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Designation: A 178/A 178M 95 (Reapproved 2000) An American National Standard

Standard Specification for

Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and
Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 178/A 178M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope High-Pressure Service3

1.1 This specification2 covers minimum-wall-thickness, A 450/A 450M Specification for General Requirements for
electric-resistance-welded tubes made of carbon steel and Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes3
carbon-manganese steel intended for use as boiler tubes, boiler A 520 Specification for Supplementary Requirements for
flues, superheater flues, and safe ends. Seamless and Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel
Tubular Products for High-Temperature Service Conform-
NOTE 1Type C and D tubes are not suitable for safe-ending for forge ing to ISO Recommendations for Boiler Construction3
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe
1.2 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished to and Tubing4
this specification are 12 to 5 in. [12.7 to 127 mm] in outside E 273 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Longitudinal
diameter and 0.035 to 0.360 in. [0.9 to 9.1 mm], inclusive, in Welded Pipe and Tubing4
minimum wall thickness. Tubing having other dimensions may
be furnished, provided such tubes comply with all other 3. Ordering Information
requirements of this specification. 3.1 Orders for material under this specification should
1.3 Mechanical property requirements do not apply to include the following, as required, to describe the desired
tubing smaller than 18 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter or 0.015 material adequately:
in. [0.4 mm] in thickness. 3.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
1.4 When these products are to be used in applications 3.1.2 Name of material (electric-resistance-welded tubes),
conforming to ISO Recommendations for Boiler Construction, 3.1.3 Grade (A, C, or D, Table 1),
the requirements of Specification A 520 shall supplement and 3.1.4 Size (outside diameter and minimum wall thickness),
supersede the requirements of this specification. 3.1.5 Length (specific or random),
1.5 Optional supplementary requirements are provided and 3.1.6 Optional requirements (product analysis, Section 7;
when desired, shall be so stated in the order. crush test, Section 10; hydrostatic or nondestructive electric
1.6 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units test, 11.6),
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the 3.1.7 Test report required (Certification Section of Specifi-
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each cation A 450/A 450M),
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must 3.1.8 Specification designation,
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the 3.1.9 Individual supplementary requirements, if required,
two systems may result in nonconformance with the specifi- and
cation. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the M 3.1.10 Special requirements.
designation of this specification is specified in the order.
4. Manufacture
2. Referenced Documents 4.1 The steel for Grade D shall be killed.
2.1 ASTM Standards: 4.2 Tubes shall be made by electric-resistance welding.
A 226/A 226M Specification for Electric-Resistance-
Welded Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes for 5. Heat Treatment
5.1 After welding, all tubes shall be heat treated at a
temperature of 1650F [900C] or higher and followed by
This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel,
Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee
cooling in air or in the cooling chamber of a controlled-
A01.09 on Steel Pipe. atmosphere furnace. Cold-drawn tubes shall be heat treated
Current edition approved Sept. 10, 1995. Published December 1995. Originally
published as A 178 35 T. Last previous edition A 178 90a.
For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Specifi- 3
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.
cation SA-178 in Section II of that Code. 4
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.

Copyright ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

A 178/A 178M
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements
Composition, % Grade C Grade D

Element Grade A, Grade C, Grade D, Carbon- Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] 60 [415] 70 [485]
Low-Carbon Medium- Man- Yield strength, min, ksi [MPa] 37 [255] 40 [275]
Steel Carbon Steel ganese Steel Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % 30 30
For longitudinal strip tests a deduction for 1.50A 1.50A
Carbon 0.060.18 0.35 max 0.27 max
each 132-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wall
Manganese 0.270.63 0.80 max 1.001.50
thickness below 516 in. [8 mm] from the
Phosphorus, max 0.035 0.035 0.030
basic minimum elongation of the
Sulfur, max 0.035 0.035 0.015
following percentage points shall be
Silicon ... ... 0.10 min
See Table 3 for the computed minimum values.

