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Biogeochemical cycle

In Earth Science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by


which a chemical substance moves through both biotic biosphere and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere,
and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth. Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter
are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through
biogeochemical cycles.

The term "biogeochemical" tells us that biological, geological and chemical factors are all involved.
The circulation of chemical nutrients like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and water
etc. through the biological and physical world are known as biogeochemical cycles. In effect, the
element is recycled, although in some cycles there may be places (called reservoirs) where the
element is accumulated or held for a long period of time (such as an ocean or lake for water)

Important cycles
The most well-known and important biogeochemical cycles, for example, include

the carbon cycle,

the nitrogen cycle,

the oxygen cycle,

the phosphorus cycle,

the sulfur cycle,

the water cycle,

and the rock cycle.


Biogeochemical cycles are pathways for the transport and transformation
of matter within four categorical areas that make up planet Earth (biosphere,
hydrosphere, lithosphere, and the atmosphere).Source.
Biogeochemical cycles are components of the broader cycle that govern the
functioning of planet Earth. The Earth is a system open to electromagnetic
radiation from the sun and outer space, but is a virtually closed system with
regard to matter. This means that the planet has minimal flux of matter, other
than meteorite collisions and minor amounts of intergalactic particle trapping (or
loss) by the upper atmosphere. Therefore, matter that Earth contained from the
time of its birth is transformed and circulated geographically. This is in line with
the law of conservation of matter which states that matter cannot be created nor
destroyed but can be transformed including the transformation between matter
and energy

The transfer of matter involves biological, geological and chemical processes;


hence the name biogeochemical cycles derives. Biogeochemical cycles may also
be referred to as cycles of nature because they link together all organisms and
abiotic features on earth (Figure 1). Matter is continually recycled among living
and abiotic elements on earth. Biogeochemical cycles facilitate the transfer of
matter from one form to another and from one location to another on planet
earth. Additionally, biogeochemical cycles are sometimes called nutrient cycles,
because they involve the transfer of compounds that provide nutritional support
to living organisms.

Biogeochemical cycles are important because they regulate the elements necessary for
life on Earth by cycling them through the biological and physical aspects of the
world. Biogeochemical cycles are a form of natural recycling that allows the continuous survival
of ecosystems.

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are
naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves,
and geothermal heat.[2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity
generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[3]
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various
forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the
definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass,
geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.

Renewable energy is important because of the benefits it provides. The key benefits are:
Environmental Benefits
Renewable energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower environmental
impact than conventional energy technologies.
Energy for our children's children's children
Renewable energy will not run out. Ever. Other sources of energy are finite and will some day be
depleted.
Jobs and the Economy
Most renewable energy investments are spent on materials and workmanship to build and maintain
the facilities, rather than on costly energy imports. Renewable energy investments are usually spent
within the United States, frequently in the same state, and often in the same town. This means your
energy dollars stay home to create jobs and fuel local economies, rather than going overseas.
Meanwhile, renewable energy technologies developed and built in the United States are being sold
overseas, providing a boost to the U.S. trade deficit.
Energy Security
After the oil supply disruptions of the early 1970s, our nation has increased its dependence on
foreign oil supplies instead of decreasing it. This increased dependence impacts more than just our
national energy policy.

Renewable energy can help in electrification of many rural areas in developing world. In many rural
areas renewable energy is cheaper energy option to satisfy energy needs compared to traditional
energy solutions.

Renewable energy can also help improve political ties between countries by sharing technological
know-how. Some large renewable energy projects could even be joined works of two or more
different countries.