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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION

Engineering design is that the method of fashioning a system, component, or


method to fulfil desired wants. Its a choice creating method, during which the
fundamental sciences, arithmetic, and engineering sciences are applied to convert
resources optimally to fulfil an expressed objective. Among the basic parts of the
design method are the establishment objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis,
construction, testing and analysis.

The primary approach that engineers utilize the forces and materials of nature
for the advantage of world is thru new and innovative styles. The primary step into a
design study is to acknowledge the necessity. The need, that is the purpose of the
design study, is established via a general statement of the clients discontentment
with the present scenario. Drawback definition is that the second step of design that
ought to embrace all the specifications for the factor that's to be designed, the
constraints on the design, design concerns (strength, fatigue life, cost etc.) and
therefore the criteria to be used for evaluating the design in keeping with the design
concerns. The third step is information gathering which needs assortment of related
data, as well as theoretical data and former studies on the topic, from the offered
sources. Idea generation comes because the fourth step of design, that is that the
most inventive a part of the design method. Idea generation is followed with idea
selection, during which the generated ideas are compared with relation to basic
standard. This step could need some easy analysis. When the choice of the idea to be
applied for the answer that elaborate design and analysis is performed because the
sixth step of design.

The mine hoist is most ordinarily used equipment in mining business for raising
or lowering the mining resources. The central drum in mine hoist is directly subjected
to load to be raised; thence it's large in size and significant in weight. This report
outlines the design method of the central drum, together with relevant arguments,

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

sketches and calculations created, supported by associate correct, operational CAD


model.

Central drum in mine hoist have difficult geometry and should satisfy criterion
like strength, weight, manufacturability and performance. Central drum have to be
compelled to accomplish plenty of engineering objectives together with some
necessary performance sturdiness needs. Central drum design and development is
incredibly time intense, as a result of it desires variety of tests and design iterations
before going into production. In modern business a way to shorten development
time and to cut back the quantity of times test are vital problems.

In the real service conditions, the determination of structural behaviour of the


Central drum is vital, however the testing and scrutiny of the Central drum
throughout their development method is that the time intense and expensive. So as
to attain the on top of objectives, computer aided engineering (CAE) is helpful tool
and has been recently applied to perform a Central drum designing.

In the past decades, there are dramatic enhancements within the engineering
design method owing to the widespread use of finite element analysis (FEA) because
the computational tool and therefore the will increase in computer speed. Structural
improvement is a very important field of analysis owing to its contribution to value,
material and time saving in engineering design. Among numerous structural
improvement issues, topology improvement has due nice attention. The increasing
demand from the trade for light-weight, a superior and cheap structure drives the
appreciable current analysis happening within the field of structural improvement.
Topology improvement could be a comparatively new however quickly increasing
field of structural improvement. Topology improvement is employed in an increasing
rate within the industries. The reason for this can be that it often achieves bigger
savings in material and design enhancements.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

1.1 About YD Core Technologies

YD Core Technologies, recently founded in Pune, Maharashtra, India, have


catered to a good array of design and manufacturing industries throughout the
country. They have their own R&D laboratory with 3D printing and project validation
centre. YD Core Technologies is a Support Centre for development execution and
validation with numerous software tools. Leading team members here aren't just
engineers, they're creators of new products. Having been Certified by institutions &
extremely qualified with industry credits, they place their insights that are most
recognized for prosperous Product growth.

Theyre in consulting, technology, and outsourcing solutions. As a verified


partner targeted on building tomorrow's enterprise, YD Core Technologies allows
clients in multiple zones to outperform the competition and keep ahead of the
innovation curve. They assist enterprises rework and thrive in an exceedingly
dynamic world through strategic consulting, operational leadership, and therefore
the co-creation of Product design solutions, together with CAD, CAM, CAE, and CFD
Services. Theyre handling their in-house product too with varied utilities and process
machinery.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

1.2 Mine Hoists

Hoist ropes utilized in mine hoists are usually 4000 to 5000 feet long. Single
layer winding of those long ropes on the hoist drums would need drums of excessive
width and, since the most permissible fleet angle from the drum to the top sheaves is
sometimes restricted to one the hoist would be placed too far back from the mine
shaft. For these reasons the ropes are typically helically wound on the drum in 2 or 3
layers.

The present invention provides a drum equipped with filler and riser parts that
extend round the entire circumference of the drum and are created by simplified
machining procedure capable of being conveniently and satisfactorily performed by a
lathe or boring mill.

