Anda di halaman 1dari 55

Piri Reis University

Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering


SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

2. Air Conditioning System

Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and
humidity) to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the
conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a vehicle to improve thermal
comfort and indoor air quality. In common use, an air conditioner is a device that removes
heat from the air inside a building or vehicle, thus lowering the air temperature. The cooling
is typically achieved through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling
is used. Air conditioning systems can also be made based on desiccants. In the most
general sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the
condition of air (heating, cooling, (de-)humidification, cleaning, ventilation, or air movement).
However, in construction, such a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air
conditioning is referred to as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC as opposed
to AC).
Comfort conditions
The Cool Ceiling technology with has been refined and successfully utilized in Europe for
over 15 years. The principle is to create a cool or warm ceiling surface in order to condition
a room by the most natural way: Radiation. In buildings of office space, executive floors,
architecture cabinets and all offices where people remain seated most of the time, the
degree of comfort to be achieved is critical and directly linked to the people productivity.
Studies have proven that working in a quiet and comfortable atmosphere without draft
increase the productivity of the people up to 50% and even more if we compare to simpler
systems, enhance the creativity and the imagination. With the conventional systems in
summer, blast of cold air will cool down the human body and the room walls with high air
volumes displacements. In our case, the cold ceiling surface will directly cool down the
different heat sources in the room by radiations. A small ventilation is foreseen in addition to
bring the necessary fresh air for hygienic and dehumidification purpose. As a result, human
body heat is naturally dissipated, no big air volumes are involved, no draft, lesser risk of
disease, comfort in enhanced and so, productivity is improved. In addition to the comfort

1
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

improvements, the Cool Ceiling has a deep impact on energy savings and floor-to-floor
height reduction in terms of building construction. Consequently, the solution is the most
economical in terms of investment costs.
Principle
Water circulates in thin capillary tubes, or copper pipes, which are installed in the room
ceiling. Those Mats create a cool or warm surface and so, condition the air using a natural
principle: radiation (cooling emission about 80 W/m2, heating emission about 90 W/m2).
Advantages
Thermal comfort enhancement: Comfort levels are better than those of other A/C
systems because radiant loads are treated directly and air motion in the space is at low
ventilation levels.
Noise reduction: The air volumes requirements do not exceed those required for
ventilation and dehumidification. So the noise created by the fans is reduced
accordingly.
Space savings: In existing buildings, where ceiling heights and plenum space are
important issues, the Cool Ceiling allows space between the false ceiling and the floor
slab to be minimized, and ceiling heights to be raised to the architects pleasure levels.
When used in new constructions, the building owners can save investment costs by
decreasing the overall height of the building, or adding about one floor for every 6 floors
when compared to conventional constructions.
Energy savings: In conventional A/C systems, as a quick energy analysis, we can
already emphasize that we need to blow big air volume at 14 C to cool down a room with
air only. To produce air at 14 C, we need water at 7 C. So, with an outside air at 35 C,
the temperature difference between the outside air and the cold water is 28 C.
Heat pump and refrigeration cycle
Thermodynamic heat pump cycles or refrigeration cycles are the conceptual and
mathematical models for heat pumps and refrigerators. A heat pump is a machine or device
that moves heat from one location (the 'source') at a lower temperature to another location
(the 'sink' or 'heat sink') at a higher temperature using mechanical work or a high

2
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

temperature heat source. Thus a heat pump may be thought of as a "heater" if the objective
is to warm the heat sink (as when warming the inside of a home on a cold day), or a
"refrigerator" if the objective is to cool the heat source (as in the normal operation of a
freezer). In either case, the operating principles are identical. Heat is moved from a cold
place to a warm place
Thermodynamic cycles
According to the second law of thermodynamics heat cannot spontaneously flow from a
colder location to a hotter area; work is required to achieve this. An air conditioner requires
work to cool a living space, moving heat from the cooler interior (the heat source) to the
warmer outdoors (the heat sink). Similarly, a refrigerator moves heat from inside the cold
icebox (the heat source) to the warmer room-temperature air of the kitchen (the heat sink).
The operating principle of the refrigeration cycle was described mathematically by Sadi
Carnot in 1824 as a heat engine. A heat pump can be thought of as heat engine which is
operating in reverse.
Vapor-compression cycle
The vapor-compression cycle is used in most
household refrigerators as well as in many
large commercial and industrial refrigeration
systems. Figure 1 provides a schematic
diagram of the components of a typical
vapor-compression refrigeration system.
The thermodynamics of the cycle can be
analysed on a diagram as shown in Figure. In
this cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as
Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and
exits the compressor superheated. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser
which first cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by
removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. The liquid refrigerant goes
through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly

3
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

decreases, causing flash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of
the liquid.

Figure: TemperatureEntropy diagram of the vapor-compression cycle.

That results in a mixture of liquid and vapor at a lower temperature and pressure. The cold
liquid-vapor mixture then travels through the evaporator coil or tubes and is completely
vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being refrigerated) being blown by a fan
across the evaporator coil or tubes. The resulting refrigerant vapor returns to the
compressor inlet to complete the thermodynamic cycle. The discussion is based on the
ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, and does not take into account real-world
effects like frictional pressure drop in the system, slight thermodynamic irreversibility during
the compression of the refrigerant vapor, or non-ideal gas behavior (if any).
Vapor absorption cycle
In the early years of the twentieth century, the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia
systems was popular and widely used but, after the development of the vapor compression

4
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

cycle, it lost much of its importance because of its low coefficient of performance (about one
fifth of that of the vapor compression cycle). Nowadays, the vapor absorption cycle is used
only where heat is more readily available than electricity, such as waste heat provided by
solar collectors, or off-the-grid refrigeration in recreational vehicles.
The absorption cycle is similar to the compression cycle, except for the method of raising
the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. In the absorption system, the compressor is replaced
by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liquid, a liquid pump which
raises the pressure and a generator which, on heat addition, drives off the refrigerant vapor
from the high-pressure liquid. Some work is required by the liquid pump but, for a given
quantity of refrigerant, it is much smaller than needed by the compressor in the vapor
compression cycle. In an absorption refrigerator, a suitable combination of refrigerant and
absorbent is used. The most common combinations are ammonia (refrigerant) and water
(absorbent), and water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide (absorbent).
Comparison with combined heat and power (CHP)
A heat pump may be compared with a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, in that for a
condensing steam plant, as it switches to produce heat, then electrical power is lost or
becomes unavailable, just as the power used in a heat pump becomes unavailable.
Typically for every unit of power lost, then about 6 units of heat are made available at about
90 C. Thus CHP has an effective coefficient of performance (COP) compared to a heat
pump of 6. It is noteworthy that the unit for the CHP is lost at the high voltage network and
therefore incurs no losses, whereas the heat pump unit is lost at the low voltage part of the
network and incurs on average a 6% loss. Because the losses are proportional to the
square of the current, during peak periods losses are much higher than this and it is likely
that widespread i.e. city wide application of heat pumps would cause overloading of the
distribution and transmission grids unless they are substantially reinforced.
Reversed Carnot cycle
Since the Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle, the four processes that comprise it, two
isothermal and two isentropic process, can all be reversed as well. When this happens, it is
called a reversed Carnot cycle. A refrigerator or heat pump that acts on the reversed Carnot

5
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

cycle is called a Carnot refrigerator and Carnot heat pump respectively. In the first stage of
this cycle (process 1-2), the refrigerant absorbs heat isothermally from a low-temperature
source, TL, in the amount QL. Next, the refrigerant is isentropically compressed (process
2-3) and the temperature rises to the high-temperature source, TH. Then at this high
temperature, the refrigerant rejects heat isothermally in the amount Q H (process 3-4). Also
during this stage, the refrigerant changes from a saturated vapor to a saturated liquid in the
condenser. Lastly, the refrigerant expands isentropically where the temperature drops back
to the low-temperature source, TL (process 4-1).
Coefficient of performance
The efficiency of a refrigerator or heat pump is given by a parameter called the coefficient of
performance (COP).
The COP of a refrigerator is given by the following equation:
Desired Output Cooling Effect QL
COP = ----------------------- = ---------------------- = ------------
Required Input Work Input W net, in

The COP of a heat pump is given by the following equation:


Desired Output Heating Effect QH
COP = --------------------- = ------------------------ = ------------
Required Input Work Input W net, in

Both the COP of a refrigerator and a heat pump can be greater than one. Combining these
two equations results in:
COPHP = COPR + 1
for fixed values of QH and QL
This implies that COPHP will be greater than one because COPR will be a positive quantity.
In a worst-case scenario, the heat pump will supply as much energy as it consumes, making
it act as a resistance heater. However, in reality, as in home heating, some of Q H is lost to
the outside air through piping, insulation, etc., thus making the COP HP drop below unity
when the outside air temperature is too low. Therefore, the system used to heat houses
uses fuel.

