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Analista de

Sistemas
materia
Ingls Tcnico I
Ingls Tcnico I

Programa de la materia
Objetivos Generales de la Asignatura
La finalidad de esta asignatura es brindar a los alumnos los elementos para que puedan comprender, interpre-
tar y traducir manuales, folletos y textos especficos de informtica del ingls al castellano, haciendo uso de
conocimientos previos y de las experiencias en dichos temas.
Para lograr este objetivo es importante el estudio comparativo de la gramtica de ambas lenguas y el correcto
uso del diccionario bilinge.

Objetivos especficos
Profundizar en el conocimiento de la lengua inglesa.
Avanzar en el dominio del uso de los tiempos verbales.
Ampliar el conocimiento de las expresiones cotidianas y de vocablos especficos del mbito de la computacin
y la informtica.
Adquirir soltura y dominio del lenguaje oral, tanto en la expresin como en la comprensin.
interpretar las funciones lingsticas ms usuales en el mundo informtico: descripcin tcnica, descripcin de
procesos, finalidad, ejemplificacin, clasificacin.
Traducir, analizar e interpretar lecturas tcnicas especializadas.

Bibliografa:
MURPHY, R. (1990). Essential Grammar in Use. Spanish Edition. With answers. Cambridge: CUP.
Collins Cobuild English Dictionary. (1995). London: HarperCollins.
The Teachers Magazine
SIMON & SCHUSTER, International Dictionary (Ingls/Espaol), New York, 1973.
Publicaciones varias en forma de libros, revistas, manuales, folletos, avisos publicitarios, diarios y documentos
en idioma ingls sobre temas de la Informtica.

Enlaces en internet recomendados:


http://www.diccionarios.com
http://www.wordreference.com
http://abc.vvsu.ru/Books/u_computer/page0043.asp

Requisitos para aprobar la materia:


Un Trabajo Prctico aprobado
Dos parciales escritos
Examen final escrito

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Analista de Sistemas

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Ingls Tcnico I

Introduccin

La finalidad de esta asignatura es brindar a los alumnos los elementos para que puedan comprender, interpretar
y traducir manuales, folletos y textos especficos de informtica del ingls al castellano, haciendo uso de
conocimientos previos y de las experiencias en dichos temas.
Para lograr este objetivo es importante el estudio comparativo de la gramtica de ambas lenguas y el correcto
uso del diccionario bilinge.

Requisitos para aprobar la materia:

Un Trabajo Prctico aprobado


Dos parciales escritos
Examen final escrito

Se podr consultar el diccionario y los apuntes sobre gramtica para dichos exmenes.

Metodologa:
Para lograr un buen aprendizaje se aconseja tener en cuenta:

Cuando se realiza una traduccin lo que se transfiere de un idioma a otro son ideas y no palabras. No recu-
rrir a la traduccin literal (palabra por palabra).
Se debe ser fiel al original; dejar de lado lo superfluo, lo que nada agrega al texto, conservando lo sustancial;
evitar la repeticin.
Usar el diccionario: no dejarse llevar por la similitud de las palabras; buscar lo que no se sabe y lo que no se
sabe bien.
Antes de contestar las preguntas de la comprensin o de realizar la traduccin se tiene que leer todo el
texto, an cuando haya palabras que desconozcan.

Al finalizar cada bloque gramatical encontrarn una serie de Ejercicios para la prctica de la comprensin y la
traduccin aplicando las estructuras aprendidas.
Adems, tambin encontrarn la resolucin de los mismos. Es aconsejable no consultar la resolucin hasta haber
agotado todos los medios para la realizacin de los Ejercicios por su cuenta. Recuerden que no existe una sola
forma de redactar la traduccin o las preguntas de la comprensin ya que trabajamos con ideas y no con palabras.

No dejen de consultar sus dudas cada vez que sea necesario

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Analista de Sistemas

Tema 1
Ubicar las partes de la computadora en los espacios en blanco.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Diferencias entre ingls y castellano


Ubicar Las siguientes palabras de acuerdo a los Ejemplos en el cuadro.

1) menos ms
2) verbo / sustantivo sustantivo / verbo
3) debilidad vigor
4) menos ms
5) pasiva activa

Ingls Castellano

1) .. econmico .. econmico
Ejemplo: I drove to school. Ejemplo: Fui a la escuela en auto.

2) USO MAS FRECUENTE DEL .. EN USO MAS FRECUENTE DEL .. EN


LUGAR DEL .. LUGAR DEL ..

Ejemplo: Come for lunch tomorrow. Ejemplo: Ven a almorzar maana.

3) .. DE LAS PREPOSICIONES .. DE LAS PREPOSICIONES


Ejemplo: He went up the ladder. Ejemplo: subi la escalera

4) .. USO DE MAYSCULAS

Das de la semana, meses, estaciones,


gentilicios e idiomas .. USO DE MAYSCULAS
Ttulos honorficos
En ttulos, llevan mayscula todos los
sustantivos, adjetivos, adverbios y verbos.

5) PREDOMINIO DE LA VOZ .. PASIVA PREDOMINIO DE LA VOZ ..


The atom was thought impossible to split. Creyeron que era imposible separar el tomo.

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Formacion de palabras

PREFIJO Ejemplo

(Prefixes): Son partculas que se anteponen a las palabras provocando un cambio en su significado. Algunos prefijos ms comunes son:

a- : Es un prefijo negativo que indica ausencia de una cualidad y se amoral: amoral


aade a adjetivos y sustantivos. asymmetry: asimetra

ante- : (ante ; delante de) antechamber: antecmara

antisocial: antisocial
anti- : Indica actitud de oposicin (anti- ; en contra de)

bi- : Indica nmero (dos) bilingual: bilinge


bicycle: bicicleta

co-operate, cooperate: cooperar


co- : Indica compaa, conjunto. Suelen escribirse con guin, pero
coeducation: coeducacin
tambin se encuentran en una sola palabra.

to decode: descodificar o decodificar


de- : (des-) Es un prefijo que expresa privacin o inversin de una
to defrost: descongelar
accin.
deforestation: deforestacin

dis- : (des-) dishonour: deshonor


disobedient: desobediente

fore- : (ante-; pre-) forearm: antebrazo


foresee: prever

mis-, mal- : Es un prefijo peyorativo con el sentido de mal Malfunction: mal funcionamiento
equivocado. misfortune: desgracia

existent: inexistente
non- : Prefijo negativo que expresa la misma idea que anon-
non-scientific: no cientfico

over- : (exceso de) overdose: sobredosis


overestimate: sobrestimar

re- : (re-; volver a; de nuevo) to rebuild: reconstruir


to reconsider: reconsiderar

unforgettable: inolvidable
un- : (des-; in-; im-). Este prefijo tiene dos acepciones:
unemployment: desempleo
a) Es el prefijo negativo ms corriente en ingls.
unrest: inquietud, malestar

A veces, el adjetivo toma el prefijo un-, mientras que el sustantivo inability: incapacidad
toma el prefijo inunable: unjust: injusto

En algunos casos el mismo adjetivo con un- indica un significado unmoral: amoral
neutro, mientras que con in- tiene significado desfavorable. immoral: inmoral

b) Es un prefijo privativo utilizado para indicar la accin contraria del to unbutton: desabotonar
verbo. to undo: deshacer

Mini- : (pequeo) Minicomputer

Micro- : (muy pequeo) Microcomputer

Macro-, mega- : (grande, muy grande) Macroeconomics, megabyte

Peri- : (alrededor) Peripheral

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Ingls Tcnico I

Ejercicio n1
Lea las siguientes oraciones y encierre los PREFIJOS. Para cada palabra que tiene un prefijo, especifique lo
que significa cada prefijo.
1. Floppy disks are inexpensive and reusable.
2. If a printer malfunctions, you should check the interface cable.
3. The multiplexor was not working because someone had disconnected it by mistake.
4. Improper installation of the antiglare shield will make it impossible to read what is on the screen.
5. After you transfer text using the cut and paste feature, you may have to reformat the text you have inserted.
6. You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even trilingual.
7. Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards) or output devices (such as printers)
8. As the results are irregular, the program will have to be rewritten.

Ejercicio n2
Complete los espacios en blanco con el prefijo correcto tomado de la siguiente lista:

auto de dec inter


maxi mega micro mini
mono multi semi sub

1. Most people prefer a colour screen to a chrome screen.


2. script is a character or symbol written below and to the right of a number or letter, often used
in science.
3. A byte equals approximately one million bytes.
4. Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and bug it to remove all the mistakes.
5. The introduction of conductor technology revolutionized the computer industry.
6. If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under common control, it is called a
processor system.
7. The imal system is a number system with a base of 10.
8. When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics system, we refer to this as
active graphics.

Suffixes

NOUNS VERBS ADJECTIVES ADVERBS


-ance -ize -able -ly
-ence -ate -ible
-or -fy -less
-er -en -ic
-ist -ify -ical
-ness -ish
-ive

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Analista de Sistemas

SUFIJO Ejemplo

(Suffixes): Son partculas que se aaden a las palabras o races de


palabras. La diferencia con los prefijos est no slo en la posicin que cada uno toma en la derivacin, sino en que el
prefijo tiene un significado por s solo mientras que el sufijo

Modifica el significado del primer elemento blue (azul) bluish (azulado)


child (nio) childish (niez)

Forman una palabra que pertenece a otra categora gramatical kind (amable) kindness (amabilidad)
quick (rpido) quickly (rpidamente)

-able. Se aade a verbos para formar adjetivos. Algunos acceptable: aceptable


adjetivos se derivan de nombres. exchangeable: intercambiable
agreeable: agradable
comfortable: cmodo
reasonable: razonable

-ance. Estado. performance: actuacin

-ation. Se aade a verbos principalmente para formar education: educacin


sustantivos abstractos o colectivos.Tambin puede presentarse exploration: exploracin
como -tion, -sion y -xion. organization: organizacin
occasion: ocasin
connexion/connection: conexin
section: seccin

-ee. Indica la persona afectada por la accin del verbo o employee: empleado
sustantivo al que se aade. payee: tenedor, beneficiario
refugee: refugiado

-eer. Se aade a los sustantivos para indicar la persona engineer: ingeniero


relacionada con ellos. auctioneer: rematador

-ence. Calidad de. independence: independencia

-er. Se aade a verbos o sustantivos para indicar la persona que writer: escritor
realiza la accin denotada por el verbo o por el sustantivo. driver: conductor
reader: lector

-ess. Se utiliza para indicar el gnero femenino. count (conde) countess (condesa)
actor (actor) actreess (actriz)
tiger (tigre) tigress (tigresa)

-ist. Se aade a sustantivos, adjetivos y verbos para indicar novelist: novelista


personas que practican una ciencia o arte, que ejercen una archeologist: arquelogo
profesin, que siguen un principio o sistema u otro tipo de dentist: dentista
personas. socialist: socialista
antagonist: antagonista

-ful. Se aade principalmente a sustantivos abstractos para useful: til


formar adjetivos que indican lleno de, que tiene, que successful: afortunado, que tiene xito
proporciona. Tambin puede agregarse a algunos verbos. helpful: servicial, provechoso
beautiful: bello
forgetful: olvidadizo

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Ingls Tcnico I

-ism. Se aade a sustantivos y adjetivos para formar sustantivos alcoholism: alcoholismo


abstractos que indican condicin, conducta, punto de vista, despotism: despotismo
doctrina, movimiento poltico o artstico, peculiaridad de la imperialism: imperialismo
lengua. impressionism: impresionismo
euphemism: eufemismo

-less. Es un sufijo que se aade a los sustantivos para indicar endless: sin fin
ausencia de, sin. childless: sin nios, sin hijos

-ly. Este sufijo forma adverbios principalmente de modo greatly: enormemente


(terminados en -mente) happily: felizmente
decidedly: decididamente

-ment. Se aade a los verbos para formar sustantivos abstractos argument: discusin
o tambin concretos. treatment: tratamiento
equipment: equipo

-ness. Se aade a casi todo tipo de adjetivos para formar happiness: felicidad
nombres abstractos. kindness: amabilidad

-ship. Se aade a sustantivos, generalmente personales, para friendship: amistad


formar nombres abstractos que indican estado, condicin, arte, salesmanship: arte de vender
destreza o accin. censorship: censura

-al, -ar, -ic, -ical. Tener la cualidad de. Computacional, logical, circular, magnetic, automatic,
electrical

-ed, -ive. Tener la cualidad de. Computed, interactive.

ATENCION: Las palabras que terminan en ing se forman a partir de verbos. La forma ing puede ser usada como
sustantivo, parte de una frase sustantiva, o parte de un verbo.

Ejemplo: 1. Programming is an interesting job. (noun)


2. Programming in C is interesting. (part of a noun phrase)
3. He is working as a programmer. (part of a verb)

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Analista de Sistemas

Ejercicio n1
Lea las siguientes oraciones y encierre los sufijos. Subraye la raz de la palabra si puede ser usada por si sola.

1. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various tasks on a computer.
2. A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to be taken to maximize
efficiency.
3. Laser printers are preferable to other types of printing devices because of their speed and quietness.
4. The microcomputer we have purchased does not have a FORTRAN compiler. It is programmable in BASIC only.
5. We have found that operators who have the freedom to take short breaks during the day greatly improve their
performance.
6. The number of shipments will increase over the coming months.
7. We decided to computerize the entire plant to give each division more independence.
8. Spooling is a way of storing data temporarily on disk or tape until it can be processed by another part of the
system.
9. Turning your office into a paperless environment may be expensive at the beginning but can produce big
savings in the long run.
10. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a growing global market.

Ahora, para cada palabra que tiene un sufijo, indique cul es su funcin semntica (por Ejemplo, sustantivo,
verbo, etc.) Las listas de prefijos y sufijos de los cuadros anteriores contienen los ms comunes, no es la
lista completa.

Tema 2
Contextual reference (referentes)
Lea el siguiente prrafo e identifique a qu se refiere cada palabra subrayada:
A computer, like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than humans. It
can receive more information and process it faster than any human. The speed at which a computer works means
it can replace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. Therefore, computers are used when the time saved
offsets their cost, which is one of the many reasons they are used so much in business industry, and research.

Los REFERENTES son palabras que reemplazan a otras palabras para evitar la repeticin. Se refieren a palabras
que ya han sido usadas.

Ejemplo:

A computer , like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than
humans.

It can receive more information and process it faster than any human.
(computer) (information)

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Ingls Tcnico I

The speed at which a computer works means it can replace weeks


(computer)

Therefore, computers are used when the time saved offsets their cost, which is one of the many reasons they are used
(computers) (the time saved) (computers)

El poder reconocer e identificar los referentes le ayudar a entender el prrafo que est leyendo.
Debe prestar atencin a las palabras referentes cuando aparecen en el texto que est leyendo y a su gnero
y nmero.
Puede encontrar el significado de los referente al inspeccionar el texto y usar su sentido comn y conoci-
miento del mismo.

Pronouns and possessive adjectives

Subject Object Possessive Possessive


Pronouns Pronouns Pronouns Adjectives

I me mine my
you you yours your
We us ours our
they them theirs their
He him his his
she her hers her
it it its its

Ejemplo:
Animation is a component of multimedia; it is used in online video game as well as in moving banners
displaying sports scores or stock prices.

Even though an optical fibre is as thin as hair, its signal carrying capacity is higher than copper wire.