This invention makes doable the formation of filler and riser parts that are
proportioned and formed to provide additional correct rope action while not danger
of pinching or situation than may be obtained by the most effective procedures yet
available.

Figure no. 1.1: - Mine hoist

A hoist drum comprising a annular body portion, a radially projected flange at


one end of the body portion supplied with an integral projection extending entirely
round the inner aspect there from and forming a filler part tailored to fill the area
between the flange and also the initial turn of the first layer of rope helically wound

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

round the body portion from a place to begin adjacent said flange, said filler
presenting an annular circumferential face coaxial with however projecting a preset
distance on the far side the circumferential surface of the body portion and a spiral
inner side face that comes radially from the circumferential surface of the body
portion and varies from zero to one pitch in 360, a second flange placed at the other
end of the body portion and supplied with an integral projection extending round the
inner side there from and forming a riser part tailored to gradually elevate the last
turn of the primary layer of rope because it is wound helically round the drum to
create the primary turn of the second layer that is helically wound round the drum
within the reverse direction on high of the turns of the primary layer, said riser
element presenting an eccentric outer circumferential rope-lifting face that gradually
will increase from zero elevation to a planned maximum elevation higher than the
circumferential surface of the hollow portion of the drum at 180 then gradually
decreases to zero elevation at around 360 and helical inner side face that varies from
one pitch to zero in 360 and has a similar lead because the helical inner side face of
the filler part.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

1.3 Problem Identifications

Figure no. 1.2: - Closed Disc drum


Heavy drum is troublesome for commissioning and producing in single body.
Central hub is just too heavy for making drive hold to rotate full body with
masses.

1.4 Reasons for selecting the problem:-

As we see the central drum in mine hoist is extremely large in diameter


therefore it's very difficult to manufacture. Additionally it's too heavy for hold and
rotates the complete body with masses. Therefore its necessary to form it feasible
for operating and manufacture. Optimization will be formed in drum structure to
form it little light-weight while not affecting its strength.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER - 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

For this study and observation are focused on existing system. The literature
survey has been pioneered effort in this regard. Various machine design concepts and
CAD/CAE concepts from literatures help to establish comparative study between
existing and new experimentation. The terminologies referred from literatures for
designing are discussed as follows:

WANG Jiu-feng, XU Gui-yun, ZHU Jia-zhou, YANG Yan-chu, in their paper


named as, "Parametric Design and Finite Element Analysis of Main Shaft of Hoister
Based on Pro/E", advanced parametric design method which realized in the process
of modelling of main shaft of hoister was deal by using the interface technology
between Pro/E and ANSYS software. The simulation analysis of stress status of the
main shaft of hoister designed in Pro/E under a certain load is made. The adoption of
this method will dramatically shorten the development cycle and cut down the design
costs. Otherwise the research method will reference value to gear model library
development and to the optimization design of the main shaft of hoister. [1]

LUO Jiman, XING Yan, LIU Dajiang and YUAN Ye, in their paper, "Modal
Analysis of Mast of Builders Hoist Based on ANSYS", For the purpose of researching
the factors which affect the dynamic characteristic of mast of builder's hoist and
analyzing the impact of different factors over system security, the authors of the
paper applied the finite element method to build the model and made the modal
analysis for mast which was installed with various installation distances or under
different working conditions. [2]

Yang Yuanfan, in the paper named as, "The Study on Mechanical Reliability
Design Method and Its Application", Through the study on mechanical reliability
design and combination with the structure of mine hoist, it is proposed that the
crucial procedure of reliability designs application into mine hoist is as to ascertain
the statistics of the relevant parameters, then to set up the failure mathematical
model, and finally the reliability design can be operated. [3]

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

J.J. Taljaard and J.D. Stephenson, in the paper named as, "State-of-art shaft
system as applied to Palaborwa underground mining project", The design of a 30,000
ton per day underground mine at Phalaborwa presented many and various
challenges to the owner and the design team. Using modern best and proven
practice, innovative engineering, extensive test work and verification by worldwide
experts these challenges were met head on and overcome. The state-of-the-art
system will be in operation by the end of the year 2000. [4]

Shuang Chen and Shen Guo, in their paper named as, "Stress Analysis of the
Mine Hoist Spindle Based on ANSYS", In this paper, the three dimensional modeling of
2JK mine hoist spindle was established by using Pro/ E according to given data. Then
the model was inputted into the finite element analysis in ANSYS, the stress
distribution of the spindle was obtained, strength check of the dangerous section was
made at the same time, which provides a accurate and reliable theoretical basis for
improving the spindle structural design. [5]