6
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

For an ideal refrigeration cycle:


TL
COP = -----------
(TH-TL)

For an ideal heat pump cycle:


TH
COP = -----------
(TH-TL)

For Carnot refrigerators and heat pumps, COP is expressed in terms of temperatures:
1
COPR, Carnot = -----------------
(TH/TL) - 1

1
COPHP, Carnot = ---------------
1 - (TL/TH)

Psychometrics
Psychometrics or psychometry or hygrometry are terms used to describe the field of
engineering concerned with the determination of physical and thermodynamic properties of
gas-vapor mixtures.
Common applications
Although the principles of psychometry apply to any physical system consisting of gas-vapor
mixtures, the most common system of interest is the mixture of water vapor and air,
because of its application in heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning and meteorology. In
human terms, our thermal comfort is in large part a consequence of not just the temperature
of the surrounding air, but (because we cool ourselves via perspiration) the extent to which
that air is saturated with water vapor.
Many substances are hygroscopic, meaning they attract water, usually in proportion to the
relative humidity or above a critical relative humidity. Such substances include cotton,
paper, cellulose, other wood products, sugar, calcium oxide (burned lime) and many

7
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

chemicals and fertilizers. Industries that use these materials are concerned with relative
humidity control in production and storage of such materials.
In industrial drying applications, such as drying paper, manufacturers usually try to achieve
an optimum between low relative humidity, which increases the drying rate, and energy
usage, which decreases as exhaust relative humidity increases. In many industrial
applications it is important to avoid condensation that would ruin product or cause corrosion.
Molds and fungi can be controlled by keeping relative humidity low. Wood destroying fungi
generally do not grow at relative humidifies below 75%.
Psychrometric properties
Dry-bulb temperature (DBT)
The dry-bulb temperature is the temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air
in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. The term dry-bulb is customarily added to
temperature to distinguish it from wet-bulb and dew-point temperature. In meteorology and
psychometrics, the word temperature by itself without a prefix usually means dry-bulb
temperature. Technically, the temperature registered by the dry-bulb thermometer of a
psychrometric. The name implies that the sensing bulb or element is in fact dry. WMO
provides a 23-page chapter on the measurement of temperature.
Wet-bulb temperature (WBT)
The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is a thermodynamic property of a mixture of air
and water vapor. The value indicated by a wet-bulb thermometer often provides an
adequate approximation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature.
The accuracy of a simple wet-bulb thermometer depends on how fast air passes over the
bulb and how well the thermometer is shielded from the radiant temperature of its
surroundings. Speeds up to 5,000 ft/min (~60 mph) are best but it may be dangerous to
move a thermometer at that speed. Errors up to 15% can occur if the air movement is too
slow or if there is too much radiant heat present (from sunlight, for example).
A wet bulb temperature taken with air moving at about 12 m/s is referred to as a screen
temperature, whereas a temperature taken with air moving about 3.5 m/s or more is referred
to as sling temperature.

8
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

A psychometry is a device that includes both a dry-bulb and a wet-bulb thermometer. A


sling psychrometer requires manual operation to create the airflow over the bulbs, but a
powered psychrometer includes a fan for this function. Knowing both the dry-bulb
temperature (DBT) and wet-bulb temperature (WBT), one can determine the relative
humidity (RH) from the psychrometric chart appropriate to the air pressure.
Relative humidity
The ratio of the vapor pressure of moisture in the sample to the saturation pressure at the
dry bulb temperature of the sample.
Dew point temperature
The saturation temperature of the moisture present in the sample of air, it can also be
defined as the temperature at which the vapour changes into liquid (condensation). Usually
the level at which water vapor changes into liquid marks the base of the cloud in the
atmosphere hence called condensation level. So the temperature value that allows this
process (condensation) to take place is called the 'dew point temperature'. A simplified
definition is the temperature at which the water vapour turns into "dew".
Humidity
Specific Humidity
Specific humidity is defined as the proportion of the mass of water vapor per unit mass of
the moist air sample (dry air plus the water vapor); it is closely related to humidity ratio and
always lower in value.
Absolute humidity
The mass of water vapor per unit volume of air containing the water vapor. This quantity is
also known as the water vapor density.
Specific enthalpy
Analogous to the specific enthalpy of a pure substance. In psychometrics, the term
quantifies the total energy of both the dry air and water vapour per kilogram of dry air.
Specific volume
Analogous to the specific volume of a pure substance. In psychometrics, the term quantifies
the total volume of both the dry air and water vapour per kilogram of dry air.

9
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Psychrometric ratio
The psychrometric ratio is the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient to the product of mass
transfer coefficient and humid heat at a wetted surface. It may be evaluated with the
following equation:

where:
= Psychrometric ratio, dimensionless
= convective heat transfer coefficient, W m2 K1

= convective mass transfer coefficient, kg m2 s1


= humid heat, J kg1 K1
The psychrometric ratio is an important property in the area of psychometrics, as it relates
the absolute humidity and saturation humidity to the difference between the dry bulb
temperature and the adiabatic saturation temperature.
Mixtures of air and water vapor are the most common systems encountered in psychometry.
The psychrometric ratio of air-water vapor mixtures is approximately unity, which implies
that the difference between the adiabatic saturation temperature and wet bulb temperature
of air-water vapor mixtures is small. This property of air-water vapor systems simplifies
drying and cooling calculations often performed using psychrometric relationships.
Humid heat
Humid heat is the constant-pressure specific heat of moist air, per unit mass of the dry air.
Pressure
Many psychrometric properties are dependent on pressure concept:
Vapor pressure of water;
Atmospheric pressure at the location of the sample.

10
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Psychrometric charts

Figure: A psychrometric chart for sea-level elevation

How to read the chart: fundamental examples


Psychrometric charts are available in SI (metric) and IP (U.S./Imperial) units. They are also
available in low and high temperature ranges and for different pressures.
Determining relative humidity: The percent relative humidity can be located at the
intersection of the vertical dry bulb and diagonally down sloping wet bulb temperature lines.
Metric (SI): Using a dry bulb of 25 C and a wet bulb of 20 C, read the relative humidity at
approximately 63.5%. U.S/Imperial (IP): Using a dry bulb of 77 F and a wet bulb of 68 F,
read the relative humidity at approximately 63.5%. In this example the humidity ratio is
0.0126 kg water per kg dry air.
11
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Determining the effect of temperature change on relative humidity: For air of a fixed water
composition or moisture ratio, find the starting relative humidity from the intersection of the
wet and dry bulb temperature lines. Using the conditions from the previous example, the
relative humidity at a different dry bulb temperature can be found along the horizontal
humidity ratio line of 0.0126, either in kg water per kg dry air or pounds water per pound dry
air.
A common variation of this problem is determining the final humidity of air leaving an air
conditioner evaporator coil then heated to a higher temperature. Assume that the
temperature leaving the coil is 10C (50F) and is heated to room temperature (not mixed
with room air), which is found by following the horizontal humidity ratio from the dew point or
saturation line to the room dry bulb temperature line and reading the relative humidity. In
typical practice the conditioned air is mixed with room air that is being infiltrated with outside
air.
Determining the amount of water to be removed or added in lowering or raising relative
humidity: This is the difference in humidity ratio between the initial and final conditions times
the weight of dry air.
Terminology
A psychrometric chart is a graph of the thermodynamic parameters of moist air at a constant
pressure, often equated to an elevation relative to sea level. The ASHRAE-style
psychrometric chart, shown here, was pioneered by Willis Carrier in 1904. It depicts these
parameters and is thus a graphical equation of state. The parameters are:
Dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is that of an air sample, as determined by an ordinary
thermometer. It is typically plotted as the abscissa (horizontal axis) of the graph. The SI
units for temperature are Kelvins or degrees Celsius; other units are degrees Fahrenheit
and degrees Rankine.
Wet-bulb temperature (WBT) is that of an air sample after it has passed through a
constant-pressure, ideal, adiabatic saturation process, that is, after the air has passed over
a large surface of liquid water in an insulated channel. In practice this is the reading of a
thermometer whose sensing bulb is covered with a wet sock evaporating into a rapid stream

12
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

of the sample air (Hygrometer). When the air sample is saturated with water, the WBT will
read the same as the DBT. The slope of the line of constant WBT reflects the heat of
vaporization of the water required to saturate the air of a given relative humidity.
Dew point temperature (DPT) is the temperature at which a moist air sample at the same
pressure would reach water vapor "saturation." At this point further removal of heat would
result in water vapor condensing into liquid water fog or, if below freezing point, solid
hoarfrost. The dew point temperature is measured easily and provides useful information,
but is normally not considered an independent property of the air sample as it duplicates
information available via other humidity properties and the saturation curve.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor to the mole fraction
of saturated moist air at the same temperature and pressure. RH is dimensionless, and is
usually expressed as a percentage. Lines of constant RH reflect the physics of air and
water: they are determined via experimental measurement. The concept that air "holds"
moisture, or that moisture "dissolves" in dry air and saturates the solution at some
proportion, is erroneous (albeit widespread); see relative humidity for further details.
Humidity ratio is the proportion of mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air at the given
conditions (DBT, WBT, DPT, RH, etc.). It is also known as the moisture content or mixing
ratio. It is typically plotted as the ordinate (vertical axis) of the graph. For a given DBT there
will be a particular humidity ratio for which the air sample is at 100% relative humidity: the
relationship reflects the physics of water and air and must be determined by measurement.
The dimensionless humidity ratio is typically expressed as grams of water per kilogram of
dry air, or grains of water per pound of air (7000 grains equal 1 pound).
Specific enthalpy, symbolized by h, is the sum of the internal (heat) energy of the moist air
in question, including the heat of the air and water vapor within. Also called heat content per
unit mass. In the approximation of ideal gases, lines of constant enthalpy are parallel to
lines of constant WBT. Enthalpy is given in (SI) joules per kilogram of air, or BTU per pound
of dry air.
Specific volume is the volume of the mixture (dry air plus the water vapor) containing one
unit of mass of "dry air". The SI units are cubic meters per kilogram of dry air; other units are

