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112/vkjksg

lPph laLfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izjs .kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh kjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+as tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSAa
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)

tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeq[k jpuk,% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (gnh vuqokn)] gnqLrku
dh leL;k,] Lokkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964

tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d


laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkakh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vkkknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfkos'ku osQ v;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ekx dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,
cukb] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
tokgjyky
Hkkjr usekrk
g:/113

esa tkus tkrs FksA 'kkafr] vglk vkSj ekuork osQ fgek;rh usg: us varjjk"Vh; Lrj
ij fo'o'kkafr vkSj iap'khy osQ flkarksa dk izpkj fd;kA
izLrqr ikB fganqLrku dh dgkuh dk ikpok v;k; gSA vaxzskh ls Hkk"kkarj
gfjHkk mik;k; us fd;k gSA blesa ia- usg: us crk;k gS fd fdl rjg ns'k
osQ dksus&dksus esa vk;ksftr tylksa esa tkdj os vke yksxksa dks crkrs Fks fd vusd
fgLlksa esa cVk gksus osQ ckn Hkh fganqLrku ,d gSA bl vikj iSQyko osQ chp ,drk
osQ D;k vkkkj gSa vkSj D;ksa Hkkjr ,d ns'k gS] ftlosQ lHkh fgLlksa dh fu;fr ,d
gh rjhosQ ls curh&fcxM+rh gS;gh iwjs ikB dh fo"k;oLrq gSA blh e esa
ia- usg: us Hkkjr ekrk 'kCn ij Hkh fopkj fd;k gS vkSj mudk fu"d"kZ gS fd
Hkkjr ekrk dh t; dk eryc gS] ;gk osQ djksM+ksa&djksM+ yksxksa dh t;A dgus
dh k:jr ugha fd vius NksVs vkdkj osQ ckoTkwn bl ys[k dk dF; vR;ar fojkV
vkSj izLrqrhdj.k iSuk gSA
114/vkjksg

Hkkjr ekrk
vdlj tc eSa ,d tyls ls nwljs tyls esa tkrk gksrk] vkSj bl rjg pDdj
dkVrk jgrk gksrk Fkk] rks bu tylksa esa eSa vius lquus okyksa ls vius bl fganqLrku
;k Hkkjr dh ppkZ djrkA Hkkjr ,d laLr 'kCn gS vkSj bl tkfr osQ ijaijkxr
laLFkkid osQ uke ls fudyk gqvk gSA eSa 'kgjksa esa ,slk cgqr de djrk] D;ksafd
ogk osQ lquus okys oqQN ;knk l;kus Fks vkSj mUgsa nwljs gh fdLe dh fxkk dh
k:jr FkhA ysfdu fdlkuksa ls] ftudk ukfj;k egnwn Fkk] eSa bl cM+s ns'k dh
ppkZ djrk] ftldh vkkknh osQ fy, ge yksx dksf'k'k dj jgs Fks vkSj crkrk fd
fdl rjg ns'k dk ,d fgLlk nwljs ls Tkqnk gksrs gq, Hkh fganqLrku ,d FkkA eSa mu
elyksa dk fk djrk] tks mkj ls ysdj nfD[ku rd vkSj iwjc ls ysdj ifPNe
rd] fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;d&lk Fks] vkSj LojkT; dk Hkh fk djrk] tks FkksM+s yksxksa
osQ fy, ugha] cfYd lHkh osQ I+kQk;ns osQ fy, gks ldrk FkkA
eSa mkj&ifPNe esa [kScj osQ njsZ ls ysdj kqj nfD[ku esa dU;koqQekjh rd dh
viuh ;k=kk dk gky crkrk vkSj ;g dgrk fd lHkh txg fdlku eq>ls ,d&ls
loky djrs] D;ksafd mudh rdyhI+ksaQ ,d&lh Fkha;kuh xjhcksa] dkZnkjksa] iwthifr;ksa
osQ f'koaQts] kehankj] egktu] dM+s yxku vkSj lwn] iqfyl osQ kqYe] vkSj ;s lHkh
ckrsa xqFkh gqbZ Fkha] ml <Is osQ lkFk] ftls ,d fons'kh ljdkj us ge ij ykn j[kk
Fkk vkSj buls NqVdkjk Hkh lHkh dks gkfly djuk FkkA eSaus bl ckr dh dksf'k'k
dh fd yksx lkjs fganqLrku osQ ckjs esa lkspsa vkSj oqQN gn rd bl cM+h nqfu;k osQ
ckjs esa Hkh] ftlosQ ge ,d tqk gSaA eSa viuh ckrphr esa phu] Lisu] vchflfu;k]
e; ;wjksi] fe vkSj ifPNeh ,f'k;k esa gksusokys d'ked'kksa dk fk Hkh ys
Hkkjr ekrk/115