HuYong and HuJiQuan, in their paper named as, "Mechanical Analysis and
Experimental Research of Parallel Grooved Drum Multi-layer Winding System", In the
present design criterion of multi-layer winding drum, multi-layer winding coefficient
is chosen according to the number of wire rope layers. However, the actual wire rope
arrangement on the drum and the elastic property of wire rope also play decisive
roles in determining the multi-layer winding coefficient value. Analyzing the actual
stress of the drum accurately is the precondition of ensuring the drums safety and
reliability for meeting the lightweight design requirements. [6]

Indian Standard for Design of Rope drum and Chain Hoists for Hydraulic gates
Code of Practice The grooved drum shall be of such a size that normally there will
not be more than one layer of rope on the drum when the rope is in its filly wound
position unless specified. The length of the drum shall be such that each lead off rope
has minimum two full turns on the drum when the gate is at its lowest position and
one spare groove for each lead off the drum when the gate is at its highest
position.The drum may be flanged at ends. The flanges shall project to a height of not
less than two rope diameters above the rope. Spur gear secured to the drum may be

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

regarded as forming one of the flanges. The lead angle (fleet angle) of the rope shall
not exceed 5 or1 in 12 on either side of helix angle of groove in the drum.

Materials for Drums: -

The drums shall be made from one of the following materials:


a) Cast iron conforming to IS2010,
b) Cast steel conforming to IS 1030, and
c) Mild steel plates conforming to IS 2062 [7]

Shyam Lal Sharma, Tasmeem Ahmad Khan, Md. Parvez and Kamlesh Kumari,
In the paper named as, Computer Aided Analysis And Design Of hoisting Mechanism
Of An EOT Crane, In this project an overall design the hoists generally confirm to IS:
3177 of the hoisting mechanism of an EOT crane has been carried out. The
dimensions of the main components have been determined for a load capacity of 50
ton crane having 8 rope falls. Various dimensions for cross-sections of various shapes
for crane have been found. After the system was designed, the stress and deflection
are calculated at critical points using ANSYS and optimized. Which cross-section
would be better keeping some parameters constant for all the case .Various
dimensions and load per wire for wire ropes has been found. Using various formulae
found the dimensions for pulley, Rope-drum. Also calculated the Power and ratings
for the motor brakes used in the hoist mechanism. [8]

Prof. Sham Tickoo, "Solidworks 2014 for Engineers and Designers", Dreamtech
Press, Reprint Edition, 2014, this book enables to use the modelling power of
Solidworks 2014. This book covers mechanical engineering industry examples and
tutorials which are very useful for creating solid model. [9]

Ibrahim Zeid and R Sivasubramanian, "CAD/CAM Theory and Practice ",


McGraw-Hill Book Company, First edition, 2007, this book gives a balanced mix of
theory and practice of the CAD/CAM concepts. From this book the CAD/CAM
principles and tools with engineering and design applications and problems which are
very helpful for this project. [10]

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

Zeinkiewiczs O.C, Taylor R.L. The Finite Element Method, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1989, this book gives the basic idea about the finite element method which
is very helpful for this thesis. From this book we can refer the concept of the static
and structural analysis for this project. [11]

Chandrupatla T.R., "Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering" Prentice


Hall, third edition (2001), this book gives the idea about the finite element method
which is very helpful for this project. From this book we can refer the concept of axis
symmetric elements, 3D elements, and analytical method to find the stresses and
deformation within the element. [12]

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVES

To create optimised design of rotary drum for mine hoist with


manufacturability and installation feasibleness.
To create light weight drum that optimised ultimately drive
configuration.
Design of drum and supporting stiffeners.
To provide elective optimised structure design.
Boundary conditions calculations.
Static and Dynamic behaviour analysis with most loading conditions.
Validation reports in Ansys.
Manufacturing feasibleness.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER 4
RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES

4.1 Conceptual Design Changes

Figure no. 4.1: - Comparison between Present and Proposed model

4.2 Input: -
Boundary conditions: Max. RPM 20
Maximum Torque : 700 N-m
Material :: Cast Iron/ Carbon Steel
Technology of development: Weldment structure, Welding treatment,
Sheet metal components.
Optimized meshed drum body to be developed outer Dia. 1300 mm.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

4.3 Stages of Work

Design calculations with


structural behaviour loads

Design and 3D modelling

FEM analysis using Ansys

Optimization with material


weight and feasible
manufacturability

Validation with comparing


different variants results

Solution and selection of best


design among all variants and
their respective results

Figure no. 4.2:- Stages of work

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER - 5
DESIGN CALCULATIONS

The shear stresses are induced in the shaft due to transmission of torque i.e.
due to torsion loading.