13
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

cubic feet per pound of dry air. The inverse of specific volume is usually confused as the
density of the mixture (see "Applying the Psychrometric Relationships" CIBSE, August
2009). However, to obtain the actual mixture density one must multiply the inverse of the
specific volume by unity plus the humidity ratio value at the point of interest.
The psychrometric chart allows all the parameters of some moist air to be determined from
any three independent parameters, one of which must be the pressure. Changes in state,
such as when two air streams mix, can be modeled easily and somewhat graphically using
the correct psychrometric chart for the location's air pressure or elevation relative to sea
level. For locations at not more than 2000 ft (600 m) of altitude it is common practice to use
the sea-level psychrometric chart.
In the -t chart, the dry bulb temperature (t) appears as the abscissa (horizontal axis) and
the humidity ratio () appear as the ordinate (vertical axis). A chart is valid for a given air
pressure (or elevation above sea level). From any two independent ones of the six
parameters:
dry bulb temperature,
wet bulb temperature,
relative humidity,
humidity ratio,
specific enthalpy, and
specific volume,
all the others can be determined. There are possible combinations of independent and
derived parameters.
Locating parameters on chart
Dry bulb temperature: These lines are drawn straight, not always parallel to each other,
and slightly inclined from the vertical position. This is the taxis, the abscissa (horizontal)
axis. Each line represents a constant temperature.
Dew point temperature: From the state point follow the horizontal line of constant humidity
ratio to the intercept of 100% RH, also known as the saturation curve. The dew point
temperature is equal to the fully saturated dry bulb or wet bulb temperatures.

14
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Wet bulb temperature: These lines are oblique lines that differ slightly from the enthalpy
lines. They are identically straight but are not exactly parallel to each other. These intersect
the saturation curve at DBT point.
Relative humidity: These hyperbolic lines are shown in intervals of 10%. The saturation
curve is at 100% RH, while dry air is at 0% RH.
Humidity ratio: These are the horizontal lines on the chart. Humidity ratio is usually
expressed as mass of moisture per mass of dry air (pounds or kilograms of moisture per
pound or kilogram of dry air, respectively). The range is from 0 for dry air up to 0.03
(lbmw/lbma) on the right hand -axis, the ordinate or vertical axis of the chart.
Specific enthalpy: These are oblique lines drawn diagonally downward from left to right
across the chart that are parallel to each other. These are not parallel to wet bulb
temperature lines.
Specific volume: These are a family of equally spaced straight lines that are nearly parallel.
The region above the saturation curve is a two-phase region that represents a mixture of
saturated moist air and liquid water, in thermal equilibrium.
The protractor on the upper left of the chart has two scales. The inner scale represents
sensible-total heat ratio (SHF). The outer scale gives the ratio of enthalpy difference to
humidity difference. This is used to establish the slope of a condition line between two
processes. The horizontal component of the condition line is the change in sensible heat
while the vertical component is the change in latent heat.
How to read the chart: fundamental examples
Psychrometric charts are available in SI (metric) and IP (U.S./Imperial) units. They are also
available in low and high temperature ranges and for different pressures.
Determining relative humidity: The percent relative humidity can be located at the
intersection of the vertical dry bulb and diagonally down sloping wet bulb temperature lines.
Metric (SI): Using a dry bulb of 25 C and a wet bulb of 20 C, read the relative humidity at
approximately 63.5%. U.S/Imperial (IP): Using a dry bulb of 77 F and a wet bulb of 68 F,
read the relative humidity at approximately 63.5%. In this example the humidity ratio is
0.0126 kg water per kg dry air.

15
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Determining the effect of temperature change on relative humidity: For air of a fixed
water composition or moisture ratio, find the starting relative humidity from the intersection
of the wet and dry bulb temperature lines. Using the conditions from the previous example,
the relative humidity at a different dry bulb temperature can be found along the horizontal
humidity ratio line of 0.0126, either in kg water per kg dry air or pounds water per pound dry
air.
A common variation of this problem is determining the final humidity of air leaving an air
conditioner evaporator coil then heated to a higher temperature. Assume that the
temperature leaving the coil is 10C (50F) and is heated to room temperature (not mixed
with room air), which is found by following the horizontal humidity ratio from the dew point or
saturation line to the room dry bulb temperature line and reading the relative humidity. In
typical practice the conditioned air is mixed with room air that is being infiltrated with outside
air.
Determining the amount of water to be removed or added in lowering or raising
relative humidity:

This is the difference in humidity ratio between the initial and final conditions times the
weight of dry air.

16
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Mollier diagram
Mollier Diagram (Chart), IP Units
The "Mollier i-x" (Enthalpy - Humidity Mixing Ratio) diagram, developed by Richard Mollier
in 1923, is an alternative psychrometric chart, preferred by many users in Scandinavia,
Eastern Europe, and Russia. The underlying psychrometric parameter data for the
psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram are identical. At first glance there is little
resemblance between the charts, but if the chart is rotated by ninety degrees and looked at
in a mirror the resemblance becomes apparent. The Mollier diagram coordinates are
enthalpy and humidity ratio. The enthalpy coordinate is skewed and the lines of constant
enthalpy are parallel and evenly spaced. The ASHRAE psychrometric charts since 1961
use similar plotting coordinates. Some psychrometric charts use dry-bulb temperature and
humidity ratio coordinates.
Dry bulb temperatures
The dry-bulb temperature (DBT) is the temperature of air measured by a thermometer freely
exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and moisture. DBT is the temperature that is
usually thought of as air temperature, and it is the true thermodynamic temperature. It
indicates the amount of heat in the air and is directly proportional to the mean kinetic energy
of the air molecules. Temperature is usually measured in degrees Celsius (C), Kelvin (K),
or Fahrenheit (F).
Unlike wet bulb temperature, dry bulb temperature does not indicate the amount of moisture
in the air. In construction, it is an important consideration when designing a building for a
certain climate. Niall called it one of "the most important climate variables for human comfort
and building energy efficiency. DBT is an important variable in Psychrometrics, being the
horizontal axis of a Psychrometric chart.
Wet-bulb temperature
The wet-bulb temperature is the temperature a parcel of air would have if it were cooled to
saturation (100% relative humidity) by the evaporation of water into it, with the latent heat
being supplied by the parcel.[1] A wet-bulb thermometer will indicate a temperature close to
the true (thermodynamic) wet-bulb temperature. The wet-bulb temperature is the lowest

17
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

temperature that can be reached under current ambient conditions by the evaporation of
water only. Wet-bulb temperature is largely determined by both actual air temperature
(dry-bulb temperature) and the amount of moisture in the air (humidity). At 100% relative
humidity, the wet-bulb temperature equals the dry-bulb temperature.
General
The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is the lowest temperature which may be achieved
by evaporative cooling of a water-wetted (or even ice-covered), ventilated surface.
By contrast, the dew point is the temperature to which the ambient air must be cooled to
reach 100% relative humidity assuming there is no evaporation into the air; it is the point
where condensate (dew) and rain would form.
For a parcel of air that is less than saturated (i.e., air with less than 100 percent relative
humidity), the wet-bulb temperature is lower than the dry-bulb temperature, but higher than
the dew point temperature. The lower the relative humidity (the drier the air), the greater the
gaps between each pair of these three temperatures. Conversely, when the relative
humidity rises to 100%, the three figures coincide.
For air at a known pressure and dry-bulb temperature, the thermodynamic wet-bulb
temperature corresponds to unique values of the relative humidity and the dew point
temperature. It therefore may be used for the practical determination of these values. The
relationships between these values are illustrated in a psychrometric chart.

18
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Cooling of the human body through perspiration is inhibited as the wet-bulb temperature
(and absolute humidity) of the surrounding air increases in summer. Other mechanisms may
be at work in winter if there is validity to the notion of a "humid" or "damp cold."
Lower wet-bulb temperatures that correspond with drier air in summer can translate to
energy savings in air-conditioned buildings due to:
1. Reduced dehumidification load for ventilation air
2. Increased efficiency of cooling towers
Thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature (adiabatic saturation temperature)
The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is the temperature a volume of air would have
if cooled adiabatically to saturation by evaporation of water into it, all latent heat being
supplied by the volume of air.

