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jft;k +
lTTkkn tghj
16
tUe % 15 Ik+ Qjojh] lu~ 1917] vtesj (jktLFkku)
izeq[k jpuk, % knZ xqykc (mnwZ dgkuh laxzg)
lEeku % lksfo;r Hkwfe usg: iqjLdkj] mnwZ vdknseh]
mkj&izns'k] vf[ky Hkkjrh; ysf[kdk la?k vokMZ
fu/u % 18 fnlacj] lu~ 1979

gekjs n`<+ ladYi gh gekjh rkdr gS]a


gekjk fy[kuk gh gesa knk j[krk gSA
jfk;k lTTkkn kghj ewyr% mnwZ dh dFkkdkj gSaA mUgksaus ch-,- rd dh f'k{kk ?kj ij
jgdj gh izkIr dhA fookg osQ ckn mUgksaus bykgkckn ls mnwZ esa ,e-,- dh ijh{kk mkh.kZ
dhA lu~ 1947 esa os vkesj ls y[kumQ vkb vkSj ogk djker gqlSu xYlZ dkWyst esa i<+kus
yxhaA lu~ 1965 eas mudh fu;qfDr lksfo;r lwpuk foHkkx esa gqbZA
vkkqfud mnZw dFkk&lkfgR; esa mudk egoiw.kZ LFkku gSA mUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl
nksuksa fy[ks gSa] mnwZ esa cky&lkfgR; dh jpuk Hkh dh gSA ekSfyd ltZu osQ lkFk&lkFk mUgksaus
dbZ vU; Hkk"kkvksa ls mnwZ esa oqQN iqLrdksa osQ vuqokn Hkh fd, gSaA jfk;k th dh Hkk"kk
lgt] ljy vkSj eqgkojsnkj gSA mudh oqQN dgkfu;k nsoukxjh esa Hkh fyI;karfjr gks pqdh
gSaA
jfk;k lTTkkn kghj dh dgkfu;ksa esa lkekftd ln~Hkko] kkfeZd lfg".kqrk vkSj
vkkqfud lanHkks esa cnyrs gq, ikfjokfjd ewY;ksa dks mHkkjus dk liQy iz;kl feyrk gSA
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ vkSj ekuoh; xq.kksa dk lgt lkeatL; mudh dgkfu;ksa dh fo'ks"krk gSA
jft+;k lTTkkn t+ghj

jfk;k lTTkkn kghj dh ued 'kh"kZd dgkuh Hkkjr&ikd foHkktu osQ ckn ljgn
osQ nksuksa rjI+kQ osQ foLFkkfir iquokZZflr tuksa osQ fnyksa dks VVksyrh ,d ekfeZd dgkuh gSA
fnyksa dks VVksyus dh bl dksf'k'k esa vius&ijk,] nsl&ijnsl dh dbZ izpfyr kkj.kkvksa ij
loky [kM+s fd, x, gSaA foLFkkfir gksdj vkbZ fl[k chch vkt Hkh ykgkSj dks gh viuk
oru ekurh gSa vkSj lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij ogk dk ued yk, tkus dh I+kQjekb'k djrh gSAa dLVe 129
vfkdkjh ued ys tkus dh btkkr nsrs gq, (ftls ys tkuk xSjdkuwuh gS) nsgyh dks viuk
oru crkrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; dLVe vfkdkjh lquhy nklxqIr dk dguk gS] esjk
oru <kdk gSA jk"V&jkT;ksa dh u;h lhek&js[kk, [khaph tk pqdh gSa vkSj ekgch vkkkj ij
yksx bu js[kkvksa osQ bkj&mkj viuh txgsa eqdjZj dj pqosQ gSa] blosQ ckotwn kehu ij
[khaph xbZ js[kk, muosQ vareZu rd ugha igqp ikbZ gSaA (jktuhfrd ;FkkFkZ osQ Lrj ij muosQ
oru dh igpku cny pqdh gS] drq ;g mudk gkfnZd ;FkkFkZ ugha cu ik;k gSA) ,d
vupkgh] vizhfrdj ckgjh ck;rk us mUgsa vius&vius tUe&LFkkuksa ls foLFkkfir rks dj
fn;k gS] ij og muosQ fnykas ij dCkk ugha dj ikbZ gSA ued tSlh NksVh&lh phk dk
lI+kQj igpku osQ bl gkfnZd igyw dks ijr&nj&ijr m?kkM+ nsrk gSA ;g gkfnZd igyw tc
rd ljgn osQ vkj&ikj thfor gS] rc rd ;g mEehn dh tk ldrh gS fd jktuhfrd
ljgnsa ,d fnu csekuh gks tk,xhA ykgkSj osQ dLVe vfkdkjh dk ;g dFku cgqr lkjxfHkZr
gSmudks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI+kQ ls dfg,xk fd ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS
vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc j+rk&j+rk Bhd gks tk,xkA
bls i<+rs gq, ,d loky gekjs eu esa k:j mB ldrk gSD;k keZ&ekgc osQ vkkkj
ij u;h ljgnksa osQ vkj&ikj isaQd fn, x, yksxksa dh og ih<+h ftuosQ fnyksa esa viuh
tUe&LFkyh osQ izfr xgjk yxko gS] osQ [kRe gks tkus ij j+rk&j+rk Bhd gks tkus dh
mEehn Hkh [kRe gks tk,xh\ D;k u;h ih<+h osQ vkus ij Hkh ;g mEehn cuh jgsxh\
vkjksg

