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Online Stator and Rotor Resistance Estimation

Scheme Using Swarm Intelligence for Induction

Motor Drive in EV/HEV
K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Student Member, IEEE, 2Xiaomin Lu, Student Member, IEEE,
Kaushik Mukherjee, Member, IEEE, and 4Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE

increase in the motor operating temperature above the maxi-

AbstractThe usage of niche copper-rotor induction motor mum temperature as dictated by its class of insulation, the
(CRIM) in the Tesla Roadster electric vehicle has bolstered the insulation life of the motor is halved. Therefore, this data indi-
technology of using copper-rotor induction motor for electrified cates that the lifetime of motors using copper rotors may be
transportation. Understanding the merits, demerits and state of extended by 50% or more, with proper maintenance.
art technology of induction motor and its drive in EV/HEV ap- Recently, four 520 V, 140 hp induction machines with die
plication, this research manuscript proposes an online stator and
cast copper rotors powered the latest generation of US army
rotor resistance estimation scheme using particle swarm optimi-
zation (PSO) technique for efficient and accurate control of in-
severe duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). These machines
duction motors in the same application. Firstly, an insight is pro- were manufactured by Reliance Electric and it is stated that
vided on the state or art CRIM technology in EV/HEV and the the die cast copper rotor technology was the only way they
need for reliable online rotor and stator resistance estimation could meet the rigorous military requirements for weight, size
scheme. Secondly, a PSO based scheme for resistance estimation and performance. It is also mentioned that, since copper is a
is developed through a mathematical model. The developed mod- better conductor of electricity and has lower resistance; copper
el is validated and tested on a 10hp CRIM thorough a computer rotors can be smaller, run cooler and have a higher power den-
programme. Thereafter, the calculated results obtained from sity. Hence, copper rotors may improve the efficiency of the
numerical investigations are analyzed.
system and result in a more fault tolerant system [3].
Also in the lime light is the Tesla Roadster electric vehicle
Index Terms Copper-rotor induction machine, electric ve-
hicle, particle swarm optimization, rotor resistance estimation, (EV) which uses the 215 kW copper rotor machine. It is stated
stator resistance estimation. that even though it was bit harder to build the copper-rotor, it
has a much lower resistance and can therefore handle higher
I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND STUDIES currents. Special care is taken in the motor design to handle
the high speed up to 14,000 r/min [4].
I nduction motors fed by voltage source inverters apparently
is one of the most promising solutions for electric vehicle
traction systems. The prototypes built in the past have often
The nameplate efficiency of a practical, in-service, 15 hp,
1,800 r/min aluminum-rotor induction machine today is about
89.5%, which is below the 1997 Energy Policy Act standard
used induction motors of standard design having conventional of 91%. As demonstrated by many other researchers, the adop-
aluminum-rotor bars in the rotor of the machine. However, the tion of copper rotors should bring efficiencies to the 94 to 96%
research being performed over the last decade indicate that range exceeding the requirements of todays NEMA premium
specially designed motors must be studied and developed to efficiency motor, nominally 93% [5]. In addition, analyses by
satisfy the typical requirements for road traction applications. motor manufacturers have shown that copper rotors can be
Conventional induction motors use less efficient aluminum employed to reduce overall manufacturing costs at a given
rotors because fabrication by pressure die casting is a well efficiency or to reduce motor weight, depending on which
established and economical method. Conventional wisdom attribute the designer chooses to emphasize. The potential
states that copper conductors are the most reliable and outper- energy savings achievable through the use of copper rotors is
form their aluminum counterparts, since the electrical conduc- substantial. Research performed in [4]-[6] have also taken care
tivity of copper is 60% more than aluminum. Recent devel- and suggested suitable bar designs to improve the starting per-
opments in the die casting process that produces copper rotors formance of these machines, hence, making the machine more
can easily increase the machines efficiency by up to 2.1% [1]. efficient and reliable.
Use of copper rotors can also reduce motor operating tempera- As the technology and research advances in the area of
tures by 5oC to 32oC [2]. As a general rule, for every 7-10oC electric vehicle drivetrain systems, the copper rotor in induc-
tion motors will play an important role in building premium
This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Re- efficiency high speed motors.
search council of Canada. Speed control, an essential requirement in any electric vehi-
The authors of this paper are with the Centre for Hybrid Automotive Re- cle, may be done in induction motor driven vehicles in a sim-
search and Green Energy, University of Windsor, ON, Canada. (email: pler way by employing V/f control below base speed and by
1,,, and
4 fixed voltage, variable frequency control above base speed.
This method is indeed employed in many electric vehicles.