Ejemplo:
As companies unify their networks and systems, they must merge new technologies and legacy systems.
their: companies
they: companies

Ejemplo:
Bill Gates knew that PCs would be big business and he imagined Microsoft playing a center role in this industry.
he: Bill Gates

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Analista de Sistemas

Relative Pronouns = proveen informacin extra

that which who whom whose where when why

Ejemplo:
Today, telecommunication is widespread and devices that assist the process, such as the television, radio and
telephone, are common in many parts of the world.
that se refiere a to devices

An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a
whole and the running of application programs.
which se refiere a master control program

Ejemplo:

Deleted Noun: eliminan los sustantivos que ya fueron mencionados.

one another the other others


some these those all

Ejemplo:
There is no best answer to the question which online service is the best. Rating a particular online service
over another is entirely subjective. Price is important to some people, while the number of files available for
download is important to others.

Another: online service


Others: people

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Ingls Tcnico I

Ejemplo:
Most programs are user-friendly but some are very complicated.
Some: some programs

Ejemplo:
DELPHIEs Hobby Shop is an online service which has two special-interest areas: one on classic vehicles and one
on new cars and technology.
One: one area

Ejemplo:
Optical fibers give very clear telephone conversations which are free from signal interference because light
signals from one fibre do not interfere with those of others in the same cable.
those: those light
others: other fibres

Ejemplo:
There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer and the
other allows the computer to figure out what that data mean.
One: technology
The other: the other technology

SPECIFIC WORDS: usa palabras especficas que otorgan significados especficos.


Everybody uses computers for many different purposes. These
smart machines make their lives easier and more pleasant.

these smart machines se refiere a COMPUTERS

Ejemplo:
Telecommunications is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In
modern times, this process almost always involves the sending of electromagnetic waves by electronic
transmitters but in early years it may have involved the use of smoke signals, drums or semaphore.

this process se refiere a: The transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication

PRO-CLAUSE: comienza una oracin con that, it, this, or which para referirse a la idea en la oracin anterior.
Ejemplo:
Multimedia combines text with sound, video, animation and graphic.
This greatly enhances the interaction between user and machine
this refers to the fact that multimedia combines text with sound,
video, animation and graphic

When Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) was first introduced, the connection had to be made between PCs
online at the same time.

This is no longer necessary.


this refers to the connection had to be made between PCs online at the same time

Technology has been developed increasingly, which makes our lives more convenient.
which se refiere a: Technology has been developed increasingly

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Analista de Sistemas

SEQUENCE OF TWO ITEMS: palabras que muestran el orden de situaciones y eventos.

the former the latter

Ejemplo:
Some students read slowly and know it; others read slowly and dont know it. The former can be helped more
easily than the latter.
the former se refiere a students who read slowly and know it
the latter se refiere a students who read slowly and dont know

Ejemplo:
There is a struggle between Web Services and the Semantic Web. The former was thought to be rooted in the
W3C and academia, the latter in IBM-Microsoft-Sun and industry.

the former se refiere a Web services


the latter se refiere a Semantic web

GRAMMATICAL SUBJECT & OBJECT IT


En el prrafo, el escritor quizs use it para referirse al sujeto o el objeto de una oracin.

Ejemplo:
It is easy to install new programs.
(to install new programs)

Ejemplo:
All computers do not use the same operating systems. Therefore, it is important to assess the operating system
used on a particular model before initial commitment because some software is only designed to run under
the control of specific operating systems. It must be taken into account that printers vary in cost, speed, print
quality and other factors such as noise or compatibility.

Ejercicios:
1) Lea las siguientes oraciones e indique las palabras a las que se refieren los referentes:

a) Over this period, PCs have become commodity items. Since IBM made the design non-proprietary,
anyone can make them.

them = .

b) The company failed to capitalize on this work, and the ideas that they put together went into the
operating system developed for Apples computers.

they = .

c) The first IBM PC was developed using existing available electrical components. With IBMs badge on the
box it became the standard machine for large corporations to purchase.

it = .

d) The original IBM PC had a minimum of 16K of memory, but this could be upgraded to 512K if necessary.

this = .

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Ingls Tcnico I

2) Lea el siguiente prrafo y dibuje un rectngulo alrededor de la palabra o palabras a las que se refieren las que
estn encerradas en un crculo.

Autoevaluacin:

1) Qu es un referente?
2) Enumere tipos de referentes y las caractersticas de cada uno.

Tema 3
Bloque nominal
Gnero del sustantivo

En Ingls generalmente el gnero de los sustantivos se indica por el uso de palabras diferentes.
Ejemplo:

Father (padre) Mother (madre)


Boy (nio) Girl (nia)
Uncle (to) Aunt (ta)

En algunos casos el femenino se forma con el agregado del sufijo ess


Ejemplo:

Host (anfitrin) Hostess (anfitriona)


Tiger (tigre) Tigress (tigresa)
Prince (prncipe) Princess (princesa)

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Analista de Sistemas

Con aquellos sustantivos que se emplean indistintamente para el masculino y para el femenino, el gnero se
indica, cuando es necesario hacerlo, aadiendo otras palabras indicadoras de sexo.

A writer (un escritor) A lady writer (una escritora)
An engineer (un ingeniero) A female engineer (una ingeniera)
He-bear (oso) She-bear (osa)

Sustantivos contables e incontables


Son sustantivos contables aquellos que se pueden contar, es decir, que pueden tomar la forma de plural.
disk : disco
cell: celda

Son sustantivos incontables aquellos que no se pueden contar, que slo se pueden medir y no pueden tomar la
forma de plural.
water: agua
sugar: azcar
intelligence: inteligencia

Algunos sustantivos pueden ser utilizados tanto en forma contable como incontable.

The fish in the sea. (countable) Do you like fish?. (uncountable)


Los peces del mar. Te gusta el pescado?

Caso Posesivo (Caso Genitivo):


En Ingls se utilizan dos formas para expresar la posesin:

1. Con la preposicin of (de)

The benefit of this program.


El beneficio de este programa.

The pages of the book.


Las pginas del libro.

2. Con el caso posesivo:


Esta estructura se forma con dos sustantivos: el poseedor (que aparece en primer lugar) al cual se le agrega un
apstrofo y la letra s y a continuacin el segundo sustantivo que indica lo posedo, que no lleva artculo pero
que se debe agregar al traducir.

Ejemplo: La mueca de la nia


The girl s doll

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Ingls Tcnico I

Cuando el sustantivo que designa al poseedor est en plural terminado en so es, slo se debe agregar el apstrofo.
The programmers mistake.
El error de los programadores.

Artculos

Determinado Indeterminado
Singular THE (el la lo) A o AN (un una)
(a veces) SOME
Plural THE (los las)
o directamente se suprime

Artculo indeterminado
El artculo indeterminado es invariable en cuanto a gnero.
Este artculo no existe en plural y cuando esta forma se cree necesaria se emplea el adjetivo indefinido some

Ejemplo: I bought some diskettes: Compr unos diskettes.

A se usa delante de palabras que comienzan con sonido consonntico.


Ejemplo: A computer: Una computadora.
A mouse: Un ratn (un mouse)
A university: Una universidad

AN se usa delante de palabras que comienzan con sonido voclico


Ejemplo: An interface: Una interfaz
An hour: Una hora

No se deber traducir:
Delante de profesiones, religiones, oficios, nacionalidades, etc.
He is a doctor: Es mdico
She is a catholic: Es catlica

En ciertas construcciones, tales como such a, many a, what a


Such a thing: tal cosa
Many a time: muchas veces
What a beautiful girl!: qu chica tan linda!

En los ttulos de libros, especialmente las obras cientficas y educativas, manuales, etc.
A Practical Study of Languages: Estudio prctico de las lenguas
An American Tragedy: Tragedia americana

Diferencia en el uso del artculo indeterminado y el nmero ordinal uno.


El nmero ordinal ONE se usa nicamente cuando se est enumerando.

Ejemplo: ONE coat .......................


Un saco no alcanza, hacen falta dos porque es una zona muy fra.
A coat .....................
Un saco no sirve, tiene que ser un tapado.

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Analista de Sistemas

Artculo determinado
El artculo determinado ingls es invariable en cuanto a gnero y nmero.
Ejemplo: The files: Los archivos
The good: Lo bueno
The B-drive: La unidad B
The processor: El procesador

THE se omite en ingls en los siguientes casos: (El artculo se debe colocar al traducir al espaol)

Con sustantivos que enuncian una generalidad o una ley comn a todos los sustantivos de ese tipo.
Se trata siempre de sustantivos en plural:
Ejemplo: Babies are nice. Los bebs son lindos.
Children are innocent. Los nios son inocentes.
Dogs are always faithful. Los perros son siempre fieles.

Se refiere a TODOS los bebs, a TODOS los nios y a TODOS los perros del mundo, en general, sin exclusiones.
Pero: THE babies of this hospital (los de este hospital, no todos)
THE children of that school (los de ese colegio, no todos)
THE dogs of those races (los perros de esas razas, no todos)

En la formacin del caso posesivo, despus del segundo sustantivo:


Ejemplo: Toms book El libro de Tom
Marys pencils Los lpices de Mary

Con palabras como school, church, "hospital"," prison" etc.


(Cuando se refieren a la funcin o uso que se hace del lugar. Cuando se refieren al edificio como tal, se emplea el artculo).
Ejemplo: She is in hospital. Est en el hospital (enferma).
She works in the hospital. Trabaja en el hospital (en el edificio).

Delante del nombre de las estaciones del ao:


Ejemplo: Summer is very hot: El verano es muy caluroso.

Con nombres de lenguas extranjeras:


Ejemplo: Translate into Spanish. Traduzca al espaol.

Con sustantivos abstractos usados en sentido general:


Ejemplo: Charity is a virtue. La caridad es una virtud.

Con nombres de sustancias o elementos tomados en sentido general:


Ejemplo: Salt is a seasoning substance. La sal es una sustancia para condimentar.

Con los nombres de colores tomados en sentido general:


Ejemplo: Blue is my favourite colour. El azul es mi color preferido.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Ejercicio:
Completar en los espacios con A, AN, THE -. Luego traducir las oraciones.
1) Pandas and ___ tigers are both endangered animals.
2) Magda is wearing ___ blue dress with red shoes
3) Bornholm is ___ island in the Baltic Sea.
4) Christmas comes once ___ year.
5) ___ owl is __ bird.
6) The Severn is ___ river.
7) Jane went to the shop to buy ___ bread.
8) ___ beer is not good for you.
9) I cant believe I failed ___ yesterdays test!

Autoevaluacin:
1) Cmo se indica el gnero de aquellos sustantivos que se usan indistintamente?
2) Cmo se diferencian los sustantivos contables de los incontables?
3) Cundo no se deben traducir los artculos?
4) En qu casos se debe utilizar el artculo en espaol?

El adjetivo:
En ingls el adjetivo es una parte invariable de la oracin. Dado que en espaol es una parte variable de la oracin, es
necesario tener presente que el adjetivo ingls no se modifica con respecto al gnero o al nmero.

the new computer la computadora nueva


the new computers las computadoras nuevas
hard disk disco rgido
hard disks discos rgidos

Los adjetivos se utilizan atributiva o predicativamente.


Los adjetivos atributivos generalmente preceden al sustantivo.
A good man un hombre bueno (un buen hombre).

Los adjetivos predicativos se utilizan con verbos de predicacin incompleta (to be, to seem, to become, etc.).
The man is tall. El hombre es alto
She became happy Se puso contenta

Adjetivos demostrativos:
This este / esta
That ese / esa / aquel / aquella
These estos / estas
Those esos / esas / aquellos / aquellas

Ejemplo: Stop that noise! Paren ese ruido!


Those cables require little physical space. Esos cables necesitan poco espacio fsico.

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Analista de Sistemas

Ejercicio
Completar en los espacios con THIS, THAT, THESE or THOSE.
1) Sean is . boy at the back of the class.
2) . house is old but that one on the other side of the street is quite new.
3) Waiter. . coffee tastes funny.
4) I dont like this chair. I like . one over there.
5) The red shoes are awful. I like . shoes here.
6) Did you see . motorbikes that just went by?

Adjetivos que indican cantidad:


Much mucho / mucha
A little un poco
Many muchos / muchas
Several varios
Some algn / algunos / algunas
Enough suficiente
Few pocos / pocas
A great deal of mucho / mucha
A few unos pocos / unas pocas
Little poco / poca

Adjetivos posesivos:
My mi
Your su / tu / tus
His su / sus (de l)
Her su / sus (de ella)
Its su / sus (para objeto inanimado o animal)
Our nuestro / a / os / as
Your sus (de Uds.)
Their sus (de ellos)

Ejemplo:
This is our office. Esta es nuestra oficina.

Los adjetivos posesivos en tercera persona del singular concuerdan en gnero con el poseedor y no con la
cosa poseda.
Ejemplo:
John has his book. Juan tiene su libro.
Mary has her book. Mara tiene su libro.
John has his house. Juan tiene su casa.
Mary has her house. Mara tiene su casa.

Generalmente se utilizan adjetivos posesivos con las partes del cuerpo y de la ropa. (En espaol se deber
traducir con el artculo determinado)
Ejemplo:
She broke her arm. Se fractur (rompi) el brazo.

No deber confundirse el adjetivo posesivo its con la contraccin its de it is.


Ejemplo:
The cat is having milk because its hungry. Its plate is on the floor.
verbo adj.

El gato esta tomando leche porque tiene hambre. Su plato est en el piso.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Comparacin de los adjetivos

El comparativo: para comparar dos personas u objetos con referencia a una misma cualidad.
El superlativo: para comparar ms de dos personas u objetos.

Cuando el adjetivo tiene una o dos slabas, el comparativo se forma agregando el sufijo -er y el superlativo
agregando el sufijo -est

Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo


short shorter (than) the shortest
easy easier (than) the easiest
narrow narrower (than) the narrowest
clever cleverer (than) the cleverest
big bigger (than) the biggest
large larger (than) the largest

Importante:
Si el adjetivo termina en y y delante de sta hay una consonante: la cambia por i antes de agregar el sufijo -er.
Si ya termina con la letra e slo agrega -r
Si es monoslabo terminado en una consonante simple y precedido de una vocal simple, duplica la consonante
antes de agregar el sufijo -er.

Cuando el adjetivo es polisilbico, su comparativo y superlativo se forma de la siguiente manera:

Adjetivo Comparativo Superlativo


direct more direct (than) the most direct
intelligent more intelligent (than) the most intelligent
difficult more difficult (than) the most difficult

Algunos adjetivos son irregulares para formar su comparativo y superlativo:

good / well better (than) the best


bad worse (than) the worst
little less (than) the least
many / much more (than) the most
far farther / further (than) the farthest / furthest

Comparacin de igualdad:
Ferraris are as expensive as Jaguars.
Las Ferraris son tan caras como los Jaguars.

Mt. Tupungato is not so high as Mt Everest.


El monte Tupungato no es tan alto como el monte Everest.

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Analista de Sistemas

Ejercicio
1) Lea las siguientes oraciones y explique si la oracin expresa equivalencia, no equivalencia o un superlativo.
Luego subraye las palabras que indican la comparacin.

a) Speeds for performing decision-making operations are comparable to those for arithmetic operations.
EQUIVALENCIA
b) Even the most sophisticated computer, no matter how good it is, must be told what to do.
c) A computer can perform similar operations thousands of times, without becoming bored, tired or even
careless.
d) For example, modern computers can solve certain classes of arithmetic problems millions of times faster
than a skilled mathematician.
e) One of the most important reasons why computers are used so widely today is that almost every big
problem can be solved by solving a number of little problems.
f ) Finally, a computer, unlike a human being, has no intuition.

Autoevaluacin
1) Qu tipo de adjetivos existen?
2) Cundo se usa MORE con los adjetivos comparativos?
3) Cundo se usa MOST con los adjetivos superlativos?
4) Cules son los adjetivos irregulares?

Tema 4
El pronombre

Pronombres personales

Indican la persona gramatical y desempean la funcin de SUJETO dentro de la oracin.


