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| Mathematics Major [2]

LICENSURE EXAM FOR TEACHERS (LET)


Refresher Course

CALCULUS

PART I CONTENT UPDATE

I. Theorems on Limits of Functions


We use the following theorems to evaluate limits of functions:
1. Uniqueness Theorem: If the limit of a function exists, then it is unique. That is, if
lim f ( x) L1 and lim f ( x) L2 , then L1 L2 .
x a x a

2. If m, b R , then lim (mx b) ma b


x a

3. If f ( x) c , a constant, then lim c c


x a

4. lim x a
x a

5. If lim f ( x) L1 and lim g ( x) L2 then


x a x a

5.1 lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] L1 L2


x a

5.2 lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] L1 L2


x a

f ( x) L1
5.3 lim L provided L2 0
x a g ( x)
2

6. If lim f ( x) L and n Z then


x a

6.1 lim[ f ( x)]n Ln


x a

6.2 lim n f ( x) n L with the restriction that if n is even, L 0.


x a1

7. lim f ( x) L if and only if lim f ( x) lim f ( x) L


x a x a x a
8. If r is any positive integer, then
1
8.1 lim r
x 0 x

1 r , odd
8.2 lim r
x 0 x
r , even
1
8.3 lim r
x 0 x

9. Let a R, lim f ( x) 0 and lim g ( x) c where c R, c 0


x a x a

g ( x)
9.1 If c 0 and if f (x) approaches 0 through positive values of f (x) , then lim
x a f ( x)


g ( x)
9.2 If c 0 and if f (x) approaches 0 through negative values of f (x) , then lim
x a f ( x)


g ( x)
9.3 If c 0 and if f (x) approaches 0 through positive values of f (x) , then lim
x a f ( x)


g ( x)
9.4 If c 0 and if f (x) approaches 0 through negative values of f (x) , then lim
x a f ( x)


10. Let lim f ( x) , lim g ( x) and lim h( x) c where c is any
x a x a x a

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constant, then
10.1 lim[ f ( x) h( x)]
x a

10.2 lim[ g ( x) h( x)]


x a

10.3 if c 0, lim[ f ( x) h( x)]


x a

10.4 if c 0, lim[ f ( x) h( x)]


x a

10.5 if c 0, lim[ g ( x) h( x)]


x a

10.6 if c 0, lim[ g ( x) h( x)]


x a

c c
11. If p Z , c R then lim p
0 and lim p 0
x x x x

II. Theorems on Differentiation


In getting the derivative of a function, one or more of the following theorems may be applied:
1. If f ( x) c, where c is a constant, then f ' ( x) 0
2. f ( x) x n , where n Z 0, then f ' ( x) nxn 1
If
3. f ( x) g ( x) h( x), then f , ( x) g ' ( x) h' ( x)
If
4. f ( x) g ( x) h( x), then f ' ( x) g ( x)h' ( x) h( x) g ' ( x)
If
5. f ( x) cg ( x), where c is a constant, then f ' ( x) cg ' ( x)
If
g ( x) h( x ) g ' ( x ) g ( x ) h' ( x )
6. If f ( x) , where h( x) 0 , then f , ( x)
h( x ) h( x)2
7. If r is any rational number, f ( x) [ g ( x)]r , then f ' ( x) r[ g ( x)]r 1 g ' ( x)
8. If f ( x) sin[ g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) cos[ g ( x)]
9. If f ( x) cos[ g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) sin[ g ( x)]
10. If f ( x) tan[g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) sec2[ g ( x)]
11. f ( x) cot[g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) csc2[ g ( x)]
If
12. f ( x) sec[ g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) sec[ g ( x)] tan[g ( x)]
If
13. f ( x) csc[ g ( x)], then f ' ( x) g ' ( x) csc[ g ( x)] cot[g ( x)]
If
14. f ( x) e g ( x ) then f ' ( x) e g ( x ) g ' ( x)
If
15. f ( x) a g ( x ) where a is any constant not equal to 0, then f ' ( x) a g ( x ) ln(a) g ' ( x)
If
1
16. If f ( x) ln[ g ( x)] then f ' ( x) g ' ( x)
g ( x)

III. Formulas for Antiderivatives


The following are known formulas for antiderivatives
1. dx x c
2. af ( x)dx a f ( x)dx where a is a constant.
3. [ f ( x) f ( x)]dx f ( x)dx f ( x)dx
1 2 1 2

x n 1
c, n 1
4. If n is a rational number , x n dx n 1
ln x c, n 1
5. sin udu cos u c
6. cos udu sin u c
7. sec udu tan u c
2

8. sec u tan udu sec u c


9. csc udu cot u c
2

10. csc u cot udu csc u c


11. tan udu ln sec u c
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| Mathematics Major [2]
12. cot udu ln sin u c
13. sec udu ln sec u tan u c
14. csc udu ln csc u cot u c
u n 1
c, n 1
15. u n du n 1
ln u c, n 1
16. eu du eu c
1 u
17. au du a c
ln a

IV. Areas of Plane Regions


Below are some formulas for finding the areas of plane regions
1. Area (A) bounded by the curve y f ( x) , the x-axis and the lines x a
and x b
b


A f ( x )dx
a
2. Area (A) bounded by the two curves y f1( x) and y f2 ( x) for all
x [a , b]


A [ f2 ( x ) f2 ( x )]dx
a

V. Volumes of Solids of revolution


We use the following methods to find the volumes of solids of revolution
1. Disk Method
The region bounded by the curve y f ( x) , the x-axis and the lines
x a and x b , is revolved about the x-axis.