19
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

The temperature of an air sample that has passed over a large surface of liquid water in an
insulated channel is called the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperaturethe air has become
saturated by passing through a constant-pressure, ideal, adiabatic saturation chamber.
Meteorologists and others may use the term "isobaric wet-bulb temperature" to refer to the
"thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature". It is also called the "adiabatic saturation
temperature", though it should be pointed out that meteorologists also use "adiabatic
saturation temperature" to mean "temperature at the saturation level", i.e. the temperature
the parcel would achieve if it expanded adiabatically until saturated.
Thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is plotted on a psychrometric chart.
The thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature is a thermodynamic property of a mixture of air
and water vapor. The value indicated by a simple wet-bulb thermometer often provides an
adequate approximation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature.
For an accurate wet-bulb thermometer, "the wet-bulb temperature and the adiabatic
saturation temperature are approximately equal for air-water vapor mixtures at atmospheric
temperature and pressure. This is not necessarily true at temperatures and pressures that
deviate significantly from ordinary atmospheric conditions, or for other gasvapor mixtures.
Temperature reading of wet-bulb thermometer

Figures: A Wet Dry Hygrometer featuring a wet-bulb thermometer

20
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

A sling psychrometer. The sock is wet with distilled water and whirled around for a minute or
more before taking the readings.
Wet-bulb temperature is measured using a thermometer that has its bulb wrapped in
clothcalled a sockthat is kept wet with distilled water via wicking action. Such an
instrument is called a wet-bulb thermometer. A widely used device for measuring wet and
dry bulb temperature is a sling psychrometer, which consists of a pair of mercury bulb
thermometers, one with a wet "sock" to measure the wet-bulb temperature and the other
with the bulb exposed and dry for the dry-bulb temperature. The thermometers are attached
to a swivelling handle which allows them to be whirled around so that water evaporates from
the sock and cools the wet bulb until it reaches thermal equilibrium.
An actual wet-bulb thermometer reads a temperature that is slightly different from the
thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature, but they are very close in value. This is due to a
coincidence: for a water-air system the psychrometric ratio (see below) happens to be close
to 1, although for systems other than air and water they might not be close.
To understand why this is so, first consider the calculation of the thermodynamic wet-bulb
temperature.
Experiment 1
In this case, a stream of unsaturated air is cooled. The heat from cooling that air is used to
evaporate some water which increases the humidity of the air. At some point the air
becomes saturated with water vapour (and has cooled to the thermodynamic wet-bulb
temperature). In this case we can write the following balance of energy per mass of dry air:

= saturated water content of the air (kgH2O/kgdry air)


= initial water content of the air (same unit as above)
= latent heat of water (J/kgH2O)
= initial air temperature (K)
= saturated air temperature (K)
= specific heat of air (J/kgK)

21
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Experiment 2
For the case of the wet-bulb thermometer, imagine a drop of water with unsaturated air
blowing over it. As long as the vapor pressure of water in the drop (function of its
temperature) is greater than the partial pressure of water vapor in the air stream,
evaporation will take place. Initially, the heat required for the evaporation will come from the
drop itself since the fastest moving water molecules are most likely to escape the surface of
the drop, so the remaining water molecules will have a lower average speed and therefore a
lower temperature. If this were the only thing that happened and the air started bone dry, if
the air blew sufficiently fast then its partial pressure of water vapor would remain constantly
zero and the drop would get infinitely cold.
Clearly this doesn't happen. It turns out that, as the drop starts cooling, it's now colder than
the air, so convective heat transfer begins to occur from the air to the drop. Also,
understand that the evaporation rate depends on the difference of concentration of water
vapor between the drop-stream interface and the distant stream (i.e. the "original" stream,
unaffected by the drop) and on a convective mass transfer coefficient, which is a function of
the components of the mixture (i.e. water and air).
After a certain period, an equilibrium is reached: the drop has cooled to a point where the
rate of heat carried away in evaporation is equal to the heat gain through convection. At this
point, the following balance of energy per interface area is true:

= water content of interface at equilibrium (kgH2O/kgdry air) (note that the air in this
region is and has always been saturated)
= water content of the distant air (same unit as above)
= mass transfer coefficient (kg/ms)
= air temperature at distance (K)

= water drop temperature at equilibrium (K)


= convective heat transfer coefficient (W/mK)
Note that:

22
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

is the driving force for mass transfer (constantly equal to


throughout the entire experiment).

is the driving force for heat transfer (when reaches the equilibrium is
reached)
Let us rearrange that equation into:

Now let's go back to our original "thermodynamic wet-bulb" experiment, Experiment 1. If the
air stream is the same in both experiments (i.e. and are the same), then we can
equate the right-hand sides of both equations:

Rearranging a little bit:

It is clear now that if then the temperature of the drop in Experiment 2 is the
same as the wet-bulb temperature in Experiment 1. Due to a coincidence, for the mixture of
air and water vapor this is the case, the ratio (called psychrometric ratio) being close to 1.[4]
Experiment 2 is what happens in a common wet-bulb thermometer. That's why its reading is
fairly close to the thermodynamic ("real") wet-bulb temperature.
Experimentally, the wet-bulb thermometer reads closest to the thermodynamic wet-bulb
temperature if:
The sock is shielded from radiant heat exchange with its surroundings
Air flows past the sock quickly enough to prevent evaporated moisture from affecting
evaporation from the sock
The water supplied to the sock is at the same temperature as the thermodynamic
wet-bulb temperature of the air
In practice the value reported by a wet-bulb thermometer differs slightly from the
thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature because:

23
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

The sock is not perfectly shielded from radiant heat exchange


Air flow rate past the sock may be less than optimum
The temperature of the water supplied to the sock is not controlled
At relative humidities below 100 percent, water evaporates from the bulb which cools the
bulb below ambient temperature. To determine relative humidity, ambient temperature is
measured using an ordinary thermometer, better known in this context as a dry-bulb
thermometer. At any given ambient temperature, less relative humidity results in a greater
difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures; the wet-bulb is colder. The
precise relative humidity is determined by reading from a psychrometric chart of wet-bulb
versus dry-bulb temperatures, or by calculation.
Psychrometers are instruments with both a wet-bulb and a dry-bulb thermometer.
A wet-bulb thermometer can also be used outdoors in sunlight in combination with a globe
thermometer (which measures the incident radiant temperature) to calculate the Wet Bulb
Globe Temperature (WBGT).
Adiabatic wet-bulb temperature
The adiabatic wet-bulb temperature is the temperature a volume of air would have if cooled
adiabatically to saturation and then compressed adiabatically to the original pressure in a
moist-adiabatic process (AMS Glossary Such cooling may occur as air pressure reduces
with altitude as noted in the article on lifted condensation level.
This term, as defined in this article, may be most prevalent in meteorology.
As the value referred to as "thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature" is also achieved via an
adiabatic process, some engineers and others may use the term "adiabatic wet-bulb
temperature" to refer to the "thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature". As mentioned above,
meteorologists and others may use the term "isobaric wet-bulb temperature" to refer to the
"thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature".
The relationship between the isobaric and adiabatic processes is quite obscure.
Comparisons indicate, however, that the two temperatures are rarely different by more than
a few tenths of a degree Celsius, and the adiabatic version is always the smaller of the two
for unsaturated air. Since the difference is so small, it is usually neglected in practice.

24
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Wet-bulb depression
The wet-bulb depression is the difference between the dry-bulb temperature and the
wet-bulb temperature. If there is 100% humidity, dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures are
identical, making the wet-bulb depression equal to zero in such conditions.
Wet-bulb temperature and health
Living organisms can survive only within a certain temperature range. When the ambient
temperature is excessive, humans and many animals cool themselves below ambient by
evaporative cooling of sweat (or other aqueous liquid; saliva in dogs, for example); this
helps to prevent potentially fatal hyperthermia due to heat stress. The effectiveness of
evaporative cooling depends upon humidity; wet-bulb temperature, or more complex
calculated quantities such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) which also takes
account of solar radiation, give a useful indication of the degree of heat stress, and are used
by several agencies as the basis for heat stress prevention guidelines.
A sustained wet-bulb temperature exceeding 35 C (95 F) is likely to be fatal even to fit and
healthy people, unclothed in the shade next to a fan; at this temperature our bodies switch
from shedding heat to the environment, to gaining heat from it. Thus 35 C is the threshold
beyond which the body is no longer able to adequately cool itself. A study by NOAA from
2013 concluded that heat stress will reduce labor capacity considerably under current
emissions scenarios.
A 2010 study by Purdue University concluded that under a worst case scenario for global
warming with temperatures 12C higher than 2007, the wet-bulb temperature limit for
humans could be exceeded around much of the world in future centuries. A 2015 study
concluded that parts of the globe could become uninhabitable. An example of the threshold
at which the human body is no longer able to cool itself and begins to overheat is a humidity
level of 50% and a high heat of 46 C (115 F), as this would indicate a wet-bulb
temperature of 35 C (95 F).

