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1.

Introduction
Most of the world existing electricity power systems that have been served us for a long time
will soon reach their limitations. The majority of those traditional electricity power grids are
neither designed in purpose to comply with rapidly climate changes and the demand for a
high energy-efficiency nor use the latest technologies. That is why smart grid is not needed
but will soon be put into practice.

Smart Grid which is also called intelligent grid or modern grid uses new technologies to
reduce the environmental impact of power grid, energy conservation and increase efficiency,
renewable energy utilization.

Section 1.1 describes the issues with the existing power grid followed by section 1.2 and 1.3
give a brief introduction of smart grid and its advantages compared to the current grid.

1.1 What are the issues with existing grid?

Electricity grid of U.S. is generated by a central power plant and distributed to different
levels of customers through transmitting lines as shown in Figure 1. The voltage is stepped-
up from generating stations located in the center for transmission through more than 10,000
transmission stations, stepped- down for utility distribution in over 2,000 distribution
substations, may be further stepped- down at points along the utility distribution lines, and
again at pad- and pole-mounted transformers to provide low-voltage service to one or a
several customers [DOE01]. Even though it is providing 99.97 percent reliability, yet still has
some significant issues:

Figure 1: Existing Electricity Delivery System

(1). Limited delivery system:

The current electricity delivery uses a supervisory control and data acquisition system
(SCADA) which suffers limited bandwidths and relatively slow data transmission rates that
often require several seconds or more to respond to an alarm or system change and there is no
visibility in the distribution network below the substation.

(2). High cost of power outage and power quality interruption:

It costs Americans $150 billion every year for power outage and interruption. The power
goes out about 2.5 hours each year which leads to high economy loss especially in industries
require high quality power.

(3). Inefficiency at managing peak load:

Electricity demands vary all the time, and the cost to meet these demands changes as well.
For the existing grid, supply has to change according to the demands continuously and the
power grid will also need to maintain a buffer of excess supply, which results in lower
efficiency, higher emissions, and higher costs.

Given the issues above, the existing grid has to change to meet the demand proposed by this
modern society.

1.2 What is Smart Grid?

Smart Grid is developed by the European Technology Platform for 7th Frame Work Program.
Since Smart Grid is still in research stage, there is no coincidence with the accurate definition
for it, what features should it have, what goal should it achieve, what is the important point
for develop it. Moreover considering the varying situations in different countries-economic
development, developing strategies and policies, it is hard to obtain a unified definition [Hu].

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) directs federal and state agencies
to implement programs that advance the implementation of the "Smart Grid". EISA describes
"theSmart Grid" as follows:

A modernization of the Nation electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a


reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth [ISO09].

1.3 What are the advantages of Smart Grid?

Smart grid is not a single technology, but a combination of several technologies. By rational
use different technologies, it can offer several potential economic and environmental benefits:

Improved Reliability
Higher asset utilization
Better integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and renewable energy
Reduced operating costs for utilities
Increased efficiency and conservation
Lower greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions

Figure 2 shows some key technologies and applications of Smart Grid which will be
discussed in Section 2 and 3.
Figure 2: Key Technologies and Applications

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2. Key Technologies
2.1 Sensing and Measurement

Sensing and measurement technology builds up a dual-communication between customers


and power companies. It allows customers to acknowledge and react to the present electricity
grid, meanwhile it also provide supporting data to power companies, including power quality,
equipment health, power meter damage, fault location, transformer and line load, temperature
of key components, power consumption and forecast data. These data will be gathered, stored
and analyzed by new systems in order to be used by power companies.

Technology includes: Smart Meter, Meter Reading System and Phasor Measurement Units.
Taking Figure 3 as an example to show how does it works.
Figure 3: Smart Meter in Home Area

Smart Meter will replace the current analog mechanical meter for benefits it offers: It can
store electricity price and rate from utility companies and inform the customers with best rate
policy. Electricity prices vary driven by demand-and supply situation including weather
conditions, demand varies over time and capacity. The existing meters only offer a flat price
over a time period. With real-time information given by smart meters, households can charge
cell phones, watch TV and do their laundry at peak-off time to reduce the electricity cost. It
maybe a small amount for ordinary customers, but it will save billion if applied to high-tech
manufacturing and critical infrastructure [Caine09]

The phasor measurement units (PMUs) measure electrical waves on an electricity grid to
monitor power quality and in some case respond automatically to them. The distinction
comes from its unique ability to provide synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and
currents from widely dispersed locations in an electric power grid. Phasors are
representations of the waveforms of alternating current, which ideally in real-time, are
identical everywhere on the network and conform to the most desirable shape. In the 1980s, it
was realized that the clock pulses from global positioning system (GPS) satellites could be
used for very precise time measurements in the grid. With large numbers of PMUs and the
ability to compare shapes from alternating current readings everywhere on the grid, research
suggests that automated systems will be able to revolutionize the management of power
systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid, dynamic way [Liu01].

2.2 Information management system

As the development of real-time and two way communications and availability of more
information, the task of information management system becomes more complicated.
Information management system includes several functions: collection and processing,
analysis, integration, improved interfaces, information security as shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Information Management System

Information collection and processing include detailed real-time data collection systems,
distributed data collection and processing services, and dynamic resource sharing, large-
capacity high-speed access, redundant backup of intelligent electronic device(IED), etc.
Information systems reduce complexity so that operators and managers have tools to
effectively and efficiently operate a grid with an increasing number of variables. Technology
also include visualization techniques that reduce large quantities of data into easily
understood visual formats, software systems that provide multiple options when systems
operator actions are required, and simulators for operational training and "what-if" analysis.

