.GeneralPhilosophicalProgram:1.How
philosophycanbecomemoreuniversalandusefulforthebenefitofthepeople(1765)PartII.
PhilosophyofLanguage:2.FragmentsonrecentGermanliterature(17678)3.Treatiseontheoriginof
language(1772)PartIII.PhilosophyofMind:4.OnThomasAbbt'swritings(1768)5.Oncognition
andsensation,thetwomainforcesofthehumansoul6.Onthecognitionandsensation,thetwomain
forcesofthehumansoul(1775)PartIV.PhilosophyofHistory:7.Onthechangeoftaste(1766)8.
Oldercriticalforestlet(1767/8)9.Thistooaphilosophyofhistoryfortheformationofhumanity(1774)
PartV.PoliticalPhilosophy:10.Lettersconcerningtheprogressofhumanity(1792)11.Lettersforthe
advancementofhumanity(17937).
HerderonNationality,Humanity,andHistory,F.M.Barnard.(MontrealandKingston:McGillQueen's
UniversityPress,2003.)ISBN9780773525191.
Herder'sSocialandPoliticalThought:FromEnlightenmenttoNationalism,F.M.Barnard,Oxford,
Publisher:ClarendonPress,1967.ASINB0007JTDEI.

Seealso
HerderPrize
Underhill,James,W.,Humboldt,Worldview,andLanguage,Edinburgh,2009.
TheJrgenTrabantWilhelmvonHumboldtLectures,https://rep.univrouen.fr/content/wilhelmlecture
12

Notes
1.Kerrigan,WilliamThomas(1997),"YoungAmerica": 5.FrederickC.Beiser,TheGermanHistoricist
RomanticNationalisminLiteratureandPolitics, Tradition,OxfordUniversityPress,2011,p.98.
18431861,UniversityofMichigan,1997,p.150. 6.ChristopherJohnMurray(ed.),Encyclopediaofthe
2.RoyalJ.Schmidt,"CulturalNationalisminHerder," RomanticEra,17601850,Routledge,2013,p.491:
JournaloftheHistoryofIdeas17(3)(June1956),pp. "HerderexpressedaviewfundamentaltoRomantic
407417. hermeneutics..."Forster2010,p.9.
3.GregoryClaeys(ed.),EncyclopediaofModern 7.Forster2010,p.42.
PoliticalThought,Routledge,2004,"Herder,Johann 8.Forster2010,pp.16and50n.6:"Thisthesisis
Gottfried":"Herderisananticolonialistcosmopolitan alreadyprominentinOnDiligenceinSeveralLearned
preciselybecauseheisanationalist". Languages(1764)".
4.Forster2010,p.43.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Gottfried_Herder 6/9
20/12/2016 JohannGottfriedHerderWikipedia