ued
130
mu fl[k chch dks ns[kdj lfIk+ Q;k gSjku jg xbZ Fkh] fdl
dnj og mldh ek ls feyrh FkhA ogh Hkkjh Hkjde ftLe]
NksVh&NksVh pednkj vk[ks]a ftuesa usdh] eqgCcr vkSj jgefnyh
dh jks'kuh txexk;k djrh FkhA psgjk tSls dksbZ [kqyh gqbZ
fdrkcA oSlk gh lI+ksQn ckjhd eyey dk nqi^k tSlk
mldh vEek eqgjZe esa vks<+k djrh FkhA
tc lfI+kQ;k us dbZ ckj mudh rjI+kQ eqgCcr ls ns[kk
rks mUgksaus Hkh mlosQ ckjs esa ?kj dh cgw ls iwNkA mUgsa crk;k x;k fd ;s eqlyeku gSaA
dy gh lqcg ykgkSj tk jgh gSa vius Hkkb;ksa ls feyus] ftUgsa bUgksaus dbZ lky ls ugha
ns[kkA ykgkSj dk uke lqudj os mBdj lfI+kQ;k osQ ikl vk cSBha vkSj mls crkus yxha fd
mudk ykgkSj fdruk I;kjk 'kgj gSA ogk osQ yksx oSQls [kwclwjr gksrs gSa] mEnk [kkus vkSj
uI+kQhl diM+ksa osQ 'kkSdhu] lSj&likVs osQ jfl;k] knkfnyh dh rLkohjA
dhrZu gksrk jgkA os vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk ckrsa djrh jghaA lfI+kQ;k us nks&,d ckj chp
esa iwNk Hkh]ekrk th] vkidks rks ;gk vk, cgqr lky gks x, gksaxsA gk csVh! tc
gnqLrku cuk Fkk rHkh vk, FksA oSls rks vc ;gk Hkh gekjh dksBh cu xbZ gSA fckusl gS]
lc Bhd gh gS] ij ykgkSj cgqr ;kn vkrk gSA gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA
fiQj iydksa ls oqQN flrkjs VwVdj nwfk;k vkpy esa lek tkrs gSaA ckr vkxs py
iM+rh] exj ?kwe&fiQjdj fiQj mlh txg ij vk tkrh^lkMk ykgkSj*!
dhrZu dksbZ X;kjg cts [kRe gqvkA tc os izlkn gkFk esa fy, mBus yxha vkSj
lkfIkQ;k osQ lyke osQ tokc esa nqvk, nsrh gqbZ jQ[klr gksus yxha rc lfI +kQ;k us khes ls
+
iwNk] vki ykgkSj ls dksbZ lkSxkr exkuk pkgsa rks eq>s gqDe nhft,A
os njokks ls yxh [kM+h FkhaA fgpfdpkdj cgqr gh vkfgLrk ls cksyha] vxj yk
ldks rks FkksM+k&lk ykgkSjh ued ykukA
ianzg fnu ;ksa xqkjs fd irk gh ugha pykA fTke[kkuk dh 'kkesa] nksLrksa dh eqgCcr]
Hkkb;ksa dh [kkfrjnkfj;kmudk cl u pyrk Fkk fd fcNqM+h gqbZ ijnslh cfgu osQ fy,
D;k oqQN u dj nsa! nksLrksa] vkhkksa dh ;g gkyr fd dksbZ oqQN fy, vk jgk gS] dksbZ
ued

