Anda di halaman 1dari 4

HEMOPOIESIS Types:

Hemopoiesis Erythroid lineage (CFU-E)

Gr: haima blood; poiesis making Thrombocytic lineage (CFU-Meg)

Hemopoietic organs Granulocyte-monocyte Lineage (CFU-GM)

Yolk sac (mesoderm) Lymphoid Lineage (CFU-L)

1st area where blood arises (embryonic stages) Asymmetric cell division

Liver and spleen Produces progenitor and/or precursor cells simultaneously

2nd trimester Precursor Cells

Hemopoiesis (=hematopoiesis) -Derived from Progenitor Cells

Bone marrow -blasts


3rd trimester Higher rate of division than progenitor
Major hematopoietic organ Produce only cells in their terminal stages

Precursor

Major changes in developing hemopoietic cells depends on


favorable microenvironmental conditions and the presence of
paracrine or endocrine growth factors

1. Erythropoiesis - Erythrocyte or RBC


2. Granulopoiesis Granulocytes
3. Monocytopoiesis Monocytes
4. Thrombopoiesis Thrombocytes or platelets
5. Lymphopoiesis Lymphocytes & Occurs in lymphoid
organs aside from bone marrow

Hemopoiesis

Fluorescence-labeled antibodies and

fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)

instrument

Analysis of hemopoiesis = In vivo and In vitro

Progenitor Cells

Daughter Stem Cells

Limited differentiation capacity

CFU colony forming units

give rise to colonies of only one cell type when cultured


or injected into a spleen
Stimulates production of globin-> protein component
of hemoglobin-> for production of erythrocytes
BONE MARROW Maturation of Erythrocytes

Found in medullary canals of long bones or in between cancellous


bones

Types:

A. Red bone marrow

Abundance of Blood and hematopoetic cells

More abundant in newborns

Production of cells is dependent of body requirements

Components:

Stroma ( Gr. Bed)

Reticular/adventitial cells ( specialized fibroblastic


cells)

Reticular fibers (support)

Hemopoietic cords (islands of cells)

Sinusoidal capillaries

B. Yellow bone marrow

Filled with adipocytes; lack hematopoetic cells

severe bleeding (hypoxia) converts yellow b.m. to red Bone

Erythropoesis

RBC maturation

Removal of pyknotic nucleus

Decreased mitochondria and other organelles

Involves synthesis of hemoglobin

Erythropoietin (Epo)- growth factor

Produced in the kidneys


Granulopoesis Mature cell-storage in bone marrow

Maturation of granulocytes Circulating population

Involves synthesis of proteins coding for granules Marginating population

Synthesized in RER and differentiated by golgi Active cells

Azurophilic Migration via diapedesis through


intercellular junctions
Specialized lysosomes
Connective tissue
Synthesized first

Similar with all granulocytes


5th terminal compartment

Specific granules Cells die in apoptosis

Specific for each type of granulocyte

Neutrophil

Compartment

Major granulocyte precursors

myeloblast (MB)
promyelocyte (1)
azurophilic late myelocyte (3)
specific metamyelocytes (4)
dispersed granules stab or band cells (5)- Agranulopoesis
elongated nearly mature segmented neutrophil (6)
Development of monocytes and lymphocytes
myelocytes (2)
More difficult to study:
Neutrophilic Myelocyte
Absence of specific granules
The appearance of large numbers of immature neutrophils
(band cells) in the blood: indicating bacterial infection No nuclear lobulation

Neutrophil Differentiation Monocytes and lymphocytes in smear preparations are


discriminated mainly on the basis of size, chromatin structure, and
Division occurs 4 to 5x in different cell stages the presence of nucleoli

Developmental stages (in compartments):

Granulopoietic stages in bone marrow


Monocyte Maturation
Leukemia

Malignant leukocyte precursor cells


Caused by the abnormal stem cells of bone
marrow and lymphoid tissue
Consequence of the shift of cell proliferation
Some cells are produced in excess than others
Anemic people are more prone to leukemia
_ Bone marrow aspiration
_ Biopsy of marrow
labeled monoclonal antibodies specific to membrane proteins of
precursor blood cells aids in identifying cell types

Platelet Maturation

platelets originate in the red bone marrow by dissociating from


Lymphocyte maturation mature megakaryocytes

Circulating lymphocytes: originate from thymus and Driven by thrombopoetin


other lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen, lymph nodes, Megakaryoblasts
tonsils) Endomitosis repeated rounds of DNA
Progenitor cell derived from bone marrow replication;highly polyploid nucleus
T lymphocytes
Cells migrated to the thymus
Proplatelets =long, branching pseudopodia-like projections
Population mainly in peripheral lymphoid organs
B lymphocytes
Megakaryoblasts (Mb) are very large, fairly rare cells in bone
Differentiate in bone marrow then migrate to peripheral lymphoid
marrow, with very basophilic cytoplasm
organs

Difference between B and T lymphocytes will only be


determined via immunocytochemical techniques

Lymphocyte Differentiation