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Introduction to Concrete Beam Design Flow Charts

The concrete beam design flow charts address the following subjects:

• For a rectangular beam with given dimensions: Analyzing the beam


section to determine its moment strength and thus defining the beam
section to be at one of the following cases:

• Case 1: Rectangular beam with tension reinforcement only. This


case exists if the moment strength is larger that the ultimate
(factored) moment.

• Case 2: Rectangular Beam with tension and compression


reinforcement. This case may exist if the moment strength is l ess
than the ultimate (factored) moment.

• For T-section concrete beam: Analyzing the beam T -section to determine


its moment strength and thus defining the beam section to be one of the
following cases:

• Case 1: The depth of the compression block is within the flanged


portion of the beam, i.e, the neutral axis N.A. depth is less than the
slab thinness, measured from the top of the slab. This case exists if
moment strength is larger than ultimate moment.

• Case 2: The depth of the compression block is deeper t han the


flange thickness, i.e. the neutral axis is located below the bottom of
the slab. This case exists if the moment strength of T -section beam
is less that the ultimate (factored) moment.

• Beam Section Shear Strength: two separate charts outline in det ails Shear
check. One is a basic shear check, and two is detailed shear check, in
order to handle repetitive beam shear reinforcement selection. See shear
check introduction page for further details.

In any of the cases mentioned above, detailed procedure s and equations are
shown within the charts cover all design aspects of the element under
investigations, with ACI respective provisions.

Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01 - Page 1


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Notations for Concrete Beam Design Flow Charts

a = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block, in.


ab = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block at balanced condition, in.
amax = depth of equivalent rectangular stress block at maximum ratio of
tension-reinforcement, in.
As = area of tension reinforcement, in2.
A’s = area of reinforcement at compression side, in 2 .
b = width of beam in rectangular beam section, in.
be = effective width of a flange in T-section beam, in.
bw = width of web for T-section beam, in.
c = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis, in.
cb = distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced
condition, in.
Cc = compression force in equivalent concrete block.
Cs = compression force in compression reinforcement.
d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension -side
reinforcement.
d’ = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression -
side reinforcement.
Es = modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, psi.
f’c = specified compressive strength of concre te.
fy = specified tensile strength of reinforcement.
Mn = nominal bending moment.
M n bal = moment strength at balanced condition.
Mu = factored (ultimate) bending moment.
Ru = coefficient of resistance.
t = slab thickness in T-section beam, in.
β1 = factor as defined by ACI 10.2.7.3.
εc = concrete strain at extreme compression fibers, set at 0.003.
ε 's = strain in compression-side reinforcement.
εy = yield strain of reinforcement.
ρ = ratio of tension reinforcement.
ρb = ratio of tension reinfo rcement at balanced condition.
ρf = ratio of reinforcement equivalent to compression force in slab of T -
section beam.
ρmax = maximum ratio of tension reinforcement permitted by ACI 10.3.3.
ρmin = minimum ratio of tension reinforcement permitted by ACI10 .5.1.
ρreq’d = required ratio of tension reinforcement.
φ = strength reduction factor.

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STRUNET Moment Strength of Rectangular Concrete Beam
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS

Rectangular
Beam
Given:
b, d, fc', fy, Mu ,Vu

finding balanced ACI 10.3.3


moment strength
finding ρmax
ACI 10.2.7.3
ε c = 0.003
fy fc′ ≤ 4000psi
εy = NO YES
Es ACI 10.2.7.3
Es = 29,000,000 psi  fc′ − 4000 
β1 = 0.85 − 0.05  β1 = 0.85
 ≥ 0.65
 1000 
 εc 
cb = d  
ε +ε
 c y 
β1

ab = β1cb ACI 8.4.3

ACI 10.3.3 0.85fc′  87,000 


ρb = β1  
amax = 0.75ab fy  87,000 + fy 
ACI 9.3.2.1
φ = 0.9
ACI 10.3.3

  a 
ρmax = 0.75ρb
φMn bal = φ  0.85fc′bamax  d − max  
  2 

NO Mu < φMn bal YES

try rectangular use rectangular


beam with tension beam with tension
and compression steel only
steel

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Rectangular Concrete Beam with
Tension Reinforcement
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CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
rectangular beam
with tension steel
only

Mu
Ru =
φ bd 2

ACI 10.5.1
0.85fc′  2Ru 
3 fc′
ρreq' d = 1− 1− 
fy  0.85fc′ 
fy
ρmin = max of
200
fy NO ρreq' d ≥ ρmin YES