The improvement of information management system provides an option to reduce peak load
efficiently and better manage the grid. For instance, Demand Response (DR) is a key
application it offers. During periods of peak load, utilities companies will alter customers to
reduce the operation of non-essential applications thus avoid dispatching high-cost generating
units which are often among the least efficient and dirtiest.

2.3 Transmission and Distribution Technology

The Department of Energy (DOE) Electricity Advisory Committee summarized several


benefits of Transmission and Distribution Technology (T&D) of smart grid. The benefits
include capturing renewable production and delivering it when transmission capacity is
available, relieving congestion, deferring transformer upgrades attributable to peak load
growth, and providing down-circuit supply while outages are being restored.

Another possible way to improve the overburdened transmission system is to apply high-
voltage direct-current (HVDC) and "flexible alternating-current transmission system"
(FACTS) technology [Roger]
Figure 5: Large Power System Intersection

Figure 5 shows a hybrid system with HVDA and FACTS. Power exchange in neighboring
areas of interconnected systems can be achieved, preferably with FACTS to increase
transmission capacity and stability. The transmission of large power blocks over long
distances should, however, be realized by means of HVDC links directly to the locations of
power demand.

HVDC may be used when asynchronous systems are interconnected, power is transmitted
over long distances, or the control of real power is needed [Hen01]. FACTS is a combination
of solid-state switches and computerized automation that enable nearly instantaneous
customized control of power flows-- far faster than traditional electromechanical switches.

HVDC and FACTS applications have the potential to provide a much-needed boost to the
transmission system and some other technical advantages, especially when dynamic voltage
support is needed.

Back to Table of Contents

3. Smart Grid Features


3.1 Self-healing

The security and stability calculation and development of emergency plans of current power
grids are still off-line analysis, thus, the results is comparatively conservative [Lin]. However,
smart grid has better self-management and self healing ability. With real-time monitoring,
problems can be automatically detected and responded to. With the incorporation of micro
grids affected areas can be isolated from the main networks limiting disruption.

If an overhead power line has an error, there is inevitable power loss. In the case of urban/city
networks that for the most part are fed using underground cables, networks can be designed
(through the use of interconnected topologies) such that failure of one part of the network
will result in no loss of supply to end users.

Usually, self-healing has 3 steps:


Step 1: Using AMI, the utility company collects real-time usage data.
Step 2: It analyzes the data to identify a potential power failure during a high-demand
period.
Step 3:The utility redistributes power across its service area and send radio signal to
turn on or off smart applications [Wordpress].

With self-healing function the power grid is able to maintain its stable operation, estimate
weak stage, and deal with emergency problem.

3.2 Integrations among Energies and Devices

Considering the climate changes over decades, it is important to bring out a technology that
uses renewable sources. Figure 6 shows some renewable energies. The Electric Power
Research Institute (EPRI) calculates that a national smart grid could reduce annual GHG
emissions by 60-211 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMT CO2e)
compared to business-as-usua by 2030, an amount equal to 2.5-9 percent of GHG emissions
from electricity generation in 2006 [EPRI08] [EPA08].

Figure 6: Renewable Sources

Smart Grid technologies will allow the grid to better adapt to the dynamics of renewable
energy and distributed generation, helping utilities and consumers more easily access these
resources and reap the benefits. The existing grid was designed to move power from
centralized supply sources to fixed, predictable loads; this makes it challenging for the grid to
accept input from many distributed energy resources across the grid. And because resources
such as solar and wind power are intermittent, the grid will require integrated monitoring and
control, as well as integration with substation automation, to control differing energy flows
and plan for standby capacity to supplement intermittent generation. Smart Grid capabilities
will make it easier to control bi-directional power flows and monitor, control, and support
these distributed resources [OE].

3.3 Consumer Participation


Consumer Participation means a power grid has the ability to accustom demand side,
environment, and generators. Historically, the intelligence of the grid in North America has
been demonstrated by the utilities operating it in the spirit of public service and shared
responsibility, ensuring constant availability of electricity at a constant price, day in and day
out, in the face of any and all hazards and changing conditions [WIKI].

A smart grid incorporates consumer equipment and behavior in grid design, operation, and
communication. Customers are provided with their electrical consumption and pattern. Thus,
the customers can better manage their energy use and reduce energy costs given information.

Advanced communications capabilities equip customers with tools to exploit real-time


electricity pricing, incentive-based load reduction signals, or emergency load reduction
signals. In addition, smart grid can also allow the customers to save energy and sell them, for
instance, by enabling distribution generation resources like residential solar panel, some
small participator like individual homes and small business are allowed to sell their saved
energy to neighbors or back to grid. The same will hold true for larger commercial businesses
that have renewable or back-up power systems that can provide power for a price during peak
demand events, typically in the summer when air condition units place a strain on the grid
[WIKI].

3.4 Improved Reliability

As mentioned above, the electricity power grid is 99.97 percent reliable. It sounds good,
however, in practice it costs Americans $150 billion every year. Table 1 [DOE02] shows the
cost of one hour power interruption.

Table 1. Cost of One-hour Interruption in Different Industries


Industry Average Cost of 1-hour interruption
Cellular Communications $41,000
Telephone Ticket Sales $72,000
Airline Reservation System $90,000
Semiconductor Manufacturer $2,000,000
Credit Card Operation $2,580,000
Brokerage Operation $6,480,000

The good news is smart grid has significant improvement over power quality and reliability.
The usage of smart meter mentioned in section 2.1 can efficiently inform users the working
situation of meters and the price in real-time.