after the final cold-draw pass at a temperature of 1200F

[650C] or higher.
6. Chemical Composition Wall Thickness of Height of Crushed Section, in. [mm]
Tubes, in. [mm] Grade A Tubes Grade C and D Tubes
6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as to
chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. 0.135 [3.43] and under [19] or until outside
34 Crush tests not required
6.2 When a grade is ordered under this specification, sup- folds are in contact
Over 0.135 [3.43] 114 [32] ...
plying an alloy grade that specifically requires the addition of
any element other than those listed in Table 1 is not permitted. 10.2 Table 3 gives the computed minimum elongation
values for each 132-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wall thickness.
7. Product Analysis Where the wall thickness lies between two values shown
7.1 When requested on the purchase order, a product analy- above, the minimum elongation value shall be determined by
sis shall be made by the manufacturer or supplier from one tube the following equation:
per 100 pieces for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm] and one tube per
E 5 48t 1 15.00 @E 5 1.87t 1 15.00#
250 pieces for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and under; or when tubes
are identified by heat, one tube per heat shall be analyzed. The where:
chemical composition thus determined shall conform to the E = elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, %, and,
requirements specified. t = actual thickness of specimen, in. [mm].
7.2 If the original test for product analysis fails, retests of
two additional lengths of flat-rolled stock or tubes shall be
made. Both retests, for the elements in question, shall meet the 10.3 For tubing less than 1 in. [25.4 mm] in outside
requirements of the specification; otherwise all remaining diameter, the length of the specimen shall be 212 times the
material in the heat or lot (Note 2) shall be rejected or, at the outside diameter of the tube. Slight surface checks shall not be
option of the producer, each length of flat-rolled stock or tube cause for rejection.
may be individually tested for acceptance. Lengths of flat-
rolled stock or tubes which do not meet the requirements of the 11. Mechanical Tests Required
specifications shall be rejected. 11.1 Flattening Test:
NOTE 2A lot consists of 250 tubes for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and under 11.1.1 For Grade A, one flattening test shall be made on
and of 100 tubes for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm], prior to cutting to length. specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or
fraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction
8. General Requirements thereof of safe-end material.
8.1 Material furnished under this specification shall con- 11.1.2 For Grades C and D, one flattening test shall be made
form to the applicable requirements of the current edition of on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or
Specification A 450/A 450M unless otherwise provided herein. fraction thereof.
11.2 Flange Test:
9. Tensile Requirements
9.1 Grade C and D tubes shall conform to the requirements TABLE 3 Minimum Elongation Values
as to tensile properties prescribed in Table 2.
Wall Thickness Elongation in 2 in. or 50
NOTE 3Explanatory NoteFor purposes of design the following mm, min, %A
in. mm
tensile properties may be assumed for Grade A tubes:

5 16 (0.312) 8 30
Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] 47 [325]
9 32 (0.281) 7.2 29
Yield Strength, min, ksi [MPa] 26 [180] 14 (0.250) 6.4 27
Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % 35 732 (0.219) 5.6 26
316 (0.188) 4.8 24
10. Crush Test 532 (0.156) 4 22
18 (0.125) 3.2 21
10.1 When required by the purchaser, crushing tests shall be 332 (0.094) 2.4 20
made on sections of tube 212in. [63 mm] in length which shall 116 (0.062) 1.6 18
stand crushing longitudinally without cracking, splitting, or A
Calculated elongation requirements shall be rounded to the nearest whole
opening at the weld, as follows: number.

A 178/A 178M
11.2.1 For Grade A, one flange test shall be made on 11.6 Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric TestEach
specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or tube shall be subjected to either the hydrostatic or the nonde-
fraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction structive electric test. The purchaser may specify which test is
thereof of safe-end material. to be used.
11.2.2 For Grades C and D, one flange test shall be made on
specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or 12. Forming Operations
fraction thereof. The width of the flange shall not be less than 12.1 When inserted in the boiler, tubes shall withstand
75 % of that specified in Specification A 450/A 450M. expanding and beading without showing cracks or flaws, or
11.3 Crush TestFor Grade A, when required by the opening at the weld. When properly manipulated, superheater
purchaser, one crush test shall be made on specimens from tubes shall withstand all forging, welding, and bending opera-
each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or fraction thereof, tions necessary for application without developing defects.
and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction thereof of safe-end
material. 13. Product Marking
11.4 Tension TestFor Grades C and D, one tension test
shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each 13.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification
lot. The term lot for tension test requirements applies to all A 450/A 450M, the letters ERW shall be legibly stenciled on
tubes prior to cutting, of the same nominal diameter and wall each tube, or marked on a tag attached to the bundle or box in
thickness, which are produced from the same heat of steel. which the tubes are shipped.
When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall 13.2 The manufacturers name or symbol may be placed
include only those tubes of the same size and the same heat permanently on each tube by rolling or light stamping before
which are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the normalizing. If a single stamp is placed on the tube by hand,
final heat treatment is in a continuous furnace, a lot shall this mark should not be less than 8 in. [200 mm] from one end
include all tubes of the same size and heat, heat treated in the of the tube.
same furnace, at the same temperature, time at heat, and
furnace speed. 14. Keywords
11.5 Reverse Flattening TestOne reverse flattening test 14.1 boiler tube; resistance welded steel tube; steel tube,
shall be made on each 1500 ft [450 m] of finished tubing. carbon; welded steel tube


The following supplementary requirements may become a part of the specification when specified
in the inquiry or invitation to bid, and production order or contract. These requirements shall not be
considered, unless specified in the order and the necessary tests shall be made at the mill.

S1. Additional Testing of Welded Tubing for ASME mitted by Specification A 450/A 450M.
Requirements S1.3 The test methods described in the supplement may not
S1.1 The weld seam of each tube shall be subjected to an be capable of inspecting the end portions of tubes. This
ultrasonic inspection employing Practices E 273 or E 213 with condition is referred to as end effect. This portion, as deter-
the rejection criteria referenced in Specification A 450/ mined by the manufacturer, shall be removed and discarded.
A 450M. S1.4 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification
S1.2 If Practice E 273 is employed, a 100 % volumetric A 450/A 450M, S1 shall be added after the grade designa-
inspection of the entire length of each tube shall also be tion.
performed using one of the nondestructive electric tests per-

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