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However, changing the magnitudes only (off voltage and fre- only every 60 s, as the method wass largely computational in-
quency), otherwise called as scalar control strategies, causes tensive. The methods discussed in n [12][14] are based on
the dynamic torque response of the inductionn motor to be slow model reference adaptation of eitheer flux or reactive power.
considering the state-of-the-art requirement oof super-fast vehi- The second approach, developed in i [15] and [16], was to
cle dynamics. To meet such advanced requuirements of fast compensate for rotor resistance variaation by adaptive feedback
dynamics, field oriented control (vector ccontrol) or direct linearization control with unknown rotor resistance. The third
torque control of induction motors is the soluution today, where identification method is to detect th he output signal variation
developed torque can be changed at a muchh faster rate. With invoked by the artificial injection signal [17]. Also, an ex-
indirect rotor flux oriented control in a squirrrel cage induction tended Kalman filter was used for rotorr resistance identifica-
motor, the unstable portion of the natural speeed-torque charac- tion in [18] and [19].
teristics vanishes and hence there is no chaance of instability Furthermore, mostly speed estim mation schemes utilize an
due to certain types of load torques. The addditional advantage induction motor model for the speed estimation and require
is the fact that the maximum torque-produccing capability of the accurate knowledge of most of the t motor parameters [20].
the machine is dictated by thermal considerrations only. The The accurate value of the stator resistance is critical for the
electromagnetic torque response becomes aas fast as a sepa- correct operation of a speed sensorrless drive, since an error
rately excited DC machine of identical torquee rating but with a between its actual value and the vallue used in the speed esti-
reduced size and weight. The ruggedness issuue is already well- mator may lead not only to a substan ntial speed error but also to
known with cage machines. The only disadvantage in field unstable operation of the drive.
oriented controlled induction motor drive is the higher cost in Section 2 of this paper illustrates measured results obtained
realizing and implementing the complex conntrol strategies in from an on road vehicle test perforrmed using the laboratory
real-time field application. electric vehicle [21]. The electric veehicle uses a 7.5 hp alumi-
Indirect rotor field oriented or vector conntrolled induction num- rotor induction motor with a variable frequency drive.
motor drives are widely used in EV/HEV V applications for The vehicle instrumentation layout is i as shown in Fig. 1. The
high-performance applications. It is a feedd-forward scheme results obtained using a Tektronix 20242 digital storage oscil-
which has to estimate the slip speed based oon the knowledge loscope and a Fluke 434 power quaality analyzer is shown in
of rotor resistance of the employed machinne. The control is Fig. 2. It can be observed from the figures
fi thatthe power peaks
therefore parameter sensitive. The whole ppurpose of vector at the beginning of the drive as the vehicle
v starts to accelerate
control to achieve fast dynamic torque respoonse is lost if the from a stationary position, causing considerable transients in
estimated slip speed is not proper due to channge of rotor resis- the motor. Also, it can be seen thatt the current peaks at two
tance. This is therefore one of the greatest chhallenge in imple- different levels. One peak is roughly around 150 A while the
menting vector control in practice. Rotor ressistance may prac- other is at nearly 200 A. The first peeak of 150 A represents the
tically vary up to 100% due to heating due tto increased load- value obtained as a result of a maxim mum acceleration whereas
ing and recovering this information with a thhermal model or a the second peak is due to regenerativ ve braking.
temperature sensor is not desirable from ppractical point of Hence, it can be inferred from thiis study that the as the load
view. In addition, rotor resistance varies alsso with operating increases, in order to keep up the constant speed of the ve-
slip due to skin and proximity effect. A propper indirect stator- hicle, acceleration has to be increaased. In the process of in-
flux oriented control, on the other hand, reqquires accurate in- creasing the acceleration the frequen ncy of current in the stator
formation about the stator resistance of the machine and the and the rotor varies significantly an nd rapidly. This sudden in-
stator resistance varies with temperature. Puutting a tempera- crease frequency would lead to change in stator and rotor re-
ture sensor in the stator slots again calls fofor a custom-built sistance periodically along the drivee cycle due to the skin and
machine which is practically not always feasiible. proximity effects. Also, the motor is run continuously for a
An estimating technique of rotor resistance and/or stator re- longer duration with rapid load variaation, when covering long-
sistance is therefore justified for electric vehhicles incorporat- er distances. This would increase thee operating temperature of
ing different types of vector-controlled inducttion motor drives. the motor, again leading to change in resistances due to ther-
The stator of the permanent magnet syynchronous motor mal effect.
used in Chevy Volt electric vehicle uses a bar wound con-
struction. However, this construction was prrone to significant
skin and proximity effect which would increease the AC resis-
tance of the machine at high speed [7]. Thhe conductor was
then properly sized to reduce these effects at hhigher speed.
The model reference adaptive control baseed on torque func-
tion reported in [8], could not be used for loww frequencies due
to the stator resistance voltage drop. Three simple methods of
rotor time constant adaptation with referencee adaptive control
structure was proposed using a torque refereence model, reac-
tive power reference model, and axis voltage reference models
[9]. Its major drawback was its dependence on stator resis-
tance. The identification algorithm reportedd in [11] was to Fig. 1. Vehicle instrumentation layout. (a) Data acquisition and logging note-
minimize the error between the measured staator current trajec- book A. (b) Fluke 434 Power Quality Anallyser B. (c) Tektronix TPS2024
tory and an estimated current trajectory, thhe update is done digital storage oscilloscope C.