Two-way communications all across the grid will let utilities remotely identify, locate,
isolate, and restore power outages more quickly without having to send field crews on trouble
calls. In fact, a Smart Grid could eliminate up to 50% of trouble calls [Standish]. Through
proactive grid management and automated response, the frequency and duration of power
outages can be reduced, which will result in fewer anxious calls to utility call centers and
improved consumer satisfaction. Remote monitoring and control devices throughout the
system can create a self-healing grid, which can restore and prevent outages and extend the
life of substation equipment and distribution assets. Through such automation, rising
consumer expectations for power quality and reliability can be met in the face of growing
electricity demand and an aging infrastructure and workforce [OE].

Back to Table of Contents

4. Perspectives of Smart Grid Developments


4.1 Smart Grid Developments in US

The United States focused on upgrading the power network infrastructure maximally use
intelligent information technology [He].

In 2006, IBM and global power professional institute cooperated developing a solution of
smart grid. Power companies can use sensors, meters, digital control equipments and analysis
tools to automatically monitor network, optimize network performance, prevent power
outages and restore power supply faster [Jiang].

March 2008, a small town in Colorado was built as the first U.S. smart grid city.

February 2009, IBM signed agreement with a Mediterranean island named Malta- they will
build a "smart public system" together, in order to achieve country's electricity grid and water
supply systems digitalization, including build a sensor network in grid [Jiang]. IBM will
provide data collection and analysis software to help reduce costs and carbon emissions.

California has completed the installation of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) to 2


million homes and the initial analysis shows that power savings can be up to 16% ~ 30%
[Jiang].

Support for smart grids became federal policy with passage of the Energy Independence and
Security Act of 2007. The law, Title13, sets out $100 million in funding per fiscal year from
2008 to 2012, establishes a matching program to states, utilities and consumers to build smart
grid capabilities, and creates a Grid Modernization Commission to assess the benefits of
demand response and to recommend needed protocol standards. The Energy Independence
and Security Act of 2007 directs the National Institute of Standards and Technology to
coordinate the development of smart grid standards, which FERC would then promulgate
through official rulemakings [DOE3].

Smart grids received further support with the passage of the American Recovery and
Reinvestment Act of 2009, which set aside $11 billion for the creation of a smart grid.

4.2 Comparison of Existing and Future Grid

Considering what we have discussed above, Smart Grid will be a new trend to power market
that will use new technologies and bring us more benefits. Table 2 lists differences between
the grid we have now and the future grid.

Table 2[DOE02]: Existing&Future Grid


4.3 Obstacles of Future Development

Security
Many of the technologies discussed above to support Smart Grid, such as smart meters,
sensors, and advanced communications networks, can themselves increase the vulnerability
of the grid to cyber attacks. Accordingly, it is essential that Smart Grid deployment leverage
the benefits of increased threat awareness while mitigating against heightened security
concerns. It will be a difficult task, but one that can be addressed by being aware of the risks
and leveraging security best practices from other industries[OE].

Upfront Consumer Expenses

In the responses of 200 utility managers to a 2009 survey, 42 percent cited "upfront consumer
expenses" as a major obstacle to the smart grid. These concerns were confirmed by consumer
responses in which 95 percent of respondents indicated they are interested in receiving
detailed information on their energy use; however, only 1 in 5 were willing to pay an upfront
fee to receive that information. Regulatory approval for rate increases needed to pay for smart
grid investments is always difficult, and the receptiveness of regulators varies from state to
state [OE].

Lack of Standardization

Lack of technology standards has been considered as a major obstacle to smart grid
deployment [OE]. A Smart Grid is a new integrated operational and conceptual model for
utility operations. This requires it to both implement a system-wide installation of monitoring
device and to maximally communicate with components. However, developing this kind of
system will usually cost multi-years .

Because smart grid is still a new concept and the technologies that there is misunderstanding
amongst consumers, regulators, policymakers, what its costs and benefits are. Stakeholders
that are generally aligned conclusions based on a different understanding of the smart grid.
Chapter 1

Introduction

The term intelligent electronic device is multifunction electronic device that possesses
some kind of local intelligence can be called IED. However, concerning specifically the protection and
power system automation industry, the term really came into existence to describe a device that has
versatile electrical protection functions, advanced local control intelligence, monitoring abilities and
the capability of extensive communications directly to a SCADA system. This is the definition of IED
that will be applied throughout this book.
The ability of an IED to perform all the functions of protection, control, monitoring, and
upper level communication independently and without the aid of other devices like an RTU (remote
terminal unit) or communications processor (not including interface modules) is the identifying
feature of an IED. Common types of IEDs include protective relaying devices, load tap changer
controllers, circuit breaker controllers, capacitor bank switches, recloser controllers, voltage
regulators, etc.
Digital protective relays are primarily IEDs, using a microprocessor to perform several
protective, control, and similar functions. A typical IED can contain around 5-12 protection functions,
5-8 control functions controlling separate devices, an auto reclose function, self monitoring function,
communication functions etc. Hence, they are aptly named as Intelligent Electronic Devices.
Intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) are the equipments of the future power system
automation, monitoring and control. These change the way a modern power system works leading
to an intelligent or an smart grid of the future. Recent advances in power system automation and
protection has led various protection and control function which are proprietary with specific
protocols wherein devices of different manufacturers could not communicate with each other this
lead to the evaluation of the IEC 61850 communication standard for substation automation. IEC
61850 help in standardizing the data to be communicated so that devices from various wonders
could communicate without the use of protocol converters. This communication between devices
taken place at various levels in the substation.

