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A. Pulmonary function tests

Pulmonary function tests are a broad range of tests that measure how well the
lungs take in and exhale air and how efficiently they transfer oxygen into the
blood. Lung volume measurement detects restrictive lung diseases. In this set of
diseases, a person cannot inhale a normal volume of air. Restrictive lung
diseases may be caused by inflammation or scarring of the lung tissue (interstitial
lung disease) or by abnormalities of the muscles or skeleton of the chest wall
(MetroHealth, 2017).

Actual Predicted % Predicted

FEV1 1.5L 2.9L 51%
FVC 1.7L 3.9L 43%
FEV1/FVC 29%

B. Arterial blood gas

An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of
oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to check
how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon
dioxide from the blood (Cowie, 2015).

pH 7.38
PaO2 55 mmHg
PaCO2 58 mmHg
HCO3 31 mEq/L
SaO2 93%
Mode Simple Face Mask
Oxygen 6 liters per minute

C. Complete blood count (CBC)

is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and detect a wide range of
disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia. A complete blood count test
measures several components and features of your blood, including: Red blood
cells, which carry oxygen (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2017).

Leukocyte 12,500/mm3
Neutrophils 58%
Bands 7%
Lymphocytes 28%
Monocytes 6%
Eosinophils 1%
Hemoglobin 19.8 g/dL
Hematocrit 60%
Platelet 320,000/mm3

D. Chest x-ray

uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the
chest. It is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to help
diagnose shortness of breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It also may
be used to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as
pneumonia, emphysema and cancer (Radiological Society of north America, 2016).

E. Chest CT scan

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest uses special x-ray equipment to examine
abnormalities found in other imaging tests and to help diagnose the cause of
unexplained cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, or fever. CT scanning is fast,
painless, noninvasive and accurate. Because it is able to detect very small nodules in
the lung, chest CT is especially effective for diagnosing lung cancer at its earliest, most
curable stage (Radiological Society of north America, 2016).