V [ f ( x )]2 dx
a

2. Ring Method
The region bounded by the two curves y f1( x) and y f2 ( x) ,
where f1(x) > f2(x) for all x [a , b], is revolved about the x-axis


b
V [ f1( x )]2 [ f2 ( x )]2 dx
a

3. Shell Method
3.1 The region bounded by the curve y f ( x) , the x-axis and
the lines x a and x b , is revolved about the y-axis.
b


V 2 xf( x )dx
a

3.2 The region bounded by the two curves y f1( x) and y f2 ( x) , where f1(x) > f2(x) for
all x [a , b], is revolved about the y-axis


V 2 x[ f1( x ) f2 ( x )]dx
a

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PART II ANALYZING TEST ITEMS

Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.

Evaluate the following:



1. lim 3x 3 4 x 1
x2

a. 15 b. 17 b. 38 d. 209

5 x
2. lim
x 3 3 x

a. 0 b. 2 c. d. -

2x2 x 1
3. lim
x 1
x 1
a. b. 0 c. -3 d.
1, x2
4. lim f ( x) if f ( x)
x 2
2 x 5, x 2
a. b. 1 c. 2 d.
1
x 2 0 x 1

5. lim f ( x) if f ( x)
1
x1
1 x 2


a. 1 b. 1 c. 2 d. does not exist

1 1
6. lim
x 4 x x 4

a. b. 14 c. 1
4
d.

1 2x 4x4
7. lim
x x 2 ( x 2 4)

a. - b. 0 c. 4 d.

8. Evaluate f ' ( x) if f ( x) x 1
1 1 1
a. - b. c. 2 x 1 d.
2 x 1 2 x 1 x 1

9. Find an equation of the normal line to f ( x) x 3 2 x 2 4 at (2, 4)


a. 4x y 4 = 0 c. y 4x 4 = 0
b. x + 4y 18 = 0 d. x + 4y 9 = 0

Evaluate f ' ( x) in each of items 10-13.


2x 1
10. f ( x)
3x 4
2 12 x 11 11 5
a. b. c. d.
3 (3x 4) 2 (3x 4)2 (3x 4)2
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11. f ( x) cos(2 x3 5)
a. 6 x 2 sin(2 x3 5) c. sin(6 x 2 )
b. sin(2 x3 5) d. cos(6 x 2 )

12. f ( x) ln(9 x 2 1)
1 18 x
a. 18 x b. ln(18x) c. d.
9x 1
2
9x2 1

13. f ( x) e2 x sin(2 x)
a. 4e2 x cos(2 x) c. e2 x cos(2 x) 2 sin(2 x)
b. e2 x cos(2 x) d. 2e2 x sin(2 x) cos(2 x)

14. Find the absolute minimum of f ( x) x 4 8x 2 16 on [-3 , 1]


a. 2 b. 0 c. 2 d. 25

15. A closed tin of volume 16 in3 is to be in the form of a right circular cylinder.
Find the radius (in inches) if the least amount of material is to be used in its
manufacture.
a. 0 b. 2 c. 4 d. 6

dx
16. Evaluate x
1
a. x c b. 2 x c c. 1
2
x c d. c
2 x

17. Set up the integral for the area of the region bounded by the lines x 0 ,
x 2 and the curves y x 2 1 , x y 2 .
2 2

[ y ( x 1)]dx [( x 1) y 2 ]dx
2 2 2
a. c.
0 0
2 2

[ x ( x 1)]dx [( x 1) x ]dx
2 2
b. d.
0 0

For items 18-22 evaluate the given integral.

dx
18. 2x 1
a. 2 x 2 x c c. ln 2 x 1 c
b. x 2 x c d. 1
2
ln 2 x 1 c

4 sin x
19. 1 cos x dx 2

4 cos x 4
a. c c. c
1 cos x 3 1 cos x

d. 41 cos x c
12 cos x
b.
1 cos x 3

x3 1
1
20. 0 x 1 dx
5 1 1
a. 1 b. c. d.
6 2 6

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dx
21.
x ln x
a. ln x c c. x ln x c
1
b. c d. ln ln x c
x

x
e
22. dx
x
x
e
a. 2e x
c c. c
x
b. 1
2
e x c d. 1
2
e x
c

23. Find the area of the region bounded by the curve y x 2 4 , the x-axis, and
the lines x 1 , x 3 .
a. 34 sq units c. 21 sq units
b. 24 13 sq units d. 16 23 sq units

24. Set up the integral for the area of the region between the curves y = sin x and

y = cos x from x = 0 to x = ?
4

4 2
a. cos x sin x dx
0
c. cos x sin x dx
0

4 2
b. sin x cos x dx
0
d. sin x cos x dx
0

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