Evaluation of IED
The 1990s saw a new wave in the power industry, especially in the fields of protection,
remote control and substation automation. As protection relays became more advanced versatile
and flexible with the introduction of microprocessor based relays. The initial communication
capabilities of relays were intended mainly to facilitate commissioning. Protection engineers realized
the advantages of remotely programming relays; the need developed data retrieval, and so the
communication aspects of relays become steadily more advanced. PLC functionality became
incorporated into relays, and with the development of small RTUs (Remote Terminal Units), it was
soon realized that relays could be much more than only protection devices. Why not equip
protection relays with advanced control functions? Why shouldnt protection functions be added to
a bay controller? Bothe of these approaches have been followed, with different manufacturers (and
sometimes different approaches to the question of protection, control and communications. This
resulted in an extensive range of devices on the market, some stronger on control, and the term
protection to describe these devices. This resulted in the term intelligent electronic devices (IED).

IED structure

Figure 1 provides the typical configuration of an IED. The IED derives its name from the
various functions the device can select and perform in an inherently fashion. An important issue is
the enormous task of incorporating intelligence, in terms of hardware (flexible logical circuits) and
software (programmable intelligent agents) into the IED. Advances in the techniques of software
programming and hardware development are essential for the construction and realization of an
IED. Some IEDs may be more advanced than the others, but these main functionalities should be
incorporated to a greater or lesser degree.
IED configuration consist of
1. Analog/ digital input from power equipment and sensors
2. Analog to Digital Convertor (ADC) /Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
3. DSP (digital signal processing) Unit
4. Flex-logic unit
5. Virtual input/ output
6. Internal RAM/ROM
7. Display
8. Power supply etc.

Input IED receives signal from different equipment like CTs, PTs, and from sensors like
temperature, humidity, vibration etc. Generally input from CTs, PTs and other power equipment is
in analog form and input from sensors is in digital form.

ADC (analog to digital convertor) - As IED is microprocessor based device it able to work only on
digital signal thus there should ADC is used to convert analog data in to digital form.

DSP (digital signal processing) Digital signal processing (DSP) is concerned with the representation
of discrete time, discrete frequency, or other discrete domain signals by a sequence of numbers or
symbols and the processing of these signals. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing
are subfields of signal processing.

Flex-logic unit All arithmetic and logical calculation are done by this unit according program.

Virtual input / output IED receives signal from server through this virtual input port and IED sends
signal to any server or equipment using virtual output port generally this signals are in digital form
and uses fiber optic cable for communication.

Internal RAM/ROM IED have its own memory according its application different range of memory
is used. IED record all value of electrical parameter and physical parameter also records all fault
values.
Display In case if IED is mounted on panel board it is combined with digital display which is able to
show all recorded as well as real time values of electrical parameter of equipment or system.

Power supply IED required some power for its operation but power required ids very less as
compared to old system.

Chapter 2

IED and conventional protection system


The growth in the number of IEDs has resulted a significant increase in the volume of
substation data. This data is usually primitive and stored in a digital form. It has to be processed and
analyzed before any user is able to utilize the benefit of it.

As conventional protection system in which the data and control signal from the relay are
sent via an RTU to the SCADA system. Extensive and costly cables may be required between various
bays in the substation and the control room.

In modern protection system utilizing an IED relay. The connection diagrams of Figure 2 and
3 may look similar except that the interconnection wiring between transducers and meters is no
longer required for the IED relay. The data and control signals from the IED relay are sent directly to
the SCADA system via the high-speed dedicated communication network. The volume of data
increases drastically when an IED is used as the control element and data source.

Table 1 presents a comparison of the data quantities between a conventional RTU and an
IED in a 10-feeder substation. Considering real time values only and not including data from
incoming lines or transformers, it can be seen that the

SCADA system and substation data is a factor of 10 larger when IEDs are used

1. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) is a device installed at a remote location that collects data, processes
and codes the data into a format that is transmittable and transmits the data back to a central or
master station.
2. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) is the system that collects data from IEDs in the
network and utilizes it for control and monitoring. It also provides a remote access to substation
data and devices to the control centre.

With the wealth of information that an IED can produce, engineers are no longer facing the lack of
data problem.

In each IED, there are two types of data namely, operational and nonoperational.
Operational data is instantaneous values of volts, amps, MW, MVAR and etc. It is typically conveyed
to the SCADA system using the communications protocol. This operational data path from the
substation to the SCADA system is continuous. Non-operational data, on the other hand, is the IED
data that is used for analysis and historical archiving, and is not in a point format as operational data
e.g. fault event logs, metering records and oscillography. This data is more difficult to extract from
the IEDs since the IED vendors proprietary ASCII commands are required for extraction of this non-
operational data. Operational data is critical for SCADA dispatchers to effectively monitor and
control the utilitys power system. However, the non-operational data has also tremendous value to
the utility. In this substation data analysis, only the operational data from IEDs has been considered.
The proposed algorithm can however identify the certain IED relays that carry the crucial
information. This not only reduces our attention span, but also saves our time in selecting which
IEDs may contain the non-operational data we need for detailed post-fault analysis.