According to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code for the


design of transmission shaft the maximum permissible shear stress () may be taken
as 30% of the elastic limit (el) in tension (but not more than not more than 18% of
ultimate tensile strength (ut). In other words,

= 0.3 el or 0.18 ut

The shaft is subjected to twisting moment or torsion only, and then the
diameter of the shaft may be obtained by using torsion equation.


= ............ (i)

Where,
T = torque acting on the shaft
j = polar moment of inertia
= torsional shear stress
R= Distance from neutral axis to outermost fibre
= D/2.... Where D is diameter of the shaft

We know that, for solid circular shaft, polar moment inertia (j) is given by,


= 4
32

Maximum permissible shear stress,

= 0.3 el
= 0.3 x 205
= 61.5 MPa

OR

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

= 0.18 ut
= 0.18 x 520
= 93.6 MPa

Since,
el < ut
Hence maximum permissible shear stress is el = 61.5 MPa

For rotating shafts, gradually applied or steady load, combined shock factor (K t)
and fatigue factor (Km) are taken as 1. Torque to be transmitted is T = 700 Nm

Hence, from eq. (i)

700 103 61.5


4 =
/2
32

D = 38.7 mm
Hence, D ~ 40 mm

Also from torsion rigidity equation we have,

584
= ........ (ii)
4

Where,
= angle of twist in degree
T = Torque, N-mm
L = length of shaft, mm
G = Modulus of rigidity, N/mm2 = 70.3 kN/mm2
D = Diameter of shaft, mm

*Let the angle of twist for the shaft 1degree i.e. = 10

Hence,
584 700 103
1=
70.3 103 404
L = 440 mm
L~ 500mm

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

COMPONENTS
1. Rope
2. Hook
3. Drum

ROPE SPECIFICATION

Length of rope: 50000 mm


Nominal breaking load: 133 kN
Weight: 0.86 kg/m
Rope construction: 6 x 26 RRL (Right Regular Lay) rope
Safety factor of rope = (Minimum breaking load) / Load applied
= 133 / 15
= 8.87

DRUM CALCULATIONS

Parameter required

Maximum load =15 kN

Diameter of rope = 14 mm

Length of rope = 50000mm

Calculation

1. Diameter of drum,

Ddrum = (ratio between 20 to 25) x drope


=20 x 14
=280 mm

2. Groove radius,

r = 0.53 x d
= 0.53 x 14mm
= 7.4mm

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

3. Groove diameter,

d = groove radius x 2
= 7.4mm x 2
= 14.8mm

4. Pitch diameter,

p = 2.065 x groove radius


= 2.065 x 7.4mm
= 15.281mm

5. Groove depth

h = 0.374 x d
= 0.374 x 14.8
= 5.5352mm

6. Thickness

tx = P/kp
= 15000 / (210000000 x 0.0148)
= 4.826mm

7. Y= 520 mm
8. L5 = L6 = 20 mm
9. Number of layer = 3
10. Number of groove = 20
11. Drum grooved length,L3

L3 = (n - 1) P = (20 1) 15.281 = 290.24 mm

12. Drum un-grooved length,L1=L2

L1 = L2 = 1/2 diameter of hook + radius of rope

= 47.13 mm

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

13. Safe Factor = 6

Figure no. 5.1: - Different dimensions of Central drum

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

Fig. 5.2: - Drawing of Central Drum

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER - 6
COMPUTER AIDED MODELLING

In engineering practice different individuals have utilized CAD in several ways.


Some utilize it to create drawing and document design. Alternative could employ it as
a visual tool by that includes shaded images and animated displays. Here we've got
performed engineering analysis like finite element analysis on geometric model of
Central drum in Mine hoist. This CAD software package provides like the tools
required to perform our project and with efficiency and free from the tedious and
time overwhelming task, that needed little or no technical expertise any additional.

6.1 SOLIDWORKS 2014

Dassault Systmes SOLIDWORKS Corporation. Offers complete 3D software


package tools that allow you produce, simulate, publish, and manage your
information. SOLIDWORKS merchandise is simple to learn and use and work along to
assist you design products better, faster, and a lot of cost-effectively. The
SOLIDWORKS specialise in ease-of-use permits a lot of engineers, designers and
different technology professionals than ever before to take advantage of 3D in
bringing their designs to life.

SOLIDWORKS is 3D CAD software package that delivers powerful design


practicality with the intuitive SOLIDWORKS user interface to speed your design
method and cause you to instantly productive. Its a strong 3D design solution for fast
creation of components, assemblies, and second drawings.