ρ = 1.33ρreq' d

NO ρ < ρmin YES


NO ρreq 'd > ρmax YES

ρ = ρmin ρ = 1.33ρreq' d useρ = ρreq' d


STOP. go to rectangular
beam with tension and
compression steel
ACI 10.5.2

As = ρbd

select 0.85fc '


reinforcement, As

C
a
cb

Asfy
a=
0.85fc′b
d

As
  a  T
φMn = φ  0.85fc′ba  d −   b
 2 

proceed to
shear design

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Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement
STRUNET
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
rectangular beam
with tension and
compression steel

Mu′ = Mu − φMn
bal

d'=2.5"

Mu′
ρ′ =
φ ( fy − 0.85fc′ ) ( d − d ′) bd
εc
0.85fc'
ρ = ρmax + ρ′ ε s′

d'
Cs
steel at
As = ρbd

a
Cc A's

c
tension side

steel at d
comp. side As′ = ρ′bd As

T
b
select
reinforcement
As& A's

find the new d

proceed to check
compression steel
yields

( As − As′ ) fy As′
a= +
0.85fc′b As

a
c=
β1

 c − d′ 
ε s′ = ε c  
 c 

1
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01 - Page 5
STRUNET Rectangular Beam with Tension & Compression Reinforcement (cont.)
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS

NO ε s′ > ε y YES

compression
compression steel may be steel does NOT
neglected, and thus moment yield
strength is calculated based on compression
the tension steel only. steel yields
Alternatively:

Cc = 0.85fc′ab
(A f − 87As′ ) ± (A f − 87As′ ) + 4 (0.85fc′β1b )(87 As′d ′ )
2
s y s y
c=
2 ( 0.85fc′β1b )
Cs = As′ ( fy − 0.85fc′ )

 c − d′ 
fs = Esεc   < fy   a 
 c  φMn = φ Cc  d −  + Cs ( d − d ′) ≥ Mu
 2
  

  a  alternatively φMn′ = As′fy ( d − d ′)


φMn = φ  0.85fc′ba  d −  + As′fs (d − d ′)  
  2 

alternatively φMn = φMn + φMn′ ≥ Mu


bal

proceed to
shear design

Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01 - Page 6


Moment Strength of T-Section Beam
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CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
ACI 10.3.3
finding ρmax
T-Section
Beam ACI 10.2.7.3

fc′ ≤ 4000psi YES


NO
finding balanced ACI 10.2.7.3
moment strength
@ a=t  fc′ − 4000  β1 = 0.85
Given:
β1 = 0.85 − 0.05   ≥ 0.65
bw ,be ,d , f'c , fy , Mu Vu
 1000 

let a=t
β1
ACI 8.4.3

0.85fc′  87,000 
Cc = 0.85fc′bet ρb = β1  
fy  87,000 + fy 
ACI 9.3.2.1

φ = 0.9
0.85fc′ ( be − bw ) t
ρf =
 t fy bw d
φMn = φCc  d − 
 2 
bw
ρmax = 0.75 ( ρb + ρf )
be

NO Mu < φMn YES

use T-Section be
use T-Section
case 2 case 1
t
d

As

bw

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T-Section Beam Case - 1

STRUNET T-Section
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS case 1

Mu
Ru =
φ bed 2

0.85fc′  2Ru 
ρreq' d = 1− 1− 
fy  0.85fc′ 

NO ρreq' d < ρmax YES

STOP. use verify depth of


compression steel compression
at T-Section block

 2Ru 
a = d 1− 1− 
 0.85fc′ 
ACI 10.5.1

3 fc′ NO a>t YES


fy
ρmin = max of
200 continuation of STOP. go to
previous sheet T-Section case 2
fy
1
NO ρreq' d ≥ ρmin YES
ACI 10.5.2

ρ = 1.33ρreq' d select
reinforcement, As

NO ρ < ρmin YES check moment


strength

ρ = ρmin ρ = 1.33ρreq' d useρ = ρreq' d


Asfy
a=
0.85fc′b
As = ρbed

  a 
0.85fc′abe φMn = φ  0.85fc′ba  d −  
Alternatively: As =  2
 
fy

proceed to
Strunet.com: Concrete Beam Design V1.01 - Page 8 1 shear design
T-Section Beam Case - 2
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CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS

T-Section
case 2

 2Mu 2t ( be − bw )( d − 0.5t ) 
a = d − d2 −  − 
 0.85fc′φ bw bw 

0.85fc′
As = [abw + t(be − bw )] be
fy

t
req' d

a
As = ρmax bed

d
max

As
NO
As ≥ As YES
req' d max
bw
STOP. revise to select
include reinforcement,
compression steel As

Asfy t
a= − ( be − bw )
0.85f ′bw bw

Cc1 = 0.85fc′bwa

Cc 2 = 0.85fc′t ( be − bw )

 a  t
φMn = Cc1  d −  + Cc 2  d −  ≥ Mu
2
  2 

proceed to
shear design

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Introduction to Concrete Beam Shear Design

Concrete Beam Shear Design

Introduction and discussion:

The approach of the beam shear check chart is to define the nominal shear strength of the
concrete, then compare it with the ultimat e shear force at the critical section, and subs equent
sections. Shear reinforc ement calculation is performed, where applic able.

