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Year 10 General Chemistry Revision 2015 Name: _____________________________

School Webpage Staff Mr Hungs Webpages Year 10 Chemistry


1. a) How many elements are there in the periodic table? 118 (2014)

b) How many of them are naturally occurred on Earth? 98

c) How many percentage of elements are metals? 75%

2. a) Elements are arranged in the periodic table according to their Atomic or

Proton number; the columns are called GROUPS and the rows are called PERIODS.
3. Write down the first 20 elements with the symbols, name, atomic number and mass number
(Just round off the atomic weight to the whole number).
Name Group 1, 2, 7 and 8. What is P=E=A? Protons = Electron = Atomic number

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Group 7 Group 8


8 valence
1 valence NobleGas electrons-
Alkaline Halogens
electron es
Alkali 3 valence 4 valence 5 valence 6 valence (Octet)
Earth electrons- electrons- electrons- electrons-
metals
metals
Al
7 valence
2 valence electrons-
electrons-
Mass = Protons + Neutrons
1
H
Neutrons = Mass Protons
2
4He
(large no small no)
1
N = 1-1 = 0 N = 4-2 = 2
N
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
7
Li 9 Be
11
B
12C 14
N
16
O
19
F
20
Ne
N= N = 9- 4 = 5 N=6 N= 6 N=7 N=8 = N = 10
7-3 = 4 10
N
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
23 24 27 28 31 32 35 40
N= N= N = 14 N = 14 N = 16 N = 16 = N = 22
23-11=12 12 18
20
19 20
39 K 40 Ca
N
N = 20
= 39-19=20
4. Of the above elements: which are: (Just the symbols)

a) metals (7) Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Al

b) Semi-metals (2) B, Si

c) Non-metals (gases) (8) H, O, N, F, Cl, He, Ne, Ar

d) Non-metals (solids) (3) C, P, S


5. Of the above 8 gases (in the first 20 elements), which exists as atoms and which exists as
molecule (2 or more atoms bonded together to exist)

Monoatomic elements: _All metals and some non-metals and noble gases
Na, Mg, C, S, He, Ne and Ar
Molecules - Diatomic elements: H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

6. What is the composition of Air? Compare the composition of air with the breathed air.
Choose from: Carbon dioxide, Water vapour and argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen
Air in the atmosphere (% of each) Breathed out air
78% Nitrogen 78% No change in Nitrogen
21% Oxygen 16% A decrease by 5 %
0.03% Carbon dioxide 5% an increase by 5%
< 1% Water vapour and argon > 1%
7. Compare the differences in properties of metals and non-metals

Metals Non-metals
Shiny or not Shiny or having lustre Dull or not shiny
(having lustre)
Malleable can be Malleable Non-malleable/ brittle
hammered into sheet
Ductile can be pulled Ductile Non-ductile
into wire
High or low melting and High melting and boiling Low melting and
boiling points points boiling points
Good or Poor Conductor Good Conductor of heat Poor Conductor of heat
of heat and electricity and electricity and electricity
State of matter Mostly solids All states
normally existing as
solids, liquids and gases
8. Which are the 2 liquid elements at room temperature? (write the name and symbol)

a) Liquid metal = Mercury Hg b) Liquid non-metal = Bromine Br


9. Give 2 differences between Physical and Chemical changes with examples
Physical changes Chemical changes
New substances are formed or No new substances New substances are
no new substances formed
(called products)
Reversible or Irreversible Reversible (change Irreversible
back)
Normally involving change of Involving change of Evidences of chemical
states and shapes or showing states changes such as a
evidences of chemical
eg. Solid to liquid and change in colours,
reactions
change in shape production of gas, heat,
light and sound

10. What is the process called when a solid changes to a gas directly? Give 2 examples.
Sublimation e.g Solid Dry Ice --- > Carbon dioxide gas
eg. Black Iodine crystals ---- > Purple Iodine vapour
11. What are the tests for different types of gases?

