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dqoj ukjk;.

k
3
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk, % pO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcak dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njokkk @
tSls xnZ ls <dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oqQoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk, Hkh fy[kha gSa] drq dfork dh fokk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcak
dkO; dk LFkku izcakRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork, ysus yxha rc oqQoj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcak dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd kqak osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI+kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofokrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhkh ?kks"k.kk, vkSj I+kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
vkjksg

oqQoj th iwjh rjg ukxj laosnuk osQ dfo gSaA fooj.k muosQ ;gk ugha osQ cjkcj gS]
ij oS;fDrd vkSj lkekftd mQgkiksg dk ruko iwjh O;atdrk esa lkeus vkrk gSA ,d iafDr
esa dgas rks budh rVLFk ohrjkx n`f"V uksp&[klksV] fgalk&izfrfgalk ls lges gq, ,d
laosnu'khy eu osQ vkyksM+uksa osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA
16
;gk ij oqQoj ukjk;.k oQh nks dfork, yh xbZ gaSA igyh dfork gS dfork osQ
cgkus tks bu fnuksa laxzg ls yh xbZ gSA vkt dk le; dfork osQ otwn dks ysdj
vk'kafdr gSA 'kd gS fd ;kaf=kdrk osQ ncko ls dfork dk vfLro ugha jgsxkA ,sls esa ;g
dforkdfork dh vikj laHkkoukvksa dks VVksyus dk ,d volj nsrh gSA dfork osQ
cgkus ;g ,d ;k=kk gS tks fpfM+;k] iwQy ls ysdj cPPks rd dh gSA ,d vksj izo`Qfr gS
nwljh vksj Hkfo"; dh vksj dne c<+krk cPpkA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd fpfM+;k
dh mM+ku dh lhek gS] iwQy osQ f[kyus osQ lkFk mldh ifj.kfr fuf'pr gS] ysfdu cPps
osQ lius vlhe gSSA cPpksa osQ [ksy esa fdlh izdkj dh lhek dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrkA
dfork Hkh 'kCnksa dk [ksy gS vkSj 'kCnksa osQ bl [ksy esa tM+] psru] vrhr] orZeku vkSj
Hkfo"; lHkh midj.k ek=k gSaA blhfy, tgk dgha jpukRed mQtkZ gksxh ogk lhekvksa osQ
ca/u [kqn&c&[kqn VwV tkrs gSaA oks pkgsa ?kj dh lhek gks] Hkk"kk dh lhek gks ;k fiQj le;
dh gh D;ksa u gksA
nwljh dfork gS ckr lh/h Fkh ij tks dksbZ nwljk ugha laxzg esa ladfyr gSA dfork
esa dF; vkSj ek;e osQ }a} mosQjrs gq, Hkk"kk dh lgtrk dh ckr dh xbZ gSA gj ckr osQ
fy, oqQN [kkl 'kCn fu;r gksrs gSa Bhd oSls gh tSls gj isap osQ fy, ,d fuf'pr [kkpk
gksrk gSA vc rd ftu 'kCnksa dks ge ,d&nwljs osQ i;kZ; osQ :i esa tkurs jgs gSa mu lc
osQ Hkh vius fo'ks"k vFkZ gksrs gSaA vPNh ckr ;k vPNh dfork dk cuuk lgh ckr dk lgh
'kCn ls tqM+uk gksrk gS vkSj tc ,slk gksrk gS rks fdlh ncko ;k vfrfjDr esgur dh k:jr
ugha gksrh og lgwfy;r osQ lkFk gks tkrk gSA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij

dfork ds cgkus
17
dfork ,d mM+ku gS fpfM+;k osQ cgkus
dfork dh mM+ku Hkyk fpfM+;k D;k tkus
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
dfork osQ ia[k yxk mM+us osQ ekus
fpfM+;k D;k tkus\

dfork ,d f[kyuk gS iwQyksa osQ cgkus


dfork dk f[kyuk Hkyk iwQy D;k tkus!
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus
iwQy D;k tkus\
dfork ,d [ksy gS cPpksa osQ cgkus
ckgj Hkhrj
;g ?kj] og ?kj
lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus
cPpk gh tkusA
vkjksg