1 persona del singular I yo
2 persona del singular you usted (en ingls no existe tuteo
propiamente dicho)
3 persona del singular he l (masculino - varn)
she ella (femenino - mujer)
it el - ella - ello (neutro - cosa)
1 persona del plural we nosotros-as
2 persona del plural you ustedes / vosotros-as
3 persona del plural they ellos-as (masculino / femenino / neutro)

En general es mejor no traducirlos ya que la desinencia verbal en castellano indica la persona gramatical.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Caso objetivo de los pronombres personales:


Indican la persona o cosa que recibe la accin o hacia quien o que se dirige la accin.
Cumplen la funcin de objeto directo o indirecto dentro de la oracin.

1 persona del singular me me, mi


2 persona del singular you te, ti, usted, la, le
3 persona del singular him le, lo, l
her la, le, ella
it le, la, lo, l, ella, ello

1 persona del plural us nos, nosotros / as


2 persona del plural you os, vosotros / as, ustedes
3 persona del plural them los, las, les, ellos / as

HE loves HER SHE told THEM a story


sujeto objeto sujeto objeto

IMPORTANTE: si se puede reemplazar por la/s o lo/s es OBJETO DIRECTO.


Si se puede reemplazar por le/s es OBJETO INDIRECTO.

Tambin se utilizan detrs de preposiciones:


Ejemplo:
with me = conmigo in front of me = frente a m for her = para ella
by them = por ellos with you = contigo between them = entre ellos

PRONOMBRES
PERSONALES PRONOMBRES PRONOMBRES
POSESIVOS REFLEXIVOS
SUJETO OBJETO
I me Mine Myself
You you Yours Yourself
He him His Himself
She her Hers Herself
It it Its own Itself
We u Ours Ourselves
You you Yours Yourselves
They tem Theirs Themselves

Pronombres posesivos
Ejemplo:
Whose floppy is this?. Its mine. De quin es este diskette?. Es mo.
That car is his. Ese auto es suyo (de l)

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Analista de Sistemas

Pronombres reflexivos
Los pronombre reflexivos se emplean:

Con verbos reflexivos: peinarse, lavarse, etc.


Ejemplo:
I comb myself. Me peino
Tom washes himself. Tom se lava

Para enfatizar un sustantivo


Ejemplo:
Tom himself opens the door. El mismo Tom abre la puerta.
She decided to type the letter herself. Decidi escribir la carta ella misma.

Pronombres relativos

Who: que, quien, quienes


Whom: a quien, a quienes
Whose: cuyo / a / os / as
Which: el / la cual, los / las cuales

That: que
What: lo que / que

Ejemplo:
These are the computers that he bought
Estas son las computadoras que compr.

This is the place in which you connect the cable


Este es el lugar en el cual Ud. conecta el cable.

En algunos casos el pronombre relativo puede omitirse en ingls, pero debe agregarse en la traduccin al
castellano.

These are the computers (that) he bought


Estas son las computadoras que compr.

Ejercicio
1) The teacher told ___ an interesting story. (OUR, US, OURS, WE)
2) Her uncle is a doctor, isnt ___? (SHE, IT, HE)
3) We are glad that you could stay with ___. (OUR, US, OURS, WE)
4) Bob and Ted live near ___ school. (THEM, THEIR, THEY)

Autoevaluacin
1) Por qu es conveniente NO traducir los pronombres en textos al espaol?
2) Cul es la funcin del pronombre reflexivo?
3) Se puede omitir el pronombre relativo en espaol?

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Ingls Tcnico I

El adverbio
Adverbios de modo
Se forman partiendo del adjetivo al cual se le agrega el sufijo -ly, el cual se traduce -mente
Ejemplo:
slow (lento) slowly (lentamente)
wonderful (maravilloso) woderfully (maravillosamente)

Describen la manera o modo en que se realiza una accin.

Adverbios de lugar
Here aqu
There ah (THERE se puede encontrar en otras estructuras con distinto significado)
Above arriba
Inside dentro
Somewhere en alguna parte

LY Adverbs
Con los adverbios que se forman agregando ly al final, se forma el comparative con more y el superlative con most.
Adjective Adverb Comparative Adverb Superlative Adverb
quiet quietly more quietly most quietly
careful carefully more carefully most carefully
happy happily more happily most happily

Jeff works more quietly than Steve does. Jeff works the most quietly of all the students.

Mary drives more carefully than John does. Of the three drivers, Mary drives the most carefully.

Steve works more happily than he used to. Mary sings the most happily of all the girls in the group.

Other Adverbs
Para los adverbios que retienen la misma forma del adjetivo original, se agrega er para formar el comparativo
y est para formar el superlativo.
Adjective Adverb Comparative Adverb Superlative Adverb
hard hard harder hardest
fast fast faster fastest
early early earlier earliest

Steve works the hardest.


Please work harder.
Mary runs faster than John does. Mary runs the fastest of all the runners on the team.
Steve gets to work earlier than I do.
Stever gets to work the earliest of all.

Irregular Adverbs.

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Analista de Sistemas

Adjective Adverb Comparative Adverb Superlative Adverb


good well better best
bad badly worse worst
far far farther/further farthest/furthest

John plays tennis better than Jack does. On our tennis team, John plays tennis the best.
I did worse on the test than Bart did. On that test, I did the worst in the class.
My paper airplane flew farther than
My paper airplane flew the farthest of all.
yours did.

Preposiciones
El uso de algunas preposiciones en ingls, vara segn el verbo que acompaan.
To look at: mirar a (Juan)
To be at: estar en (una reunin)
Por lo tanto se debe siempre estudiar el verbo con su correspondiente preposicin, si la tiene, para captar su
correcto significado. De la lista que sigue, entonces, el significado de algunas preposiciones puede variar, segn
el verbo que acompaen.

a: to, at. desde: from, since. por: by.


ante o delante: in front of. en: in, into, at. segn: according to.

bajo o debajo de: under. entre: between (si se trata de sin: without.
entre dos personas o cosas).
cabe o junto a: beside, at entre: among (si se trata de sobre: on, over.
the side of (Besides significa entre ms de dos personas o
adems). cosas).
con: with. hacia: to, towards. tras: behind.
de: of, from. hasta: till, until. lejos: far form.
contra: against. para: for, to. cerca: near.

Ejercicio:
a) This article refers ................multimedia.
b) You can do this exercise ................effort. It is easy.
c) You should go ................Section A ................... Section F.
d) This experiment must be done ...................... strict supervision of experts.

Autoevaluacin:
a) Cuntos tipos de adverbios hay?
b) Se pueden comparar los adverbios?
c) Cules son los adverbios regulares?
d) De qu dependen algunas preposiciones para cambiar su significado?

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Ingls Tcnico I

Tema 5
Bloque verbal
El verbo
Clasificacin de los verbos

De acuerdo con su contenido

1. Verbos que indican actividad


to walk: caminar
to eat: comer

2. Verbos que indican condicin


to sleep: dormir
to live: vivir

3. Verbos que indican cambio


to turn: volver / convertirse
to finish: acabar / terminar

Segn su empleo algunos verbos pueden pertenecer a ms de una categora.


Ejemplo:
They live in Paris: Viven en Pars. (indica condicin)
I want to live: Quiero vivir. (indica actividad)

De acuerdo con su funcin

1. Verbos principales: son aquellos que contienen todo el significado del predicado.
She gave him a present. Le hizo un regalo.
He can read: Sabe leer.

2. Verbos auxiliares: son aquellos que se emplean para la formacin de los tiempos, modo, aspecto, voz y
predicacin.
The boy didnt tell the truth. El chico no dijo la verdad.
They are leaving tomorrow. Se marchan maana.

3. Verbos modales: Tienen significado propio; algunos comparten las caractersticas de los verbos
auxiliares.

She can swim very well. Sabe nadar muy bien


May I open the window, please? Puedo abrir la ventana, por favor?

De acuerdo con la forma

Los verbos ingleses basan su conjugacin en tres formas nicamente que representan el enunciado de un verbo.
Son: infinitivo (to know), pretrito o pasado (knew) y participio pasado (known).

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Analista de Sistemas

Atendiendo a estos tres elementos bsicos, los verbos se clasifican en:



Regulares: Toman la terminacin -ed de inflexin, aadida a la raz o infinitivo para formar el pretrito
y el participio pasado.

To play played played


To study studied studied

Irregulares: Son verbos que tienen las tres formas iguales, dos formas iguales y una desigual, las tres formas
desiguales.

To cut cut cut (cortar)


To keep kept kept (guardar, conservar)
To drink drank drunk (beber)
To show showed shown (mostrar, ensear)

De acuerdo con su formacin

Simples: Son aquellos que estn formados por una sola palabra.

To think pensar
To work trabajar

Compuestos: Estn formados por ms de una palabra.

To outdo aventajar
To overcome vencer

Dentro de este grupo se encuentran tambin los verbos fraseolgicos (phrasal verbs) y los preposicionales
(prepositional verbs).

To look at mirar a / hacia (prepositional)


To come in entrar (phrasal)

Infinitivo s -ing pasado Pasado participio

Go Goes Going Went Gone


(ir) (va) (yendo) (fue) (ido)

Work Works Working Worked Worked


(trabajar) (trabaja) (trabajando) (trabaj) (trabajado)

Estas formas se combinan con los auxiliares y van a determinar los distintos tiempos verbales. Los fundamentales
son cuatro:

presente pasado Futuro condicional o potencial

y cuatro son las formas en que estos tiempos se combinan, a saber:

simple continuada perfectiva perfectiva continuada

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Ingls Tcnico I

Los verbos auxiliares que empleamos en su formacin son:

To Be (ser estar) To Have (haber) Do /Does /Did Will


Para formar los Para formar los tiempos Para formar el negativo e Para el tiempo futuro
tiempos continuos perfectivos interrogativo del presente simple
y pasado simple

Verbo To Be

Presente Simple Pasado Simple Futuro Simple


I am I was I will be
You are You were You will be
He is He was He will be
She is She was She will be
It is It was It will be
We are We were We will be
You are You were You will be
They are They were They will be

Verbo To Have (haber - como auxiliar)

Presente Simple Pasado Simple Futuro Simple


I have I had I will have
You have You had You will have
He has He had He will have
She has She had She will have
It has It had It will have
We have We had We will have
You have You had You will have
They have They had They will have

Do - Does - Did (auxiliares para formar el negativo e interrogativo del Presente y Pasado Simples)

Presente Simple Pasado Simple


I Do (not) I did (not)
You Do (not) You did (not)
He Does (not) He did (not)
She Does (not) She did (not)
It Does (not) It did (not)
We Do (not) We did (not)
You Do (not) You did (not)
They Do (not) They did (not)

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Analista de Sistemas

Tiempos verbales
Presente simple:
Este tiempo se utiliza para describir una accin habitual. Todas las personas tienen la misma forma con excepcin
de la tercera persona del singular a la que se le agrega una s es de acuerdo a la terminacin del verbo.

I Sleep (Yo) duermo


You Sleep (Usted) duerme
He Sleeps (l) duerme
She Sleeps (Ella) duerme
It Sleeps (El( gato))duerme
We Sleep (Nosotros as) dormimos
You Sleep (Uds.) duermen
They Sleep (Ellos as) duermen

Para preguntar se usa el auxiliar DO para todas las personas, salvo en las terceras personas del singular que
llevan el auxiliar DOES.

Forma Afirmativa Forma Negativa Forma Interrogativa


I sleep I do not work (no duermo) Do I work? duermo?
You work You do not work Do you work?
He works He does not work Does he work?
She works She does not work Does she work?
It works It does not work Does it work?
We work We do not work Do we work?
You work You do not work Do you work?
They work They do not work Do they work?

En conversaciones es muy comn contraer do not y does not por dont y doesnt, respectivamente.

El pasado simple:
Este tiempo verbal describe una accin pasada.

En el pasado simple se usa el mismo verbo auxiliar para todas las personas.

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Ingls Tcnico I

La forma negativa e interrogativa se forma con el auxiliar did + la forma base del verbo.
Ejemplo:

I did not (= didnt) listen to her. (No la escuch.)

He did not study for the exam. (No estudi para el examen.)

Did you understand the problem? (Entendi el problema?)

Where did they go yesterday? (A dnde fueron ayer?)

CONSULTAR LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES

Futuro simple
Se forma con el auxiliar will seguido de la forma base del verbo principal; es igual para todas las personas.
Ejemplo:
I will get the scholarship. (Obtendr la beca.)
You will work in this office. ( Trabajar en esta oficina.)
We will study it very carefully. (Lo estudiaremos cuidadosamente.)
She will type the report. (Escribir el informe a mquina.)

Para formar el interrogativo, invertimos el orden del auxiliar y verbo principal:


Will you finish the report soon? (Terminar el informe pronto?)
Will they arrive on time? (Llegarn a tiempo?)

Para formar el negativo se agrega not al auxiliar:


I will not see you. (No lo ver.)
We will not be here tomorrow. (No estaremos aqu maana.)

Tiempos continuados
Todos los tiempos continuados se forman con el verbo TO BE y la forma -ing del verbo principal.

Presente continuo
I am writing. (Estoy escribiendo.)
They are studying. (Estn estudiando.)
Is she working in the new department? (Est trabajando en la nueva seccin?)
He is not studying there. (No est estudiando all.)

Pasado continuo
She was studying for the exam. (Estaba estudiando para el examen.)
They were repairing the computer. (Estaban arreglando la computadora.)
Were they working? (Estaban trabajando?)
He was not repairing the system. (No estaba arreglando el sistema.)

Tiempos perfectivos
Se forman con el auxiliar TO HAVE y el participio pasado del verbo principal.

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Analista de Sistemas

Presente perfecto
have / has + participio pasado del verbo principal.

En el caso de los verbos regulares, el participio pasado es igual al pasado simple, es decir, se agrega -ed o -d. En
el caso de los verbos irregulares, es la tercera columna.

Ejemplo:
She has typed the report. (Ha escrito el informe a mquina.)
They have changed the computers. (Han cambiado las computadoras.)
I have been here before. (He estado aqu antes.)

La negacin se forma agregando NOT despus de HAVE / HAS, y la interrogacin invirtiendo el orden del auxiliar
y el sujeto.

I have not telephoned her. (No la llam por telfono/ No la he llamado por telfono.)
She has not arrived yet. ( Todava no lleg/ No ha llegado todava.)

Have you seen her today? (Hoy la vio?/ La ha visto hoy?.)


Has he studied for the test? (Estudi para la prueba?/Ha estudiado para prueba?

Pasado perfecto
had + el participio pasado del verbo principal.

El negativo se forma agregando NOT despus de HAD, y el interrogativo invirtiendo el orden del auxiliar y el sujeto.

When I arrived, the manager had left (Cuando llegu, el gerente se haba ido)
When she left, I had eaten my sandwich. (Cuando se fue, me haba comido mi sandwich.)
When he arrived, they had not finished the report. (Cuando lleg, no haban terminado el informe.)
Had they remembered the meeting when he telephoned?. (Se haban acordado de la reunin cuando l llam?)

Ejercicio
Identificar los tiempos verbales y luego traducirlos.

1) Andy drives too fast.


2) I promise I will help you.
3) She has never been to Australia.
4) Mike bought a new stereo.
5) Sandy and I dont watch much TV.
6) He was writing a letter yesterday.
7) I have already seen that movie.
8) She didnt prepare anything for breakfast.
9) When he arrived, she had already left.

Autoevaluacin
1) Qu tipo de verbos hay de acuerdo a su contenido?
2) Cul es la diferencia entre un verbo principal y un verbo auxiliar?
3) Qu son los verbos irregulares?