Applications: - Specific tools for sheet metal, weldments, surfacing, and mold
tool and die make it easy to deliver best-in-class designs.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

6.2 Steps in creating 3D model:

1. New document

Figure no. 6.1:- New SolidWorks Document dialog box

2. Basic Sketch creation


a) Open a new part and choose the Front plane.
b) Click Line (Sketch toolbar), and coincident with the origin, sketch a
horizontal line.
c) Click Smart Dimension (Dimensions/Relations toolbar), and dimension
the line.

Figure no. 6.2: - Basic sketch creation

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

3. Feature creation

Create blocks from single or multiple sketch entities. With blocks, you'll be able
to quickly develop abstract models of mechanisms or linkages. These models
ultimately include many components that pivot, slide, or rotate.

The advantage of modelling mechanisms with layout sketches is that the speed
and adaptability with that designer will experiment with design variations.

Blocks allow you to:

i. Create layout sketches employing a minimum number of dimensions


and relations.
ii. Freeze a subset of entities in a sketch to manipulate them as a single
entity.
iii. Manage complex sketches.
iv. Edit all instances of blocks simultaneously.
v. Create assembly components from layout sketches.

Features and commands:

Figure no. 6.3: -All command dependent on basic sketch

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

Figure no. 6.4: - Feature creation

4. Sheet metal commands:


We create the sheet metal part. Creating a base flange
Adding a miller flange
Mirroring the part and creating new bends
Adding an edge flange and editing its sketch profile
Mirroring a feature
Adding and bending a tab
Adding a cut across a bend
Folding and unfolding bends
Creating a closed corner
Creating a sheet metal drawing
Adding bend line notes

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

Figure no. 6.5: - Model of Central drum

Figure no. 6.6: - Axle Fitting

Figure no. 6.7: - Weldment and Fasteners

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

CHAPTER - 7
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

7.1 What is FEA/FEM?


In the field of engineering design several advanced issues arrive, the
Mathematical Formulation of that is tedious and typically impossible by analytical
ways. At such instants we have a tendency to resort to the utilization of Numerical
techniques. Here lies the importance of FEM that may be a very powerful tool for
obtaining the Numerical solution of a good range of engineering issues. The
fundamental idea is that a body or structure could also be divided into smaller
elements of finite dimensions known as Finite Elements. The initial body or
structure is then considered as an assemblage of those elements connected at a finite
number of joints known as Nodes or Nodal Points. The properties of the
elements are developed and combined to acquire the properties of the whole body.

The equations of equilibrium for the whole structure or body are then
obtained by combining the equilibrium equation of every element specified the
continuity is ensured at each node. The required boundary conditions are then
imposed and therefore the equations of equilibrium are the solved to get the desired
variables like Stress, Strain, Temperature Distribution or velocity Flow depending on
the application.

Thus rather than solving the problem for the whole structure or body in one
operation, in the method attention is principally dedicated to the formulation of
properties of the constituent elements. A standard procedure is adopted for
combining the elements, solution of equations and analysis of the desired variables in
all fields. So the standard structure of the method is well exploited in numerous
disciplines of Engineering.

Finite element method is that the micro mechanical analysis that is currently
days used as a strong and an efficient tool for understanding the stress strain

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behaviour of the structure. The fundamental idea within the Finite element method is
to seek out the solution of difficult problem substitution it by the number of smaller
regions. Thus, the solution of every region is taken into account as designed from
several small interconnected sub regions known as Finite elements.

Finite element method provides the results of the stresses induced among the
structure. Really Finite element analysis could be a digital equivalent to continuous
mechanics. It will be applied to several kinds of field issues like heat transfer,
electronic distribution, fluid flow etc. the elements have a finite numbers of
unknowns, thence the name finite element and therefore the analysis of those finite
unknowns known as finite element analysis.

7.2 APPLICATIONS OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

With the arrival of computer aided design (CAD), the Finite element method
has been finding wide range of applications. Some typical applications of FEM are
listed below.

PLANE STRESS PROBLEMS:


In steel pressure vessel and aircraft structures, openings need to be
introduced. This leads to stress concentrations of a localized region. The stress
analysis will be applied by merely discretizing the surface close to the edge of the
hole by very thin triangular element.

AXI-SYMMETRIC PROBLEMS:

a) Application Related To Shell:


A shell could be a structure which may be derived from a thin plate by initially
forming the center plane to a individually curved surface. In Finite element method,
it's assumed that the behaviour of a continuously curved surface will be adequately
depicted by the behaviour of a surface engineered of small, flat elements. In a shell,
the elements are subject both to bending and in-plane stresses.