vkrkA eSa mUgsa lksfo;r ;wfu;u esa gksus okyh vpjt&Hkjh rCnhfy;ksa dk gky Hkh
crkrk vkSj dgrk fd vejhdk us oSQlh rjDdh dh gSA ;g dke vklku u Fkk]
ysfdu tSlk eSaus le> j[kk Fkk] oSlk eqf'dy Hkh u FkkA bldh otg ;g Fkh fd
gekjs iqjkus egkdkO;ksa us vkSj iqjk.kksa dh dFkk&dgkfu;ksa us] ftUgsa os [kwc tkurs
Fks] mUgsa bl ns'k dh dYiuk djk nh Fkh] vkSj ges'kk oqQN yksx ,sls fey tkrs Fks]
ftUgksaus gekjs cM+s&cM+s rhFkks dh ;k=kk dj j[kh Fkh] tks fganqLrku osQ pkjksa dksuksa
ij gSaA ;k gesa iqjkus flikgh fey tkrs] ftUgksaus fiNyh cM+h tax esa ;k vkSj kkoksa
osQ flyflys esa fons'kksa esa ukSdfj;k dh FkhaA lu~~ rhl osQ ckn tks vkfFkZd eanh iSnk
gqbZ Fkh] mldh otg ls nwljs eqYdksa osQ ckjs esa esjs gokys mudh le> esa vk
tkrs FksA
dHkh ,slk Hkh gksrk fd tc eSa fdlh tyls esa igqprk] rks esjk Lokxr Hkkjr
ekrk dh t;! bl ukjs ls kksj osQ lkFk fd;k tkrkA eSa yksxksa ls vpkud iwN
cSBrk fd bl ukjs ls mudk D;k eryc gS\ ;g Hkkjr ekrk dkSu gS] ftldh os
t; pkgrs gSaA esjs loky ls mUgsa oqQrwgy vkSj rkTTkqc gksrk vkSj oqQN tokc u cu
iM+us ij os ,d&nwljs dh rjI+kQ ;k esjh rjI+kQ ns[kus yx tkrsA eSa loky djrk gh
jgrkA vkf[kj ,d g^s&d^s tkV us] tks vufxur ihf<+;ksa ls fdlkuh djrk vk;k
Fkk] tokc fn;k fd Hkkjr ekrk ls mudk eryc kjrh ls gSA dkSu&lh kjrh\
[kkl muosQ xko dh kjrh ;k fkys dh ;k lwcs dh ;k lkjs fganqLrku dh kjrh
ls mudk eryc gS\ bl rjg loky&tokc pyrs jgrs] ;gk rd fd os cdj
eq>ls dgus yxrs fd eSa gh crkmQA eSa bldh dksf'k'k djrk vkSj crkrk fd
fganqLrku og lc oqQN gS] ftls mUgksaus le> j[kk gS] ysfdu og blls Hkh cgqr
;knk gSA fganqLrku osQ unh vkSj igkM+] taxy vkSj [ksr] tks gesa vUu nsrs gSa] ;s
lHkh gesa vkhk gSaA ysfdu vkf[kjdkj ftudh fxurh gS] os gSa fganqLrku osQ yksx]
muosQ vkSj esjs tSls yksx] tks bl lkjs ns'k esa iSQys gq, gSaA Hkkjr ekrk njvly ;gh
djksM+ksa yksx gSa] vkSj Hkkjr ekrk dh t;! ls eryc gqvk bu yksxksa dh t; dkA
116/vkjksg

eSa muls dgrk fd rqe bl Hkkjr ekrk osQ va'k gks] ,d rjg ls rqe gh Hkkjr
ekrk gks] vkSj tSls&tSls ;s fopkj muosQ eu esa cSBrs] mudh vk[kksa esa ped vk
tkrh] bl rjg] ekuks mUgksaus dksbZ cM+h [kkst dj yh gksA

vH;kl

ikB osQ lkFk


1- Hkkjr dh ppkZ usg: th dc vkSj fdlls djrs Fks\
2- usg: th Hkkjr osQ lHkh fdlkuksa ls dkSu&lk iz'u ckj&ckj djrs Fks\
3- nqfu;k osQ ckjs esa fdlkuksa dks crkuk usg: th osQ fy, D;ksa vklku Fkk\
4- fdlku lkekU;r% Hkkjr ekrk dk D;k vFkZ ysrs Fks\
5- Hkkjr ekrk osQ izfr usg: th dh D;k vo/kj.kk Fkh\
6- vkkknh ls iwoZ fdlkuksa dks fdu leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk Fkk\
ikB osQ vkl&ikl
1- vkkknh ls igys Hkkjr&fuekZ.k dks ysdj usg: osQ D;k lius Fks\ D;k vkkknh osQ ckn os
lkdkj gq,\ ppkZ dhft,A
2- Hkkjr osQ fodkl dks ysdj vki D;k lius ns[krs gSa\
3- vkidh n`f"V esa Hkkjr ekrk vkSj fganqLrku dh D;k ladYiuk gS\ crkb,A
4- orZeku le; esa fdlkuksa dh fLFkfr fdl lhek rd cnyh gS\ ppkZ dj fyf[k,\
5- vkkknh ls iwoZ vusd ukjs izpfyr FksA fdUgha nl ukjksa oQk ladyu djsa vkSj lanHkZ Hkh
fy[ksaA
Hkk"kk dh ckr
1- uhps fn, x, okD;ksa dk ikB osQ lanHkZ esa vFkZ fyf[k, &
nfD[ku] ifPNe] ;d&lk] ,d tqk] <Is
2- uhps fn, x, laKk 'kCnksa osQ fo'ks"k.k :i fyf[k,
vkkknh] ped] fganqLrku] fons'k] ljdkj] ;k=kk] iqjk.k] Hkkjr
Hkkjr ekrk/117

'kCn&Nfo
l;kus & le>nkj
fxkk & [kqjkd] Hkkstu] [kk|
ukfj;k & n`f"Vdks.k
egnwn & lhfer
elyk & eqk
;d&lk & ,d leku
<Is & cks>
rCnhfy;ksa & ifjorZuksa
tqk & [kaM] Hkkx
d'ked'k & mQgkiksg] ilksis'k
gokys & lanHkZ
oqQrwgy & mRlqdrk
rkTtqc & vk'p;Z
g^s&d^s & "V&iq"V] LoLFk] ekcwr dn&dkBh okyk
vkhk & fiz;
njvly & okLro esa
tylk & lekjksg
kkok & vke.k