Chapter 3
Substation Network

To provide the necessary connectivity between the various components of the SA system, a
LONWORKS Local Operating Network (LON) is utilized. This open standard network was selected
because the majority of the IEDs utilized in the SA system were embedded with the LONTALK
Protocol. This protocol is specifically designed to cater to control networks, as opposed to data
networks, and has become a de facto standard in certain industries such as building control and
automation.

Speed and performance are the key factors in designing a network for control applications
such as this. The LONWORKS network is event driven, meaning that information is transmitted only
when a value has changed. In critical times, such as during fault clearing, network traffic will be the
highest and collisions may be frequent, as a number of devices all attempt to transmit information
which has all changed in a very short period of time. In order to decrease the number of network
collisions and therefore increase performance, the LON was separated into 3 sub network as shown
in Figure 3. Each of these sub network utilized starcouplers to facilitate communications between up
to 30 nodes per coupler. As well, two starcouplers were equipped with a router card to allow for
peer-to-peer communication between the sub network. The allocation of IEDs to specific sub
network was carefully planned based on the following criteria:

1. The impact of the loss of a starcoupler was to be minimized by ensuring that IEDs associated with
the same bay in the substation were to be allocated to different star couplers.
2. In order to keep the performance as high as possible, inter-sub network communication was to be
kept to a minimum. Therefore, backup protection relays, which required very little inter-sub network
communication, were placed on a common sub network.

Chapter 4
Basic function of IED

A functional overview of an IED can be observed in the figure 4. The protection functions of
the IED evolved from the basic over current and earth fault protection functions of the feeder
protection relay (hence certain manufacturers named their IEDs feeder terminals). This is because a
feeder protection relay is used on almost all cubicles of a typical distribution switchboard, and that
more demanding protection functions are not required to enable the relays microprocessor to be
used for control functions. The IED is also meant to be as versatile as possible, and is not intended to
be a specialized protection relay, for example generator protection. This also makes the IED
affordable. The following is a guideline of protection related function s that may be expected from
the most advanced IEDs (the list is not all-inclusive, and some IEDs may not have all the functions).
The protection functions are typically provided in discrete function blocks, which are activated and
programmed independently. Communication capability of an IED is one of the most important
aspects of modern electrical and protection systems, and is the one aspect that clearly separates the
different manufacturers devices from one another regarding their level of functionality.

Fig.5 Functional View of IED

Protection

IED consist of different types of protection system according to its application or use.
Generally following protection will be provided by IED

1. Over / Under voltage


2. Over current

3. Harmonic

4. Differential protection

5. Over temperature

IED also able to provide protection for particular device separately like

1. Generator

2. Circuit breaker

3. Transformer

4. By controller

5. Auxiliary equipments

Control

IED can be use as Power Factor Controller, auto voltage controller, by controller etc. Also IED
can be controlled by operator from any remote place either in normal condition as well as in
abnormal condition.

1. Power factor controller IED is connected to capacitor bank, IED sense the power factor and
connect capacitors as per requirement. Which keep power factor unity, thus overall power factor of
systems get increases.

2. Voltage regulator IED is also connected to on line tab changer of transformer and changes the tabs
according variation in supply voltage.

Metering

IED continuously records all data of electrical parameter consist of Active power, Reactive
power also measures energy (KWH) consumed by the consumer. IED also helps for Time of day tariff,
which is the measure advantage of IED that it records power consumed at different time of day
(hourly).

Communication
IEDs are able to communicate with multiple channels at a time. It continuously sends data
to system server which consists of all electrical and physical parameter. According to IEC 61850 two
different IEDs are able to communicate with each other also. The range of frequencies used by this
IED is 50khz to 500khz.

Monitoring
IED continuously monitor different parameter as shown in table 1, Generally IED monitor first only
four input voltage from PTs, current from CTs, power factor, and frequency. By using this data IED
calculate different values as shown in table and send it to server.

Input Calculating /monitoring/ recording continuously

Voltage (phase/ line) Voltages Vr/Vy/Vb/Vry/Vyb/Vrb

Current Current Ir/Iy/Ib

Power factor Power :- KWr/KWy/KWb/KW3

Frequency KVarr/KVary/KVarb/KVar3

Energy :-KWHr/KWHy/KWHb/KWH3

KVarHr/KVarHy/KVarHb/KVarH3

Frequency

Power Factor

Status (open/ close/ target) of relay/ C.B.

Chapter 5
IEC 61850

IEC 61850 is a standard for the design of electrical substation automation. IEC 61850 is a part of the
International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) Technical Committee 57 (TC57) reference
architecture for electric power systems. The abstract data models defined in IEC 61850 can be
mapped to a number of protocols. Current mappings in the standard are to MMS (Manufacturing
Message Specification), GOOSE, SMV and soon to Web Services. These protocols can run over TCP/IP
networks or substation LANs using high speed switched Ethernet to obtain the necessary response
times below four milliseconds for protective relaying

The IEC 61850 standard has been defined in cooperation with manufacturers and users to
create a uniform, future-proof basis for the protection, communication and control of substations. In
this brochure, we present some application examples and implemented stations with the new IEC
61850 communication standard. IEC 61850 already has an excellent track record as the established
communication standard on the worldwide market for the automation of substations.

Its chief advantages are:

Simple substation structure: No more interface problems. With IEC 61850, protocol diversity
and integration problems are a thing of the past.
Everything is simpler: From engineering to implementation, from operation to service. Save
time and costs on configuration, commissioning and maintenance.
Reduction of costs: IEC 61850 replaces wiring between feeders, control switches, and
signaling devices.
More reliability: You only use one communication channel for all data in real time,
synchronized via Ethernet.

