Anda di halaman 1dari 5

AIDS

AIDS is short for 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome'. Acquired means


acquired, not offspring. Immune is related to our immune system. Deficiency
means deficiency. Syndrome or syndrome means a disease with a collection of
symptoms, not a specific symptom. So AIDS means a collection of symptoms due
to a deficiency or weakness of the immune system that was formed after we were
born.AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
When we are infected with HIV, our body will try to attack the infection. Our
immune system will make 'antibodies', special molecules that attack HIV.Blood
tests for HIV look for these antibodies. If the antibodies are found in our blood, we
are infected with HIV. People who have antibodies to HIV are called 'HIV-
positive' or infected with HIV.Being infected with HIV does not mean we are
AIDS. Many people infected with HIV have not become ill for years. The longer
we get infected with HIV, the more damaged our immune system is. Viruses,
parasites, fungi and bacteria that normally do not cause problems for us can cause
illness if the immune system is damaged. This disease is called 'opportunistic
infection (IO).

The spread of HIV

HIV is a fragile type of virus. Can not last long outside the human body. HIV can
be found in the body fluids of an infected person. The fluid in question is fluid
sperm, vaginal fluid, anal fluid, blood, and breast milk. HIV can not spread
through sweat or urine.In Indonesia, the cause and spread of HIV / AIDS virus is
divided into two main groups, namely through unsafe sex and needle-sharing
syringes when using narcotics.Here are some other ways of spreading
HIV:Transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy, when giving birth or
breastfeeding.Through oral sex.Use of sex aids together or alternately.Through the
transfusion of blood from an infected person.Use needles, injection, and other
contaminated injecting equipment, such as sponges and cleaning cloths.
HIV infection appears in three stages. The first stage is seroconversion (it is time
for HIV antibodies have started to develop to fight the virus.). The second stage is
the time when no symptoms appear. And the third stage is HIV infection turned
into AIDS.
First Stage
People infected with the HIV virus will suffer from flu-like illness. After this, HIV
has not had any symptoms for several years. Symptoms such as this flu will appear
several weeks after infection. This period of time is often referred to as
seroconversion. It is estimated, about 8 out of 10 people are infected with this HIV.
The most common symptoms are: Throat painDemamShows a rash on the body,
usually does not itchBlue stain swellingLongering weightDiareFirstyour jointsThe
muscle painThe above symptoms can last for one to two months, or even longer.
This is a sign of the immune system being against the virus. But, the symptoms can
be caused by diseases other than HIV. This condition is not solely due to HIV.
Take an HIV test if you feel you are at risk or when symptoms are at risk. But try,
not everyone has the same symptoms as above. If you feel you have done
something that put you at risk, visit the nearest clinic or hospital for an HIV test.
Second Phase
Once the initial symptoms disappear, HIV usually does not cause further
symptoms for many years. This period is called the incubation period, or latency
period. The virus continues to spread and damage the immune system. At this
stage, you will feel healthy and no problem. We may not be aware of HIV, but we
can transmit this infection to others. The length of this stage can run about 10 years
or even more.
Third Stage or the Last Stage of HIV InfectionIf left untreated,
HIV will weaken the body's ability to fight infection. With this condition, you will
be more susceptible to serious illness. This final stage is better known as AIDS
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The following are symptoms that
appear in the last stage of HIV infection:Lymph nodes or lymph nodes swell at the
neck and groin.Fever lasting more than 10 days.Feeling tired almost every
time.Sweating at night.Weight loss down unknown cause.Purple spots are not lost
on the skin.Hard to breathe.Severe and sustained diarrhea.Fungal infections of the
mouth, throat, or vagina.Easy to bruise or bleed without cause.The risk of a deadly
disease will increase at this stage. For example, cancer, tuberculosis, and
pneumonia. But despite this deadly disease, HIV treatment can still be done. Early
treatment can help improve health.