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One common example of shell is cooling tower. The tower is subjected to


unsymmetrical wind loading. The tower is split into small triangular elements for
completing stress analysis.

b) Belleville Spring:
The Belleville Spring, additionally known as Belleville Washer, could be a
conical disk spring. The load is applied on the boundary of the circle and supported at
the bottom; as load is applied within the axial direction, the supporting edge moves
out. Only the rectangular cross-sectional area must be modelled. Load-deflection
characteristics and stress distribution may be obtained by dividing the area into
elements and employing a computer program. Within the Belleville spring, the load-
deflection curve is non-linear. The stiffness depends on geometry. We are able to find
a decent approximate solution by an incremental approach.

APPLICATIONS RELATED TO FLUID FLOW:

a) Aircraft Wing:
FEM may be used to find the lift and drag forces on an aircraft wing within the
design stages itself. Given a cross-sectional of an aerofoil and its relative speed with
relation to air, we are able to find the pressure distribution of air round the aerofoil.
Basic idea here is to discretize the region round the aerofoil, so we are able to
calculate the lift and drag forces on that. The method may also be used to find the
optimum cross-section of the aerofoil for a specific speed.

b) Aerodynamics of a Vehicle:
FEM will be used to compare the aerodynamics of varied proposed vehicle
shapes. Its used to calculate the air resistance acting on a specific vehicle shape.
Here we tend to discretize region encompassing the vehicle boundary. So we will use
FEM to induce a sleek body for a vehicle.

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APPLICATIONS RELATED TO HEAT TRANSFER:


FEM is a very powerful method for Heat Transfer analysis within the design
stages.
a) Engine Piston:
To find out numerous parameters like area required for heat transfer, cooling
fluid flow, material choice, etc. temperature distribution in a piston should be initially
detected. Using FEM the temperature distribution throughout the piston will be
detected.

b) Fins:
Fin is an extended surface of a structure used to increase the speed of heat
Transfer. As an example, fins are used as extension of cylinder head for heat
dissipation in engine. Geometry and arrangement of fins is complicated. FEM may be
used to find Temperature Distribution and heat Transfer within the fins.

7.3 BASIC STEPS IN F.E.M.

Basically there are six steps in F.E.M. which are as follows.

i. Discretization (mesh generation)


ii. Selecting the displacement function
iii. Develop the element matrices and equations
iv. Assemble element matrices
v. To find the unknowns
vi. Interpretation of the results.

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NEED OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

There is variety of needs of finite element method. However we are


considering some basic needs.
i) To reduce the amount of prototype testing.

ii) To simulate design that is not suitable for prototype testing.

iii) The bottom line

iv) Cost saving.

v) Time saving.

ELEMENT PROPERTIES:

The discretization of the structure or body into Finite elements forms the
fundamental initiative within the analysis of a complicated structural system.

Rules for Discretization of the Structure into Elements:

i. Sub-division of a body or structure into Finite elements ought to satisfy the


following requirements.

ii. Two distinct elements will have common points solely on their common
boundaries if such boundaries exist. No overlapping is allowed. Common boundaries
may be points, lines or surfaces.

iii. The assembled element ought to leave no holes inside the 2 elements and
approximate the geometry of the real body or structure as closely as possible to do.

iv. Once the boundary of a structure or body cannot be exactly represented by


the elements selected, an error cannot be avoided. Such error is named Geometric
Discretization Error and it may be decreased by reducing the scale of the elements or
by using elements permitting boundaries to become curved.

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7.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS USING ANSYS 14.5 (Workbench)

ANSYS

ANSYS is developed by ANSYS, Inc. Developer of ANSYS family of products


Headquartered in Canonsburg, PA - USA (south of Pittsburgh). We tend to use this
analysis software package for structural static analysis and modal analysis of central
drum in mine hoist.

ANSYS may be a complete FEA software package utilized by engineers


worldwide in nearly all fields of engineering; that are Structural, Thermal and Fluid as
well as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), Electrical / electrostatics,
electromagnetic. The partial list of industries during which ANSYS is employed is
aerospace, Automotive, Biomedical, Bridges & Buildings etc.

Validation CAE

a) Toolbox

Figure no. 7.1: - Selecting desired analysis type by drag and drop on screen.