The shear charts are presented into two parts. One is the Shear Basic Chart, which is outlining
the main procedures of the shear design in accordanc e with ACI applicable code provisions. The
second, Shear Detailed Chart, is outlining the steps required for repetitive shear check. The
detailed charts provide as much variables and or scenarios as needed to facilitate the creation of
automat ed shear check applications.

The concept in selecting stirrups is based on an input of the bar diameter ( db) of the stirrups to be
used, usually #3, 4, or 5, as well as the number of legs and thus finding the spacing (s) required.

The shear chart intentionally did not include the following ACI provisions due to p ractical and
economic al justifications:

• Detailed method of ACI §11.3.2.1 for calculating nominal shear strength of concrete, vc .
The reason is the value V ud/Mu is not constant along the beam span. Although the stirrups
spacing resulting from the detailed met hod may be 1.5 larger than that of the direct
method using ACI 11.3.1.1 at the critical section only, the use of the det ailed method is
not practically justified beyond this critical section, i.e. beyond distance d from the face of
support.
• Shear reinforcement as inclined stirrups per §11.5.6.3, and bent up bars per §11.5.6.4
and §11.5.6.5. Only vertical stirrups per §11.5.6. 2 are used, since other types of shear
reinforcement are not economically justified.

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CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS

Notations for Concrete Beam Shear Design

bw = Width of beam (web)


d = flexural depth of the beam, in.
f’c = concrete compressive strength
f ct = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight concrete
fy = reinforcement yield strengt h
L = beam clear span, from support face to other support face.
N = number of stirrups required wit hin a given segment of the beam
Nl = number of legs for each stirrup
Vc = concrete nominal shear strengt h
Vs = nominal shear strength provide by the shear reinforcement
Vsb = nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement at the section where Vs is the
max permitted by ACI 11.12.1. 1 . locating of this section is needed to define which
maximum s provisions applies, i.e. §11.5.4.1 or §11.5.4.3
Vs req’d = required nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement.
Vu = factored shear force at the face of the beam support
Vu d = factored shear force at distance d from the fac e of the support in
accordance with §11.3. 1.1 this is the critical shear force provided that:
• support is subjected to compressi ve force.
• no concentrated load on the beam within the distance d.
Vu req’d = factored shear force at the mid-span of the beam, will not be zero if the beam is
partially loaded with superimposed loads (i.e. live load on half the beam span)
φVn max = reduced shear strength of the beam section locat ed along the beam span where
minimum shear reinforcement is required in accordance with §15.5.5.1
s1 = spacing of stirrups within the critical section.
sk = spacing of stirrups within any section subsequent t o the critical section.
s max = maximum stirrups spacing permitted by §11.5.4.1 or §11.5.4.3
s req’d = required stirrups spacing at the section considered
xb = the distance along the beam at which Vsb occurs. for any beam section within the
distance xb, V sb is based on §11.5. 4.3, otherwise is based on §11.5.4.1
x min = distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which minimum shear
reinforcement in accordance to §11.5.5.1 is no longer required.
x max = distance from the face of the support along the beam span after which stirrups shall be
placed with the maximum spacing per §11.5.4. 1, and §11.5.4. 3
∆s = incremental in stirrups spacing between the subsequent sections, suggested to be 1,
2, and or 3 inches

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Beam Shear Basic Chart ACI 11.3

STRUNET Finding Vc
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
ACI 11.2.1

Normal or Light
Wt Concrete NORMAL
LIGHT

ACI 11.2.1.2
NO is fct given? YES
ACI 11.2.1.1 ACI 11.3.1.1
All − Light wt : Vc = 0.75 2 f bwd ( c
'
)  f 
Vc = 2  ct  bw d Vc = 2 fc' bw d
 6 .7 
Sand Light Wt : Vc = 0.85 2 fc' bwd ( )  fct 
  ≤ fc
'