SCADA

SCADA or Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition is a large scale control system for automated
industrial processes like municipal water supplies, power generation, steel manufacturing, gas and
oil pipelines etc. SCADA also has applications in large scale experimental facilities like those used in
nuclear fusion.
SCADA systems monitor and control these operations by gathering data from sensors at the facility
or remote station and then sending it to a central computer system that manages the operations
using this information. The sheer size and of the operations we saw earlier demands that the control
system be equally elaborate to handle the requirements. This is where SCADA scores. The SCADA
system is equipped to manage anything from a few thousands to a million input/output channels.
The technology is still evolving and we can expect an expansion of the market for SCADA.

A fully fledged SCADA system is made up of signal hardware for input/ output, networks, control
equipment, user interface (sometimes called the Human-Machine Interface or HMI), communication
equipment and the software to go with it all. And here we are talking about the central command
system of SCADA. The central system is often miles away from where the operations take place.
Thus the system also needs on-site sensors to collect and monitor data.

How SCADA Works

The measurement and control system of SCADA has one master terminal unit (MTU) which could be
called the brain of the system and one or more remote terminal units (RTU). The RTUs gather the
data locally and send them to the MTU which then issues suitable commands to be executed on site.
A system of either standard or customized software is used to collate, interpret and manage the
data.

SCADA as of now uses predominantly open-loop control systems, though some closed-loop
characteristics are often built in. As this is an open-loop system, it means that SCADA system cannot
use feedback to check what results its inputs have produced. In other words, there is no machine-
learning.

SCADA and Other Control Systems

There are several other systems that are used for similar purposes as SCADA. These are generally
called Distributed Control Systems (DCS). The functions are the same; the difference is in the range.
Distributed Control Systems are typically effective within a confined area like a factory complex.
Thus the communication is carried out through a local area network (LAN). These networks are
highly dependable and fast, and can manage closed-loop (feedback based) control.

DCS networks have their limitations. They cannot cover large territories. This is where SCADA comes
in handy. However the communication systems are not as reliable as a LAN, and therefore it is not
viable to implement closed-loop control. Right now, the size and scope is what mark SCADA.
Chapter 6
Types of IED

According to use of IED there are different types of IED listed below

1. Used in generating station


2. Used for transmission substation
3. Used for distribution substation
There is some little difference between these different IEDs. For generating station reverse power
protection, generator protection, exciter supply control, etc. must be provided. While for
transmission line substation IEDs are able to communicate directly with each other like IED placed at
sending end able to communicate with IED placed at receiving end directly. For distribution
substation IED is specially used for on line voltage regulator and for power factor correction.

According to application over particular device

1. Generator protection
2. Circuit breaker protection and control

3. On line tab changer control

4. Transformer protection

IEDs can be used for protection and control of particular device as listed above in a substation.
Generally for IED there is IED 670 series of electronic devices is used

1. RED 670 used for overhead line and cables protection


2. REL 670 used for transmission overhead line protection
3. REG 670 sued for generator
4. RET 670 use for any type of transformer
5. REC 670 used for any type of switchgear
6. REB 670 used for busbar protection and monitoring

Lets see in detail of IED 670 series

1. RET670 optimized for transmission applications


RET670 IEDs provide customized or pre-configured protection solutions for any type of transformer
and shunt reactor application. The customized RET670 gives freedom to select functionality entirely
according to your needs. The pre-configured RET670 variants simplify handling since the basic
functionality is included and pre-configured. If needed, we can add optional functions to increase
the functionality of the pre-configured RET670 IEDs to meet the specific requirements of your
transformer or shunt reactor.

The extremely fast differential protection function with automatic CT ratio matching and vector
group compensation makes RET670 the ideal solution for the most demanding applications.
Furthermore, one RET670 IED can be extended to contain two differential protection functions to
protect the most advanced system configurations. This transformer protection IED is designed to
operate correctly over a wide frequency range in order to accommodate power system frequency
variations during disturbances and generator start-up and shut-down. It has very low requirements
on the main CTs, and no interposing CTs are required.

RET670 features also several functions for local and remote apparatus control on all sides of the
transformer. Secure bay and station wide interlocking allows you to avoid dangerous or damaging
switchgear operations and to ensure personnel safety.

2. REG 670
REG670 IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) provides protection and monitoring for
generators, prime movers and step-up transformers in hydro-, pump-storage-, gas-, combined cycle-,
steam- and cogeneration stations. With excellent performance, flexibility and scalability it fulfills the
demanding requirements of every corner of the world for both new installations and retrofits.

Based on ABB's extensive experience, REG670 takes generator protection to a new performance
level. Up to 24 analog inputs permit integration of main and back-up protection in one IED.
Alternatively, additional objects, such as transformers, can be included in the generator protection
scope. This enables full duplication of the protection in main one and main two. All this reduces the
number of IEDs needed to protect the entire generating station, increasing availability at the same
time. This in turn simplifies the installation and reduces its lifecycle cost from commissioning to
maintenance and spare parts. Its functions also incorporate intelligent fault criteria to ensure
unrivalled selectivity and sensitivity.

A generator protection system with REG670 meets the requirements for maximum dependability
and availability. The generator differential protection features extremely fast detection criteria, with
a typical operate time of 15 ms - and yet the IED maintains high security.