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Ingls Tcnico I

FORMA -ing

PREPOSICION + -ING se traduce PREPOSICION + INFINITIVO


It is a device for controlling the cursor.
Es un dispositivo para controlar el cursor.

The flowchart shows the path the computer will follow in executing the program.
El diagrama de flujo muestra la ruta que seguir la computadora al ejecutar el programa.

By pressing a button on the mouse, the process is put into operation.


Al apretar un botn del mouse, el proceso se pone en funcionamiento.

BY + ING cuando indique la manera de realizar algo:

With this program you can select hundreds of pictures simply by moving the mouse.
Con este programa puede seleccionar cientos de dibujos simplemente moviendo el mouse.

No traducimos la preposicin; el verbo se traduce con la terminacin ando, endo.


Al comienzo de la oracin se traduce como sustantivo o infinitivo
Programming is very interesting.
La programacin es muy interesante.
Programar es muy interesante.

Sustantivo+ ing se traduce sustantivo + que + verbo


Programs are instructions telling the computer what operations have to be carried out.
Los programas son instrucciones que le indican a la computadora que operaciones se deben realizar.

After / before + ing se traduce despues / antes de + infinitivo


I often listen to music after working.
A menudo escucho msica despus de trabajar.

INFINITIVO
Puede traducirse:

A + infinitivo
I stopped for a few minutes to rest.
Me detuve un momento a descansar

Para + infinitvo
She went to England to know more about British culture.
Fue a Inglaterra para conocer ms sobre la cultura britnica.

De + infinitivo
He tried to forget the incident.
Trat de olvidar el incidente.

Que + verbo conjugado


They dont permit people to smoke.
No permiten que la gente fume.

The rate of inflation is expected to rise.


Se espera que aumente el ndice de inflacin

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Analista de Sistemas

Modo imperativo

Afirmativo: Se forma con el infinitivo sin to colocado al comienzo de la oracin y sin el pronombre personal.
Unplug electrical appliances before repairing them.
Desenchufe los artefactos elctricos antes de arreglarlos.

Negativo: Se comienza la oracin con do not / dont seguido por el infinitivo sin to.
Do not (dont) press the return key.
No presione la tecla return.

Imperativo con LET: Se forma con lets (let us) seguido del infinitivo sin to.
Lets follow the instructions.
Sigamos las instrucciones.

Lets read the summary. Leamos el resumen.

Tema 6
Voz pasiva
La voz pasiva se utiliza cuando nos interesa enfatizar quin o qu recibe la accin del verbo, en lugar de quin o
qu realiza la accin.

La estructura de la voz pasiva es: VERBO TO BE + PARTICIPIO PASADO

El sujeto de la voz pasiva es el objeto de la voz activa

V. Pasiva: This house was built in 1486. Esta casa se construy en 1486.
Sujeto

V. Activa: They built this house in 1486. Construyeron esta casa en 1486.
Objeto

La voz pasiva se utiliza cuando nos interesa enfatizar quin o qu recibe la accin del verbo, en lugar de quin o
qu realiza la accin.

TIEMPO DE LA VOZ PASIVA ESTRUCTURA Ejemplo


Presente Simple Am/is/are + participio pasado English is spoken here.
Presente Continuo Am/is/are being + pp The house is being painted.
Pasado Simple Was/were + pp I wasnt invited, but I went.
Pasado Continuo Was/were being + pp I felt I was being watched.
Presente Perfecto Have/has been +pp Has Mary been told?
Pasado Perfecto Had been + pp I knew I had been forgotten.
Futuro Simple Will be + pp You will be told soon.
Verbos modales Can/could/must/should be + pp The car should be repaired

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Ingls Tcnico I

Cuando en la oracin pasiva no aparece "by", la traduccin es impersonal:

SE + VERBO CONJUGADO

The plan is called a flow chart.


El plan se llama diagrama de flujo.

Hundreds of megabytes of software can be recorded on one disk.


Cientos de megabytes de software se pueden grabar en un disco.

Cuando en la oracin pasiva aparece "by", la traduccin es literal:

The telephone was invented by Graham Bell.


El telfono fue inventado por Graham Bell.

Manchester were beaten 3-0 by Liverpool yesterday.


Ayer Manchester fue derrotado 3-0 por Liverpool.

Cuando la voz pasiva va seguida de un infinitivo, se traduce:

VOZ PASIVA IMPERSONAL + QUE + VERBO CONJUGADO



You are supposed to know the answer.
Se supone que conoces la respuesta.

Esta traduccin slo se realiza con verbos tales como: say, suppose, think, assume, consider, believe, etc.

Cuando se utilizan otros verbos la traduccin se efecta de la siguiente manera:

It is used to store information.


Se utiliza para almacenar informacin.

Ejercicio
Pasar estas oraciones a voz pasiva y luego traducirlas.
1) They fined him $100.
2) Theyll serve you lunch on the plane.
3) They grow coffee in Kenya.
4) A crocodile ate him in 1973.
5) They will tell you your results next week.
6) Have they cleaned the swimming pool yet?

Autoevaluacin

1) Cundo se utiliza la voz pasiva?


2) Se utiliza ms en Ingls o Espaol?
3) Cundo se hace una traduccin literal de la voz pasiva?

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Analista de Sistemas

MODAL VERBS (active/passive voice)

SHOULD
Se traduce: deber, debera, debiera
People should drive more carefully.
La gente debera manejar con ms cuidado.

OUGHT TO + VERBO
Puede utilizarse con un significado similar a should:
We ought to discuss the problem.
Debemos discutir el problema.

MUST
Se utiliza para rdenes, consejos u opiniones y se traduce deber:
Passengers must not speak to the driver.
Los pasajeros no deben hablar con el conductor.

He must realise that he is in trouble.


Debe darse cuenta de que est en problemas.

CAN
Se traduce poder y se puede utilizar con el sentido de: a) habilidad b) permiso, requerimientos, ofrecimientos:
She can speak English quite well.
Puede hablar ingls bastante bien.(habilidad)

You cant come into my room.


No puedes entrar en mi cuarto.(permiso)

Can you put the children to bed?


Puede acostar a los nios?(requerimiento)

MAY
Se utiliza con el sentido b) de can, pero es ms formal y menos frecuente:
May I help you, sir?
Puedo ayudarlo, seor?

May I use your phone?


Puedo usar su telfono?

COULD
Se utiliza con el mismo sentido que can y se traduce podra:
Could I pay you tomorrow?
Podra pagarle maana?

MIGHT
Se utiliza para indicar una posibilidad ms remota que usando may y tambin se traduce podra:
My mother might be at home now.
Mi madre podra estar en casa ahora.

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Ingls Tcnico I

PRESENT / FUTURE MODALS


The passive form follows this pattern:
modal + be + past participle

Active: WILL / WONT (WILL NOT) Passive: WILL / WONT (WILL NOT)
Sharon will invite Tom to the party. Tom will be invited to the party by Sharon.
Sharon wont invite Jeff to the party. Jeff wont be invited to the party by Sharon.

Active: CAN / CANT (CAN NOT) Passive: CAN / CANT (CAN NOT)
Mai can foretell the future. The future can be foretold by Mai.
Terry cant foretell the future. The future cant be foretold by Terry.

Active: MAY / MAY NOT Passive: MAY / MAY NOT


Her company may give Katya a new office. Katya may be given a new office by her company.
The lazy students may not do the homework. The homework may not be done by the lazy students.
MIGHT / MIGHT NOT MIGHT / MIGHT NOT
Her company might give Katya a new office. Katya might be given a new office by her company.
The lazy students might not do the homework. The homework might not be done by the lazy students.

Active: SHOULD / SHOULDNT Passive: SHOULD / SHOULDNT


Students should memorize English verbs. English verbs should be memorized by students.
Children shouldnt smoke cigarettes. Cigarettes shouldnt be smoked by children.

Active: OUGHT TO Passive: OUGHT TO


Students ought to learn English verbs. English verbs ought to be memorized by students.
(negative ought to is rarely used)

Active: MUST / MUST NOT Passive: MUST / MUST NOT


Tourists must apply for a passport to travel abroad. A passport to travel abroad must be applied for.
Customers must not use that door. That door must not be used by customers.

Active: HAS TO / HAVE TO


Passive: HAS TO / HAVE TO
She has to practice English every day.
English has to be practiced every day.
Sara and Miho have to wash the dishes every day.
The dishes have to be washed by them every day.
DOESNT HAVE TO/ DONT HAVE TO
DOESNT HAVE TO/ DONT HAVE TO
Maria doesnt have to clean her bedroom every day.
Her bedroom doesnt have to be cleaned every day.
The children dont have to clean their bedrooms
Their bedrooms dont have to be cleaned every day.
every day.

Ejercicio
Pasar estas oraciones a voz pasiva
a) You shouldnt leave objects lying around the room. -
b) She might read a book. -
c) Doug must return the video on his way to work. -
d) You ought to check the air pressure in your tires. -
e) You have to book the tickets for the play in advance. -

Autoevaluacin:
a) Cul es la estructura de la voz pasiva con los verbos modales?

39
Analista de Sistemas

Tema 7
La conjuncin
Una conjuncin es una palabra que conecta palabras o grupos de palabras, frases u oraciones y puede tambin
indicar la relacin entre los elementos que conecta. En las siguientes oraciones, las conjunciones estn resalta-
das; las palabras o grupos de palabras que la conjuncin une estn en cursiva.

John left the computer when the clock struck midnight.


John and Peter won the science award.
Their project succeeded because they had worked hard.
They neither had a holiday nor took any days off.

Hay tres tipos de conjunciones:

Conjunciones coordinadas
Una conjuncin coordinada une dos elementos de oraciones que tienen funciones idnticas. Las siguientes son
conjunciones coordinadas:

and but or not for yet so

Nature and technology are two conditions that affect petroleum operations around the world. (une dos
sustantivos)

To hear and to listen are two different things. (une dos frases)

I would like to include the test results, but that would make the report too long. (une dos oraciones)

Conjunciones correlativas

either or both and whether or


neither nor not only but (also)

Las conjunciones correlativas se usan siempre en pares.


Both students and lecturers must work for long hours.
Either the fuel line is clogged or the carburetor needs adjusting.

Las conjunciones subordinadas se usan para conectar los elementos de diferente peso en la oracin,
normalmente oraciones independientes y dependientes. Comienzan con oraciones subordinadas, usualmente
oraciones adverbiales.
En las siguientes oraciones, las conjunciones subordinadas estn resaltadas.

Susan didnt understand the process until she took the course.
John and Peter arrived late because their plane was delayed.
A test is administered when the unit is finished.

Una conjuncin subordinada no necesita estar entre las partes de la oracin que une. Quizs puede estar al
comienzo de la oracin.

While Dr. Watson explained his theory, Peter listened attentively.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Conjunciones subordinadas ms comunes

After before provided though whenever


Although how since till where
As if so that unless wherever
As much as in as much as than until while
Because in order that that when

Ejercicio
Completar los espacios con las conjunciones coordinadas correctas. Elegirlas de los pares entre parntesis. Por
Ejemplo:

I would like to come, ___ I do not have time. (but, nor)
I would like to come, but I do not have time.

He has not written, ___ has he called me. (but, nor)
He has not written, nor has he called me.

1) I opened the door _________ looked out. (and, yet)


2) She was not in the back yard, _________ was she upstairs. (or, nor)
3) The sun had set, _________ it was still light outside. (or, yet)
4) Do you know his address _________ telephone number? (but, or)
5) He has not arrived yet, _________ have they. (and, nor)
6) I read the book, _________ did not understand it. (but, or)
7) We searched diligently, ________ found nothing. (or, yet)
8) I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but)

Completar los espacios con las siguientes palabras: and, but also, nor, or, than, then y when. Por Ejemplo:

We should either walk quickly __ take the bus.
We should either walk quickly or take the bus.

I had scarcely sat down ____ the telephone rang.
I had scarcely sat down when the telephone rang.

1) I have both respect _________ admiration for them.
2) It will rain either today _________ tomorrow.
3) He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent.
4) It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring.
5) He is neither proud _________ condescending.
6) I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not.
7) I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus.
8) She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore.
9) No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room.
10) The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic.

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Analista de Sistemas

Tema 8
Falsos cognados (cognates)
COGNADOS = palabras que en ambos idiomas tienen una ortografa parecida y un significado igual o muy parecido.
En un texto acadmico no hay necesidad de explicar ms.

Ejemplo: Difficult = difcil

Otros cognados legtimos:


Doctor = Doctor Piano = Piano Wagon = Vagn Stove = Estufa Silence = Silencio

Sin embargo, los FALSOS COGNADOS, como (job) application MAL traducido como aplicacin de trabajo vendra
a ser un FALSO COGNADO, puesto que la palabra aplicacin en espaol significa un parche de tela aplicado sobre
otra tela como decir una flor de tela roja se aplica sobre una blusa.
... o tambin aplicacin puede ser en empeo que un estudiante pone en sus estudios... pero NUNCA una aplicacin
de empleo.

FALSOS COGNADOS
Actual = Actual porque En ingls puede querer decir real y en espaol quiere decir corriente = de hoy da como en
los precios actuales = the current prices. Espero haber ayudado en algo.

INGLS TRADUCCIN CORRECTA AL ESPAOL TRADUCCIN INCORRECTA INGLS


actually la verdad es que actualmente at present
advice consejo warn advertencia
approve estar de acuerdo con algo aprobar pass
assist/help ayudar asistir to attend
carpet alfombra carpeta folder
compromise acuerdo, arreglo compromiso commitment
choke ahogar/sofocar chocar to crash
discuss conversar, debatir discutir argue
embarassed avergonzado embarazada pregnant
eventually finalmente eventualmente in the end
exit salida xito success
large grande largo long
lecture conferencia lectura reading
library biblioteca libreria bookstore
notice aviso noticia news
parents padres parientes relatives
pretend fingir pretender try
qualifications ttulo, aptitud calificaciones marks
realize darse cuenta realizar to actualize
record grabar recordar remember
sensible razonable, sensato sensible sensitive
succeed Tener xito suceder happen
support mantener soportar put up with
translate traducir trasladar move
ultimately al final ltimamente lately
vase jarrn vaso drinking glass

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Ingls Tcnico I

Ejercicio
ELIJA LA OPCIN CORRECTA

1. In English, particular means:


special personal private

2. A librarian is:
a bookshop a place to borrow books someone who sells books someone who looks after books

3. Ordinary is
usual rude unusual unpleasant

4. A genial person is:


clever friendly characteristic intelligent

5. If you are rude, you are:


impolite common stupid

6. Evidence is:
A something to help prove a point B something obvious C something clear

7. A villa is:
a municipality a small town a type of house

8. An argument is:
a story line a development a disagreement

9. In English, actual means:


new real topical fashionable

10. In English, eventually means:


possibly in the end temporarily lastly

Autoevaluacin

1. Cul de los siguientes NO es un falso cognado?


parientes chocar asistir geografa

2. Cul es la manera correcta de traducir exit?


3. Traducir el siguiente falso cognado a ingles: soportar
to support to supply to put up with

4. Cmo se traduce el cognado falso to realice al espaol?


5. Cul es la traduccin correcta al ingls de la palabra chocar?
to choke to choose to cheat to crash

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Analista de Sistemas

TIPOS DE TEXTO Y PUNTUACION

En el siguiente cuadro a la izquierda se encuentra un Ejemplo de tipos de formato de texto. Unir los nmeros con el
tipo de formato de texto correspondiente.
A la derecha, se encuentran los tipos de puntuacin. Unir las letras con el tipo de puntuacin correcta.