oqQNA dgk j[ksa] oSQls iSd djsa] D;ksa dj ys tk,,d leL;k FkhA lcls cM+h leL;k Fkh
cknkeh dkxk dh ,d iqfM+;k dh ftlesa dksbZ lsj Hkj ykgkSjh ued FkkA
lfI+kQ;k dk HkkbZ ,d cgqr cM+k iqfyl vI+kQlj FkkA mlus lkspk fd og Bhd jk;
ns losQxkA pqiosQ ls iwNus yxh] D;ksa HkS;k] ued ys tk ldrs gSa\
og gSjku gksdj cksyk] ued\ ued rks ugha ys tk ldrs] xSjdkuwuh gS vkSj--- vkSj 131
ued dk vki D;k djsaxh\ vki yksxksa osQ fgLls esa rks gels cgqr ;knk ued vk;k gSA
og >q>yk xbZ] eSa fgLls&c[kjs dh ckr ugha dj jgh gw] vk;k gksxkA eq>s rks ykgkSj
dk ued pkfg,] esjh ek us ;gh exok;k gSA
HkkbZ dh le> esa oqQN ugha vk;kA ek dk D;ksa fk Fkk] os rks cVokjs ls igys gh
ej pqdh FkhaA
kjk ujeh ls le>kus osQ vankk esa cksyk] nsf[k, ckth! vkidks dLVe ls xqkjuk
gS vkSj vxj ,d Hkh phk ,slh&oSlh fudy vkbZ rks vkiosQ lkeku dh pnh&pnh fc[ksj
nsaxs dLVeokysA dkuwu tks---
og fcxM+dj cksyha] fudy vkus dk D;k eryc] eSa D;k pksjh ls ys tkmQxh\
fNik osQ ys tkmQxh\ eSa rks fn[kk osQ] trk osQ ys tkmQxh\
HkbZ] ;g rks vki cgqr gh xyr ckr djsaxhA--- dkuwu---A
vjs] fiQj ogh dkuwu&dkuwu dgs tkrs gks! D;k lc dkuwu gqowQer osQ gh gksrs gSa]
oqQN eqgCcr] eqjkSor] vknfe;r] balkfu;r osQ ugha gksrs\ vkf[kj dLVeokys Hkh balku
gksrs gSa] dksbZ e'khu rks ugha gksrsA
gk] os e'khu rks ugha gksrs] ij eSa vkidks ;dhu fnykrk gw os 'kk;j Hkh ugha gksrsA
mudks rks viuh M~;wVh djuh gksrh gSaA
vjs ckck] rks eSa dc dg jgh gw fd og M~;wVh u djsaA ,d rksgI+kQk gS] og Hkh
pan iSlksa dk] 'kkSd ls ns[k ysa] dksbZ lksuk&pknh ugha] Lexy dh gqbZ phk ugha] CySd
ekosZQV dk eky ughaA
vc vkils dkSu cgl djsA vki vnhc Bgjha vkSj lHkh vnhcksa dk fnekx
FkksM+k&lk rks k:j gh ?kwek gqvk gksrk gSA oSls eSa vkidks crk, nsrk gw fd vki ys ugha
tk ik,xh vkSj cnukeh eq+r esa ge lcdh Hkh gksxhA vkf[kj vki dLVeokyksa dks fdruk
tkurh gSa\
mlus xqLls ls tokc fn;k] dLVeokyksa dks tkusa ;k u tkusa] ij ge balkuksa dks
FkksM+k&lk k:j tkurs gSaA vkSj jgh fnekx dh ckr lks vxj lHkh yksxksa dk fnekx ge
vnhcksa dh rjg ?kwek gqvk gksrk rks ;g nqfu;k oqQN csgrj gh txg gks tkrh] HkS;kA
vkjksg