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4000 Aggregating the set of equations in (2), the velocity of the
ith particle can be modified as follows:
Rea l Power [W]

vik +1 = wvik + c1 rand1 ( pbesti sik )
0 (3)
0 50 100 150 200 250 + c2 rand2 ( gbesti sik )
where, w represents weighting function which is usually util-
36 ized in (4):
w wmin
Voltage [V]

28 w = wmax max iter (4)

24 itermax
0 50 100 150 200 250 where, wmax is the initial weight, wmin is the final weight, iter-
max is the maximum iteration number, and iter is the current
iteration number.
PSO utilizes pbest and gbest to modify current searching
Current [A]

point. With equations (3) and (4), a certain velocity that con-
verges gradually towards pbest and gbest can be calculated,
0 50 100 150 200 250 which is called Inertial Weights Approach (IWA). The current
position can be, therefore, modified by the following equation:
sik +1 = sik + vik +1 (5)
Power Factor

0 According to Shi and Eberharts examination [24], [25], ci =
-0.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 2.0, wmax = 0.9, wmin = 0.4 are appropriate parameters as these
-1 Time [Sec] values do not depend on any particular problem.
Fig. 2. Measured induction motor active power, phase voltage, phase current
and power factor profiles during the on-road vehicle testing.
Assuming discrete stator current signal {(t j , is (t j ))}pj as
learning sample of the particle swarm, the objective function
Understanding the need for a sensitive and reliable online can be defined as:
stator and rotor estimation scheme, section 3 of this paper pro- p
poses a simple and yet sensitive approach of online parameter e = (is (t j ) is (t j )) 2 (6)
determination using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) j =1
technique. The PSO technique is used here to increased accu- where, x (t j ) denotes the calculated output of the particle
racy while determining the resistances. This would further
improve the overall performance of the induction motor drives swarm. Therefore, stator and rotor resistance can be found by
like the vector control drive. updating si and minimizing e. The steps involved in estimating
motor parameters are shown in Fig.3 and described as follows:
The two-axis model of an induction machine used in this
research can be described as in (1). Set parameters N, itermax, si, wmax,

