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24/03/2013

BODY MECHANICS

Titis Kurniawan

Objectives
Students able to:
 Explain the consept of body mechanics &
related terms correctly
 Explain the important of body mechanics in
nursing area correctly
 Explain the regulation of movement correctly
 Explain 5 examples of postural abnormalities
correctly

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Definition
Body mechanics
 Coordinated efforts of the musculosceletal &
nervous system to maintain balance, posture, &
body alligment during lifting, banding, moving &
performing ADLs.

 Using all of body parts efficiently to lift and move


safely

 Musculosceletal (muscle, tendon, ligament, bone,


joint) & nervous,

Significance
 Correct body alignment reduces strain on
musculoskeletal structures, maintains muscle tone, &
contributes to balance.

 Knowledge & practice of proper body mechanics


protect the client and nurse from injury to their
musculoskeletal systems.

 Proper body mechanics facilitates movement without


muscle strain & excessive use of muscle energy

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........Injury

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.....Body Mechanic
Alignment = posture
 Positioning of joints, tendons, ligaments,
muscles while standing sitting & liying

 Proper body aligment:


 reduce strain on musculosceletal structures & risk of
injury
 Mantain adequate muscle tone, contribute to balance
& conservation of energy

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Postural Abnormalities

Torticollis

Footdrop

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.....Body Mechanic
Balance
 State of equilibrium  controlled for a given
purpose

 Balance:
 Required for maintaining a static position
 Impaired  risk of fall & injury
 Center of gravity in the midle of teh body
 Enhanced with wide base of support & correct body
posture
 Affected by injury, pain, medication, prolonged immobility

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.........Body Mechanic
Gravity
 To lift safely we must overcome the weight &
center of gravity

 Symetrical object only  center of the object

 Gravity  downward  imbalance  fall

 Maximum weight 35% body weight (National


Occupational health & Safety Commission,
1990)

.........Center of gravity

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...........Definition
Friction
 Relative motion of survace of body in contact

 Prinsip:
 Greater surface to be moved greater friction
 Larger object produces larger friction
 Lifting rather than pushing

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Moving the patient: up in bed


Move close to Back straight, knees bent, one foot forward
the side of the (broad base of support)
bed
Up in bed (1 Encourage independence & foster self-esteem.
nurse) Patient bends knees, feet firmly on the bed
(Patient alert & grasps side rail @ shoulder level. Nurse
cooperative) positions hand & arms under patients hips,
back straight, bend knees, feet apart, count to
3. Nurse pulls patient up in bed & pt pulls arms
& pushes feet up into bed.
Up in bed (2 Patient bends knees, feet firmly on bed, 1st
nurses) nurse at HOB arms under head & shoulders,
(heavy patient face foot of bed, 2nd nurse under hips facing
or one who foot of bed, on same side count to 3.
cannot help)

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Moving the patient: lifter


Up in bed Do not lift, always slide
using the One nurse on each side of the bed, firmly grasp
pull the lifter in both hands, ask the patient to lift
sheet/lifter their head. Slide the patient up in bed on the
(2 nurses) count of 3.

Benefit: 1. movement b/w 2 layers of cloth has


less friction than skin on cloth.
2. Much easier to grasp sheet firmly than it is to
hold a patients body.
3. Lifter supports the entire body (except the
head) making it easier to keep the patient
straight.

Moving the patient: lateral

From the back to Move the patient to the side of the bed, so the
the side (lateral) patient will be in the center when complete.
position Raise rail, move to other side of bed, roll patient
toward you far ankle over near ankle, far knee over
near knee. Place one hand on clients hip and one
hand on his/her shoulder and roll pt. onto side
toward you. Place pillow under head & neck, bring
shoulder blade forward, position both arms in
slightly flexed positions (protects joints).
Upper arm supported by pillow.
Place pillow behind patients back & pillow under
semi flexed upper leg
Assess need to support feet (footboard, high top
sneakers).

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Moving the patient: prone


From the back to the Move to the extreme edge of the bed, raise rail on that
abdomen (prone) side, move to other side.
Pillow for support under abdomen, near arm over head,
turn face away, roll as above, check arm & face, continue
rolling.

Prone - infrequently used because respirations can be


compromised
Good position for pressure sores on hips/buttocks.

Important to turn head to the side, no pillow b/c it hyper


extends the neck can use small towel, small folded
towel under each shoulder to prevent slumping, flat
pillow at abdomen (esp. women with large breasts)
Arms at either sides or flexed by head, hand rolls, feet in
dorsiflexion sandbags under ankles.

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