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3/16/2009

Instractor:
Eyassu Tesfamariam (PhD)

Assist.Instractor:
Sophonyas Asrat(BSc)

DesignControlsandCriteria
y Functionalclassification
y Projectedtrafficvolumesandcomposition
y Designspeedanddesignvehicle
y Topography
y AvailableFunding
y Driverperformancefactors
y Safety
y P li i
Politics
y Socialandenvironmentalimpacts
y RightofWay(ROW)
y Costs

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Roadfunctionalclassification
Mobility & Accessibility

Mobility: The ability to move goods and


passengers to their destination. (in a
reasonable time)

Accessibility: the ability to reach


desired destination,

Classification of Movements
and Highways

Hierarchy of Movements

Highwayfunction
Hierarchial systembasedonpurposeandlevelofimportance
y p p p
y Principalarterials
ERAmanual
y Minorarterials Trunkroads(ClassI)
Mobility Linkroads(ClassII)
y Majorcollectors Accessibility Mainaccessroads(ClassIII)
y Minorcollectors Collectorroads(ClassIV)
y Localroadsandstreets Feederroads(ClassV)

y Eachfunctionalclassificationcanbetermedeitherurbanor
ruraldependingonthelocationoftheplannedhighway.

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Highwayfunctionalclassification
y Classification of Highways

Arterials
Higher degrees of Mobility
Low degree of access

Collectors
Balance between Arterials and Collectors

Locals
Lower degrees of mobility
High degree of access

Highwayfunction(Cont)
y HighwayDesignManuals
Principal arterial - main movement
(high mobility, limited access)

Minor arterial - interconnects principal arterials


(moderate mobility, limited access)

Collectors - connects local roads to arterials


(
(moderate
d t mobility,
bilit moderate
d t access))

Local roads and streets - permits access to


abutting land (high access, limited mobility)

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ERADesignmanual2002

y Highwayfunction

Highwayfunction(Cont)
y Role of Functional Classification in Design Process

Design Speed Horizontal/Vertical


Alignment
Functional
Classification

Cross Section

The use of functional classification as a design type should


appropriately integrate the highway planning and design process.

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Highwayfunctionalclassification(Cont)
The first step in the design process is to define the function that the
facility is to serve.

The level of service required to fulfill this function for the anticipated
volume and composition of traffic provides a rational and cost-effective
basis for the selection of design speed and geometric criteria within the
range of values available to the designer (for the specified functional
classification).

DesignSpeed
Definition: Adesgn speedisaselectedspeedusedtodeterminethevarious
geometricdesignfeaturesoftheroadway.

Designspeedsareselectedtoachieveadesiredlevelofoperationandsafetyon
ahighway.

Itisimportanttodesignfacilitieswithallelementsinbalance,consistentwith
anappropriatedesignspeed.

Designelementssuchassightdistance,verticalandhorizontalalignment,lane
andshoulderwidths,roadsideclearances,superelevation,etc.,areinfluenced
bydesignspeed.

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DesignSpeed
y ControlfactorsofDesignSpeed
y Topography
y Flat
y Rolling
y Mountainous
y Escarpment
y Theadjacentlanduse
y Thefunctionalclassificationofhighways
y AnticipatedOperatingSpeed
y OperatingSpeed:Observedfreeflowspeed

DesignVehicle

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DesignVehicle
y Designvehiclesareselectedtorepresentallvehicleson
thehighway.
y Thevehicletypeselectedistypicallythelargestvehicle
likelytousethehighwaywithconsiderablefrequency.

y Theweight,physicaldimensions,andoperating
g p y p g
characteristicsofthedesignvehiclewillbeusedto
establishthegeometricfeatures ofthehighway.

DesignVehicle
y Thephysicalcharacteristics ofvehiclesdirectlyaffectthe
requiredcharacteristicsoftheroadwaysonwhichtheyare
driven.
y Jurisdictionsevaluatetheirvehiclefleetpopulationsand
establishagroupingofvehicles onwhichroadwaydesigncanbe
based.
y Roadwayfeaturessuchasintersectioncornerradii,overpass
y p
clearances,rampwidths,andlanewidthsarealldirectlyaffected
bythesizeandshapesofthevehiclesusingafacility.
y Designvehicleshaverepresentativedimensionsandoperating
characteristicsandareusedtoestablishhighwaydesigncontrols.

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DesignVehicleClasses
y PassengerVehicles
y passengervehicleclassincludescompact,small,medium,andlargepassenger
hi l l i l d t ll di dl
vehicles,includingpickuptrucks,sportutilityvehicles,andvans
y Buses
y includeallsingleunitbuses,allarticulatedbusesandintercitybusses
y Trucks
y includesingleunittrucks,tractortrailers,andsemitractortrailercombinations
y RecreationalVehicles
y vehicleswithlongwheelbasesthathavetrackingcharacteristicsaresimilarto
singleunitbuses

Inthedesignofanyhighwayfacility,thedesignershouldconsiderthelargest
designvehiclelikelytousethatfacilitywithconsiderablefrequency.

DesignVehicleClasses

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Examplesofselectingadesignvehicle

DesignVehicle
y Vehicledimensionand
turnradius

e.g. Passenger car

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DesignVehicle
y Vehicledimensionand
turnradius

e.g. Truck

Turningpathdatadefinitions

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Turningpathdatadefinitions

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