R + pLs Ls pLm Lm Sample real-time data is, vs

vqs s iqs
L Rs + pLs Lm pLm ids (1)
vds = s
qr pLm ( r )Lm Rr + pLr ( r )Lr iqr Generate the initial particle value

vdr ( )L pLm ( r )Lr
Rr + pLr dr si = [Rsik , Rrik ]
r m

The PSO simulates the behavior of swarm as a simplified Calculation ei of each agent i
social system. Each particle modifies its velocity according to Update Y
its own position and the positions of the neighbors in the fol- pbesti is eik < e (pbestik) ?
N Update
lowing form: is eik < e (gbestk) ? Y gbest
vik +1 = vik + c1 rand 1 ( pbest i sik ) N
(2) Modification of capacitance value
vik +1 = vik + c2 rand 2 ( gbest i sik ) s ik + 1 = s ik + v ik + 1

where, vik is the velocity of particle i at iteration k, cj is weight- is k=itermax ?

ing coefficient, randi is a random number between 0 and 1, sik, Y
the current position of particle i at iteration k, is equal to a Output gbestk
vector [Rsik , Rrik ] in this application. pbesti is the best pre-
vious position of the ith particle, gbesti represents the best pre- Fig. 3. Flowchart of the step by step process involved in estimating the stator
vious position among all the particles in the swarm [22], [23]. and rotor resistance.

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Step 1. Generation of initial conditions: Initialize popula- 400
tion size N, maximum iteration number itermax, and other PSO 300
parameters. Randomly generate the initial trial particles si (i 200

Voltage [V]
=1, 2, , N, where N is the population size) which indicate 100
the possible solutions of capacitance value.
-100 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
Step 2. Acquisition of data: Sample stator voltage and cur- -200
rent instantaneous value. The size of both samples is p. Vol- -300
tage sample is further used as an input to swarm estimation -400
system, while current data is the reference for the output of Time [Sec]
swarm estimation. Fig. 4. Terminal phase voltage of the CRIM with 30 dB noise.
Step 3. Computation of objective function: resistance val-
ues are fed into the developed two-axis model of the CRIM to 4
calculate the stator current of the motor. The error of each 3 25%
particle can be attained with (6). 50%