In Indonesia the spread of HIV / AIDS virus is divided into two main groups,
namely through unsafe sex and alternate for injecting drug users (IDUs) .Either
Symptom or not, someone who is infected with HIV can transmit the virus to
others. HIV positive people more easily transmit the virus a few weeks after they
catch it. Treatment of HIV will decrease the likelihood of spreading to others.
The spread of HIV
HIV is not as infectious as that to other people. This virus does not spread through
the air like cough and flu virus. HIV lives in the blood and some of the body. But
liquids such as saliva, sweat, or urine can not transmit the virus to others. This
virus virus inside is not enough. The fluid that can transmit HIV into another
person's body is: Blood Wall Walls Breast Milk Sperm Vaginal fluid, including
menstrual blood HIV is not infected from kissing, saliva, bites, sneezing, sharing
toiletries, cutlery, toilet or pool Same, bitten animals or insects like mosquitoes.
The main ways that the virus can enter the bloodstream are: Through open wounds
on the skin. Through thin walls of the mouth and eyes. Through thin walls inside
the anus or genitals. Via direct injection to blood planes with needles or injections
are important.
Through sex
Viral spread of the most important is by way of unprotected sex through vagina
and anal. Unsecured oral sex is also at risk of infection, but the risk is quite small.
The spread of HIV through oral sex will increase if people who have oral sex are
sores or there are cuts in the mouth. Or have sex with people who have just been
infected with HIV and have many viruses in his body.The high risk of HIV
transmission varies, depending on the type of sexual intercourse.Doing oral sex in
a man who is HIV positive, and the man ejaculates in the mouth.Transmission of
HIV can occur when we do oral sex in women who are HIV positive, especially
when the woman is menstruating, although the risk is small.Receiving oral sex
from people with HIV is very low, because HIV is not transmitted through
saliva.In addition to sex, HIV can be transmitted through:Blood transfusion.From
mother to baby, whether during pregnancy, childbirth, or when
breastfeeding.Sharing needles, whether for piercing or tattooing.Share the
injections, especially for the heated (injecting drug users).Share sex aids with
people living with HIV.
The Effects Of HIV
In The Human BodyThe immune system is in charge of protecting us from
attacking diseases. One important element of the immune system is the CD4 cell
(one type of white blood cell). These cells protect against a variety of bacteria,
viruses, and other germs.HIV infects the immune system. The virus enters the
immune system in CD4 cells. This virus utilizes CD4 cells to multiply itself
thousands of times. This self-replicating virus will leave the CD4 cell and kill it at
the same time. The more CD4 cells are dead, the immune system will be lower.
Until finally, the immune system does not work.When this process occurs, the
body will still feel healthy and no problem. This condition can last for 10 years or
even more. And patients can spread the virus in this period.
People at Risk for HIV
InfectionRemember that everyone is at risk of HIV infection, regardless of age
limit. But there are some groups of people who are at higher risk of HIV infection.
They are:Users of injecting narcotics.People who make tattoos or do
piercings.People who have unprotected sex either sex, or heterosexual.People who
live or travel frequently to areas with high HIV rates, such as Africa, Eastern
Europe, Asia, and southern America.People who perform blood transfusions in
areas with high HIV rates.People affected by other sexually transmitted
infections.People who have sex with injecting drug users.

HIV and AIDS Treatment


There is no cure for HIV infection yet, but there are treatments that can slow the
progression of the disease. This treatment can make people infected to live longer
and can live a healthy lifestyle. There are various types of drugs that are combined
to control the virus.
Early HIV Emergency Drugs
If you feel or suspect you have just been exposed to the virus in a 3x24 hour
timeframe, anti-HIV drugs can prevent infection. This drug called post-exposure
prophylaxis (PEP) or in Indonesia is known as post-exposure prophylaxis.
Prophylaxis is a health procedure that aims to prevent rather than cure.This
treatment should be started up to three days after exposure (exposure) to the virus.
Ideally, this drug can be taken immediately after exposure. The faster the
treatment, the better.Treatment using PEP lasts for a month. The side effects of this
drug are serious and there is no guarantee that this treatment will work. PEP
involves the same drugs as people who have tested positive for HIV.These drugs
can be found in a specialist sexually transmitted infectious disease (STI) or in the
hospital.
HIV Positive Test Results
If a positive or reactive test result means we are infected with HIV. The results of
this test should be delivered by counselor (counselor) or doctor. They will tell the
impact on everyday life and how to deal with the situation that happened at the
time.Blood tests will be done regularly to monitor the development of the virus
before starting treatment. Treatment is done after the virus begins to weaken the
human immune system. This can be determined by measuring the level of CD4
cells (cells that fight infection) in the blood.Treatment is usually recommended
after a CD4 cell count below 350, whether symptomatic or not. If the CD4 is
approaching 350, it is advisable to take treatment as soon as possible. The goal of
treatment is to reduce the level of the HIV virus in the blood. It is also to prevent or
delay HIV-related illnesses. The possibility to spread it also becomes smaller.
Involvement of Other Illnesses
For people with hepatitis B and hepatitis C who are also infected with HIV,
treatment is recommended when the CD4 cell count is below 500. If the HIV
patient is undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy that will suppress the immune
system, treatment is done with any CD4 cell count. Or when you also suffer from
other diseases such as tuberculosis, kidney disease, and brain diseases.