Text types Punctuation


1. I want some A. !
subscript quotation mark
2. red roses for B. ?
Underline full stop
3. a blue lady C. &
plain question mark
4. Send them to D. \
superscript back slash
5. THE SWEETEST E. :
strike through colon
6. girl in town F. ;
Italic exclamation mark
7. If that does the
trick G.
Serif percentage
8. Ill be back to pick H. *
capitalize asterisk
9. A snow-white orchid I. .
hyphenation ampersand

10. for her wedding gown J. %


bold semi-colon

Ejercicio
Ubicar los tipos de puntuacin en el prrafo.

1. comma 2. full stop 3. apostrophe 4. center new line bullet point capital letter 5. full stop capital letter
6. exclamation mark capital letter 7. full stop space one line new paragraph indent justify left capitalize
first letter 8. colon then space two lines then justify centre insert a bullet point capital letter 9. serif bold
underlined with a question mark 10. space two lines new paragraph indent justify left capitalize first letter
11. space two lines new paragraph justify left capitalize first letter

Why is text layout important if text is wrongly laid out the effect can look a bit strange and it also

makes your work look unprofessional even something simple like the text being lined up on the right seems

wrong to us fortunately there are several easy things we can do to make our text look more organized

don t use too much punctuation make your text as clear as possible think about what the person

reading it will see writing good clear text is not difficult it is important though because clear

writing shows clear thinking and that will impress your readers

Concluimos aqu el estudio comparativo de la gramtica de ambas lenguas. El estudio no se agota en


los temas que hemos visto pero, al menos, permitirn que podamos cumplir con los objetivos que nos
propusimos al comenzar esta asignatura.

44
Ingls Tcnico I

Tema 9
1er Examen Parcial

Tema 10
Tcnicas de traduccin en ingls
Las tcnicas de traduccin constituyen una herramienta poderosa para el traductor profesional. Gracias a
ellas, en muchas ocasiones los traductores logran sortear con elegancia escollos aparentemente insalvables.
Si bien es cierto que, con frecuencia, se emplean estas tcnicas de manera intuitiva, nunca est dems hacer
un raconto de los recursos disponibles en el mundo traductor. Estas tcnicas resultan sumamente importantes
para el traductor profesional de manuales, pginas web y newsletters en ingls tcnico, ya que su empleo
permite hacer traducciones de calidad.

Omisiones e inserciones: Dada la debilidad relativa de las preposiciones en castellano, existen casos en los
que se deben efectuar inserciones en las traducciones del ingls al espaol:

Ingls Espaol
A ticket to London. Un boleto con destino a Londres.

Transposicin: Esta tcnica se emplea debido a que las estructuras gramaticales del ingls y el espaol no
siempre coinciden el uso o en la frecuencia, como es el caso de la voz pasiva.

Ingls Espaol
He was admitted to the training course. Lo aceptaron al curso de entrenamiento.

Modulacin: En ocasiones, se requiere un cambio de metfora o imagen a fin de expresar la misma idea.

Ingls Espaol
The meeting was cancelled at the eleventh hour. Se cancel la reunin a ltima hora.

http://www.ingles-traductor.com/tecnicas-de-traduccion-en-ingles-y-espanol.asp

I. Tcnicas para interpretar vocabulario

Al leer cualquier tipo de material en ingls, los estudiantes enfrentan un problema crucial: no conocen el
significado de las palabras. Esto hace que los alumnos no entiendan lo que leen. Para ayudarlos a superar este
problema, los estudiantes deben:

1. Buscar el significado de, la palabra en un diccionario.


Esta tcnica da a los estudiantes un significado exacto de la palabra pero interrumpe la continuidad de la lectura.

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Analista de Sistemas

2. Buscar el significado de la palabra mediante el anlisis de la palabra.


Es importante que los alumnos aprendan a dividir la palabra en pequeos elementos: raz, prefijo y sufijo.
E.g. colourful =
colour + full
full = lleno
colourful = lleno de color = colorido

3. Inferir el significado de una palabra en el texto mediante el uso de claves dentro del texto (estas claves
pueden ser una palabra, frases o signos de puntuacin prximos a la palabra conocida). Las claves dentro del
texto son de diferentes clases. Algunas de ellas son:

a) Definicin: un trmino puede estar formalmente definido o la oracin puede contener suficiente
explicacin para aclarar el significado de un trmino. Por Ejemplo:

The first part is hardware: the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and
recognized as computers.

b) Experiencia: Las experiencias de cada estudiante o su imaginacin hacen claro el significado de
una palabra.

c) Contraste: Cuando se contrastan dos trminos, si el significado de uno es conocido, esto ayuda a
aclarar o explicar el otro trmino. Por Ejemplo:

An algorithm can be described by a flowchart which may be stated in terms of a sequence of
precise sentences, or a block diagram.

d) Inferencia: Siempre hay suficientes claves para inferir correctamente el significado de una palabra.
Por Ejemplo: You must hold a coin in your pocket.

De las tcnicas utilizadas para interpretar el significado de las palabras, se incentiva a los estudiantes a utilizar el
anlisis de la palabra y las claves de contexto para inferir los significados de palabras desconocidas ya que estas
dos tcnicas no interrumpen la lectura. Si no se tiene xito usando cualquiera de estos dos mtodos, recin se
usa el diccionario.

II. TCNICAS PARA ENTENDER ORACIONES.


Cuando un estudiante lee un texto, un artculo u otro material en ingls, ocurre frecuentemente que conoce cada
palabra de la oracin; sin embargo, no puede comprender lo que la oracin significa, especialmente cuando es
larga y complicada; por lo tanto no puede comprender lo que esta leyendo. Para que el estudiante pueda com-
prender oraciones largas y complicadas debe aplicar ciertas tcnicas:

1. Anlisis de la oracin
Cuando un estudiante no entiende una oracin debe analizarla dividindola en partes y reconociendo varios
elementos en ella. Debe analizar la oracin buscando el verbo principal, el sujeto (slo el sujeto sin sus modifica-
dores). Si el verbo principal requiere un objeto o complemento debe buscar el ncleo (excluyendo sus modifica-
dores) o complemento. Los modificadores son lo ltimo que debe tenerse en cuenta.

Ejemplo:
the arithmetic logical unit is that portion of the computer in which the actual arithmetic operations, namely,
addition, subtraction, multiplication. division and exponentiation, called for in the instructions are performed.

46
Ingls Tcnico I

2. Reconocimiento de claves de puntuacin.


Al igual que las palabras, los signos de puntuacin ayudan al escritor a expresar sus ideas; por lo tanto, es esencial
que el estudiante sea consciente de su significado y uso.

Ejemplo:
The information presented to the machine is the input; the internal manipulative operations, the processing; and the
result, the output.
La coma (,) despus de las palabras operations y result se usa para reemplazar el verbo is.

3. Reconocimiento de trminos referenciales.


Los cientficos usan trminos referenciales con frecuencia para evitar la repeticin de la misma palabra. Estos tr-
minos referenciales incluyen pronombres personales, pronombres demostrativos, pronombres relativos, etc. La
falla en reconocer estos trminos impedir que el estudiante entienda lo que sta leyendo.

Ejemplo:
A computer like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than
humans.

Las palabras ms comn y frecuentemente usadas son:


a) palabras que significan ADICIN: and, as well as, also, besides, etc.
b) palabras que muestran relacin CAUSA/EFECTO: accordingly, hence, due to, as a result, therefore, thus,
as a consequence, etc.
c) palabras que indican CONDICIN: if, when, unless, provided, etc.
d) palabras que indican CONTRASTE: but, though, although, still yet, etc.
e) palabras que indican COMPARACIN: like, unlike, likewise, in the same way, etc.
f ) palabras que indican NFASIS: above all, really, in effect, especially, etc.
g) palabras que indican DUDA O HIPTESIS: possibly, perhaps, probably, etc.
h) palabras que indican SECUENCIA U ORDEN: in the beginning, first, later, then, next, later on, etc.
i) palabras que indican EJEMPLOS: for example, that is to say, namely, such as, etc.

III. TCNICAS PARA ANALIZAR PRRAFOS.


A veces el alumno entiende todas las oraciones en el material que esta leyendo pero no entiende lo que el p-
rrafo dice como un todo; esto es porque no sabe como esta organizado un prrafo. Para entender un prrafo el
estudiante debe:

1. Encontrar el tema principal


El estudiante debe descubrir de que trata el prrafo, es decir, cual es el tema. El tema debe ser preciso: ni muy
especfico ni muy general.

2. Encontrar la idea principal


Despus de descubrir el tema el alumno debe buscar la idea principal que puede ser una definicin, clasificacin
o explicacin del tema. Se puede encontrar frecuentemente la idea principal en la oracin principal.

3. Encontrar los detalles principales que sustentan el tema


Los estudiantes deben descubrir los detalles principales que modifican la idea principal. Deben conocer cuales
son las funciones de esos detalles que son de varias clases:

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Analista de Sistemas

a) Detalles que definen


b) Detalles que clasifican
c) Detalles que explican
d) Detalles que ilustran y ejemplifican
e) Detalles que comparan y contrastan
f ) Detalles que muestran relaciones causa-efecto
g) Detalles que reestablecen (Son los que reestablecen la idea principal repitindola de una forma u otra o
concluyndola)

IV. INTERPRETACIN DE ILUSTRACIONES Y GRFICOS.


Muchos textos cientficos y tcnicos van acompaados por grficos e ilustraciones para ayudar al lector a
entender mejor las ideas presentadas; por Ejemplo, explicaciones o descripciones de procesos, mediciones y
presentaciones de hechos. Las ilustraciones que se usan frecuentemente son dibujos lineales, grficos, tablas,
diagramas y fotografas.

Los textos que incluiremos a continuacin se utilizarn para practicar la comprensin de los mismos. Recuerden
que deben buscar en el diccionario las palabras que desconozcan, leer nuevamente el texto y luego responder las
preguntas que se formulen.

Traducir las siguientes oraciones teniendo en cuenta todo los ledo anteriormente.
Texto n 1

a) This utility detects and eliminates most viruses.



b) It is sometimes possible to recover data from a corrupted disk.

c) Information is extremely important in our everyday lives.

d) We checked the validity of the password.

e) It is impossible to copy to an unformatted disk.

f) The modem connects to one of the serial ports in your computer.

g) The program used an excessive amount of memory to accomplish the job.

h) The system is easy to install and simple to use.

i) It is possible to recover the data but it can take a long time.

j) I downloaded information from the Internet about this subject.

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Ingls Tcnico I

TEXTO N 2: Traducir las siguientes oraciones.

a) The files are retrieved automatically.



b) The transaction was recorded in the data base.

c) The keyboard was modified for European users.

d) The copy flow is controlled by that device.

e) Information is processed and stored in computers as electrical signals.

f) Information stored in the RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.

g) The file that was lost contained important documents.

h) All the current files were lost when the system crashed and we had no backup copies.


i) The Internet is an international network that links together thousands of computers using telephone and cable links.


j) When the user installs this program it automatically checks the specifications of the PC and adapts to them.

Autoevaluacin

a) Cul es la nica desventaja de usar el diccionario para la traduccin de un texto?


b) Cules son los pasos a seguir antes de recurrir al diccionario?
c) Qu hay que tener en cuenta para la traduccin de un prrafo?
d) Para qu son tiles los grficos e ilustraciones?

49
Analista de Sistemas

Tema 11
En esta unidad comenzaremos a familiarizarnos con el lenguaje tcnico.

UNIR Y TRADUCIR

1. underline . 11. open .

2. cut . 12. copy .

3. save . 13. italic .

4. right tab . 14. bold .

5. new . 15. paste .

6. undo . left justify .


16.

7. show/hide . decimal tab .


17.
8. close box . minimize .
18.
9. print .

10. center .

Leer las siguientes oraciones y elegir la respuesta correcta. Luego traducir cada una.

1) Any component of the computer you can see and touch:

a) Software b) Peripheral c) Hardware d) CPU

2) Devices that enter information and let you communicate with the computer:

a) Software b) Output devices c) Hardware d) Input devices

3) An electronic device, operating under the control of information that can accept
data, process the data, produce output and store the results for future use:

a) Input b) Computer c) Software d) Hardware

4) Data or information used to run the computer:

a) Peripheral b) Hardware c) Software d) CPU

5) Located in the tower, it communicates with other devices to perform tasks. Its the heart of the computer.

a) CPU b) Peripherals c) Programs d) Software



6) Any hardware attached to the tower:

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Ingls Tcnico I

a) CPU b) Software c) Peripherals d) Storage

7) Devices that let the computer communicate with you:

a) Input b) Output c) Software d) Storage

8) Devices that store information, and the computer uses the information to perform tasks:

a) Input b) Output c) Software d) Storage

LECTO-COMPRENSIN
Texto n 3
The computer system is divided into two parts. The first is the hardware that is the mechanical parts of the
system, including the machine itself and the peripheral devices. The second part is the software, which consists
of the programs that are processed. Software is a very important part of the system, since it is only through
accurate programs that the equipment will return accurate results.

Lea atentamenta y luego responda:


1.- Cules son las partes en las que est dividida la computadora?

2.- En qu se diferencian las dos partes?



3.- Cul es el referente de WHICH?



Texto N 4
Perhaps the most influential component of a computer is the Central Processing Unit. Its function is to execute
program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the brain of the computer.
The main memory holds the instructions and data which are processed by the CPU. The peripherals are the
physical units attached to the computer. They include storage devices and input/ output devices.

Lea atentamenta y luego responda:


1.- Qu es la Unidad de procesamiento central?


2.- Cul es su funcin?

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Analista de Sistemas

3.- Qu son los perifricos?




4.- Cul es el referente de THEY?

Tema 12:
Leer las siguientes oraciones y elegir la respuesta correcta. Luego traducir cada oracin.

1) An error in a computers program or software

laptop bug data input

2) The art of understanding and solving problems with computers

cursor word processor computer science spreadsheet

3) The actual parts of a computer system: keyboard, disk drive, printer, mouse, etc

keyboard software hardware mouse

4) The smallest and most basic amount of information that can be used by a computer. It can only hold a value
of 1 or 0

bit byte binary computer

5) A device that allows a removable disk to be inserted and read from or written to

keyboard CPU disk drive laptop

6) A collection of information stored in a computer and designed for quick retrieval, expansion, and updating

database information debugging input

7) The heart of the computer where the actual work (program instructions) is performed

debugging binary CPU hardware

8) A compact disk used primarily for storing an entire movie

CD floppy disk DVD input

9) The act of finding and correcting errors in a computer program

debugging disk drive file bug

10) A numbering system that computers use; it uses only two digits: 1 and 0

byte cursor hardware binary

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Ingls Tcnico I

11) Data that is organized

bug laptop scanner information

12) A movable indicator on the screen (usually a vertical line or block; sometimes blinking) showing where text
would be inserted

cursor keyboard file mouse

13) Information of any kind usable by a computer

file computer data laptop

14) A programmable, electronic device or machine that can save and read data from a storage area; can do
super fast math and decision-making operations.

data database computer CPU

15) A unit of storage in a computer equal to 8 bits

byte bit binary joystick

16) A flat metallic-looking disk that can store fairly large amounts of information; a laser beam is used to read
from and write to it

file CD Keyboard disk drive

17) A collection of related information stored and dealt with as a single unit

file keyboard information hardware

18) A thin, circular disk of magnetic or optical material capable of storing information (sometimes housed in a
plastic protector)

CD floppy disk DVD mouse

19) Very large amount of space, equal to 1,024 megabytes

gigabyte CPU byte kilobyte

20) A very large disk that is permanently mounted inside a computers case, and is used to store everything... all
programs, data, settings, etc.

hard drive computer joystick computer science

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Texto n 5
Hard disks have important advantages over floppies: they spin at a higher speed, so you can store and retrieve
information much faster than with floppies. They can also hold vast amounts of information, from 20 MB up to
several gigabytes. Apart from this, both types of disks work in the same way.