25
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Dew point
In simple terms, the dew point (dew point temperature or dew point) is the temperature at
which a given concentration of water vapor in air will form dew. More specifically it is a
measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must be cooled at
constant pressure and water content to reach saturation. A higher dew point indicates more
moisture in the air; a dew point greater than 20 C (68 F) is considered uncomfortable and
greater than 22 C (72 F) is considered to be extremely humid. Frost point is the dew point
when temperatures are below freezing.
Humidity
Other things being equal, as the temperature falls, the relative humidity rises, reaching
100% at the dew point, at least at ground level. Dew point temperature is never greater than
the air temperature, since the relative humidity cannot exceed 100. The water vapor in a
sample of air at constant barometric pressure condenses into liquid water at the same rate
at which it evaporates. At temperatures below the dew point, the rate of condensation will
be greater than that of evaporation, forming more liquid water. The condensed water is
called dew when it forms on a solid surface. The condensed water is called either fog or a
cloud, depending on its altitude, when it forms in the air.
The dew point is the saturation temperature for
water in air. The dew point is associated with
relative humidity. A high relative humidity
implies that the dew point is closer to the
current air temperature. Relative humidity of
100% indicates the dew point is equal to the
current temperature and that the air is
maximally saturated with water. When the
moisture content remains constant and
temperature increases, relative humidity
decreases. General aviation pilots use dew
point data to calculate the likelihood of

26
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

carburetor icing and fog, and to estimate the height of a cumuliform cloud base.
This graph shows the maximum percentage, by mass, of water vapor that air at sea-level
pressure across a range of temperatures can contain. For a lower ambient pressure, a
curve has to be drawn above the current curve. A higher ambient pressure yields a curve
under the current curve.
At a given temperature but independent of barometric pressure, the dew point is a
consequence of the absolute humidity, the mass of water per unit volume of air. If both the
temperature and pressure rise, however, the dew point will increase and the relative
humidity will decrease accordingly. Reducing the absolute humidity without changing other
variables will bring the dew point back down to its initial value. In the same way, increasing
the absolute humidity after a temperature drop brings the dew point back down to its initial
level. If the temperature rises in conditions of constant pressure, then the dew point will
remain constant but the relative humidity will drop. For this reason, a constant relative
humidity (%) with different temperatures implies that when it is hotter, a higher fraction of
the air is present as water vapor, as compared to when it is cooler.
At a given barometric pressure but independent of temperature, the dew point indicates the
mole fraction of water vapor in the air, or, put differently, determines the specific humidity of
the air. If the pressure rises without changing this mole fraction, the dew point will rise
accordingly; Reducing the mole fraction, i.e., making the air less humid, would bring the dew
point back down to its initial value. In the same way, increasing the mole fraction after a
pressure drop brings the relative humidity back up to its initial level. Considering New York
(33 ft elevation) and Denver (5,280 ft elevation),[7] for example, this means that if the dew
point and temperature in both cities are the same, then the mass of water vapor per cubic
meter of air will be the same, but the mole fraction of water vapor in the air will be greater in
Denver.
Relationship to human comfort
When the air temperature is high, the human body uses the evaporation of perspiration to
cool down, with the cooling effect directly related to how fast the perspiration evaporates.
The rate at which perspiration can evaporate depends on how much moisture is in the air

27
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

and how much moisture the air can hold. If the air is already saturated with moisture,
perspiration will not evaporate. The body's cooling system will produce perspiration in an
effort to keep the body at its normal temperature even when the rate it is producing sweat
exceeds the evaporation rate. So even without generating additional body heat by
exercising, one can become coated with sweat on humid days.
As the air surrounding one's body is warmed by body heat, it will rise and be replaced with
other air. If air is moved away from one's body with a natural breeze or a fan, sweat will
evaporate faster, making perspiration more effective at cooling the body. The more
unevaporated perspiration, the greater the discomfort.
A wet bulb thermometer also uses evaporative cooling, so it provides a good measure for
use in evaluating comfort level.
Discomfort also exists when the dew point is low (below around 30 C (22 F)). The drier
air can cause skin to crack and become irritated more easily. It will also dry out the
respiratory paths. OSHA recommends indoor air be maintained at 20 to 24.5 C (68.0 to
76.1 F) with a 20-60% relative humidity (a dew point of 4.5 to 15.5 C (23.9 to 59.9 F)).
Lower dew points, less than 10 C (50 F), correlate with lower ambient temperatures and
the body requires less cooling. A lower dew point can go along with a high temperature only
at extremely low relative humidity (see graph below), allowing for relatively effective cooling.
There is some acclimation to higher dew points by those who inhabit tropical and
subtropical climates. Thus, a resident of Darwin or Miami for example, might have a higher
threshold for discomfort than a resident of a temperate climate like London or Chicago.
Those accustomed to temperate climates often begin to feel uncomfortable when the dew
point reaches between 15 and 20 C (59 and 68 F)...while others might find dew points
below 65 F (18 C) comfortable. Most inhabitants of these areas will consider dew points
above 21 C (70 F) oppressive and tropical-like.

28
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Relative humidity at
Dew point Human perception
32 C (90 F)
Severely high. Even deadly for asthma
Over 26 C Over 80 F 73% and higher
related illnesses
2426 C 7580 F Extremely uncomfortable, fairly oppressive 6272%
2124 C 7074 F Very humid, quite uncomfortable 5261%
Somewhat uncomfortable for most people
1821 C 6569 F 4451%
at upper edge
OK for most, but all perceive the humidity
1618 C 6064 F 3743%
at upper edge
1316 C 5559 F Comfortable 3136%
1012 C 5054 F Very comfortable 2630%
Under Under
A bit dry for some 25% and lower
10 C 50 F

Measurement
Devices called hygrometers are used to measure dew point over a wide range of
temperatures. These devices consist of a polished metal mirror which is cooled as air is
passed over it. The temperature at which dew forms is, by definition, the dew point. Manual
devices of this sort can be used to calibrate other types of humidity sensors, and automatic
sensors may be used in a control loop with a humidifier or dehumidifier to control the dew
point of the air in a building or in a smaller space for a manufacturing process.

29
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Calculating the dew point


A well-known approximation used to
calculate the dew point, Tdp, given just
the actual ("dry bulb") air temperature,
T (in degrees Celsius) and relative
humidity (in percent), RH, is the
Magnus formula:

The more complete formulation and


origin of this approximation involves
the interrelated saturated water vapor
pressure (in units of millibar, which is also hPa) at T, Ps(T), and the actual vapor pressure
(also in units of millibar), Pa(T), which can be either found with RH or approximated with the
barometric pressure (in millibar units), BPmb, and "wet-bulb" temperature, Tw is:
Note: unless declared otherwise, all temperatures are expressed in degrees Celsius

For greater accuracy, Ps (T) (and, therefore, (T, RH)) can be enhanced, using part of the
Bgel modification, also known as the Arden Buck equation, which adds a fourth constant d:

30
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

(where )
There are several different constant sets in use. The ones used in NOAA's presentation.are
taken from a 1980 paper by David Bolton in the Monthly Weather Review.

These valuations provide a maximum error of 0.1%, for


-30C T +35C;
1% < RH < 100%;
Also noteworthy is the Sonntag1990.

Another common set of values originates from the 1974 Psychometry and Psychrometric
Charts, as presented by Paroscientific

Also, in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. Arden Buck presents several
different valuation sets, with different minimum accuracies for different temperature ranges.
Two particular sets provide a range of -40 C +50 C between the two, with even greater
minimum accuracy than all of the other, above sets (maximum error at given |C| extreme):

Simple approximation
There is also a very simple approximation that allows conversion between the dew point,
temperature and relative humidity. This approach is accurate to within about 1 C as long
as the relative humidity is above 50%:

31
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

and

This can be expressed as a simple rule of thumb: For every 1C difference in the dew point
and dry bulb temperatures, the relative humidity decreases by 5%, starting with RH = 100%
when the dew point equals the dry bulb temperature.
The derivation of this approach, a discussion of its accuracy, comparisons to other
approximations, and more information on the history and applications of the dew point are
given in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.[15]
For temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit, these approximations work out to

and

For example, a relative humidity of 100% means dew point is the same as air temp. For
90% RH, dew point is 3 degrees Fahrenheit lower than air temp. For every 10 percent
lower, dew point drops 3 F.
Frost point
The frost point is similar to the dew point, in that it is the temperature to which a given parcel
of humid air must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to be
deposited on a surface as ice without going through the liquid phase. (Compare with
sublimation.) The frost point for a given parcel of air is always higher than the dew point, as
the stronger bonding between water molecules on the surface of ice requires higher
temperature to break.

32
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Air conditioning (HVAC) systems

Figure: Rooftop HVAC unit with view of fresh air intake vent.

Ventilation duct with outlet vent. These are installed throughout a building to move air in or
out of a room. HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; also heating, ventilation, and
air conditioning) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is
to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a
subdisciplines of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid
mechanics, and heat transfer. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation
as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR (such as the designation of
HACR-rated circuit breakers).
HVAC is important in the design of residential structures such as single family homes,
apartment buildings, hotels and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office
buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, onboard vessels, and in marine environments
such as aquariums, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to
temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors.
Ventilating or ventilation (the V in HVAC) is the process of "exchanging" or replacing air in
any space to provide high indoor air quality which involves temperature control, oxygen
replenishment, and removal of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, carbon
dioxide, and other gases. Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture,

33
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, and prevents stagnation of the
interior air. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation
of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable
indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into
mechanical/forced and natural types.
Overview
The three central functions of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning are interrelated,
especially with the need to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality within
reasonable installation, operation, and maintenance costs. HVAC systems can provide
ventilation, reduce air infiltration, and maintain pressure relationships between spaces. The
means of air delivery and removal from spaces is known as room air distribution
Individual systems.
In modern buildings the design, installation, and control systems of these functions are
integrated into one or more HVAC systems. For very small buildings, contractors normally
estimate the capacity, engineer, and select HVAC systems and equipment. For larger
buildings, building service designers, mechanical engineers, or building services engineers
analyze, design, and specify the HVAC systems. Specialty mechanical contractors then
fabricate and commission the systems. Building permits and code-compliance inspections
of the installations are normally required for all sizes of building.
District networks
Although HVAC is executed in individual buildings or other enclosed spaces the equipment
involved is in some cases an extension of a larger district heating (DH) or district cooling
(DC) network, or a combined DHC network. In such cases, the operating and maintenance
aspects are simplified and metering becomes necessary to bill for the energy that is
consumed, and in some cases energy that is returned to the larger system. For example, at
a given time one building may be utilizing chilled water for air conditioning and the warm
water it returns may be used in another building for heating, or for the overall
heating-portion of the DHC network (likely with energy added to boost the temperature).