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b) Project Schematic:

Figure no. 7.2: - Project Schematic


c) Meshing

The element used for meshing is 20 noded solid 95


SOLID95 Element Description
i.SOLID95 may be a higher order version of the 3-D 8-node solid element
SOLID45. It will tolerate irregular shapes while not as much loss of accuracy. SOLID95
elements have compatible displacement shapes and are well suited to model curved
boundaries.

ii.The element is defined by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom per node:
translations within the nodal x, y, and z directions. The element might have any
spatial orientation. SOLID95 has plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection,
and large strain capabilities.

Figure no. 7.3: - 20 noded SOLID95 Element

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SOLID95 Assumptions and Restrictions

a. The element should not have a zero volume.

b. The element might not be twisted such the element has two separate
volumes. This happens most often when the element isn't numbered properly.

c. Elements are also numbered either as shown in Figure 14: "SOLID95


Geometry" or might have the planes IJKL and MNOP interchanged.

An edge with a removed mid-side node implies that the displacement varies
linearly, instead of parabolically, along that edge. Degeneration to the form of
pyramid should be used with caution. The element sizes, once degenerated, should
be small so as to reduce the stress gradients. Pyramid elements are best used as filler
elements or in meshing transition zones.

Figure no. 7.4: - Meshed model and details of meshing

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Figure no. 7.5: - Boundary conditions

Figure no. 7.6: - Strain behaviour

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Figure no. 7.7: - Stress region view

Modal analysis: -

Modal analysis is that the study of the dynamic properties of structures under
vibration excitation. Modal analysis is that the field of measurement and analysing
the dynamic response of structures and or fluids throughout excitation.

In structural engineering, modal analysis uses the overall mass and stiffness of
a structure to find the various periods at that it'll naturally resonate. These periods of
vibration are important to note in earthquake engineering, because it is imperative
that a building's natural frequency doesn't match the frequency of expected
earthquakes within the region within which the building is to be constructed. If a
structure's natural frequency matches an earthquake's frequency, the structure
might continue to resonate and experience structural damage.

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Figure no. 7.8: - Details of Modal (CS) and Total Deformation

Figure no. 7.9: - Modal analysis

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Figure no. 7.10: - Results on frequency 90.875 Hz

Figure no. 7.11: - Range of frequency

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CHAPTER - 8
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
In this project design of Central drum in mine hoist is carried out to make it
feasible to manufacture and installation.
Central drum is modeled with dimensions in the SOLIDWORKS software.
Modal and Static structural Analysis of central drum in mine hoist was
performed on Ansys software and the deformation and stresses were found.
A static structural analysis determines the displacements, stresses, strains, and
forces in structures or components caused by loads that do not induce significant
inertia and damping effects. Steady loading and response conditions are assumed;
that is, the loads and the structure's response are assumed to vary slowly with
respect to time.
A modal analysis determines the vibration characteristics (natural frequencies
and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine component. The natural frequencies
and mode shapes are important parameters in the design of a structure for
dynamic loading conditions.
Parameters By Calculations By Ansys
Strain 7.50 e-5 mm/mm
Max. shear stress 61.5 mpa 14.813 mpa
Modal output
Max. 127.45 Hz frequency - deflection found 4 mm approx.

Values governed are safer in working condition since the maximum stress we
got is under yield strength.
Also 90.8 to 127.45 Hz frequency modes in 6 states were maximum output for
deflection is also considerable.
Since side disc type structure is replaced with casting stiffening links patterned
circularly in round drum to form complete hollow drum, which makes central
drum light in weight and feasible for manufacturing and installation.

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CHAPTER - 9
CONCLUSION
In this project, we carried out the design and optimization of Central Drum in
Mine Hoist. As we see the central drum in mine hoist is large and heavy for
manufacturing and installation and to rotate full body with loads. The study gives the
new design which reduces the weight of central drum. The design of side disc type
structure is replaced with casting stiffening links patterned circularly in round drum
to form complete hollow drum, which makes the central drum little light in weight
without affecting its strength. It has been seen that the working behaviour of this
structure is very safe and weldment with S355 can be used here, if no need of SS
corrosive material, for cost saving it can be implemented like material change and
flanges stock size thickness can be optimised again. Loading condition is put by
considering maximum loads. Drum behaviour is analysed in ansys tool in variations of
degree of rotation from 0 to 360 degree. By reducing the weight of central drum, we
made the central drum easy to manufacture and installation.

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CHAPTER - 10
FUTURE SCOPE

Work study will be applicable for all types of gable design long cylindrical type
shapes and squeezing processes.

This work can be converted into thresher drum type design after making sheet
metal work it can be observed that big press machines bending work on sheets and
buckling risk of body can be avoided if we accept thresher design.