Lea atentamenta y luego responda:


1.- Por qu los discos duros tienen ventajas ms importantes que los diskettes?


2.- Cul es el referente de THEY?


3.- Hay alguna similitud entre ambos discos?

Traducir el texto n 5

Tema 13
Revisin
Traduccin de oraciones en voz pasiva.

* A new computer is used Una nueva computadora es usada.
Se usa una nueva computadora.

* A message will be sent soon. Un mensaje ser enviado pronto.
Se enviar un mensaje pronto.

* A long letter was written. Una carta larga fue escrita.
Se escribi una carta larga.

* Your e-mail was read. Tu e-mail fue ledo.
Se ley tu e-mail.

* It can be brought tomorrow. Puede ser trado maana.
Se lo puede traer maana.

Texto n 6
The term user interface refers to the standard procedures the user follows to interact with a particular computer. A
few years ago, the way in which users had access to a computer system was quite complex. They had to memorize
and type a lot of commands to see the content of a disk, to copy files or to respond to a single prompt. In fact, only
experts used computers, so there was no need for a user interface. Now, however, computers are used by all kinds
of people and as a result there is a growing emphasis on the user interface.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Lea atentamenta y luego responda:


1.- A qu se refiere el trmino de interfase del usuario??


2.- Cul es el referente de THEY?


3.- Qu tipo de usuarios utilizaban las computadoras en el pasado?

Traducir el texto n 6.

Texto n7
After transistors came integrated circuits (miniaturized combinations of transistors and other electrical parts)
and smaller, cheaper, more powerful computers. Today, a simple computer costing $ 200 can process more
information and more quickly than the famous Harvard Mark I (IBMs first computer, made in 1943) which was 55
feet long and 8 feet high and cost millions of dollars.

Lea atentamente el texto y luego responda en castellano:


1.- Qu se utiliz en lugar de los transistores?

2.- Qu son los circuitos integrados?



3.- Qu caractersticas tienen las computadoras que se comenzaron a fabricar?



4.- En el texto se lee una comparacin. Indique qu se compara



5.- Qu palabra/s reemplaza which? (Cul es el referente)



Traducir el texto n 7

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Analista de Sistemas

Tema 14
TEXTO N 8
A computer, like any other machine, is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than humans.
It can receive more information and process it faster than any human. The speed at which a computer works
means it can replace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. Therefore, computers are used when the
time saved offsets their cost, which is one of the many reasons they are used so much in business, industry and
research.

Lea atentamente y luego responda. Luego traduzca el prrafo.

1.- Por qu usamos la computadora?



2.- En que actividades se utiliza preferentemente?



3.- Por qu es importante la velocidad?



4.- En el rengln 2 it tiene el mismo referente. Verdadero/Falso (En caso de ser falso explique la razn)

5.- En el rengln 4 cul es el referente de which?



Lea el siguiente prrafo y complete el ejercicio.


Luego traduzca el prrafo.

EARLY COMPUTERS
Charles Babbit found it difficult to convey the idea that a machine could perform operations. When he first desig-
ned the computer, he realized he had created a device that would revolutionize the world. It was extremely hard,
however, to use these early computers, which were enormous and complicated. Computer developers borrowed
the idea of punched cards from Jacquard, a cloth manufacturer, to create patterns that contained messages. It
was through the use of these punched cards that the first users stored data.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Answer, please:

1. At first, people .......... what Babbit had created.


a. did not believe.
b. admired.
c. could not understand

2. He realized the importance of the computer ...........


a. even before he created it.
b. while he was creating it.
c. after creating it

3. He thought that the computer ...........


a. had produced a revolution.
b. was going to produce a revolution.
c. was the result of a revolution.

4. In the sentence It was extremely hard, however, to ...... , the word however expresses ........
a. a consequence.
b. a contrast.
c. an alternative

6. Jacquard, a clothes manufacturer, ...............


a. was the first person to use punched cards.
b. got the idea of punched cards from computer designers.
c. worked together with computer designers on the idea of punched cards.

7. The first users stored data ............... punched cards.


a. by way of
b. in spite of
c. however

8. Computer designers ..........


a. used Jacquards idea of punched cards.
b. did not like Jacquards ideas.
c. made contributions to Jacquard.

9. The first computers were ............


a. big but easy to use.
b. big and complicated.
c. heavy and not very good.

Tema 15
Texto n 9
This book will teach you how to program a computer using Basic language. It will also teach you how to prepare
a task to be programmed, how to check a program, and how to write a description of the workings of a program.
You will also learn about some of the many ways in which a computer can be used.
This chapter introduces the subject of programming in stages, by investigating the questions What is a
computer?, What can and cant a computer do? and What is a program?

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LEA ATENTAMENTA Y LUEGO RESPONDA. LUEGO TRADUZCA EL PARRAFO.

1.- Qu lenguaje de programacin se menciona y para qu se usa?



2.- Cules son las preguntas que se responden en este captulo?



3.- Mencione dos de las tareas que le ensear este libro.



4.- A quin se refiere you?



5.-Cul es el referente de which?



1. Leer el siguiente prrafo

Zeos Contenda
The sooner you get your Zeos Contenda, the better. Smaller than a notebook. Lighter than your briefcase. The
Zeos Contenda sub-notebook is proof that greater and greater things come in small packages including
plenty of power to run Windows wherever you go. In addition, the Contenda comes in a varied range of colours
to adjust to your own taste!
You will find that the Contendas processor extends your battery life more singnificantly because it is most
intelligent to power down the memory, disks, modem and even more when they are not in use.
Contenda is your best bet and its features make it a pleasure to use.

2. Decida si las siguientes afirmaciones sobre el texto son Verdaderas o Falsas:

A. La computadora porttil Zeos Contenda es ms pequea que una libreta, y ms liviana que su portafolio.
B. La mini-computadora porttil Zeos Contenda prueba que vienen cosas en paquetes cada vez ms y ms
grandes.
C. Encontrar la extensin del procesador de las Zeos Contenda, golpear su vida significativamente.
D. La Contenda baja el consumo de energa de la memoria, discos, y del MODEM y an ms cuando no estn en uso.
E. La Contenda es su mejor apuesta y sus caractersticas hacen que sea un placer usarla.

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Ingls Tcnico I

3. Responda la siguiente pregunta en base al texto


Si quisiera comprar una computadora porttil Zeos Contenda podra elegir el color? Justifique su respuesta.

Elija la opcin de traduccin correcta marcndola con una cruz


a. The student has already finished the exam.
El alumno ya ha terminado el examen.
El alumno termin y dej listo el examen.

b. I dont know who is responsible for the equipment.


No quiero saber que responsabilidad tengo por el equipo.
No se quien es responsable del equipo.

c. I am looking for the office where the new software was installed.
Estoy buscando la oficina donde se instal el nuevo software.
Estoy mirando la oficina donde el nuevo software fue instalado.

d. Before designing our products we contact computer users directly.


Antes de disear nuestros productos, contactamos a los usuarios de computadora directamente.
Antes, diseando nuestros productos nosotros nos contactbamos con la computadora al usarla
directamente.

e. By pressing the space bar you continue with the next question.
Presionando la barra espaciadora contina con la pregunta siguiente.
Al presionar la barra espaciadora contina con la pregunta siguiente

f. They lost the file because they hadnt saved it


Perdieron el archivo porque no lo haban guardado.
Perdieron el archivo porque no lo han guardado.

g. If I had that disk, I would be rich!


Si tuviera ese disco, sera rico.
Si tengo ese disco, ser rico

h. Unless the process finishes dont touch anything!


Si el proceso termin, no toques esa cosa!
A menos que el proceso termine, no toques nada!

Tema 16
2do Examen Parcial

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Analista de Sistemas

1er Examen Parcial


Leer el siguiente texto y contestar las preguntas:
A keyboard is one of the most common input devices used with computers. It allows the user to key in programs
and data and to control the computer system. The alphabetic and numeric keys are arranged in the same order as
a typewriter. This layout is known as QWERTY because these are the first six letters on the top left of the keyboard.
Letters, numbers, symbols and blank spaces are known as characters. Computer keyboards have all the cha-
racters found on typewriters. In addition, they have some extra characters and some keys that do not produce
characters but have special uses.

1) Cules son los referentes de IT THESE - THEY?


2) Ejemplos de prefijos:
3) Ejemplos de sufijos:
4) Hay algn/os caso/s de voz pasiva? Especifique en qu tiempo verbal.
5) Traducir la siguiente oracin:
A virus can corrupt the hard drive of your computer, making all your data not available.

2do Examen Parcial


Traducir el siguiente texto
Computers are about to take people to places they have never been able to visit before, including the surface
of other planets. Such a trip will be an illusion, but one that comes closer to real life than anything on stage or
screen. Artificial worlds are being built up in a computer memory so that people can walk through at will, look
around, and even touch objects.
The system is called virtual reality, so called from the mathematical concept of an image that has the virtues of a
real object without the substance.
Virtual reality systems are being developed throughout the world for a range of uses including enabling people
to walk inside nuclear power stations, while controlling a robot that actually goes into an area in which no
human could live, and conducting architects through a computer-generated building before it is constructed.
British scientists have a world lead in virtual reality, despite the fortunes being poured into research by Japanese
and American companies, which see it as a technology for the next century.

Lea atentamente y luego responda


1.- De dnde proviene el trmino realidad virtual?

..........................................................................................................

2.- Qu usos se le pueden dar al sistema?

..........................................................................................................

3.- Qu pas lidera las investigaciones en realidad virtual?

..........................................................................................................

4.- En el rengln 2 cul es el referente de one?

..........................................................................................................

5.- En el rengln 5 cul es el referente de that?

..........................................................................................................

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Trabajo prctico
Technology vocabulary quiz

1. Hardware is best described as:


(a) parts of a computer that you can see and touch
(b) electronic code stored on a magnetic strip
(c) a printed copy of a file
(d) a program that runs on both PC and Macintosh computers

2. A digital scanner is used to:


(a) detect software problems with the computer
(b) provide the computer with information on software
(c) store files too large for a floppy disk
(d) copy an image from paper to your computer

3. A __________ allows computers to communicate through telephone lines.

(a) modem (b) MIDI sequencer (c) network hub (d) browser

4. A ____________ application is best suited for accounting and budgeting.

(a) database (b) spreadsheet (c) word processor (d) multimedia



5. A ____________ application is best suited for managing large collections of information.

(a) database (b) spreadsheet (c) word processor (d) multimedia


6. To download a file means to:


(a) remove it from your computer
(b) copy it onto a floppy disk
(c) receive it from another computer
(d) attach it to an e-mail message

7. The clipboard in a computer:
(a) holds memory chips in place
(b) temporarily stores the last piece of cut or copied information
(c) is the smallest part of the disk used to store program directions
(d) is the file used to store clip art

8. When you format a document, you
(a) correct spelling and grammar
(b) place the document in landscape view
(c) improve the appearance of the document
(d) copy the document to a floppy disk

9. Multimedia best describes a computers ability to
(a) run more than one program at a time
(b) display two or more computer images in one monitor
(c) use text, graphics, sound, animation and video
(d) move between two different operating systems

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10. The Save As... command is used to


(a) save a document with a new name
(b) find the location of a stored document
(c) restore a documents original settings
(d) save text that has been cut or copied

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Actividades extra
CLASE 1

Agregue PREFIJOS Y SUFIJOS a las siguientes palabras para hacer que tengan significado.

Connect

_____________________________________________________________

Charge

_____________________________________________________________

Use

_____________________________________________________________

Set

_____________________________________________________________

Mix

_____________________________________________________________

Second

_____________________________________________________________

Complete cada oracin eligiendo la forma apropiada de cada una de las palabras o trminos.

1. programming, programmer, programmed, program, programmable.


a. A good ............... should always know a variety of computer languages.
b. Can computers be ............... to hold intelligent conversations?
a. ............... errors are called bugs.

2. developing, developments, develop, developer, developed.


a. ............... in computer systems are bringing about enormous changes in our daily life and work.
b. ................ the chip made computer manufacture much simpler.
c. Computers using integrated circuits were first ............... in the 1960s.

3. dependent, depend, depending, dependably, dependable, dependence.


a. Computers can be divided ............... on their size and power.
b. The cost of recursion is ............... on the language implementation.
c. This is a very ..........computer. We have never had any problem with it.

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4. coding, coded, code, coder, codification.


a. This program is ............... in FORTRAN.
b. A good command of a variety of computer languages can help the programmer to reduce the ............... effort
needed in his/her job.
c. Each computer is designed to use a single ............... .

5. designers, design, designing, designation, designed.


a. Software ............... are faced with new challenges because of the increasing development of computer
technology.
b. When ............... a program, the programmer normally uses a flowchart to help him.
c. High-level languages are ............... to simplify the writing of instructions for certain types of problems.

Word Derivation
Use la palabra sombreada para formar palabras que se pueden usar correctamente, tanto en sentido y forma, en las
oraciones siguientes.

Choose
a. When ............... a monitor one of the most important things to bear in mind is its resolution.
b. A monitor should be ............... depending on the user needs.
Explain
a. The program includes an ............... manual.
a. The error is ............... I cant think how its happenned.
Measure
a. The change in IBMs attitude has made an ............... difference to the Computer Industry.
b. The range of components manufactured by a computer company can be seen as a ............... of its success in
the business market.
Comfort
a. We suffered great ............... repairing the computer system because of the difficulties.
b. Low frequencies can bring about an ............... flickering on the monitor screen.
Apply
a. The advertisement for the job was so interesting that he wrote out his ............... immediately.
b. A mathematical method is not ............... in this operation.
Refer
a. Computing staff is ............... to as manware.
b. You should ............... to the booklet if you have any problem.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Tema 2

Addiction to Internet is an illness


New evidence shows that excessive use of the Internet causes people to suffer from isolation, tiredness and
withdrawal symptoms
David Smith, technology correspondent / March 23, 2008
1. Tense? Angry? Cant get online? Internet addiction is now a serious health problem that should be
officially recognized as a clinical disorder, says a leading psychiatrist.
2. In the respected American Journal of Psychiatry, Dr Jerald Block writes that the disorder is caused
by excessive gaming, viewing online pornography, emailing and text messaging. He says that the
disorder is now so common that it should be included in medical text books. According to Block,
Internet addiction has four main components:
Excessive use, often associated with a loss of sense of time;
Withdrawal symptoms, including feelings of anger, tension and/or depression when the computer
is inaccessible;
The need for better computers, more software, or more hours of use;
Negative repercussions, including arguments, lying, poor achievement, social isolation and tiredness.