Step 4. Evaluation of searching point: If e is smaller than 2 75%
the current pbest of the agent, the pbest value is replaced by 100%
the current value. If the smallest e of pbest is smaller than the
current gbest, gbest is replaced by the best value. 0
Step 5. Modification of the searching point: The current re- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
sistance values of each agent are changed using (3)-(5).
Fig. 5. PSO performance as a function of iterations for varying machine stator
Step 6. Checking the exit condition: When the current itera- and rotor resistance values.
tion number reaches the predetermined maximum iteration
number or if the error is lesser than10-2, then exits. Otherwise, This will improve the computation speed significantly,
the process goes back to Step 3. hence improving the real-time performance and flexibility of
this scheme to be integrated into the induction motor drive
III. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DEVELOPED PSO used in HEV/EV application. The resistances were varied in
MODEL USING A 10 HP COPPER-ROTOR INDUCTION MOTOR regular steps to verify the convergence of the developed opti-
The algorithm developed in section 2 for parameter estima- mization method. From Fig. 5, it is evident that the PSO per-
tion using PSO is further validated and investigated in this formance is satisfactory after 6 iterations for all the tested pa-
section through numerical results obtained from a developed rameter values.
computer program. As reported in [26], the AC conduction effects have been
The equivalent circuit parameters determined from the the only concern in further increasing the efficiency of copper-
standard no-load, DC and blocked rotor tests, and important rotor machines and the higher conductivity of copper allows
machine ratings of the CRIM under investigation is presented the rotor designer to use these effects to tailor the behavior of
in Table 1. the rotor to improve machine performance. Also, a better bar
In order to simulate real-time field conditions, 30 dB noises design would improve the efficiency of the machine and re-
are added to the sampled signal of voltages and currents taken duce these effects. Hence, understanding the significance of
as inputs and objectives, respectively. Fig. 4 shows the ac- these effects a mathematical model for the corresponding rotor
quired phase voltage waveform of the CRIM with noise at a resistance coefficient as a function of these frequency related
constant 265 V. Similarly, the current waveform is also cor- effects is as shown in (7) [27].
rupted with noise. br
As the variation range of the resistance is not too wide, it is = hr f
enough to set the population size of the swarm as 5 and the bs
iteration time as 10. sinh(2) + sin(2)
TABLE 1 K r = (7)
Output power [kW] 7460 1
Rated voltage [V] 460 =
Rated current [A] 11.5
Number of poles 4 where, br, bs, and hr are bar width, slot width, skin depth and
Rated speed [rpm] 1,760 height of the rotor bar, respectively.
Rated frequency [Hz] 60
The stator resistance of the machine is also affected by these
effects but the change would be lesser during machine opera-
Rs [pu] 0.017
tion as the stator frequency will be fixed at the line frequency.
Rr [pu] 0.011
However, temperature effect significantly changes the stator
Xls [pu] 0.039
resistance as all the heat generated in the machine over a pe-
Xlr [pu] 0.039
riod of time concentrates on the stator. Hence, in this paper,
Xm [pu] 1.400 the objective resistance values are varied from 100% to 200%

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of rated resistances as resistances due to the inherent skin ef- IV. CONCLUSION
fect, proximity effect and thermal effect can vary up to 200% This research manuscript first provides an insight on the
of their rated values. Shown in Figs. 6 and 7 is the change in niche copper-rotor induction motor and its usage in the
rotor resistance coefficient (Kr) as a function of frequency EV/HEV application as a traction motor. It also studies the
obtained from (7) and change in stator resistance (Rs) as a need for an accurate and reliable online rotor and stator resis-
function of temperature over a period of time, respectively. tance estimation in an induction motor drive in the same ap-
Figs. 8(a) and (b) show calculated results of the estimate plication. A novel particle swarm optimization scheme is de-
and objective rotor resistance and stator resistance values, veloped for online resistance estimation through a mathemati-
respectively. It can be seen that the algorithm developed here cal model. The algorithm is built into a computer program to
for online resistance prediction estimates the objective value analyze its performance through numerical investigations. The
very close to maximum accuracy at all levels of loading and developed algorithm is found to be very reliable, fast and ac-
frequency. curate at all loading conditions and frequencies of operation
hence making it flexible to be used with the state of art induc-
tion motor drive for EV/HEV application.
[1], CDA Press Releases, Building a better electrical motor,

January 2005.
[2], CDA Press Releases, Die-cast copper rotor improves mo-
1 tor efficiency motor, January 2005.
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Frequency [Hz] [3], CDA Press Releases, Copper Motor rotors boost perfor-
mance of Army trucks, January 2007.
[4], About the size of a water-
Fig. 6. Variation of rotor resistance coefficient (Kr) with stator frequency of melon, with a lot more juice,.
the copper-rotor induction motor used in the investigation. [5] J. G. Cowie, D. T. Peters, and D. T. Brender, Die-cast copper rotors for
improved motor performance, in Proc. IEEE Pulp and Paper Industry
1.4 Technical Conference, 2003.
[6] J. L. Kirtley Jr., J. G. Cowie, E. F. Brush Jr., D. T. Peters, and D. T.
1.3 Kimmich, Improving induction motor efficiency die-cast copper rotors
cages, in Proc. IEEE Power Engg. Society General Meeting, 2007.
Rs [pu]