132
ued

ekjs xqLls osQ mldh vk[kksa ls vklw cgus yxs FksA mldk HkkbZ flj fgykdj pqi gks x;kA
vxys jksk nks cts fnu dks mls jokuk gksuk FkkA lqcg osQ fy, cgqr O;Lr dk;Ze
cu pqdk Fkk] blfy, mls lkjh iSfoaQx jkr gh dks djuh FkhA dejs dk njokkk vanj ls
can djosQ og lkeku ckkus yxhA bkj&mkj iSQyh gqb phkas khjs&khjs fleVdj lwVosQl
vkSj fcLrjcan esa pyh xbA flI+kZQ nks phksa jg xbA ,d rks og NksVh&lh Vksdjh ftlesa 133
dhuw Fks] ,d nksLr dk rksgI+kQklarjs vkSj ekYVs dks feykdj iSnk fd;k x;k iQy] ekYVs
dh rjg jaxhu vkSj ehBk] larjs dh rjg ukkqdA vkSj nwljh Fkh og ued dh iqfM+;kA
vc rd lfI+kQ;k dk xqLlk mrj pqdk FkkA Hkkouk osQ LFkku ij cqf khjs&khjs ml
ij gkoh gks jgh FkhA ued dh iqfM+;k ys rks tkuh gS] ij oSQls\ vPNk] vxj bls gkFk
esa ys ysa vkSj dLVeokyksa osQ lkeus lcls igys blh dks j[k nsa\ ysfdu vxj dLVeokyksa
us u tkus fn;k! rks ekcwjh gS] NksM+ nsaxsA ysfdu fiQj ml ok;ns dk D;k gksxk tks geus
viuh ek ls fd;k Fkk\ ge vius dks lS;n dgrs gSaA fiQj ok;nk djosQ >qBykus osQ D;k
ek;us\ tku nsdj Hkh ok;nk iwjk djuk gksxkA exj oSQls\ vPNk] vxj bls dhuqvksa dh
Vksdjh esa lcls uhps j[k fy;k tk, rks brus dhuqvksa osQ <sj esa Hkyk dkSu bls ns[ksxk\
vkSj vxj ns[k fy;k\ ugha th] iQyksa dh Vksdfj;k rks vkrs oDr Hkh fdlh dh ugha ns[kh
tk jgh FkhaA mkj ls osQys] bkj ls dhuw lc gh yk jgs Fks] ys tk jgs FksA ;gh Bhd gS]
fiQj ns[kk tk,xkA
mlus dhuw dkyhu ij myV fn,A Vksdjh [kkyh dh vkSj ued dh iqfM+;k mBkdj
Vksdjh dh rg esa j[k nhA ,d ckj >kddj mlus iqfM+;k dks ns[kk vkSj mls ,slk eglwl
gqvk ekuks mlus viuh fdlh I;kjs dks dcz dh xgjkbZ esa mrkj fn;k gks! oqQN nsj mdM+w
cSBh og iqfM+;k dks rdrh jgh vkSj mu dgkfu;ksa dks ;kn djrh jgh ftUgsa og vius
cpiu esa vEek ls lquk djrh Fkh] ftuesa 'kgtknk viuh jku phjdj ghjk fNik ysrk Fkk
vkSj nsoksa] [kkSI+kQukd Hkwrksa rFkk jk{klksa osQ lkeus ls gksrk gqvk ljgnksa ls xqkj tkrk FkkA bl
kekus esa ,slh dksbZ rjdhc ugha gks ldrh Fkh ojuk og viuk fny phjdj mlesa ;g
ued fNik ysrhA mlus ,d vkg HkjhA
fiQj og dhuqvksa dks ,d&,d djosQ Vksdjh esa j[kus yxh] iqfM+;k osQ bkj&mkj]
vklikl vkSj fiQj mQij] ;gk rd fd og fcYkoqQy fNi xbZA vk'oLr gksdj mlus gkFk
>kMs+] lwVosQl iyax osQ uhps f[kldk;k] Vksdjh mBkdj iyax osQ fljgkus j[kh] vkSj
ysVdj nksgj vks<+ yhA
jkr dks rdjhcu Ms<+ cts FksA ekpZ dh lqgkuh gok f[kM+dh dh tkyh ls vk jgh
FkhA ckgj pknuh lkI+kQ vkSj BaMh FkhA f[kM+dh osQ djhc yxk paik dk ,d ?kuk nj[r
vkjksg

lkeus dh nhokj ij ifk;ksa osQ vDl ygdk jgk FkkA dHkh fdlh rjI+kQ ls fdlh dh nch
gqbZ [kklh dh vkgV] nwj ls fdlh oqQks osQ HkkSadus ;k jksus dh vkokk] pkSdhnkj dh lhVh
vkSj fiQj lkVk! ;g ikfdLrku FkkA ;gk mlosQ rhu lxs HkkbZ Fks] cs'kqekj pkgusokys nksLr
Fks] cki dh dcz Fkh] uUgs&uUgs Hkrhts&Hkrhft;k Fkha tks mlls cM+h eklwfe;r ls iwNrs]
134
^^iwQI+kQhtku] vki gnqLrku esa D;ksa jgrh gSa] tgk ge yksx ugha vk ldrsA** mu lcosQ
vkSj lfI+kQ;k osQ chp esa ,d ljgn Fkh vkSj cgqr gh uksdnkj yksgs dh NM+ksa dk taxyk]
tks dLVe dgykrk FkkA
dy og ykgkSj ls pyh tk,xhA gks ldrk gS] lkyHkj ckn fiQj vk,A ,d lky ls
igys rks og vk Hkh ugha ldrh Fkh vkSj ;g Hkh gks ldrk Fkk fd vc dHkh u vk losQA
mldh vk[ksa vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk can gksus yxhaA fiQj mls ,d lI+ksQn nqi^s dk nwfk;k
vkpy ygjkrk fn[kkbZ nsus yxk] ftl ij ;gk&ogk flrkjs f>yfeyk jgs Fksgesa ogk ls
vk, rks cgqr fnu gks x,] ;gk gekjh dksBh Hkh gS] fckusl Hkh] ge ;gk cl Hkh x, gSa]
ij gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA
fiQj fn[kk bdcky dk edcjk] ykgkSj dk fdyk] fdys osQ ihNs Mwcrs gq, lwjt dh
ukjaxh fdj.ksa] vklikl ls iSQyrk&mHkjrk vksjk] ml jaxhu vksjs esa cgrh gqbZ uje gokA
ml gok esa jph gqbZ ekSyfljh dh [kq'kcw vkSj edcjs dh lhf<+;ksa ij cSBs gq, nks balku
flj >qdk, pqipki] mnkl] tSls nks cstku ijNkb;kA
rks rqe dy pyh tkvksxh\
gk!
vc dc vkvksxh\
ekywe ugha] 'kk;n vxys lkyA 'kk;n dHkh ughaA
vpkud mldh vk[ksa [kqy xbA 'kk;n mlus edcjs dh lhf<+;ksa osQ uhps yxh nwc ls
,d ikh rksMh+ Fkh ftl ij BaMh vksl teuh 'kq: gks xbZ FkhA gqvk ;g Fkk fd uhan esa djoV
ysrs gq, mldk gkFk dhuqvksa ls yckyc Hkjh Vksdjh ij tk iM+k Fkkjlhys] BaMs dhuw ftudks
nsrs oDr mlosQ nksLr us dgk Fkk] ;g gnqLrku&ikfdLrku dh ,drk dk esok gSA
lfI+kQ;k I+kQLVZ Dykl osQ osVx :e esa cSBh FkhA nsgyh rd dk fdjk;k mlosQ HkkbZ
us fn;k FkkA og gkFk esa fVdV nck, osfVax :e osQ ckgj IysViQkeZ ij Vgy jgk FkkA
og vanj cSBh pk; dh I;kyh gkFk esa fy, dhuqvksa dh Vksdjh ij fuxkgsa tek, ;g
lksp jgh Fkh fd vklikl] bkj&mkj brus yksx gSa] ysfdu flI+kZQ ogh tkurh gS fd Vksdjh
dh rg esa dhuqvksa osQ uhps ued dh iqfM+;k gSA
ued