3. Block says that in South Korea 10 people died from blood clots because they stayed seated for long
periods in Internet cafes and another was murdered because of an online game. South Korea now
considers Internet addiction one of its most serious public health issues. The government estimates
that around 210,000 South Korean children need treatment. 80 per cent of them might need drugs
that target the brain and nearly a quarter could need to go to hospital. Since the average high school
pupil there spends about 23 hours per week gaming, another 1.2 million are at risk of addiction and
require basic counselling. Many people are also worried about the number of addicts who stop going
to school or leave their jobs to spend more time on computers. In China it has been reported that
about 10 million adolescent Internet users could be considered addicts.
4. Dr Block, a psychiatrist at the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, writes that it is
more difficult to estimate how bad the problem is in America because people surf at home instead of
in Internet cafes. But he believes there are similar cases, and says: Unfortunately it is not easy to treat
Internet addiction. He told The Observer that he did not believe specific websites were responsible.
The relationship is with the computer, he said. First, it becomes a significant other to them. Second,
they use up emotions that they could experience in the real world on the computer, through any
number of mechanisms: emailing, gaming, porn. Third, computer use takes up a huge amount of time
in their life. Then if you simply try to remove the computer, they feel theyve lost their best friend. That
can take the form of depression or rage.
5. Harry Husted, a single 51-year-old from New York, spends 16 hours a day on the Internet. He insists that
he is not addicted, but admits that he used to be. I used to work with computers for eight hours, then get
home and go online for another seven hours. I stayed up until two or three in the morning, or until I got
so sleepy I had to go to bed. I didnt care about friends, TV, or anything. After a while I realized what was
happening and did something about it. Now if I use MySpace its only to advertise my business.
6. Internet addiction clinics are opening all around the world, and many people are attending,
apparently without irony, web discussion boards with names such as Internet Addicts Anonymous. The
Centre for Internet Addiction Recovery in Bradford, Pennsylvania, says Internet addiction has become
a growing legal issue in criminal, divorce and employment cases.
7. Robert Freedman, editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry, said Internet addiction can be diverse.
In Korea, it seems to be mostly gaming sites. In America, it is Facebook. Additionally, its porn, its games,
its gambling, its chatting with friends. All these things existed before, but now theyre a lot easier.
8. To beat the addiction, he advised: A self-help group might be a good place to start, but maybe a real
group is better than an online one.
Guardian News & Media 2008 / First published in The Observer, 23/03/08
4

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Analista de Sistemas

A: Verdadero o falso?
1. The four basic components of Internet addiction are excessive use, withdrawal symptoms when the computer
is not accessible, the constant need for better computers and software and negative repercussions on the users
social life.
2. In South Korea, the main cause of Internet addiction is spending time on social networking websites such as
Facebook and MySpace.
3. The average South Korean high school student spends 16 hours a day playing online games.
4. People have died as a consequence of their Internet addiction.
5. South Koreans go online at Internet cafes more often than Americans.
6. Internet addiction is easy to treat.
7. Online self-help groups are better than real ones to beat addiction.
B: Referentes. A qu se refieren las palabras subrayadas?

Tema 3
Interpretar los resultados de las diferentes compaas en el cuadro usando comparativos y superlativos.

Wheels & Co. Pens & Pencils Ltd. Donson & Sons.
Automobiles Confectionery Chemicals

Employees 574 215 52


Productivity 102 per hour 98 per hour 70 per hour
Computerisation 90% 70% 50%
Human accidents 2 per year 1 per year 1 per year
Research Twice a year Every year Every month
activities

- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________
- ____________________________________________________________

Complete las siguientes oraciones con la forma correcta del comparative o superlative de los adjetivos en parntesis.

a. Xbox consoles are not as _______________________ (modern) as Wii consoles.


b. The Vutek 5330 printer is the ____________________ (fast) device in the company.
c. Cannon printers are ____________________ (expensive) than Epson printers.
d. Alice bought the ____________________ (big) LCD monitor on the market.
e. The scanners are ____________________ (good) than the copy machines.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Tema 4

PREPOSICIONES
MULTIPLE CHOICE

Decide the most suitable preposition for the sentences below

IN AT ON
a.- The computer was bought ___________ Japan.

IN AT ON
b.- The software box is kept ____________ the cupboard.

IN INTO ONTO
c.- Two men were running _________ that building carrying the new computer equipment.

BEHIND IN FRONT OF UNDER


d.- I could not find the modem which was __________ the monitor!

ON AT IN
e.- This web page ________ the net was created by one of my mates.

IN AT ON
f.- She cannot be _______ the phone, now. She must be using the web.

SINCE DURING FOR


g.- European computer scientists have been designing this piece of software ___________ years.

En cada par de oraciones, indique si la palabra subrayada es un ADVERBIO o ADJETIVO.

1a. My train arrived late, as usual o Adverb


o Adjective


1b. Im watching the late film o Adverb
o Adjective

2a. My brother loves fast cars o Adverb


o Adjective

2b. He drives too fast o Adverb
o Adjective

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Analista de Sistemas

3a. This exercise is harder than I thought o Adverb


o Adjective

3b. I hope youll try harder in future o Adverb
o Adjective

4a. The Times is published daily o Adverb


o Adjective

4b. The Times is a daily newspaper o Adverb
o Adjective

5a. Youve just ruined my best shirt o Adverb


o Adjective

5b. Computers work best if you kick them o Adverb
o Adjective

Tema 5
FORMA ING

Reconozca las estructuras con ing. Quizs pueda usar el siguiente cdigo:
1: After prepositions
2: After verbs
3: Deverbal nouns
4: Present Participle Phrase

1. For many children today, their first interaction with technology is at home playing video games.
2. Educational software often does not function as any more than enhanced page-turning devices displaying
information to be learned.
3. By asking children to program software for other children, we are turning the tables and placing children in
the active role of constructing their own programs -and constructing new relationships with knowledge in
the process.
4. The most obvious benefit knowledge is that children learn about technology by building things of significance,
such as game software.
5. A far more promising aspect is that learning programming and learning about technology is not only good
for its own sake but also good because it is supportive of other types of learning.
6. Through programming, children learn to express themselves in the technological domain.
7. This should be a warning sign of how the format, content, and modalities of educational software influence
childrens thinking about the standards of instructional software.
8. Programming games are a medium for their personal and creative expression. (Pay attention to the verb!!!)
9. Being engaged in this enterprise initiates learning and learning about learning.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Complete las oraciones con el infinitivo (con o sin TO) o la forma -ING de los verbos que estn en parntesis.

a. I told ________________ (her/ type) the letter for me.


b. Peter warned ________________ (her daughter/not/ touch) her laptop in his office.
c. Moisture makes ________________ (the computer/switch itself off ) automatically. So, do not let
________________ (it/ be) in the open air.
d. She advised ________________ (the students/ buy) a new Mac for the studio.
e. ________________ (strike) the computer keys hard may damage the machine.
f. I cannot remember ________________ (tell/students/read) the lesson for tomorrow.
g. Nobody knows how ________________ (use) this new high quality scanner.
h. Would you like ______________________ (connect) the driver now?
i. I want _______________ (my computer/ read) texts aloud, but I do not have a suitable software.
j. This new laser printer allows _____________ (print) landscape A-3 sheets.
k. Did you remember ______________________ (log off)? I cannot remember ______________________ (do) that.
l. __________________ (devise/ a Maths program) requires extensive revision of the literature concerned.
m. By ________________ (touch) the screen, you may have direct access to any web page.
n. She told me _____________________________________ (switch off/ the computer / after/ change) the
system configuration.
o. The teacher allows ______________________ (use) the computers in his lab.
p. I went to France ______________________ (not/ study) French, but ______________________ Computer
Science.
q. The engineer has made _________________ (the workers/follow) his directions.
r. She considered the computer technician ______________________ (be) more efficient.
s. The Dean explained in his lecture how ______________________ (join) the university cybernautic club.
t. I had to stop __________________(browse) ______________________ (make) a telephone call.
u. It was ever so easy _______________________ (learn/how/use) this word processor.
v. I joined the team ______________________ (repair) the laptops in the computer room.

Tema 6
Indique cules de las siguientes oraciones estn en voz pasiva.

1. The firewall software and antivirus software are disabled.


2. Yesterday I contacted the software manufacturer.
3. I share all my files with my neighbour.
4. All computers in the office are connected to a hub.
5. What IP address is assigned to your computer?
6. Al computers in the office are using Windows XP sp2.
7. Interference is caused by microwaves or mobile phones.
8. I protected my computer using a good firewall.
9. You need to upgrade your OS.
10. All the files in my computer can be viewed but they cannot be modified.

Escriba las siguientes oraciones activas en voz pasiva.

1. We use different Internet browsers.


2. My boss wrote an e-mail of confirmation.
3. Someone uses my computer.
4. In this computer store they dont accept credit cards.
5. People wash CDs with soap and water.

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Analista de Sistemas

Complete los espacios usando la voz pasiva.

1. A new chip .......................................... (use) in the United States.


2. Two years ago this company ................................... (manage) by a different director.
3. All old components ..................................... (remove) after upgrading.
4. Then the processor ........................................ (insert) into the socket.
5. The Internet ........................................... (know) all over the world.

Tema 7

Coordinating conjunctions

AND BUT SO OR

1. Jaewon was cold, he put on a coat.


2. Maria tried to read a novel in French, it was too difficult.
3. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, you can ride the ferry.
4. I bought a bottle of wine, we drank it together.
5. The waiter was not very nice, the food was delicious.
6. I went to buy a Rolling Stones CD, the shop didnt have it.
7. Anna needed some money, she took a part-time job.
8. Theres so much rain lately! Maybe its because of El Nino, maybe its just coincidence.
9. Julie has a guitar, she plays it really well.
10. The concert was cancelled, we went to a nightclub instead.

Subordinating conjunctions

1. ________ it was raining, I didnt get wet.


Although Because

2. I dont drink coffee ________ it makes me nervous.


Although as

3. Paula got the job ________ she had no experience.
As even though

4. ________ my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at home for my vacations.
Since Whereas

5. Jun couldnt buy any Christmas presents ________ he didnt have any money.
Because even though

6. ________ Mei Li doesnt speak English, she cant go to university in Canada.


Whereas Since

7. Jerry passed the exam first time ________ I had to retake it three times.
As while

8. I will be late today ________ my car has broken down.


Though because

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Ingls Tcnico I

Tema 8

FALSE COGNATES
Complete los espacios con la palabra correcta.
1 Did you know that Chrissie got ________________ (embarrassed/pregnant) on holiday in Ibiza?
2 The ________________ (signature/subject) I hate most is maths.
3 Begonia is a very ________________ (kind /sympathetic) person.
4 Keep ________________ (removing/stirring) the soup the whole time.
5 I couldnt agree more. Thats a very ________________ (sensible/sensitive) idea.
6 The film The Quiet American was a box-office ________________ (exit/success).
7 How many ________________ (idioms/languages) can you speak?
8 ________________ (Actually/Nowadays) Im living with my parents again.
9 The poor live in the ________________ (slums/suburbs).
10 The police came to my ________________ (assistance/attendance).
11 Ive got ________________ (a cold/constipation). Pass me a tissue, please.
12 I was only living with my parents ________________ (eventually/temporarily).
13 The government have ________________ (inverted/invested) a lot of money in the new scheme.
14 Do not ________________ (invert/invest) this package.
15 The Englishman wearing navy blue socks with sandals is a bit of a ________________(stereotype/topic)
in Spain.
16 He never stops moving some part of his body. He finds it impossible to ________________(keep quiet/
keep still).
17 We didnt enjoy the wedding ________________ (absolutely/at all).
18 English is very ________________ (important/interesting) for my job.
19 All my immediate family live in England but I have a lot of ________________ (parents/relatives) in
Canada.
20 My ________________ (journey/working day) is from 8 am to 5 pm but it only take me twenty minutes
to get to the office.
21 The Red Cross are ________________ (controlling/monitoring) the situation in the north very closely.
22 The rebels are ________________ (controlling/monitoring) the entire north of the country.
23 ________________ (Eventually/Temporarily), we decided to go on holiday rather than buy a home
cinema kit.

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Analista de Sistemas

PUNTUACION
Cmo se pueden unir estas oraciones? Usar signos de puntuacin y/o conjunciones u otras expresiones de enlace.
a) The office Christmas party was pretty boring last year.
This year we shall have more to drink.
b) The short tour takes forty minutes.
The long tour takes two and a half hours.
c) I recognised the person in the next car.
It was my uncle.

Agregue comas donde sea necesario en las siguientes oraciones.


a) John who had been thinking for some time finally went over to Mary.
b) The man who I saw you with last night was a stranger to me.
c) Jack Jones the Finance Manager is planning a trip to Brazil next year.
d) A whale is not a fish which is surprising.
e) He owns a car which is very strange.
f ) I cant take you with me even though I would like to.
g) At half-past three she rang the bell.
h) After giving a great deal of thought to the matter and making a number of telephone calls to trusted friends
he decided not to buy shares in Leaky Shipping Company .

Agregue signos de puntuacin a las siguientes oraciones.
a) Ive spoken to Peggy Sue and Nancy.
b) Ive spoken to Derby and Joan Fred and Freda and Paul and Sandra.
c) Please supply the following three hundred metres of grade 5 nylon fishing line a selection of hooks some
suitable for sea fishing a pair of thigh length wading boots size 9 and 12 cans of Newcastle Amber Ale.

Tema 11
Leer el siguiente texto y resolver las actividades.

Types of Computers
There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. Most of these words imply the size, expected use or
capability of the computer. While the term computer can apply to virtually any device that has a microprocessor
in it, most people think of a computer as a device that receives input from the user through a mouse or
keyboard, processes it in some fashion and displays the result on a screen.

1. PC
The personal computer (PC) defines a computer designed for general use by a single person. While a Mac is a
PC, most people relate the term with systems that run the Windows operating system. PCs were first known as
microcomputers because they were a complete computer but built on a smaller scale than the huge systems in
use by most businesses.

2. Desktop
A PC that is not designed for portability is a desktop computer. The expectation with desktop systems is that
you will set the computer up in a permanent location. Most desktops offer more power, storage and versatility
for less cost than their portable brethren.

3. Laptop
Also called notebooks, laptops are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, a pointing device
or trackball, processor, memory and hard drive all in a battery-operated package slightly larger than an average
hardcover book.

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Ingls Tcnico I

4. PDA
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are tightly integrated computers that often use flash memory instead of a
hard drive for storage. These computers usually do not have keyboards but rely on touch screen technology for
user input. PDAs are typically smaller than a paperback novel, very lightweight with a reasonable battery life. A
slightly larger and heavier version of the PDA is the handheld computer.

5. Workstation
The fifth type of computer is a workstation. A workstation is simply a desktop computer that has a more
powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing a special group of task, such
as 3D Graphics or game development.

Unir la descripcin de la columna B con su nombre en la columna A. una de las opciones en A sobra.

A B

PC 1. It is a lightweight, handheld computer. It is small enough to fit in the palm


of your hand.
Desktop 2. It is a personal and portable computer. It has a flat LCD screen and uses
batteries for mobile use.
Laptop 3. It has a very powerful processor and extra memory capacity due to the kind
of work people employed it for.
PDA 4. It is for one person use only. Formerly it was named microcomputer because
of its size: being smaller than the ones employed in businesses.
Workstation

Tema 12
Google Hacks!
In the last few years a number of news articles appeared that warned of the fact that hackers (or crackers
ifyou will) make use of the google to gain access to files they shouldnt be allowed to see or have access to.
Thisknowledge is nothing new to some people but personally I have always wondered how exactly a thing
like this works. VNUnets James Middleton wrote an article in 2001 talking about hackers using a special search
stringon google to find sensitive banking data. Another article that appeared on wired.com told us how
AdrianLamo, a hacker who made the news often the last couple of years, explained that google could be
used to gainaccess to websites of big corporations.
These articles kept on coming up in the online news. U.S. Military and Government websites were vulnerable
because admin scripts could be found using google, medical files, personal records, everything suddenly
seemed just one google search away. But these articles seemed to show up once every half year and always
talked about it as if it was something new. Another thing was the articles never explained how one would
actually go about doing this. Almost never an example of a search string was given. The last time I read one
of these articles I decided it was time to find out for myself, whether google actually could do all they say it can.
The theory behind this is actually quite simple. Either you think of certain data you would like to acquire
and try and imagine in what files this kind of data could be stored and you search for these files directly.
(Search for *.xls files for example) Or you take the more interesting approach and you try to think of a certain
software thatallows you to perform certain tasks or to access certain things and you search for critical files of
this software.

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Analista de Sistemas

Responda las siguientes preguntas:


1- Cmo pueden los buscadores como google ser hackers tiles?
2- Qu puede decir acerca de Adrian Lamo?