Gas Test with Results


Hydrogen Burning skewer Pop sound
Oxygen Glowing skewer Relights the skewer
Carbon dioxide Burning skewer Put out the flame
Limewater Turns milky

12. Identify the types of reaction: combination, decomposition, combustion, single displacement,
precipitation, neutralisation
(NB: precipitation and neutralisation are types of double displacement reactions)
Chemical Reaction Type of REACTION
Iron + Copper sulphate --- > Iron sulphate + Copper Single
Displacement
Methane + Oxygen ---- > Carbon dioxide + Water Combustion
Sulphuric acid + Potassium hydroxide Neutralisation
---- > Potassium sulphate + Water
Iron + Sulphur ----- > Iron sulphide Combination
Calcium carbonate ---- > Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide Decomposition
Potassium Iodide + Lead Nitrate Precipitation
----- > Lead Iodide(s) + Potassium Nitrate

13. The following will increase or decrease the rate of reaction.


a) Increase the concentration of reactants eg. Acid will increase the rate.
b) Decrease the temperature will decrease the rate.
c) Using the correct CATALYST will increase the rate.
d) Crushing up the solid into powder (ie. Increasing the surface area) will increase the rate.
e) Increase the temperature will increase the rate.
14. Complete the table: Remember: PEA Proton = Electron = Atomic number [ 15 marks ]
Mass = Proton + Neutron or Neutron = Mass - Proton
Element Symbol Proton Mass number Electron Neutron
Neon Ne 10 20 10 20-10 = 10
Beryllium Be 4 9 4 9-4 = 5
Silicon Si 14 28 14 14
Fluorine F 9 19 9 19-9 = 10
Chlorine Cl 17 35 17 35-17 = 18
fgAluminium Al 13 27 13 14
Magnesiu Mg 24 24 24 12
m
Calcium Ca 40 40 40 20

15. The following shows part of the Phosphorus atom,


Complete the diagram label how many protons
and neutrons; use dots or crosses to represent
electrons and draw them in the shells. [ 5 marks ]

Mass no = 31

Atomic no = 15
15__ P__ N
16
Proton no = 15

Electron no = 15

Neutron no = 31-15 = 16

16. The diagram below shows a methane particle. Its formula is


NH3. [ 10 marks ] N
a) Is ammonia an element? Explain your answer.
Ammonia is not an element, it is a compound as
H H
there are 2 elements combined together H
b) What do we call the joins between the different atoms?
Chemical BONDS

c) Is this an ionic compound or a covalent compound? Why?


It is an covalent compound as there is no metal atom in the
compound.
d) Ammonia can be formed by reacting nitrogen and hydrogen gases together.
An equation for the reaction is shown below.
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
(i) Name one reactant of the reaction. Nitrogen or Hydrogen

(ii) Name one product of the reaction Ammonia


(iii) Name this type of reaction? Combination Reaction

(iv) Give 2 evidences that the above is a chemical change (reaction) some items are not
shown in the equation.
New substance or product Ammonia is formed;
Pungent or bad smell of ammonia (no smell for nitrogen and hydrogen)

17. Complete the following table. [ 24 marks ]


Special ions: CO3 = carbonate, HCO3 = bicarbonate, OH = hydroxide
SO4 = sulphate, NO3 = nitrate, PO4 = phosphate

Compounds Name Ionic compound or Total number


covalent compound of atoms

eg. Ca Cl2 Calcium chloride Ionic compound 3


Na F Sodium fluoride Ionic 2
CaCO3 Calcium carbonate Ionic 5
Fe2O3 Iron oxide Ionic 5
SO2 Sulphur dioxide Covalent 3
AlPO4 Aluminium phosphate Ionic 6
KHCO3 Potassium bicarbonate Ionic 6
ZnBr2 Zinc bromide Ionic 3
CH4 Methane Covalent 5
C6H12O6 Glucose (sugar) Covalent 24