tc mldk lkeku dLVe ij tkp osQ fy, ckgj fudkyk tkus yxk rks mls ,d
f>jf>jh&lh vkbZ vkSj ,dne ls mlus I+kSQlyk fd;k fd eqgCcr dk ;g rksgI+kQk pksjh ls
ugha tk,xk] ued dLVeokyksa dks fn[kk,xh ogA mlus tYnh ls iqfM+;k fudkyh vkSj
gSaMcSx esa j[k yh] ftlesa mldk iSlksa dk ilZ vkSj ikliksVZ vkfn FksA tc lkeku dLVe
ls gksdj jsy dh rjI+kQ pyk rks og ,d dLVe vI+kQlj dh rjI+kQ c<+hA ;knkrj esksa 135
[kkyh gks pqdh FkhaA ,d&nks ij bDdk&nqDdk lkeku j[kk FkkA ogha ,d lkgc [kM+s Fksyack
dn] nqcyk&iryk ftLe] f[kpM+h cky] vk[kksa ij ,sudA os dLVe vI+kQlj dh onhZ igus
rks Fks exj mu ij og oqQN tp ugha jgh FkhA lfI+kQ;k oqQN fgpfdpkdj cksyh] eSa vkils
oqQN iwNuk pkgrh gwA
mUgksaus ukj Hkjdj mls xkSj ls ns[kkA cksys] I+kQjekb,A
muosQ ygTks us lfI+kQ;k dh fgEer c<+k nh] vki---vki dgk osQ jgus okys gSa\
mUgksaus oqQN gSjku gksdj mls fiQj xkSj ls ns[kk] esjk oru nsgyh gS] vki Hkh rks
gekjh gh rjI+kQ dh ekywe gksrh gSa] vius vthkksa ls feyus vkbZ gksaxhA
th gkA eSa y[kumQ dh gwA vius Hkkb;ksa ls feyus vkbZ FkhA os yksx bkj vk x,
gSaA vkidks---vkidks Hkh rks 'kk;n bkj vk,\
th] tc ikfdLrku cuk Fkk rHkh vk, Fks] exj gekjk oru rks nsgyh gh gSA
lfI+kQ;k us gSaMcSx esk ij j[k fn;k vkSj ued dh iqfM+;k fudkydj muosQ lkeus
j[k nh vkSj fiQj vkfgLrk&vkfgLrk jQd&jQd dj mudks lc oqQN crk fn;kA
mUgksaus iqfM+;k dks khjs ls viuh rjI+kQ ljdkuk 'kq: fd;kA tc lfI+kQ;k dh ckr
[kRe gks xbZ rc mUgksaus iqfM+;k dks nksuksa gkFkksa esa mBk;k] vPNh rjg yisVk vkSj [kqn
lfI+kQ;k osQ cSx esa j[k fn;kA cSx lfI+kQ;k dks nsrs gq, cksys] eqgCcr rks dLVe ls bl
rjg xqkj tkrh gS fd dkuwu gSjku jg tkrk gSA
og pyus yxh rks os Hkh [kM+s gks x, vkSj dgus yxs] tkek efLtn dh lhf<+;ksa
dks esjk lyke dfg,xk vkSj mu [kkrwu dks ;g ued nsrs oDr esjh rjI+kQ ls dfg,xk fd
ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS vkSj nsgyh esjk] rks ckdh lc jrk&jrk Bhd gks
tk,xkA
lfIk+ Q;k dLVe osQ taxys ls fudydj nwljs IysVIk+ QkeZ ij vk xbZ vkSj os ogha [kM+s jgsA
IysViQkeZ ij mlosQ cgqr&ls nksLr] HkkbZ fj'rsnkj Fks] gljr Hkjh ukjksa] cgrs gq,
vklqvksa] BaMh lklksa vkSj fHkps gq, gksBksa dks chp esa ls dkVrh gqbZ jsy ljgn dh rjiQ
c<+hA vVkjh esa ikfdLrkuh iqfyl mrjh] gnqLrkuh iqfyl lokj gqbZA oqQN le> esa ugha
vkrk Fkk fd dgk ls ykgkSj [kRe gqvk vkSj fdl txg ls ve`rlj 'kq: gks x;kA ,d
vkjksg

