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FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

FORMATIVE EVALUATION

Administered to determine the effectiveness of teaching and to ascertain how much


the students achieved or reached the goals or objectives of the learning tasks
Determine who among the students have not attained or reached the goals or
objectives of the learning tasks
Indication of achievement would not be too high or too low , about 80-85 percent
may be accepted
GENERAL PRINCIPLESIN CONSTRUCTING TESTS FOR FORMATIVE EVALUATION

1.A unit of learning must be analyzed first in terms of content and behavior.
2.All elements in a unit as stated in the table of specifications must be included.
3.Only items of each behavior level specified must be included.
4.Items must be arranged in an ascending order of difficulty so that lower level items
are necessarily passed.
5. Item analysis may be used to determine whether the difficulty of items stated in
the table of specifications is supported by student achievement.
USES OF FORMATIVE EVALUATION FOR STUDENTS
1. Pacing
Aids the learner in learning the subject matter and the behavior considering
that the rate of learning is individualized
2. Reinforcement
Results should inform the students on how much they have reached the
goals or objectives of the learning tasks
Feedback based on results is an effective reward of reinforcement over a
small unit of learning
3. Diagnosis
Errors in FE diagnose the weaknesses of the students as bases for remedial
instruction
BASES OF FORMATIVE EVALUATION FOR TEACHERS

1. Handling errors
Errors made by the majority of students should be handled by the teacher
These errors should be reviewed by the class at the next sessions
2. Quality control
A teacher who keeps records of previous performances can use these
records as basis for remedial instruction and improvement of instruction
Teacher should indicate if the results of the formative test using different
approaches showed desired improvement
3. Forecasting
Summative test results might be predicted based on formative test results
SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

Aims to assess the learners achievement at the end of the teaching-learning process
Measures the attainment of specific objectives at the end of a given period of time
USES OF SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

1. To assign grades
Results are graded on the basis of a standard set for mastery
This standard indicates the specific skills that a student must attain and the
behavior he must exhibit
2. To provide feedbacks to students
If a summative test is constructed carefully with fairly disperses items and if
multiple scores are given on the behavioral categories , then the learners will
receive more feedback in his performance especially if sufficient items in each
category are reliable
3. To compare outcomes of different groups
Outcomes of different teaching techniques and strategies, different teaching
aids and devices and different types of student are compared

ITEM ANALYSIS

Item analysis is testing the effectiveness of the items by studying the students
responses to each item.
Data help in determining specific technical defect
Gives information to improve the test items
Item analysis gives the following points:

1. The difficulty of the item.


2. The discriminating power of the item.
3. The effectiveness of each item.
SEVERAL BENEFITS OF ITEM ANALYSIS

1. It gives useful information for class discussion of the test. For instance, easy items can
be treated lightly, responses to difficult items can be explained more
comprehensively, and defective items can be pointed out to the students.
2. It gives data for helping the students to improve their learning method.
3. It gives insights and skills which lead to the construction of better test items for future
use.
SIMPLIFIED ITEM-ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

Informal achievement tests, the UL method is the simplest. It means that only the upper
group (U) and the lower group (L) are considered. The middle or average group is held
in abeyance.
STEP 1. Arrange the test scores from highest to the lowest.

STEP 2. Get one-third of the papers from the highest scores and one-third from the
lowest groups.

STEP 3. Count the number of students in the upper and lower groups, respectively, who
chose the options.
STEP 4. Record the frequency from Step 3.
STEP 5. Estimate the index of difficulty.
STEP 6. Estimate the discriminating power.
STEP 7. Determine the effectiveness of the distractors.