9.ThisthesisisprominentinThisTooaPhilosophyof 24.Barnard,F.M.,TheHebrewsandHerdersPolitical
HistoryfortheFormationofHumanity(1774)and Creed,ModernLanguageReview,vol.54,no.4,
IdeasonthePhilosophyoftheHistoryofMankind October1959,pp.533546.
(178491). 25.Copleston,FrederickCharles.TheEnlightenment:
10.Forster2010,p.36. VoltairetoKant,2003,p.145.
11.Forster2010,p.41. 26.Herder:PhilosophicalWritings,ed.M.N.Forster.
12.Forster2010,p.25. Cambridge:2002,p.167
13.FernandoVidal,TheSciencesoftheSoul:TheEarly 27.books.google.com(https://books.google.com/books?i
ModernOriginsofPsychology,Universityof d=7mNZS_ZO4RoC&pg=PA126&lpg=PA126&dq=he
ChicagoPress,2011,p.193n.31. rder+essays+on+being&source=bl&ots=asAa2qenHV
14.H.B.Nisbet,GermanAestheticandLiterary &sig=lNCG6qAJqUaEt_RUQtG434g&hl=en&sa=
Criticism:Winckelmann,Lessing,Hamann,Herder, X&ei=KfhdVff9L8yjsAWvioLYAg&ved=0CB8Q6AE
SchillerandGoethe(https://books.google.com/books? wAA#v=onepage&q=herder%20essays%20on%20bei
id=xYg4AAAAIAAJ&dq=),CUPArchive,1985,p. ng&f=false)
15. 28.books.google.com(https://books.google.com/books?i
15.Forster2010,p.9. d=Ne1EzT56p8EC&source=gbs_navlinks_s)
16.EugenioCoeriu,"ZuHegelsSemantik,"Kwartalnik 29.ebooks.cambridge.org(http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ch
neofilologiczny,24(1977),p.185n.8. apter.jsf?bid=CBO9781139164634&cid=CBO978113
17.JrgenGeorgBackhaus(ed.),TheUniversity 9164634A011)
AccordingtoHumboldt:History,Policy,andFuture 30.books.google.com(https://books.google.com/books/a
Possibilities,Springer,2015,p.58. bout/%C3%9Cber_die_neuere_deutsche_Literatur.htm
18.DouglasA.Kibbee(ed.),HistoryofLinguistics2005: l?id=DCbzAAAAMAAJ&hl=en)
SelectedpapersfromtheTenthInternational 31.marxists.org(https://www.marxists.org/archive/herde
ConferenceontheHistoryoftheLanguageSciences r/1772/originslanguage.htm)
(ICHOLSX),15September2005,Urbana 32.ebooks.cambridge.org(http://ebooks.cambridge.org/ch
Champaign,Illinois,JohnBenjaminsPublishing, apter.jsf?bid=CBO9781139164634&cid=CBO978113
2007,p.290. 9164634A023)
19.MichaelForster(20070927)."Stanford 33.ub.unibielefeld.de(http://www.ub.unibielefeld.de/cgi
EncyclopediaofPhilosophy:JohannGottfriedvon bin/neubutton.cgi?pfad=/diglib/aufkl/teutmerk/06576
Herder".Retrieved20160520. 1&seite=00000181.TIF)
20.Columbiastudiesinthesocialsciences,Issue341, 34.ub.unibielefeld.de(http://www.ub.unibielefeld.de/di
1966,p.74. glib/aufkl/adrastea/)
21.Copleston,FrederickCharles.TheEnlightenment: 35.books.google.com(https://books.google.com/books?i
VoltairetoKant.2003.p.146. d=Li9WNqb5Q8C&pg=PA426&lpg=PA426&dq=her
22.Votruba,Martin."HerderonLanguage"(PDF).Slovak der+adrastea&source=bl&ots=F9gFlZbFz1&sig=FVu
StudiesProgram.UniversityofPittsburgh.Retrieved NLZdcariKXPd2MJw3Jascsg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=IjB
20100630. eVf69KcbDsAXWsIGwAg&ved=0CFsQ6AEwCA#v
23.hungarianhistory.hu(http://www.hungarianhistory.h =onepage&q=herder%20adrastea&f=false)
u/lib/trans/trans08.htm)

References
MichaelN.Forster,AfterHerder:PhilosophyofLanguageintheGermanTradition,OxfordUniversity
Press,2010.

Furtherreading
Adler,Hans."JohannGottfriedHerder'sConceptofHumanity,"StudiesinEighteenthCenturyCulture
23(1994):5574
Azurmendi,J.2008.Volksgeist.Herrigogoa,Donostia,Elkar,ISBN9788497834049.
Barnard,FrederickMechner(1965).Herder'sSocialandPoliticalThought.Oxford,Oxfordshire:Oxford
UniversityPress.ISBN0198271514.
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Goethe,Schlegel,Novalis,Humboldt,Schleiermacher,Hlderlin.,Paris,Gallimard,Essais,1984.ISBN
9782070700769
Berlin,Isaiah,VicoandHerder.TwoStudiesintheHistoryofIdeas,London,1976.
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story_of_ideas/v071/71.4.zammito.html)

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"JohannGottfriedvonHerder".StanfordEncyclopediaofPhilosophy.
Herderbibliographyandmore(http://www.stanford.edu/~tino/herderindex.htm)
HerderbiographybyRobertMatthees(PDFGerman)(https://cxo.co.com/JohannGottfriedHerder.pdf)
InternationalHerderSociety(http://www.johanngottfriedherder.net/english/ihs_society.htm)
SelectedworksfromProjectGutenberg(inGerman)(http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/?id=19&autor=Herde
r,%20%20Johann%20Gottfried&autor_vorname=%20Johann%20Gottfried&autor_nachname=Herder)
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"Herder".TheNuttallEncyclopdia.1907.
"Herder,JohannGottfriedvon".EncyclopdiaBritannica(11thed.).1911.
"Herder,JohannGottfriedvon".TheNewStudent'sReferenceWork.1914.
"Herder,JohannGottfriedvon".EncyclopediaAmericana.1920.

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