34
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Basing HVAC on a larger network helps to provide an economy of scale that is often not
possible for individual buildings, for utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar heat,
winter's cold, the cooling potential in some places of lakes or seawater for free cooling, and
the enabling function of seasonal thermal energy storage.
Heating
Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building.
This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat
pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or
a mechanical room in a large building. The heat can be transferred by convection,
conduction, or radiation.
Central heating unit
Heaters exist for various types of fuel, including solid fuels, liquids, and gases. Another type
of heat source is electricity, normally heating ribbons composed of high resistance wire (see
Nichrome). This principle is also used for baseboard heaters and portable heaters. Electrical
heaters are often used as backup or supplemental heat for heat pump systems.
The heat pump gained popularity in the 1950s in Japan and the United States. [13] Heat
pumps can extract heat from various sources, such as environmental air, exhaust air from a
building, or from the ground. Initially, heat pump HVAC systems were only used in moderate
climates, but with improvements in low temperature operation and reduced loads due to
more efficient homes, they are increasing in popularity in cooler climates.
Distribution: Water / steam
In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat to the rooms. Most
modern hot water boiler heating systems have a circulator, which is a pump, to move hot
water through the distribution system (as opposed to older gravity-fed systems). The heat
can be transferred to the surrounding air using radiators, hot water coils (hydro-air), or other
heat exchangers. The radiators may be mounted on walls or installed within the floor to
produce floor heat. The use of water as the heat transfer medium is known as hydronics.
The heated water can also supply an auxiliary heat exchanger to supply hot water for
bathing and washing.

35
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Air
Warm air systems distribute heated air through duct work systems of supply and return air
through metal or fiberglass ducts. Many systems use the same ducts to distribute air cooled
by an evaporator coil for air conditioning. The air supply is normally filtered through air
cleaners to remove dust and pollen particles.
Dangers
The use of furnaces, space heaters, and boilers as a method of indoor heating could result
in incomplete combustion and the emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,
formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and other combustion byproducts. Incomplete
combustion occurs when there is insufficient oxygen; the inputs are fuels containing various
contaminants and the outputs are harmful byproducts, most dangerously carbon monoxide,
which is a tasteless and odorless gas with serious adverse health effects.
Without proper ventilation, carbon monoxide can be lethal at concentrations of 1000 ppm
(0.1%). However, at several hundred ppm, carbon monoxide exposure induces headaches,
fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in the blood,
forming carboxyhemoglobin, reducing the blood's ability to transport oxygen. The primary
health concerns associated with carbon monoxide exposure are its cardiovascular and
neurobehavioral effects. Carbon monoxide can cause atherosclerosis (the hardening of
arteries) and can also trigger heart attacks. Neurologically, carbon monoxide exposure
reduces hand to eye coordination, vigilance, and continuous performance. It can also affect
time discrimination.
Ventilation
Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or
remove any combination of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon
dioxide, and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the
outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors
for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building
may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types.

36
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Mechanical or forced ventilation


HVAC ventilation exhaust for a 12-story building
"Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is provided by an air
handler and used to control indoor air quality. Excess
humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled
via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in
humid climates much energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.
Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and
sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a
function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. Direct drive fans are
available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs.
Ceiling fans and table/floor fans circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the
perceived temperature by increasing evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the
occupants. Because hot air rises, ceiling fans may be used to keep a room warmer in the
winter by circulating the warm stratified air from the ceiling to the floor.
Natural ventilation
Ventilation on the downdraught system, by impulsion, or the 'plenum' principle, applied to
schoolrooms (1899). Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air
without using fans or other mechanical systems. It can be via operable windows, louvers, or
trickle vents when spaces are small and the architecture permits. In more complex
schemes, warm air is allowed to rise and flow out high building openings to the outside
(stack effect), causing cool outside air to be drawn into low building openings. Natural
ventilation schemes can use very little energy, but care must be taken to ensure comfort. In
warm or humid climates, maintaining thermal comfort solely via natural ventilation might not
be possible. Air conditioning systems are used, either as backups or supplements. Air-side
economizers also use outside air to condition spaces, but do so using fans, ducts, dampers,
and control systems to introduce and distribute cool outdoor air when appropriate.
An important component of natural ventilation is air change rate or air changes per hour: the
hourly rate of ventilation divided by the volume of the space. For example, six air changes

37
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

per hour means an amount of new air, equal to the volume of the space, is added every ten
minutes. For human comfort, a minimum of four air changes per hour is typical, though
warehouses might have only two. Too high of an air change rate may be uncomfortable,
akin to a wind tunnel which have thousands of changes per hour. The highest air change
rates are for crowded spaces, bars, night clubs, commercial kitchens at around 30 to 50 air
changes per hour.
Room pressure can be either positive or negative with respect to outside the room. Positive
pressure occurs when there is more air being supplied than exhausted, and is common to
reduce the infiltration of outside contaminants.
Airborne diseases
Natural ventilation is a key factor in reducing the spread of airborne illnesses such as
tuberculosis, the common cold, influenza and meningitis. Opening doors, windows, and
using ceiling fans are all ways to maximize natural ventilation and reduce the risk of
airborne contagion. Natural ventilation requires little maintenance and is inexpensive.
Air conditioning
An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling and humidity
control for all or part of a building. Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows,
because open windows would work against the system intended to maintain constant indoor
air conditions. Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into the indoor
heat exchanger section, creating positive air pressure. The percentage of return air made
up of fresh air can usually be manipulated by adjusting the opening of this vent. Typical
fresh air intake is about 10%.
Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. Heat can be
removed through radiation, convection, or conduction. Refrigeration conduction media such
as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. A refrigerant is employed
either in a heat pump system in which a compressor is used to drive thermodynamic
refrigeration cycle, or in a free cooling system which uses pumps to circulate a cool
refrigerant (typically water or a glycol mix).

38
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Refrigeration cycle
A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle:
1. condensing coil,
2. expansion valve,
3. evaporator coil,
4. compressor
The refrigeration cycle uses four essential elements to cool.
The system refrigerant starts its cycle in a gaseous state. The compressor pumps the
refrigerant gas up to a high pressure and temperature.
From there it enters a heat exchanger (sometimes called a condensing coil or
condenser) where it loses energy (heat) to the outside, cools, and condenses into its
liquid phase.
An expansion valve (also called metering device) regulates the refrigerant liquid to flow
at the proper rate.
The liquid refrigerant is returned to another heat exchanger where it is allowed to
evaporate, hence the heat exchanger is often called an evaporating coil or evaporator.
As the liquid refrigerant evaporates it absorbs energy (heat) from the inside air, returns
to the compressor, and repeats the cycle. In the process, heat is absorbed from indoors
and transferred outdoors, resulting in cooling of the building.
In variable climates, the system may include a reversing valve that switches from heating in
winter to cooling in summer. By reversing the flow of refrigerant, the heat pump refrigeration
cycle is changed from cooling to heating or vice versa. This allows a facility to be heated
and cooled by a single piece of equipment by the same means, and with the same
hardware.
HVAC air coils
One of the widest uses of heat exchangers is for air conditioning of buildings and vehicles.
This class of heat exchangers is commonly called air coils, or just coils due to their
often-serpentine internal tubing. Liquid-to-air, or air-to-liquid HVAC coils are typically of
modified crossflow arrangement. In vehicles, heat coils are often called heater cores.