kehu Fkh] ,d kcku Fkh] ,d&lh lwjrsa vkSj fyckl] ,d&lk ycksygTkk] vkSj vankk Fks]
xkfy;k Hkh ,d gh&lh Fkha ftuls nksuksa cM+s I;kj ls ,d&nwljs dks uokk jgs FksA cl
eqf'dy flI+kZQ bruh Fkh fd Hkjh gqbZ canwosaQ nksuksa osQ gkFkksa esa FkhaA
ve`rlj esa dLVe okys I+kQLVZ Dykl okyksa osQ lkeku dh tkp muosQ fMCcs osQ lkeus
136 gh dj jgs FksA lfI+kQ;k dk lkjk lkeku ns[kk tk pqdk rks og mu ukStoku dLVe vI+kQlj
dh vksj c<+h tks ckrphr vkSj lwjr ls caxkyh yxrs Fks] nsf[k,] esjs ikl ued gS]
FkksM+k&lkA
fiQj mlus gSaMcSx [kksyk vkSj og iqfM+;k mudh rjI+kQ c<+krs gq,] vVdrs] f>>drs]
fgpfdpkrs gq, mudks lc&oqQN dg lquk;kA mUgksaus flj >qdk fy;k Fkk] lqurs jgs]
chp&chp esa flj mBkrs] xkSj ls mls ns[krs] fiQj lquus yxrsA ckr iwjh gks xbZ rks mUgksaus
,d ckj fiQj lfI+kQ;k dks mQij ls uhps rd ns[kk] khjs ls cksys] bkj vkb, kjk!
pyrs&pyrs mUgksaus ,d&nwljs ls dgk] buosQ lkeku dk ;ku jf[k,xkA
IysVI+kQkeZ osQ fljs ij ,d dejk FkkA os mlosQ vanj ?kqlsA lfI+kQ;k nkf[ky gksrs
fgpfdpkbZA os eqLkdjkdj cksys] vkb,] vkb, u!
tsc ls :eky fudkydj mUgksaus oqQLkhZ dks >kM+k vkSj cksys] cSfB,A
lfI+kQ;k us iqfM+;k vkSj cSx dks est ij j[k fn;kA ckgj dh rjI+kQ >kddj mUgksaus
,d iqfyl okys dks b'kkjk fd;kA lfI+kQ;k osQ iSj rys dh kehu f[kldus yxhvc D;k
gksxk!
nks pk; ykvks] vPNh okyhA iqfylokyk lfI+kQ;k dks ?kwjrk gqvk pyk x;kA
fiQj mUgksaus esk dh njkk [khaph vkSj mlesa vanj nwj rd gkFk Mkydj ,d fdrkc
fudkyhA fdrkc dks lfI+kQ;k osQ lkeus j[kdj mUgksaus igyk lI+kQk [kksy fn;kA ckb vksj
ukjQy bLyke dh rLkohj Fkh vkSj VkbVy okys lI+ksQ ij vaxzskh osQ oqQN kqkys 'kCn
Fks'kelqyblyke dh rjI+kQ ls lquhy nkl xqIr dks I;kj osQ lkFk] <kdk 1946
rks vki D;k bZLV caxky osQ gSa\
gk] esjk oru <kdk gSA mUgksaus cM+s I+kQ[kz ls tokc fn;kA
rks vki ;gk dc vk,\
tc fMohku gqvk rHkh vk,] exj gekjk oru <kdk gS] eSa rks dksbZ ckjg&rsjg
lky dk FkkA ij ukjQy vkSj VSxksj dks rks ge yksx cpiu ls i<+rs FksA ftl fnu ge
jkr ;gk vk jgs Fks mlosQ Bhd ,d o"kZ igys esjs lcls iqjkus] lcls I;kjs] cpiu osQ
nksLr us eq>s ;g fdrkc nh FkhA ml fnu esjh lkyfxjg FkhfiQj ge dydkk jgs] i<+s]
ukSdjh Hkh fey xbZ] ij ge oru vkrs&tkrs FksA
ued