REG670 also features injection-based 100% stator and rotor earth-fault protection and 3rd harmonic
based 100% stator earth-fault protection. These solutions enable a new way to optimize the cost-
performance ratio of the protection system in relation to the importance or size of the generating
station. ABB's innovated implementation of the injection principle allows injection via a neutral point
VT or even via an open-delta VT located in the generator terminals. As no changes need to be made
in the primary circuit or in the grounding resistor, the design, installation and commissioning of the
protection system is easy and fast. The 3rd harmonic based 100% stator earth-fault protection
utilizes the differential principle, which provides high sensitivity and security. This ensures correct
operation even during low load conditions.

3. REC670 optimized for transmission applications


REC670 IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Device) provide control solutions for any type of switchgear and
different switchgear configurations. The customized REC670 gives you the freedom to select the
functionality entirely according to your needs. The pre-configured REC670 variants simplify handling
since the basic functionality is included and pre-configured. If needed, you can add optional
functions to easily increase the functionality of the REC670 IEDs to meet the specific requirements of
your switchyard.

REC670 integrates advanced voltage control for transformers in a substation in a single IED. The IEDs
feature a large HMI for local control and instant access to important data, such as settings, events
and disturbance information.

The outstanding I/O capability in REC670 enables control of several bays with complete
measurement with only one IED. For instance, one REC670 IED is capable of handling control of all
apparatuses in one entire diameter in 1 breaker arrangement including breaker failure protection
for all breakers.

4. RED 670
The RED670 IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) is designed for protection, monitoring and control of
overhead lines and cables. In addition, this IED is capable of handling transformer feeders, generator
and transformer blocks. It provides an extensive functionality with configuration opportunities and
expandable hardware to meet your specific requirements.

The RED670 IEDs are delivered pre-configured, type tested and set with default parameters for fast
and efficient commissioning. These IEDs are equipped with complete functionality adapted for single
pole breaker or multi-breaker arrangement with single or three phase tripping. If needed, they can
also be easily adapted to meet the specific requirements of your power system. The wide application
flexibility makes these IEDs an excellent choice for both new and retrofit installations.

The RED670 IEDs feature phase-segregated current differential protection with excellent sensitivity
for high resistive faults and secure phase selection for up to five line terminals. Two- or three-
winding power transformers can be included in the protected zone.

5. REB 670
The REB670 IED (Intelligent Electronic Device) is designed for the protection and monitoring of
busbars, T-connections and meshed corners from medium to extra high voltage levels. Due to its
extensive I/O capability, REB670 protects single and double busbars with or without transfer bus,
double circuit breaker or one-and-half circuit breaker arrangements.

It provides selective, reliable and fast fault clearance for all types of internal phase-to-phase and
phase-to-earth faults in solidly earthed or low-impedance earthed power systems. It can also handle
all internal multi-phase faults in isolated or high-impedance earthed power systems.
6. REL670 optimized for transmission applications
REL670 IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Device) provide versatile protection, monitoring and control
functionality with maximum flexibility and performance optimized for transmission overhead lines
and cables. The powerful IED provides distance protection for double circuit, parallel operating and
series compensated lines. This, together with flexible and expandable hardware, allows the IED to
meet your specific requirements. As a result, you can benefit from applications with multiple
algorithms and comprehensive bay control functionality, including synchronizing, synchro-check,
deadline detection and auto-reclosing.

Furthermore, REL670 IEDs are able to protect and control several objects, for instance a combination
of a line and a transformer with a single IED.

REL670 provides protection of power lines with high sensitivity and low requirement on remote end
communication. Measurements and setting of all five zones with six setting groups are made
completely independent, which ensures high reliability for all types of lines. The distance and earth-
fault protection functions can communicate with remote end in any communication scheme. It
offers full control and interlocking functionality required for control of apparatuses in a substation.

REL670 provides both customized and pre-configured protection solutions. The pre-configured IEDs
are equipped with complete functionality adapted for four different configuration alternatives
Chapter 7

Application of IED

IEDs (intelligent electronic device) are used with SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition)
system. SCADA system is mainly used for power system automation and for stronger protection and
control of any system. Power system automation is the act of automatically controlling the power
system via instrumentation and control devices. Substation automation refers to using data from
Intelligent electronic devices (IED), control and automation capabilities within the substation, and
control commands from remote users to control power system devices.

Since full substation automation relies on substation integration, the terms are often used
interchangeably. Power system automation includes processes associated with generation and
delivery of power. Monitoring and control of power delivery systems in the substation and on the
pole top reduce the occurrence of outages and shorten the duration of outages that do occur. The
IEDs, communications protocols, and communications methods, work together as a system to
perform power system automation. The term power system describes the collection of devices
that make up the physical systems that generate, transmit, and distribute power. The term
instrumentation and control (I&C) system refers to the collection of devices that monitor, control,
and protect the power system

Application of IED

1. Substation automation

2. Mass transit system

3. Traction signaling and control system

4. Water supply management system

5. Automation industries

6. Robotics

7. Smart grid

8. Condition monitoring
Substation automation

The major advantage is SA (Substation automation) software for monitoring and control,
microprocessor based RTU, remotely operable load break switches, data communication interfaces,
distribution network simulator and necessary field instrumentation. The substation IEDs can be used
to retrieve the substation data. Use of IEDs simplifies the SA installation at the substation level.
Further, conversion of protocol from proprietary (with existing relays) to DNP3 has been addressed.
The capabilities of the developed Substation Automation System include:

1. Monitoring of voltage, current, power factor, real power, reactive power, voltage and current
unbalance
2. etc. on in-coming / out-going feeders and transformers
3. Monitoring of circuit breaker, manual switch and isolator status and operation history
4. Alarm generation under abnormal operating conditions
5. Monitoring of local / remote selector switch status
6. Monitor transformer health status
7. Remote operation of 33kV, 11kV and 415 V breakers and bus couplers
8. Detailed engineering tools for data acquisition and automation implementation

Mass transit

Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways, trams and trolley buses; to
automate traffic signals for rail systems; to track and locate trains and buses; and to control railroad-
crossing gates.