39
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

On the liquid side of these heat exchangers, the common fluids are water, a water-glycol
solution, steam, or a refrigerant. For heating coils, hot water and steam are the most
common, and this heated fluid is supplied by boilers, for example. For cooling coils, chilled
water and refrigerant are most common. Chilled water is supplied from a chiller that is
potentially located very far away, but refrigerant must come from a nearby condensing unit.
When a refrigerant is used, the cooling coil is the evaporator in the vapor-compression
refrigeration cycle. HVAC coils that use this direct-expansion of refrigerants are commonly
called DX coils. Some DX coils are "microchannel" type.
On the air side of HVAC coils a significant difference exists between those used for heating,
and those for cooling. Due to psychometrics, air that is cooled often has moisture
condensing out of it, except with extremely dry air flows. Heating some air increases that
airflow's capacity to hold water. So heating coils need not consider moisture condensation
on their air-side, but cooling coils must be adequately designed and selected to handle their
particular latent (moisture) as well as the sensible (cooling) loads. The water that is
removed is called condensate.
For many climates, water or steam HVAC coils can be exposed to freezing conditions.
Because water expands upon freezing, these somewhat expensive and difficult to replace
thin-walled heat exchangers can easily be damaged or destroyed by just one freeze. As
such, freeze protection of coils is a major concern of HVAC designers, installers, and
operators.
The introduction of indentations placed within the heat exchange fins controlled
condensation, allowing water molecules to remain in the cooled air. This invention allowed
for refrigeration without icing of the cooling mechanism. The heat exchangers in
direct-combustion furnaces, typical in many residences, are not 'coils'. They are, instead,
gas-to-air heat exchangers that are typically made of stamped steel sheet metal. The
combustion products pass on one side of these heat exchangers, and air to heat on the
other. A cracked heat exchanger is therefore a dangerous situation that requires immediate
attention because combustion products may enter living space

40
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Thermal expansion valve


A thermal expansion valve (often abbreviated as TEV,
TXV, or TX valve) is a component in refrigeration and
air conditioning systems that controls the amount of
refrigerant flow into the condenser thereby controlling
the superheat at the outlet of the evaporator. Thermal
expansion valves are often referred to generically as
"metering devices".
Description
Flow control, or metering, of the refrigerant is
accomplished by use of a temperature sensing bulb,
filled with a similar gas as in the system, that causes
the valve to open against the spring pressure in the valve body as the temperature on the
bulb increases. As the suction line temperature decreases, so does the pressure in the bulb
and therefore on the spring causing the valve to close. An air conditioning system with a TX
valve is often more efficient than other designs that do not use one.
A thermal expansion valve is a key element to a heat pump; the cycle that makes air
conditioning, or air cooling, possible. A basic refrigeration cycle consists of four major
elements, a compressor, a condenser, a metering device and an evaporator. As a
refrigerant passes through a circuit containing these four elements, air conditioning occurs.
The cycle starts when refrigerant enters the compressor in a low-pressure,
moderate-temperature, gaseous form. The refrigerant is compressed by the compressor to
a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous state. The high-pressure and
high-temperature gas then enters the condenser. The condenser converts the high-pressure
and high-temperature gas to a high-pressure liquid by transferring heat to a lower
temperature medium, usually ambient air.
The high pressure liquid then enters the expansion valve where the TX valve allows a
portion of the refrigerant to enter the evaporator. In order for the higher temperature fluid to
cool, the flow must be limited into the evaporator to keep the pressure low and allow

41
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

expansion back into the gas phase. The TXV has sensing bulbs connected to the suction
line of the refrigerant piping. The gas pressure in the sensing bulbs provides the open force
to open the TXV, therefore adjusting the flow of refrigerant and the superheat.
Function in a refrigeration cycle
Expansion valves are flow-restricting devices that cause a pressure drop of the working
fluid. The valve needle remains open during steady state operation. The size of the opening
or the position of the needle is related to the pressure and temperature of the evaporator.
There are three main parts of the expansion valve that regulate the position of the needle. A
sensor bulb, at the end of the evaporator, monitors the temperature change of the
evaporator. This change in temperature creates a change in pressure on the diaphragm.
For example, if the temperature in the evaporator increases, the pressure in the diaphragm
increases causing the needle to lower. Lowering the needle allows more of the working fluid
into the evaporator to absorb heat. The pressure at the inlet of the evaporator affects the
position of the needle and prevents the working fluid from flowing back into the compressor.
Since the pressure before the valve is higher than the pressure after the valve, the working
fluid naturally flows into the evaporator. The pressure at the inlet of the evaporator acts on
the diaphragm. There is also a spring providing a constant pressure closing the valve
needle. The spring constantly restricts the amount of working fluid entering the evaporator.
The pressure spring can be adjusted to increase or decrease pressure based on
temperature needs. The pressure created by the spring acts on the opening of the valve.
When the pressure of the sensor bulb acting on the diaphragm is greater than the combined
pressure of the evaporator and spring, the valve opens to increase the flow rate of the
working fluid. An increase of flow rate lowers the temperature of the evaporator and allows
for more heat absorption.
Types of thermal expansion valves
There are two main types of thermal expansion valves: internally or externally equalized.
The difference between externally and internally equalized valves is how the evaporator
pressure affects the position of the needle. In internally equalized valves, the evaporator
pressure against the diaphragm is the pressure at the inlet of the evaporator, whereas in

42
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

externally equalized valves, the evaporator pressure against the diaphragm is the pressure
at the outlet of the evaporator. Externally equalized thermostatic expansion valves
compensate for any pressure drop through the evaporator. Internally equalized valves can
be used on single circuit evaporator coils having low pressure drop. Externally equalized
valves must be used on multi-circuited evaporators with refrigerant distributors. Externally
equalized TXVs can be used on all applications; however, an externally equalized TXV
cannot be replaced with an internally equalized TXV.
Free cooling Systems
Free cooling systems can have very high efficiencies, and are sometimes combined with
seasonal thermal energy storage so the cold of winter can be used for summer air
conditioning. Common storage mediums are deep aquifers or a natural underground rock
mass accessed via a cluster of small-diameter, heat exchanger equipped boreholes. Some
systems with small storages are hybrids, using free cooling early in the cooling season, and
later employing a heat pump to chill the circulation coming from the storage. The heat pump
is added-in because the storage acts as a heat sink when the system is in cooling (as
opposed to charging) mode, causing the temperature to gradually increase during the
cooling season.
Some systems include an "economizer mode", which is sometimes called a "free cooling
mode". When economizing, the control system will open (fully or partially) the outside air
damper and close (fully or partially) the return air damper. This will cause fresh, outside air
to be supplied to the system. When the outside air is cooler than the demanded cool air, this
will allow the demand to be met without using the mechanical supply of cooling (typically
chilled water or a direct expansion "DX" unit), thus saving energy. The control system can
compare the temperature of the outside air vs. return air, or it can compare the enthalpy of
the air, as is frequently done in climates where humidity is more of an issue. In both cases,
the outside air must be less energetic than the return air for the system to enter the
economizer mode.

43
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Central vs. split system


Central, 'all-air' air conditioning systems (or package systems) with a combined outdoor
condenser/evaporator unit are often installed in modern residences, offices, and public
buildings, but are difficult to retrofit (install in a building that was not designed to receive it)
because of the bulky air ducts required. (Mini-Split ductless systems are used in these
situations.)
An alternative to central systems is the use of separate indoor and outdoor coils in split
systems. These systems, although most often seen in residential applications, are gaining
popularity in small commercial buildings. The evaporator coil is connected to a remote
condenser unit using refrigerant piping between an indoor and outdoor unit instead of
ducting air directly from the outdoor unit. Indoor units with directional vents mount onto
walls, suspended from ceilings, or fit into the ceiling. Other indoor units mount inside the
ceiling cavity, so that short lengths of duct handle air from the indoor unit to vents or
diffusers around the rooms.
Dehumidification
Dehumidification (air drying) in an air conditioning system is provided by the evaporator.
Since the evaporator operates at a temperature below the dew point, moisture in the air
condenses on the evaporator coil tubes. This moisture is collected at the bottom of the
evaporator in a pan and removed by piping to a central drain or onto the ground outside.
A dehumidifier is an air-conditioner-like device that controls the humidity of a room or
building. It is often employed in basements which have a higher relative humidity because of
their lower temperature (and propensity for damp floors and walls). In food retailing
establishments, large open chiller cabinets are highly effective at dehumidifying the internal
air. Conversely, a humidifier increases the humidity of a building.
Maintenance
All modern air conditioning systems, even small window package units, are equipped with
internal air filters. These are generally of a lightweight gauzy material, and must be replaced
or washed as conditions warrant. For example, a building in a high dust environment, or a
home with furry pets, will need to have the filters changed more often than buildings without

44
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

these dirt loads. Failure to replace these filters as needed will contribute to a lower heat
exchange rate, resulting in wasted energy, shortened equipment life, and higher energy
bills; low air flow can result in "iced-up" or "iced-over" evaporator coils, which can
completely stop air flow. Additionally, very dirty or plugged filters can cause overheating
during a heating cycle, and can result in damage to the system or even fire.
Because an air conditioner moves heat between the indoor coil and the outdoor coil, both
must be kept clean. This means that, in addition to replacing the air filter at the evaporator
coil, it is also necessary to regularly clean the condenser coil. Failure to keep the condenser
clean will eventually result in harm to the compressor, because the condenser coil is
responsible for discharging both the indoor heat (as picked up by the evaporator) and the
heat generated by the electric motor driving the compressor.
Energy efficiency
Since the 1980s, manufacturers of HVAC equipment have been making an effort to make
the systems they manufacture more efficient. This was originally driven by rising energy
costs, and has more recently been driven by increased awareness of environmental issues.
Additionally, improvements to the HVAC system efficiency can also help increase occupant
health and productivity. In the US, the EPA has imposed tighter restrictions over the years.
There are several methods for making HVAC systems more efficient.
Heating energy
In the past, water heating was more efficient for heating buildings and was the standard in
the United States. Today, forced air systems can double for air conditioning and are more
popular.
Some benefits of forced air systems, which are now widely used in churches, schools and
high-end residences, are
Better air conditioning effects
Energy savings of up to 15-20%
Even conditioning
A drawback is the installation cost, which can be slightly higher than traditional HVAC
systems.