Figure no. 10.1: - Thresher drum

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REFERENCES
[1] WANG Jiu-feng, XU Gui-yun, ZHU Jia-zhou, YANG Yan-chu, "Parametric
Design and Finite Element Analysis of Main Shaft of Hoister Based on Pro/E",
(China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008,China.
[2] LUO Jiman, XING Yan, LIU Dajiang and YUAN Ye, "Modal Analysis of Mast of
Builders Hoist Based on ANSYS", (School of Traffic and Mechanical Engineering,
Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang China, 110168; 2. SIASUN Robot and
Automation Co., Ltd., Shenyang China, 110016; 3. JIHUA 3523 Special Equipment
Co., Ltd., Shenyang China, 110026).
[3] Yang Yuanfan, "The Study on Mechanical Reliability Design Method and Its
Application", International Conference on Future Electrical Power and Energy
Systems, Energy Procedia 17 (2012) 467 472.
[4] J.J. Taljaard and J.D. Stephenson, "State-of-art shaft system as applied to
Palaborwa underground mining project", The South African Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy, 2000. SA ISSN 0038223X/3.00 + 0.00. First presented at the SAIMM
conference Mine Hoisting 2000, Sept. 2000.
[5] Shuang Chen and Shen Guo, "Stress Analysis of the Mine Hoist Spindle Based
on ANSYS", Information and Computing (ICIC), Fourth International Conference,
2011.
[6] HuYong and HuJiQuan, "Mechanical Analysis and Experimental Research of
Parallel Grooved Drum Multi-layer Winding System", Wuhan University of
Technology, 2013.
[7] Indian Standard for Design of Rope drum and Chain Hoists for Hydraulic
gates Code of Practice, IS 6938:2005.
[8] Shyam Lal Sharma, Tasmeem Ahmad Khan, Md. Parvez and Kamlesh Kumari,
Computer Aided Analysis And Design Of hoisting Mechanism Of An EOT Crane,
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, Vol. 3 July
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[9] Prof. Sham Tickoo, "Solidworks 2014 for Engineers and Designers",
Dreamtech Press, Reprint Edition, 2014.
[10] Ibrahim Zeid and R Sivasubramanian, "CAD/CAM Theory and Practice ",
McGraw-Hill Book Company, First edition, 2007.
[11] Zeinkiewiczs O.C, Taylor R.L. The Finite Element Method, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, 1989.
[12] Chandrupatla T.R., "Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering", Prentice
Hall, third edition (2001).
[13] Ge Shirong., The Reliability Technology of Mine hoists [M].Xuzhou: China
University of Mining & Technology Press, 1994.

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Design and Optimisation with Structural Behaviour Analysis of Central Drum in Mine Hoist

[14] W. F. Brown and B. P. Ricci, Recent Applications of High Tonnage


Hoisting, Proceedings of American Mining Congress International Mining
Show, Las Vegas, Nevada (Oct. 14, 1982).
[15] Sun Wei, Gao Lianhua, Yao Xinmin et al., The Research on Reliability Design
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2007 (8) 14-17.
[16] Xiang Yizhou, Chen Ge, Ding Liyu, The Reliability Design and Trial of Machine
Product, Journal of Southwest China Normal University, 2008 (1) 330-333.
[17] G. D. Beerkircher, How to Select a Mine Hoist to Fit Your Needs,
Engineering and Mining Journal (Sept. 1977).
[18] RajendraParmanik, Design Of Hoisting Arrangement Of E.O.T. Crane,
Posted on July 26, 2008 by http://rparmanik.wordpress.com/about-me-
rajendra-parmanik/
[19] ASME Standard B30.9, Slings Safety Standard for Ca-bleways, Cranes,
Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks and Slings, 2006.
[20] P. Seshu, Textbook of Finite Element Analysis, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New
Delhi, 2004.
[21] H. A. Rothbart, Mechanical Design Handbook: Measurement, Analysis, and
Control of Dynamic Systems, McGraw-Hill, Columbus, 2006.

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ANNEXURE I
Industrial Certificate

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ANNEXURE II
Progress work Schedule

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PUBLICATIONS & CERTIFICATES

Research Paper - 1
International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science (IJERGS)
Vol. 4 Issue 2, March April, 2016

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Research Paper - 2
International Journal of Engineering Research (IJOER)
Vol. 4, Issue 3, May June, 2016

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Research Paper - 3
International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering
Technology (IJRASET)
Vol. 4 Issue VI, June 2016

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