oru\ lfI+kQ;k us kjk gSjku gksdj iwNkA


eSaus vkils dgk u fd esjk oru <kdk gSAmUgksaus kjk cqjk ekudj dgkA
gk&gk] Bhd gSA Bhd gSA lfI+kQ;k tYnh ls cksyhA
rks igys rks cl bkj gh dLVe Fkk] vc mkj Hkh oqQN xksyeky gks x;k gSA
mUgksaus pk; dh I;kyh lfI+kQ;k dh rjI+kQ f[kldkbZ vkSj [kqn ,d cM+k&lk ?kwV Hkjdj 137
cksys] oSls rks MkHk dydkk esa Hkh gksrk gS tSls ued ;gk Hkh gksrk gS] ij gekjs ;gk
osQ MkHk dh D;k ckr gS! gekjh kehu] gekjs ikuh dk ekk gh oqQN vkSj gS!
mBrs oDr mUgksaus iqfM+;k lfI+kQ;k osQ cSx esa j[k nh vkSj [kqn ml cSx dks mBkdj
vkxs&vkxs pyus yxs_ lfI+kQ;k us muosQ ihNs pyuk 'kq: fd;kA
tc lfI+kQ;k ve`rlj osQ iqy ij p<+ jgh Fkh rc iqy dh lcls fupyh lh<+h osQ
ikl os flj >qdk, pqipki [kM+s FksA lfI+kQ;k lksprh tk jgh Fkh fdldk oru dgk gSog
tks dLVe osQ bl rjI+kQ gS ;k ml rjI+kQ!

vH;kl
ikB osQ lkFk
1- lfI+kQ;k osQ HkkbZ us ued dh iqfM+;k ys tkus ls D;ksa euk dj fn;k\
2- ued dh iqfM+;k ys tkus osQ lacak esa lfI+kQ;k osQ eu esa D;k }a} Fkk\
3- tc lfI+kQ;k ve`rlj iqy ij p<+ jgh Fkh rks dLVe vkWfI+kQlj fupyh lh<+h osQ ikl flj >qdk,
pqipki D;ksa [kM+s Fks\
4- ykgkSj vHkh rd mudk oru gS vkSj nsgyh esjk ;k esjk oru <kdk gS tSls mn~xkj fdl
lkekftd ;FkkFkZ dk laosQr djrs gSaA
5- ued ys tkus osQ ckjs esa lfI+kQ;k osQ eu esa mBs }a}ksa osQ vkkkj ij mldh pkfjf=kd fo'ks"krkvksa
dks Li"V dhft,A
6- ekufp=k ij ,d ydhj [khap nsus Hkj ls kehu vkSj turk cV ugha tkrh gS mfpr
rdks o mnkgj.kksa osQ kfj;s bldh iqf"V djsaA
7- ued dgkuh esa Hkkjr o ikd dh turk osQ vkjksfir HksnHkkoksa osQ chp eqgCcr dk uedhu
Lokn ?kqyk gqvk gS] oSQls\
vkjksg

D;ksa dgk x;k\


1- D;k lc dkuwu gqowQer osQ gh gksrs gSa] oqQN eqgCcr] eqjkSor] vknfe;r] balkfu;r osQ ugha gksrs\
2- Hkkouk osQ LFkku ij cqf khjs&khjs ml ij gkoh gks jgh FkhA
3- eqgCcr rks dLVe ls bl rjg xqkj tkrh gS fd dkuwu gSjku jg tkrk gSA
138 4- gekjh kehu gekjs ikuh dk ekk gh oqQN vkSj gS!

le>kb, rks kjk


1- fiQj iydksa ls oqQN flrkjs VwVdj nwfk;k vkpy esa lek tkrs gSaA
2- fdldk oru dgk gS og tks dLVe osQ bl rjI+kQ gS ;k ml rjI+kQA

ikB osQ vklikl


1- ^ued* dgkuh esa gnqLrku&ikfdLrku esa jgus okys yksxksa dh Hkkoukvksa] laosnukvksa dks mHkkjk
x;k gSA orZeku lanHkZ esa bu laosnukvksa dh fLFkfr dks roZQ lfgr Li"V dhft,A
2- lfI+kQ;k dh eu%fLFkfr dks dgkuh esa ,d fof'k"V lanHkZ esa vyx rjg ls Li"V fd;k x;k gSA
vxj vki lfI+kQ;k dh txg gksrs@gksrha rks D;k vkidh eu%fLFkfr Hkh oSlh gh gksrh\ Li"V
dhft,A
3- Hkkjr&ikfdLrku osQ vkilh lacakksa dks lqkkjus osQ fy, nksuksa ljdkjsa iz;kljr gSaA O;fDrxr rkSj
ij vki blesa D;k ;ksxnku ns ldrs@ldrh gSa\
4- ysf[kdk us foHkktu ls mith foLFkkiu dh leL;k dk fp=k.k djrs gq, lfI+kQ;k o fl[k chch
osQ ek;e ls ;g Hkh ijks{k :i ls laosQr fd;k gS fd blesa Hkh fookg dh jhfr osQ dkj.k L=kh
lcls vfkd foLFkkfir gSA D;k vki blls lger gSa\
5- foHkktu osQ vusd Lo:iksa esa cVh turk dks feykus dh vusd Hkwfe;k gks ldrh gS a jDr lacak]
foKku] lkfgR; o dykA buesa ls dkSu lcls rkdroj gS vkSj D;ksa\

vkidh jk;
eku yhft, vki vius fe=k osQ ikl fons'k tk jgs@jgh gSaA vki lkSxkr osQ rkSj ij Hkkjr dh
dkSu&lh phk ys tkuk ilan djsaxs@djasxh vkSj D;ksa\
ued