45
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Energy efficiency can be improved even more in central heating systems by introducing
zoned heating. This allows a more granular application of heat, similar to non-central
heating systems. Zones are controlled by multiple thermostats. In water heating systems the
thermostats control zone valves, and in forced air systems they control zone dampers inside
the vents which selectively block the flow of air. In this case, the control system is very
critical to maintaining a proper temperature.
Forecasting is another method of controlling building heating by calculating demand for
heating energy that should be supplied to the building in each time unit.
Air conditioning energy
The performance of vapor compression refrigeration cycles is limited by thermodynamics.
These air conditioning and heat pump devices move heat rather than convert it from one
form to another, so thermal efficiencies do not appropriately describe the performance of
these devices. The Coefficient-of-Performance (COP) measures performance, but this
dimensionless measure has not been adopted. Instead, the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)
has traditionally been used to characterize the performance of many HVAC systems. EER is
the Energy Efficiency Ratio based on a 35 C (95 F) outdoor temperature. To more
accurately describe the performance of air conditioning equipment over a typical cooling
season a modified version of the EER, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER), or in
Europe the ESEER, is used. SEER ratings are based on seasonal temperature averages
instead of a constant 35 C (95 F) outdoor temperature. The current industry minimum
SEER rating is 14 SEER.
Engineers have pointed out some areas where efficiency of the existing hardware could be
improved. For example, the fan blades used to move the air are usually stamped from sheet
metal, an economical method of manufacture, but as a result they are not aerodynamically
efficient. A well-designed blade could reduce electrical power required to move the air by a
third.

46
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Air filtration and cleaning

Air handling unit, used for heating, cooling, and filtering the air. Air cleaning and filtration
removes particles, contaminants, vapors and gases from the air. The filtered and cleaned
air then is used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Air cleaning and filtration should
be taken in account when protecting our building environments.
Clean air delivery rate and filter performance
Clean air delivery rate is the amount of clean air an air cleaner provides to a room or space.
When determining CADR, the amount of airflow in a space is taken into account. For
example, an air cleaner with a flow rate of 100 cfm (cubic feet per minute) and an efficiency
of 50% has a CADR of 50 cfm. Along with CADR, filtration performance is very important
when it comes to the air in our indoor environment. Filter performance depends on the size
of the particle or fiber, the filter packing density and depth and also the air flow rate.
HVAC industry and standards
The HVAC industry is a worldwide enterprise, with roles including operation and
maintenance, system design and construction, equipment manufacturing and sales, and in
education and research. The HVAC industry was historically regulated by the manufacturers

47
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

of HVAC equipment, but regulating and standards organizations such as HARDI, ASHRAE,
SMACNA, ACCA, Uniform Mechanical Code, International Mechanical Code, and AMCA
have been established to support the industry and encourage high standards and
achievement.
The starting point in carrying out an estimate both for cooling and heating depends on the
exterior climate and interior specified conditions. However, before taking up the heat load
calculation, it is necessary to find fresh air requirements for each area in detail, as
pressurization is an important consideration.
Applications of ventilation systems

48
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Compressors
There are various makes and types of compressors used in automotive air conditioning
systems. The internal design could be Piston, Scroll, Wobble plate, Variable stroke or Vane.
Regardless, all operate as the pump in the A/C system to keep the refrigerant and the
lubricating oil circulating, and thus to increase the refrigerant pressure and thus
temperature.
Wobble Plate
A reciprocating piston, fixed
displacement compressor. The
pistons are operated by a wobble
plate which moves them backwards
and forwards in the cylinders.
As the front shaft turns the wobble
plate angle changes, causing the
pistons to move in and out, pulling
refrigerant vapour in through the
suction side, compressing it and
discharging this high pressure vapour
into the condenser.
Scroll Type
This compressor uses a unique design
with two scrolls, one is fixed and the
other is movable, both are inter-leaved.
The movable spiral is able to Orbit or
oscillate without actually fully rotating.
The movable scroll is connected to the
input shaft via a concentric bearing. As
the movable spiral oscillates within the
fixed spiral, a number of pocket are formed between the spirals. As these pockets decrease

49
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

in size the refrigerant is squeezed, the pressure increases and is discharged through a reed
valve at the discharge port in the rear section of the compressor.
Rotary Vane
Rotary vane compressors consist of a
rotor with three or four vanes and a
carefully shaped rotor housing. As the
compressor shaft rotates, the vanes
and housings form chambers.
The refrigerant is drawn through the
suction port into these chambers,
which become smaller as the rotor
turns. The discharge port is located at
the point where the gas is fully
compressed.
The vanes are sealed against the rotor housing by centrifugal force and lubricating oil. The
oil sump and oil pump are located on the discharge side, so that the high pressure forces oil
through the oil pump and then onto the base of the vanes keeping them sealed against the
rotor housing.
Compressor Mount and Drive
This consists of a bracket to mount the compressor to the engine, a belt idler pulley and a
compressor drive belt. There are two possible drive belt arrangements.

Figure Left: Multiple Belts -


individual belts used to drive
separate engine ancillaries

Figure Right: Serpentine Belt - all


engine ancillaries driven by a
single belt

50
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Compressor Clutch
The clutch is designed to connect the rotor pulley to the compressor input shaft when the
field coil is energized. The clutch is used to transmit the power from the engine crankshaft to
the compressor by means of a drive belt. When the clutch is not engaged the compressor
shaft does not rotate and refrigerant does not circulate, the rotor pulley free wheels

The field coil is actually an electromagnet, once energized it draws the pressure plate
towards it, locking the rotor pulley and the pressure plate together causing the compressor
internals to turn, creating pressure and circulating refrigerant
Condensers
The condenser function is to act as a heat
exchanger and allow heat to flow from the hot
refrigerant to the cooler outside air. Refrigerant
entering the condenser will be a high pressure high
temperature vapour. As the refrigerant vapour
travels through the tubes of the condenser heat is
given off to the cooler ambient air, the refrigerant
vapour condenses and changes to a liquid state.
At this point a large amount of heat is given off by
the refrigerant. The refrigerant will now be a hot,
high pressure liquid.

51
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Serpentine
This type of condenser consists of one long tube which is coiled over and back on itself with
cooling fins added in between the tubes.
Parallel Flow
This design is very similar to a cross flow radiator.
Instead of the refrigerant travelling through one
passage (like the serpentine type) it can now travel
across numerous passages. This will give larger
surface area for the cooler ambient air to contact.
Condenser Electric Fan
Most vehicles with air conditioning require an
electrical fan to assist air flow, either pushing or
pulling the air through the condenser, depending on which
side of the condenser the fan is placed. Most modern
vehicles now have smaller front grilles or bumper bar
openings. This causes poor air flow conditions especially at
idle when A/C performance is limited by the amount of air
flow over the condenser.
Evaporators
Refrigerant enters the evaporator coil as a cold low
pressure liquid. As this liquid passes through the
evaporator coil, heat moves from the warm air
blowing across the evaporator fins into cooler
refrigerant. This air that has now been cooled is
then ducted into the cabin via the blower motor.
When there is enough heat to cause a change of
state, a large amount of heat moves from the air to
the refrigerant. This causes the refrigerant to change from a low pressure cold liquid into a
cold vapour. As the warmer air blows across the evaporator fins, moisture contained in that

52
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

air (humidity) will condense on the cooler evaporator fins. Condensed moisture then runs off
through the drain tubes located at the underside of the evaporator case.
Plate & Fin Laminated Evaporator
Similar operation to the parallel flow condenser
where the refrigerant has a multi flow pass
creating a larger surface area.
Serpentine Evaporator
Same design as the serpentine condenser but
approximately five times deeper.
Thermal Expansion Valves
Refrigerant flow to the evaporator must be
controlled to obtain maximum cooling, by ensuring that complete evaporation of the liquid
refrigerant takes place. This is accomplished by the thermal expansion valve.

Figures: Thermal Expansion Valve-Closed; Thermal Expansion Valve-Open

53
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

Thermal Expansion Block Valves


The block valve differs from the previously mentioned expansion valve in that it has four
passages, although the basic operation is exactly the same

Figures: Thermal Expansion Block Valve-Closed; Thermal Expansion Block Valve-Open

Orifice Tube
At the orifice tube the refrigerant is forced to flow through a fine restriction. This causes a
pressure drop and a temperature drop in the refrigerant entering the evaporator.
A fine gauze filter is located at the inlet and outlet sides of the orifice tube to filter any
contaminants from passing on to the evaporator.
Filter Drier Receiver
The filter drier acts as a particle filter, refrigerant storage
container and most importantly a moisture absorber.
Moisture, temperature and refrigerant causes hydrofluoric
and hydrochloric acid. The silica gel beads (desiccant)
located in the filter drier absorb small quantities of
moisture thus preventing acid formation.
Accumulator
The function of the accumulator is to store refrigerant,
filter particles, absorb moisture and separate vaporous
refrigerant from liquid refrigerant. The normal process of

54
Piri Reis University
Faculty of Maritime Department of Marine Engineering
SM412-Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
2. Air Conditioning System

the accumulator system works when refrigerant leaves the evaporator coil as a mixture of
vapour and liquid. This liquid enters the accumulator and falls to the bottom. The vapour
rises to the top and continues onto the compressor. The liquid refrigerant in the bottom of
the accumulator gradually vaporizes off. This vapour rises, then pulls into the compressor.

55