Especifique si las siguientes ideas estn mencionadas en el texto y justifique.


1. James Middletown fue un hacker que trat de acceder a informacin bancaria.
2. El escritor trat a Google como una herramienta para descubrir cmo se trabaja al explorar en reas restringidas.

X. 500

Looking at one specific application, X.500 can be described as a White Pages Directory Service used to locate
information based upon a name. It will contain information about network users, organizations and system
resources. This type of service is required, since the number of networks and distributed systems is continually
growing and a name service is needed to serve a similar purpose to telephone directories. Data stored in X.500
servers are organized in a tree structure called a Directory Information Tree (DIT), with named nodes. These
nodes hold a range of attributes.

The entire tree with all the attributes is referred to as the Directory Information Base (DIB). The tree can be
searched not only on name, but also a combination of attributes. Using distributed systems principles, only one
DIB would exist worldwide, but with parts of it being located in individual X.500 servers.

A typical interaction sequence would be for a user (client) to establish a connection with a particular X.500
server and issue requests to it. If the particular server cannot fulfil the user request, because the data are not held
in the local segment of the DIB, the contacted server will call other servers or redirect the query to another
server. Clients and servers are termed as Directory User Agents (DUAs) and Directory Service Agents (DSAs),
respectively. Communication between DSAs is through a Directory System Protocol (DSP), part of the X.500
recommendations.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cul de las siguientes oraciones expresa major la idea principal del texto. Justifique su eleccin con una
explicacin complementaria.

1- Its a brief introduction to Directory Systems and primary components involved in their service in
general and X.500 in particular.
2- It explains the parts working together to bring directory service to users in details.
3- Tree structures and their use in implementing Directory Systems is the main focus of this text.
4- None.

Su razn:

Responda las siguientes preguntas:


1- Qu significa DIT?
2- Cul es el propsito de usar X.500?
3- un servidor X.500 puede iniciar otra coneccin con otros servidores. Por qu?

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Ingls Tcnico I

Understanding the passage:


Verdadero o falso? Justifique su respuesta.

1- Its stated in the text that X.500 is a developed standard for Directory Service.
2- The DIB can only be searched for a particular name of a network user or system resource.
3- There are several Information Bases located in X.500 servers worldwide.

Find Synonyms
Encuentre los sinnimos de:

1. Satisfy or Accomplish (Passage A)


2. Whole (Passage A)
3. Characteristic (Passage A)

Tema 13

Declarative programming
Declarative programming is a term with two distinct meanings, both of which are in current use. According to
one definition, a program is declarative if it describes what something is like, rather than how to create it. For
example, web pages are declarative because they describe what the page should look like - title, font, text, and
images - but not how to actually display the page on a computer screen. This is a different approach from
traditional imperative programming languages such as Fortran, C, and Java, which require the programmer to
specify an algorithm to be run. In short, imperative programs make the algorithm explicit and leave the goal
implicit, while declarative programs make the goal explicit and leave the algorithm implicit.
According to a different definition, a program is declarative if it is written in a purely functional program-
ming language, logic programming language, or constraint programming language. The phrase declarative
language is sometimes used to describe all such programming languages as a group, and to contrast them
against imperative languages.
These two definitions overlap somewhat. In particular, constraint programming and, to a lesser degree, logic
programming, focus on describing the properties of the desired solution (the what), leaving unspecified the
actual algorithm that should be used to find that solution (the how). However, most logic and constraint
languages are able to describe algorithms and implementation details, so they are not strictly declarative by
the first definition. Similarly, it is possible to write programs in a declarative style even in an imperative
programming language. This is usually done by encapsulating non-declarative details inside a library or
framework.
In a declarative program you write (declare) a data structure that is processed by a standard algorithm (for that
language) to produce the desired result. When you write a web page for example, you declare what the page
should look like in HTML, and the browsers procedural algorithm translates this into the pixels on the display.
A declarative language, like all languages, has a syntax describing how the words in the language may be
combined, and a semantics describing how sentences in the language correspond to the programs output.
One popular form of declarative programming is its use in domain-specific languages (DSLs). Domain in
this case refers to the subject matter that the language is intended to describe. For example, HTML is a domain-
specific language, whose domain is web pages and hypertext. Other examples of DSLs are spreadsheets, and
even email (the From: and To: headers can be seen as processing instructions).
One drawback of DSLs is that they are often not Turing-complete. That is, there are certain things they cannot do.
Just as you cannot use a spreadsheet to send e-mail, you cannot use e-mail to calculate your bank balance.
For this reason, DSLs are sometimes embedded inside a general-purpose programming language. This allows
a programmer to use the DSL for problems that play to its strengths, and use the general purpose language
for problems that are difficult or impossible in the DSL. Stand-alone DSLs - those not embedded in a general
purpose language - are often easier to use than an embedded equivalent, since they avoid the added concep-
tual complexity imposed by the general purpose language.

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Analista de Sistemas

Answer the following questions based on the passage:


1- De acuerdo al texto, cul es la principal diferencia entre lenguaje imperativo y declarativo?
2- En qu sentido la primer definicin para programacin declarativo difiere de la segunda?

Understanding the passage:


Verdadero o falso?

1- In a declarative program there is no algorithm to create the output.


2- Domain-specific languages can only be inserted in a general-purpose language to work efficiently.
3- In an imperative program there is no goal to be achieved.
4- Some programming languages imply of both being imperative and declarative

Find Synonyms
Encuentre en el texto los sinnimos de:
1. prevent
2. capable of operating without others
3. enable
4. plan

Tema 14
Leer el texto y resolver el siguiente ejercicio
An ordinary homecam or Webcam is a video camera, usually attached directly to a computer, whose existing or
latest image is demanded from a Web site. A live cam is one that is continually providing original images that
are transmitted in rapid succession or, in some cases, in streaming video. Sites with live cams sometimes embed
them as Java applets in Web pages. Cams have caught on; there are now (we estimate) several thousand sites
with cams. The first cams were positioned mainly on fish tanks and coffee machines. Many of todays live cams
are on sex-oriented sites. For travel promotion, traffic information, and the remote information of any ongoing
event thats interesting, webcams seem like an exciting possibility that will become more common as users get
access to more bandwidth.

Encontrar un sinnimo en el texto para cada una de las siguientes palabras.


Example: repeatedly, frequently continually

Likelihood, option __________________________________________________


Insert, drive in ________________________________________________________
Fastened, joined _____________________________________________________
Mostly, primarily ______________________________________________________
Required, asked for ___________________________________________________
continuing, constant ____________________________________________________

Parallel Computing

A high performance parallel computer is a computer that can solve large problems in a much shorter time than
a single desktop computer. These computers are characterized by fast CPUs, large memory, a high speed
interconnect and high speed input/output.

They are able to speed up computations; both by making the sequential components run faster and by do-
ing more operations in parallel. High performance parallel computers are in demand because there is a need
for tremendous computational capabilities in science, engineering and business. There are applications that
require gigabytes of memory and gigaflops* of performance. The common characteristic of all these complex
scientific and business applications is the need to perform computations on large datasets or large equations.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Without high performance parallel computers many of these applications could not be run, or they would
take an unacceptable amount of time to run.

Today, application scientists are striving for terascale performance, to permit an even larger class of problems
to be solved. There are two types of processes that occur in computers and in our daily lives: sequential and
parallel. Sequential processes are those that occur in a strict order, where it is not possible to do the next step
until the current one is completed. Parallel processes are those in which many events happen simultaneously.

Writing a term paper is an example of a sequential process. First you pick the topic, then you do the research
and then you write the paper. You cant write the paper before you pick the topic. Likewise, you cant write the
paper before you research the subject. These steps are carried out in sequential order. An orchestra is an
instance of a parallel process. In an orchestra performance every instrument has its own part and plays it
sequentially, but all of the instruments playing together in parallel are needed to produce a symphony.
It used to be thought that computer programs were sequential in nature and only a small subset of them lent
themselves to parallelism. In fact, the word algorithm is defined as the sequence of steps necessary to carry
out a computation. In the first 30 years of computer use, programs were run sequentially because of this
thinking. However the1980s saw great successes with parallel computers. Dr. Geoffrey Fox published a book
entitled Parallel Computing Works! that described many scientific accomplishments resulting from parallel
computing and led to a reversal in thinking. It is now widely believed that computer programs are parallel in
nature and only a small subset of them needs to be run sequentially.
So what exactly is parallel computing? Parallel computing is what a computer does when it carries out more than
one computation at a time using more than one processor. While there is a limit to the performance of a single
processor, you can increase the performance of your program by using many processors at once. If one proces-
sor can perform the arithmetic in time t, then ideally p processors can perform the arithmetic in time t/p. This
ideal performance gain intrigued application scientists as they thought, What if I use 100 processors?
What if I use 1000 processors? The benefit of parallelism is that it allows researchers to do computations
on problems they previously were unable to solve.
Almost every program has some form of parallelism. You need to determine whether your data or your
program can be partitioned into independent pieces that can be run simultaneously. Decomposition is the name
given to this partitioning process. Decomposition gives rise to two types of parallelism: data parallelism and
task parallelism.

Gigaflop: Giga floating point operations, a unit of measurement used to evaluate processing speed.

Qu oracin expresa mejor la idea principal del texto? Justifique su respuesta.

1. It describes different aspects of parallel computing as compared with the formerly used sequential one.
2. It is an introductory explanation of parallel programming.
3. Different types of parallelism and their characteristics is the main focus of this text.
4. It tries to stimulate the reader to write parallel programs by repeatedly noting the parallel computing
benefits.
5. It tries to make clear when and how it all began and the need to take advantage of parallel computing.
6. None of the above (if this is your choice provide more details!)
Your reason:

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Analista de Sistemas

Responda las siguientes preguntas:

1. En la oracin 5 a qu refiere it?


2. Cul es la caracterstica principal de los procesos secuenciales?
3. Puede proveer un ejemplo para una aplicacin en donde sin la ayuda de la computacin paralela el tiempo
de proceso sera inaceptable?
4. El balance de carga es la tcnica de dividir en partes iguales la carga de trabajo entre procesadores. Cmo
puede afectar la ejecucin del procesamiento paralelo?
5. Dr. Foxs book helped scientists to gain new prospect of computer programs. What was that?
6. In the final part of the passage mentioned that we have two types of parallelism but the text is interrupted
to give further details. By the information gained from the text and your knowledge of computer programs can
you accomplish this task?

Understanding the passage:


Verdadero o falso?
1- Although computer programs are parallel in nature there exist tasks which should be carried out sequentially.
2- High performance parallel computers decrease the execution time by just doing the processes in parallel.

Especifique si las siguientes ideas estn mencionadas o no en el texto. Justifique su respuesta.


1- Running a program on a parallel machine in order to get high performance that is expected requires the
developer to reconstruct it and make the necessary changes.
2- It was not until the 1980s that parallel computing was being taken advantage of.

Find Synonyms
Encuentre las palabras que significan lo mismo que:
1. Absolute ( Paragraph 3)
2. As well (Paragraph 4)
3. Advantage (Paragraph 6)
4. Shared (Paragraph 2)

Tema 15

Complete el siguiente artculo subrayando el conector correcto que est entre parntesis.
A new International Standard establishes general principles and gives recommendations for the care and
handling of digital optical discs 1. (because/ however) it gives a view to maximizing their effective life.
Optical discs are widely used for the recording and storage of information. 2. (Consequently/In addition),
their popularity has led to wide availability and made them the medium of choice for numerous applications.
3. (Whereas/As a result), the advantages are many: information is recorded in digital format that not only
provides high storage density, but also allows duplication without information loss, offers ease of data
manipulation and facilitates transmission. 4. (However/Thus), as with other media there are concerns about
the life expectancy of recorded information on optical discs which, like paper records, photographic film and
magnetic tape, can be subject to both damage and decay. 5. (Although/Therefore), the International Standard
Organization issued the following areas as weak and hazardous:

cleaning and maintenance, including cleaning methods and frequency


inspection and transportation
disasters, including water, fire, construction and post-disaster procedures

The effective life of optical disks can also be increased or decreased significantly depending upon the
conditions under which they are stored.

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Ingls Tcnico I

Analizar las siguientes frases verbales y escriba en el cuadro el modificador en el lugar correcto.
Example: printing devices

1. Modern web cams


2. Designers flash drive
3. Storage units
4. A red laser
5. A DVD burner
6. The translating software
7. Engineers laptop
8. A recording disk

Adjectives Present s genitive Nouns Head


participle
Example printing devices

Defina cada trmino dando una explicacin en ingls y luego traducirla.

Example: Printing devices - devices that print material

a. Modern web cams ___________________________________________________

b. Designers flash rive________________________________________

c. Storage units ________________________________________________________

d. A red laser __________________________________________________________

e. A DVD burner _______________________________________________________

f. The translating software _______________________________________________

g. Engineers laptop ____________________________________________________

h. A recording disk _____________________________________________________

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Analista de Sistemas

Unir las descripciones de la columna B con su nombre en la columna A escribiendo el nmero correcto.
Una de las opciones de A sobra.

A B

Floppy Disk 1. It combines a magnetic hard disk and a flash memory into one device
allowing computers to boot and start more quickly.

Hard drive 2. This disc cab stores data at much higher densities than magnetic disks. It is
not affected by magnetic fields.

Optical disc 3. It is used to save and move MP3s and other data files between computers.
It is easily transported and it uses solid-state technology.

DVD recorder 4. It refers to a standalone unit which resembles a video cassette recorder.

Blu-ray disc 5. It is a magnetic storage device that reads and writes date on metal disks.
This refers to the entire unit containing multiple platters.

USB flash drive 6. It has a disc that can record and play back high-definition television and
digital audio as well as computer data.

Hybrid hard drive

The D programming Language


Complete los espacios con la palabra correcta de le siguiente lista. Algunas palabras necesitarn sufrir algn
cambio para que concuerden con el texto.

Scale Meanwhile - Maintain Purpose - Fit Retain Capability - Entire

D is a general systems and applications programming language. It is a higher level language than C++,
but the ability to write high performance code and interface directly with the operating
system APIs and with hardware. D is well suited to writing medium to large million line programs with
teams of developers. D is easy to learn, provides many _ to aid the programmer and is well suited to
aggressive compiler optimization technology.
The software industry has come a long way since the C language was invented. Many new concepts were
added to the language with C++, but backwards compatibility with C was , including compatibility
with nearly all the weaknesses of the original design. There have been many attempts to fix those weaknesses,
but the compatibility issue frustrates it. both C and C++ undergo a
constant accretion of new features. These new features must be carefully into the existing structure
without requiring rewriting old code. The end result is very complicated - the C standard is nearly 500 pages
and the C++ standard is about 750 pages! The reality of the C++ compiler business is that few compilers
effectively implement the standard.

Antnimos
Encuentre los antnimos de las siguientes palabras:
1. Simple (from the text)
2. Single (from the text)
3. Compatibility (try to make a word by adding proper prefix)
4. Fit (try to make a word by adding proper prefix)

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Ingls Tcnico I

ndice

Tema1: Diferencias entre ingls y castellano 6


Tema 2: Contextual Reference (referentes) 12
Tema 3: Bloque nominal 17
Tema 4: El pronombre 24
Tema 5: Bloque verbal 29
Tema 6: Voz pasiva 36
Tema 7: La conjuncin 40
Tema 8: Falsos cognados 42
Tema 9: Examen parcial 45
Tema 10: Tcnicas de traduccin en ingls 45
Tema 11: Lenguaje Tcnico 50
Tema 12: Ejercicios 52
Tema 13: Revisin 54
Tema 14: Ejercicios 56
Tema 15: Ejercicios 57
Tema 16: 2 Examen parcial 59
Actividades Extra 63

81