Smart grid

In the Smart Grid, protection engineers should be provided with advanced tools to execute event
analysis more effectively making sure the system is restored as quickly as possible. Since the manual
event analysis is a time consuming process, this IED proposes a scheme for real-time automated
collecting, analyzing, archiving, and displaying of Substation Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) data
generated during a power system events. How the relevant information is extracted to generate a
customized report, especially considering protection engineers' needs is discussed. Several
intelligent IED data analysis application tools are incorporated for the purpose of effective IED data
processing. A software application named Report Generator is developed for the purpose of data
integration and information exchange to create the report with a predefined format. A simulation
case is given for more detailed description of the automation process. This solution ensures high
efficiency in root-course analysis aimed at understanding and trouble-shooting relay operations,
resulting in improved reliability of power system operation

Traction control

Control of electric traction power supply networks associated with electrified railways has been a
requirement in Britain since the turn of this century. The first electrification schemes lacked remote
control facilities, each large sub-station site being manned. The author looks at the gradual
introduction of high resolution graphics man/machine interfaces in the control rooms with SCADA
systems. The involvement of the operators in the design of the system is also described

Condition monitoring

As IED continuously monitor all electrical as well as physical parameter of power equipment it can
be used for condition monitoring of a device with some advanced devices. Condition monitoring is
the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery, such that a significant change is
indicative of a developing failure. It is a major component of predictive maintenance. The use of
conditional monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to avoid
the consequences of failure, before the failure occurs. Nevertheless, a deviation from a reference
value (e.g. temperature or vibration behavior) must occur to identify impeding damages. Predictive
Maintenance does not predict failure. Machines with defects are more at risk of failure than defect
free machines. Once a defect has been identified, the failure process has already commenced and
CM systems can only measure the deterioration of the condition. Intervention in the early stages of
deterioration is usually much more cost effective than allowing the machinery to fail. Condition
monitoring has a unique benefit in that the actual load, and subsequent heat dissipation that
represents normal service can be seen and conditions that would shorten normal lifespan can be
addressed before repeated failures occur. Serviceable machinery include rotating equipment and
stationary plant such as boilers and heat exchangers.

Chapter 8

Benefits of IED

1. Saves Time
IED operates at very high speed. It continuously monitor the system parameter and if any
abnormal condition is occur IED will take corrective action immediately and send detail report of
fault to operator. IEDs also capable to communicate with multiple devices at a time. Thus IED
reduces the operation time of system.

2. Economical
IED operate at very less power as it consists of only electronic devices. Generally less than 1
watt (+12v/-12v) power is required for its operation. Therefore running cost of IED is very less.
Maintenance of IED system is very less or no maintenance required, thus maintenance cost is less.

3. Reduces manpower need


With use of advanced SCADA system IEDs are able to reduces large amount of human
interference and reduces the man power need for operation of substation.

4. Reliable
IEDs are much sensitive to abnormal condition therefore IED protects all equipment thus
system is more reliable as compare to conventional system.
Advantages of IED

1. Can be operated and control from remote place


IEDs are able to communicate with multiple channels at a time and we can send any control
command to any type of IED. Also IEDs have capability of self decision over any abnormal condition.
IED control all electrical equipment like switchgear and online tab changer or voltage regulator, or
automatic power factor correction i.e. selection of capacitor banks
.
2. Communication
There is different ways for communication of IED with operator and control.
i. Using Ethernet
ii. Using GPS (global positioning system)
iii. Using modem
iv. Using fiber optic cable
v. Using wi-fi area
vi. Using 3G technology
vii. Using Internet
Generally SCADA operated substation uses 5kHz to 500kHz frequency for wireless communication.
3. Reporting
If any abnormal condition is occur IED will take corrective action and send detail report of what
actio
n is
to be
done
and
cond
ition
of
fault
to
oper
ator.
Exa
mple of fault report is as follow.
Report shows date, time, station number, fault values, and status of all equipment.

4. Monitoring
IED monitor all values of Electrical as well as physical values hence can be used for condition
monitoring of power equipment like generator, transformer, busbar, switchgears etc.

5. Space required is less


As IED consist of all electronic parts, hence space required for IED is very less and IED can be
mounted on panel board as well as near to power equipment.

6. Self decision capability


IED is programmed in such fashion that it is able to take self decision over any abnormal
condition like tripping of circuit breaker, generate a alarm signal at substation etc.
Chapter 9

Disadvantages of IED

1. Provision for manual operating

IED consist of all electronic component hence in case any fault occur on system total system control
may get loose hence there is necessary to keep another provision of control and operating of
equipments at substation.

2. Initial cost of system is high

In this system Substation Automation consist of software and hardware combination. IED consist of
electronic component which are multifunctional and programmed. Thus initial cost of system gets
increased as compared to ordinary system.

3. Required excellent operators to keep control on system

As we seen it is a combination of hardware and software. So operator should know about


programming of devices and should have some computer knowledge.