 6 . 7 
ACI 9.3.2.3

Vu φVc φ = 0.85
ACI 11.1.1

Vu > φVc
ACI 11.5.5.1 ACI 11.1.1
φVc
Vu > ACI 11.5.5.1 φVs = Vu − φVc
2
STOP. no min. h=<10"
shear reinf. req'd h<2.5t
φVs
h<0.5bw Vsreq' d =
ACI 11.5.4.1
STOP. no min.
φ
loop for other smax is the min. of:
shear reinf. req'd
values of Vu d/2 ACI 11.12.1.1
24"
ACI 11.1.2 ACI 11.12.1.1 Vsreq' d > 4Vc

fc' ≤ 100 psi Vsreq' d > 2Vc ACI 11.5.6.8


ACI 11.5.4.1 ACI 11.5.4.3
ACI 11.2.1.1 ACI 11.5.5.3
smax= min. of: smax= min. of: STOP. increase
A f  5000  Av fy d/2 d/4
f'c or d or bw
sreq' d = vy   sreq' d =
50bw  fc′  50bw 24" 12"

s is the min. of: Smax


smax
sreq'd ACI 11.5.6.2
ACI 11.5.6.2 Av fy d
s=
Av fy d Vsreq ' d
Vs =
s ACI 11.1.1

φVn = φVc + φVs


loop for other
values of V u
φVn = φVc + φVs

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Beam Shear Detailed Chart

STRUNET Shear Beam


CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
Check

ACI 11.3

Finding Vc

ACI 11.2.1

Normal or Light
NORMAL
LIGHT Wt Concrete

NO is f ct given ? YES
ACI 11.2.1.2 ACI 11.2.1.1 ACI 11.3.1.1

(
All − Light wt : Vc = 0.75 2 fc' bwd )  f 
Vc = 2  ct  bw d
 6 .7 
Vc = 2 fc' bw d

(
Sand Light Wt : Vc = 0.85 2 fc' bwd )  fct 
  ≤ fc
'

 6 .7 

ACI 9.3.2.3
Vc
φ = 0.85
φVc

φVc
φVn =
min
2

Vumid > 0.0


 φVnmin  Vumid > φVnmin
xmin = 0.5L 1 − 
 Vu 
STOP. xmin
 φVnmin − Vumid  does not exist
xmin = 0.5L 1 − 
 Vu − Vumid
 

xmin

Av = Nl Ab

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1 Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 1)
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CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
Vumid > 0.0
 V   Vu − Vumid 
Vud = ( 0.5L − d )  u  Vud = ( 0.5L − d )   + Vumid
 0.5L   0.5L 

Vud

Vud > φVc


φVc
Vu > φVs = Vu − φVc
2
STOP. no min. h=<10"
shear reinf. req'd h<2.5t
φVs
h<0.5b Vsreq' d =
smax = min. of: φ
STOP. no min.
d/2 shear reinf. req'd
24"
Vsreq' d > 4Vc
Smax
Vsreq' d > 2Vc
STOP. increase
fc' ≤ 100 psi smax = min. of: f'c or d or b
d/2 let Vsb = 2Vc
A f  5000  Av fy 24"
sreq' d = vy  sreq' d =
50b  fc′  50b

φVn = φVc + φVs b

s = min. of:
smax
sreq'd
Vumid > 0.0
Av fy d
Vs =  φVnb   φVnb − Vumid 
s xb = 0.5L 1 −  xb = 0.5L 1− 
 Vu   Vu − Vumid
 
φVn = φVc + φVs

xmin xb
N=
s
smax
use: N @ s
2
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2 Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 2)
STRUNET
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
Av fy d
Vsmax =
smax

φVnmax
= φVc + φVsmax

Vud > φVsmax


xmin Vumid > 0.0
N=
s

 φVnmax   φVnmax − Vumid 


xmax = 0.5L 1 −  xmax = 0.5L 1 − 
use: N @ smax Vu  
  Vu − Vumid 

xmax

Av fy d
s1 =
Vsreq ' d

s1

let sk = s1 + ∆s

sk < smax

Loop as long: STOP. go to Av fy d


xmin>xk , and stirrups number Vsk =
sk<smax sk

4
φVn = φVc + φVs
k k

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Beam Shear Detailed Chart (cont. 3)
STRUNET
CONCRETE DESIGN AIDS
3

4
Vumid > 0.0

 φVnk   φVnk − Vumid 


xk = 0.5L 1−  xk = 0.5L 1− 
 Vu   Vu − Vumid
 

xk

xk > xb
smax = min. of:
d/4
12" xk > xmin

STOP. go to
revise Smax let sk +1 = sk + ∆s stirrups number

sk = sk +1

stirrups
number

xk
N1 =
s1

Loop until:
xk+1=xmin , and xk +1 − xk
Nk =
xk=xmax sk

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