ckr lh/h Fkh ij

ckr lh/h Fkh ij ,d ckj


18 Hkk"kk osQ pDdj esa
kjk Vs<+h iQl xbZA

mls ikus dh dksf'k'k esa


Hkk"kk dks myVk iyVk
rksM+k ejksM+k
?kqek;k fiQjk;k
fd ckr ;k rks cus
;k fiQj Hkk"kk ls ckgj vk,
ysfdu blls Hkk"kk osQ lkFk lkFk
ckr vkSj Hkh isphnk gksrh pyh xbZA

lkjh eqf'dy dks /S;Z ls le>s fcuk


eSa isap dks [kksyus osQ ctk,
mls csrjg dlrk pyk tk jgk Fkk
D;ksa fd bl djrc ij eq>s
lkI+kQ lqukbZ ns jgh Fkh
rek'kchuksa dh 'kkck'kh vkSj okg okgA

vkf[kjdkj ogh gqvk ftldk eq>s Mj Fkk


kksj kcjnLrh ls
ckr ckr dh pwM+h ej xbZ
vkSj og Hkk"kk esa csdkj ?kweus yxh!

gkj dj eSaus mls dhy dh rjg


mlh txg Bksad fn;kA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij

mQij ls BhdBkd
ij vanj ls
u rks mlesa dlko Fkk
u rkdr! ckr
ckr us] tks ,d 'kjkjrh cPPks dh rjg 19
eq>ls [ksy jgh Fkh]
eq>s ilhuk iksaNrs ns[k dj iwNk k
Hkk"k
D;k rqeus Hkk"kk dks
lgwfy;r ls cjruk dHkh ugha lh[kk\

vH;kl

dfork osQ lkFk


1- bl dfork osQ cgkus crk, fd ^lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus* D;k gS\
2- ^mM+us* vkSj ^f[kyus* dk dfork ls D;k laca/ curk gS\
3- dfork vkSj cPps dks lekukarj j[kus osQ D;k dkj.k gks ldrs gSa\
4- dfork osQ lanHkZ esa ^fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus* D;k gksrs gSa\
5- ^Hkk"kk dks lgwfy;r* ls cjrus ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\
6- ckr vkSj Hkk"kk ijLij tqM+s gksrs gSa] drq dHkh&dHkh Hkk"kk osQ pDdj esa ^lh/h ckr Hkh Vs<+h
gks tkrh gS* oSQls\
7- ckr (dF;) osQ fy, uhps nh xbZ fo'ks"krkvksa dk mfpr ccksa@eqgkojksa ls feyku djsaA

cc@eqgkojk fo'ks"krk
(d) ckr dh pwM+h ej tkuk dF; vkSj Hkk"kk dk lgh lkeatL; cuuk
([k) ckr dh isap [kksyuk ckr dk idM+ esa u vkuk
(x) ckr dk 'kjkjrh cPps dh rjg [ksyuk ckr dk izHkkoghu gks tkuk
(?k) isap dks dhy dh rjg Bksad nsuk ckr esa dlkoV dk u gksuk
() ckr dk cu tkuk ckr dks lgt vkSj Li"V djuk
vkjksg

dfork osQ vklikl


* ckr ls tqM+s dbZ eqgkojs izpfyr gSaA dqN eqgkojksa dk iz;ksx djrs gq, fy[ksaA
20 O;k[;k djsa
* kksj kcjnLrh ls
ckr dh pwM+h ej xbZ
vkSj og Hkk"kk esa csdkj ?kweus yxhA
ppkZ dhft,
* vk/qfud ;qx esa dfork dh laHkkoukvksa ij ppkZ dhft,\
* pwM+h] dhy] isap vkfn ewkZ miekuksa osQ ek;e ls dfo us dF; dh vewkZrk dks lkdkj fd;k
gSA Hkk"kk dks le` ,oa laizs"k.kh; cukus esa] fccksa vkSj miekuksa osQ ego ij ifjlaokn
vk;ksftr djsaA

vkilnkjh
1- laqnj gS lqeu] fogx lqanj
ekuo rqe lcls lqanjreA
iar dh bl dfork esa izo`Qfr dh rqyuk esa euq"; dks vf/d lqanj vkSj leFkZ crk;k x;k gSA
^dfork osQ cgkus* dfork esa ls bl vk'k; dks vfHkO;Dr djus okys cnqvksa dh ryk'k djsaA
2- izrkiukjk;.k feJ dk fuca/ ^ckr* vkSj ukxktqZu dh dfork ^ckrsa* <w<+ dj i<+saA