1.2 [7] SAE Electrification Series, Chilling out Volts battery pack: The Vol-
tec 4ET50 Electric Drive System, April 2011.
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Fig. 7. Calculated variation of stator resistance as a function of temperature Appl., vol. 37, pp. 720727, Jul./Aug. 1991.
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estimated and objective stator and rotor resistances. (a) Rotor Resistance. (b) [20] K. Rajashekara, A. Kawamura, and K. Matsus, Eds., Sensorless Control
Stator Resistance. of AC Motor Drives. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1996.

978-1-4577-1370-5/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE 206

[21] C. Sen, Y. Usama, T. Carciumaru, X. Lu, and N. C. Kar, Design of Kaushik Mukherjee (M03) was born in 1970. He re-
Novel Wavelet based Transient Detection Unit for In-Vehicle Fault De- ceived the B.E. degree from the Department of Electrical
termination and Hybrid Energy Utilization, Accepted for publication in Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India, in
the IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2011. 1993, the M.E. degree from the Department of Electrical
[22] K. Lee and M. El-sharkawi, Modern Heuristic Optimization Techniques: Engineering, Bengal Engineering College, Howrah, India,
Theory and Applications to Power System, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008. in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of
[23] C. Huang, C. Huang, and M. Wang, A particle swarm optimization to Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,
indentifying the ARMAX model for short-term load forecasting, IEEE Kharagpur, India, in 2003. Since 1993, he has spent al-
Tran. on Pow. Syst., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1126-1133, May 2005. most two and a half years in the industry. In 2002, he
[24] Y. Shi and Eberhart, A modified particle swarm optimizer, in Proc. of joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University, India as
IEEE Int. Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 69-73, 1998. a Lecturer. From 2006 onwards, he is an Assistant Professor in the Depart-
[25] Y. Shi and Eberhart, Parameter selection in particle swarm optimiza- ment of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University,
tion, in Proc. Conference on Evolutionary Programming, 1998. Howrah, India. Dr. Mukherjee is presently a Visiting Professor at the Centre
[26] Canadian Copper and Brass Development Association, Technology for Hybrid Automotive Research & Green Energy, Department of Electrical &
transfer report - The die cast copper rotor motor, April 4, 2004. Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Canada. His research interests
[27] K. Hafiz, G. Nanda, and N. C. Kar, Performance analysis of aluminum include electrical machine drives and power electronics applications in gener-
and copper rotor induction generators considering skin and thermal ef- al.
fects, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, January 2010.
Narayan C. Kar received the B.Sc. degree in Electrical
BIOGRAPHIES Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering
and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 1992 and the
K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer received the B.Tech. degree in M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from
Electronics and Communication Engineering from Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1997
SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India, in the year 2009. and 2000, respectively. He is an associate professor in the
He is currently pursuing the MASc degree in Electrical and Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the
Computer Engineering at the University of Windsor, On- University of Windsor, Canada where he holds the Canada
tario, Canada. His research presently focuses on design Research Chair position in hybrid drivetrain systems. His
and analysis of electric machine drives for wind power and research presently focuses on the analysis, design and control of permanent
electric vehicle applications. magnet synchronous, induction and switched reluctance machines for hybrid
Xiaomin Lu received her Bachelor in Engineering from electric vehicle and wind power applications, testing and performance analysis
of batteries and development of optimization techniques for hybrid energy
Sun-Yet Sen University in July, 2010. She is currently
management system. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.
working towards her M.A.Sc degree at University of
Windsor, Ontario, Canada. She is focusing on the charac-
teristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors. She is
developing innovative magnetic circuit models in order to
study motor behaviour such as losses, cogging torque,
response to faulty condition, etc.

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