Hkk"kk dh ckr
139
1- uhps fn, x, okD;ksa dks ;ku ls if<+,
(d) gekjk oru rks th ykgkSj gh gSA
([k) D;k lc dkuwu gqowQer osQ gh gksrs gSa\
lkekU;r% ^gh* fuikr dk iz;ksx fdlh ckr ij cy nsus osQ fy, fd;k tkrk gSA mQij fn, x,
nksuksa okD;ksa esa ^gh* osQ iz;ksx ls vFkZ esa D;k ifjorZu vk;k gS\ Li"V dhft,A ^gh* dk iz;ksx
djrs gq, nksuksa rjg osQ vFkZ okys ikp&ikp okD; cukb,A
2- uhps fn, x, 'kCnksa osQ gnh :i fyf[k,
eqjkSor] vknfe;r] vnhc] lkMk] ek;us] ljgn] vDl] ycksygtk] uIkQhl
3- ianzg fnu ;ksa xqkjs fd irk gh ugha pyk okD; dks ;ku ls if<+, vkSj blh izdkj osQ
(;ksa] fd] gh ls ;qDr ikp okD; cukb,A)

l`tu osQ {k.k


^ued* dgkuh dks ys[kd us vius ukfj;s ls vU; iqjQ"k 'kSyh esa fy[kk gSA vki lfI+kQ;k dh
ukj ls@ mke iqjQ"k 'kSyh esa bl dgkuh dks vius 'kCnksa esa dgsaA

bUgsa Hkh tkusa


1- eqgjZe bLyke /eZ osQ vuqlkj lky dk igyk eghuk] ftldh nloha rkjh[k dks beke gqlSu
'kghn gq,A
2- lS;n eqlyekuksa osQ pkSFks [kyhI+kQk vyh osQ oa'ktksa dks lS;n dgk tkrk gSA
3- bdcky lkjs tgk ls vPNk osQ xhrdkj
4- ukjQy bLyke ckaXyk osQ kafrdkjh dfo
5- 'kelqy bLyke ckaXyk ns'k osQ izfl dfo
6- bl dgkuh dks i<+rs gq, dbZ fI+kQYe] dbZ jpuk,] dbZ xkus vkiosQ ksgu esa vk, gksxa As mudh lwph
cukb, fdUgha nks (fI+kQYe vkSj jpuk) dh fo'ks"krk dks fyf[k,A vkidh lqfokk osQ fy, oqQN uke
fn, tk jgs gSAa
fiQYesa jpuk,
1947 vFkZ rel (miU;kl Hkh"e lkguh)
eEeks VksckVsd flag (dgkuh eaVks)
vkjksg

Vsu Vq ikfdLrku knxhukek (miU;kl o`Q".kk lkscrh)


xnj itj (miU;kl ve`rk izhre)

[kkeks'k ikuh >wBk lp (miU;kl ;'kiky)


fguk eycs dk ekfyd (dgkuh eksgu jkosQ'k)
140
ohj kkjk is'kkoj ,Dliszl (dgkuh 'u panj )

7- ljgn vkSj ekgc osQ lanHkZ esa bls ns[ksa

rw gnw cusxk u eqlyeku cusxk]


balku dh vkSykn gS] balku cusxkA
ekfyd us gj balku dks balku cuk;k]
geus mls gnw ;k eqlyeku cuk;kA
oqQnjr us rks c['kh Fkh gesa ,d gh kjrh]
geus dgha Hkkjr dgha] bZjku cuk;kAA*
tks rksM+ ns gj can oks rwI+kQku cusxkA
balku dh vkSykn gS balku cusxkA
fI+kQYe% /wy dk iwQy] xhrdkj% lkfgj yqf/;kuoh

'kCn&Nfo

mEnk & vPNk


uIk+ Qhl & lqjQfpiw.kZ
jQ[klr & fonk
lkMk & gekjk
fgLls&c[kjs & cVokjk
eqjkSor & ladksp
vnhc & lkfgR;dkj
ycksygtk & cksypky dk rjhdk
uokk & lEekfur djuk
lkSxkr & HksVa
vthk & fiz;
ckth & nhnh
nksgj & diM+s dks nksgjk dj flyh xbZ pknj] fygkI+kQ